Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 292
April 2009

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In This Issue

Tasmanian Tiger: Understanding the Extinction Process

At the close of the 19th century, no American zoo had found itself able to display the largest marsupial predator of modern times, the thylacine or Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus), and concern about the animal's increasing rarity in its native Tasmania was mounting. At the urging of the Smithsonian's National Zoo, an American official stationed in Australia arranged for a wild-captured thylacine to be shipped to the United States in early 1902. This female thylacine was pregnant when captured, and soon after, in April, gave birth to three tiny, naked pouch young.

A 1902 painting by Joseph Gleeson depicts a thylacine mother with three cubs (including one in the pouch) as they appeared on arrival at the National Zoo (courtesy Smithsonian Archives).

After months of crated transport, by boat and by train, the thylacine mother arrived at the zoo in September with her three offspring. Ill from the long journey, one of the cubs died nine days later. The mother lived for two years at the zoo, and her two remaining offspring, male and female, survived into adulthood. At the end of their lives, all of these thylacines were ultimately preserved as specimens at the National Museum of Natural History.

Sadly, efforts to preserve the thylacine in zoos were not successful; the last thylacine in the world died at the Hobart Zoo in 1936, marking the extinction of this distinctive marsupial that was classified in a family unto itself. Thylacines have played a central role in discussions (mostly highly fanciful) about the possibility of bringing extinct species back to life, but despite the availability of many bones and other remains, previous attempts to read thylacine DNA had been largely unsuccessful. In a recent paper published in Genome Research, an international team of researchers, including Kris Helgen from NMNH, describes the sequencing of the full mitochondrial genome sequences of two thylacine specimens, one from one of the cubs brought to the National Zoo in 1902.

The team's research relies on new gene-sequencing technology and computational methods developed by Webb Miller and Stephan Schuster at the Pennsylvania State University. The new methods involve extracting DNA from the hair of extinct specimens, not from bone, which has been used in previous studies of extinct species. The team's work reveals that hair is a powerful time capsule for preserving DNA over long periods and under a wide range of conditions. The research also opens the door to the widespread, nondestructive use of museum specimens to study with genomic methods why mammals become extinct and how extinctions might be prevented.

Current Literature

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Addison, J. 2009. Distribution and impacts of invasive earthworms in Canadian forest ecosystems. Biol. Invasions 11(1):59-79.

Aguilar, R., Quesada, M., Ashworth, L., Herrerias-Diego, Y., and Lobo, J. 2008. Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in plant populations: susceptible signals in plant traits and methodological approaches. Mol. Ecol. 17(24):5177-5188.

Aksoy, N., Duman, H., and Efe, A. 2008. Centaurea yaltirikii sp. nov. (Asteraceae, C. sect. Pseudoseridia) from Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 26(1-2):53-56.

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Aldridge, K.T., Brookes, J.D., and Ganf, G.G. 2009. Rehabilitation of stream ecosystem functions through the reintroduction of coarse particulate organic matter. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):97-106.

Alford, R.A., Brown, G.P., Schwarzkopf, L., Phillips, B.L., and Shine, R. 2009. Comparisons through time and space suggest rapid evolution of dispersal behaviour in an invasive species. Wildlife Res. 36(1):23-28.

Amundsen, P.A., Siwertsson, A., Primicerio, R., and Bohn, T. 2009. Long-term responses of zooplankton to invasion by a planktivorous fish in a subarctic watercourse. Freshwater Biol. 54(1):24-34.

Anderson, C.B., Pastur, G.M., Lencinas, M.V., Wallem, P.K., Moorman, M.C., and Rosemond, A.D. 2009. Do introduced North American beavers Castor canadensis engineer differently in southern South America? An overview with implications for restoration. Mammal Rev. 39(1):33-52.

Apostolopoulou, E., and Pantis, J.D. 2009. Conceptual gaps in the national strategy for the implementation of the European Natura 2000 conservation policy in Greece. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):221-237.

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Baker, A.C., Glynn, P.W., and Riegl, B. 2008. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: an ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 80(4):435-471.

Bamford, A.J., Monadjem, A., and Hardy, I.C.W. 2009. Nesting habitat preference of the African White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus and the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. Ibis 151(1):51-62.

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Bearzi, G. 2009. When swordfish conservation biologists eat swordfish. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):1-2.

Bellis, L.M., Pidgeon, A.M., Radeloff, V.C., St-Louis, V., Navarro, J.L., and Martella, M.B. 2008. Modeling habitat suitability for Greater Rheas based on satellite image texture. Ecol. Appl. 18(8):1956-1966.

Bergmeier, E., and Abrahamczyk, S. 2008. Current and historical diversity and new records of wetland plants in Crete, Greece. Willdenowia 38(2):433-453.

Blanton, R.E., and Jenkins, R.E. 2008. Three new darter species of the Etheostoma percnurum species complex (Percidae, subgenus Catonotus) from the Tennessee and Cumberland river drainages. Zootaxa 1963:1-24.

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Branco, P., Costa, J.L., and de Almeida, P.R. 2008. Conservation Priority Index for Estuarine Fish (COPIEF). Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 80(4):581-588.

Branson, D.H., and Sword, G.A. 2009. Grasshopper herbivory affects native plant diversity and abundance in a grassland dominated by the exotic grass Agropyron cristatum. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):89-96.

Brewer, J.S., and Menzel, T. 2009. A method for evaluating outcomes of restoration when no reference sites exist. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):4-11.

Brodie, J., Sanjayan, M., Corea, R., Helmy, O., and Amarasiri, C. 2008. Effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on sea turtle populations in Sri Lanka. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):249-251.

Burghardt, K.T., Tallamy, D.W., and Shriver, W.G. 2009. Impact of native plants on bird and butterfly biodiversity in suburban landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):219-224.

Callmander, M.W., Buerki, S., and Wohlhauser, S. 2008. A new threatened species of Pandanaceae from northwestern Madagascar, Pandanus sermolliana. Novon 18(4):421-424.

Capps, K.A., Turner, C.B., Booth, M.T., Lombardozzi, D.L., McArt, S.H., Chai, D., and Hairston, N.G. 2009. Behavioral responses of the endemic shrimp Halocaridina rubra (Malacostraca: Atyidae) to an introduced fish, Gambusia affinis (Actinopterygii: Poeciliidae) and implications for the trophic structure of Hawaiian anchialine ponds. Pacific Sci. 63(1):27-37.

Caprio, E., Ellena, I., and Rolando, A. 2009. Native oak retention as a key factor for the conservation of winter bird diversity in managed deciduous forests in northern Italy. Landscape Ecol. 24(1):65-76.

Cariveau, D.P., and Norton, A.P. 2009. Spatially contingent interactions between an exotic and native plant mediated through flower visitors. Oikos 118(1):107-114.

Caro, T., Gardner, T.A., Stoner, C., Fitzherbert, E., and Davenport, T.R.B. 2009. Assessing the effectiveness of protected areas: paradoxes call for pluralism in evaluating conservation performance. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):178-182.

Catford, J.A., Jansson, R., and Nilsson, C. 2009. Reducing redundancy in invasion ecology by integrating hypotheses into a single theoretical framework. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):22-40.

Chalcraft, D.R., Wilsey, B.J., Bowles, C., and Willig, M.R. 2009. The relationship between productivity and multiple aspects of biodiversity in six grassland communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):91-104.

Cheek, M., and Ameka, G. 2008. Ledermanniella pollardiana sp. nov. (Podostemaceae) from western Cameroon. Nord. J. Bot. 26(3-4):214-217.

Cheek, M., Williams, S., and Brown, A. 2008. Gymnosiphon marieae sp. nov. (Burmanniaceae) from Madagascar, a species with tepal-mediated stigmatic extension. Nord. J. Bot. 26(3-4):230-234.

Chen, Y.Y., Yang, W., Li, W., Li, Z.Z., and Huang, H.W. 2009. High allozyme diversity and unidirectional linear migration patterns within a population of tetraploid Isoetes sinensis, a rare and endangered pteridophyte. Aquat. Bot. 90(1):52-58.

Chytrý, M., Pyšek, P., Wild, J., Pino, J., Maskell, L.C., and Vilà, M. 2009. European map of alien plant invasions based on the quantitative assessment across habitats. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):98-107.

Cinner, J.E., Daw, T., and McClanahan, T.R. 2009. Socioeconomic factors that affect artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):124-130.

Close, D.C., Ruthrof, K.X., Turner, S., Rokich, D.P., and Dixon, K.W. 2009. Ecophysiology of species with distinct leaf morphologies: effects of plastic and shadecloth tree guards. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):33-41.

Cotton, S., and Wedekind, C. 2009. Population consequences of environmental sex reversal. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):196-206.

Crossland, M.R., Alford, R.A., and Shine, R. 2009. Impact of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) on an Australian frog (Opisthodon ornatus) depends on minor variation in reproductive timing. Oecologia 158(4):625-632.

Crottini, A., Chiari, Y., Mercurio, V., Meyer, A., Vences, M., and Andreone, F. 2008. Into the canyons: the phylogeography of the Malagasy frogs Mantella expectata and Scaphiophryne gottlebei in the and Isalo Massif, and its significance for conservation (Amphibia: Mantellidae and Microhylidae). Org. Divers. Evol. 8(5):368-377.

Curtis, M.J., and Claassen, V.P. 2009. Regenerating topsoil functionality in four drastically disturbed soil types by compost incorporation. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):24-32.

Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., Donald, P.F., Funder, M., Jones, J.P.G., Alviola, P., Balete, D.S., Blomley, T., Brashares, J., Child, B., Enghoff, M., Fjeldså, J., Holt, S., Hübertz, H., Jensen, A.E., Jensen, P.M., Massao, J., Mendoza, M.M., Ngaga, Y., Poulsen, M.K., Rueda, R., Sam, M., Skielboe, T., Stuart-Hill, G., Topp-Jørgensen, E., and Yonten, D. 2009. Local participation in natural resource monitoring: a characterization of approaches. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):31-42.

Dawson, W., Burslem, D.F.R.P., and Hulme, P.E. 2009. Herbivory is related to taxonomic isolation, but not to invasiveness of tropical alien plants. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):141-147.

Defeo, O., McLachlan, A., Schoeman, D.S., Schlacher, T.A., Dugan, J., Jones, A., Lastra, M., and Scapini, F. 2009. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 81(1):1-12.

Deroin, T., Ranirison, P., and Nusbaumer, L. 2008. Ipomoea darainensis Deroin, Ranir. & Nusb. (Convolvulaceae), a new species to Madagascar. Candollea 63(2):235-240.

Dertien, J.R., and Duvall, M.R. 2009. Biogeography and divergence in Guaiacum sanctum (Zygophyllaceae) revealed in chloroplast DNA: implications for conservation in the Florida Keys. Biotropica 41(1):120-127.

Devictor, V., and Robert, A. 2009. Measuring community responses to large-scale disturbance in conservation biogeography. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):122-130.

Diana, J.S. 2009. Aquaculture production and biodiversity conservation. BioScience 59(1):27-38.

Diefenderfer, H.L., and Montgomery, D.R. 2009. Pool spacing, channel morphology, and the restoration of tidal forested wetlands of the Columbia River, USA. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):158-168.

Diesmos, A.C., Brown, R.M., Alcala, A., and Sison, R.V. 2008. Status and distribution of nonmarine turtles of the Philippines. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):157-177.

Dietrich, M., Bürgi-Meyer, K., Bergamini, A., Scheidegger, C., and Stofer, S. 2008. The Forest of Kriens (canton of Lucerne): a valuable habitat for many threatened lichens of Switzerland. Bot. Helvetica 118(2):149-164.

Dinc, M., Duran, A., and Martin, E. 2008. Rediscovery of the poorly known Scorzonera argyria and its relationships in Turkey. Biologia 63(6):1078-1084.

Dosdall, L., Gibson, G., Olfert, O., and Mason, P. 2009. Responses of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) parasitoids to invasion of the cabbage seedpod weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in western Canada. Biol. Invasions 11(1):109-125.

Du, L.N., Chen, X.Y., and Yang, J.X. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Anabarilius alburnops (Regan, 1914), a member of the family Cyprinidae (Pisces: Teleostei). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(4):519-520.

Dudgeon, C.L., Broderick, D., and Ovenden, J.R. 2009. IUCN classification zones concord with, but underestimate, the population genetic structure of the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum in the Indo-West Pacific. Mol. Ecol. 18(2):248-261.

Duffy, K.J., Kingston, N.E., Sayers, B.A., Roberts, D.L., and Stout, J.C. 2009. Inferring national and regional declines of rare orchid species with probabilistic models. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):184-195.

Dunham, J., Baxter, C., Fausch, K., Fredenberg, W., Kitano, S., Koizumi, I., Morita, K., Nakamura, T., Rieman, B., Savvaitova, K., Stanford, J., Taylor, E., and Yamamoto, S. 2008. Evolution, ecology, and conservation of dolly varden, white-spotted char, and bull trout. Fisheries 33(11):537-550.

Duran, A. 2008. Two new species with pendulous fruits in Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from South Anatolia, Turkey. Novon 18(4):453-463.

Duran, A., Dinç, M., and Martin, E. 2008. A new species of Draba (Brassicaceae) from North Anatolia, Turkey. Novon 18(4):464-468.

Echenique-Díaz, L., Yokoyama, J., Takahashi, O., and Kawata, M. 2009. Genetic structure of island populations of the endangered bat Hipposideros turpis turpis: implications for conservation. Pop. Ecol. 51(1):153-160.

Esmaeili, H.R., Teimory, A., Coad, B.W., and Gholami, Z. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Cobitis linea (Heckel, 1849) (Cobitidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(4):407-408.

Espinosa, F., González, A.R., Maestre, M.J., Fa, D., Guerra-García, J.M., and García-Gómez, J.C. 2008. Responses of the endangered limpet Patella ferruginea to reintroduction under different environmental conditions: survival, growth rates and life-history. Italian J. Zool. 75(4):371-384.

Falcucci, A., Maiorano, L., Ciucci, P., Garton, E.O., and Boitani, L. 2008. Land-cover change and the future of the Apennine brown bear: a perspective from the past. J. Mammal. 89(6):1502-1511.

Ficetola, G.F. 2008. Impacts of human activities and predators on the nest success of the hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, in the Arabian Gulf. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):255-257.

Ficetola, G.F., Padoa-Schioppa, E., and De Bernardi, F. 2009. Influence of landscape elements in riparian buffers on the conservation of semiaquatic amphibians. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):114-123.

Ficetola, G.F., Thuiller, W., and Padoa-Schioppa, E. 2009. From introduction to the establishment of alien species: bioclimatic differences between presence and reproduction localities in the slider turtle. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):108-116.

Figueiredo, M.S.L., and Grelle, C.E.V. 2009. Predicting global abundance of a threatened species from its occurrence: implications for conservation planning. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):117-121.

Fraser, S.EM., Beresford, A.E., Peters, J., Redhead, J.W., Welch, A.J., Mayhew, P.J., and Dytham, C. 2009. Effectiveness of vegetation surrogates for parasitoid wasps in reserve selection. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):142-150.

Fratto, Z.W., Barko, V.A., and Scheibe, J.S. 2008. Development and efficacy of a bycatch reduction device for Wisconsin-type fyke nets deployed in freshwater systems. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):205-212.

Freedman, A.H., Buermann, W., Lebreton, M., Chirio, L., and Smith, T.B. 2009. Modeling the effects of anthropogenic habitat change on savanna snake invasions into African rainforest. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):81-92.

Fried, G., Petit, S., Dessaint, F., and Reboud, X. 2009. Arable weed decline in Northern France: crop edges as refugia for weed conservation? Biol. Conserv. 142(1):238-243.

Fujita, H., Igarashi, Y., Hotes, S., Takada, M., Inoue, T., and Kaneko, M. 2009. An inventory of the mires of Hokkaido, Japan - their development, classification, decline, and conservation. Plant Ecol. 200(1):9-36.

Gambi, C., Bianchelli, S., Pérez, M., Invers, O., Ruiz, J.M., and Danovaro, R. 2009. Biodiversity response to experimental induced hypoxic-anoxic conditions in seagrass sediments. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):33-54.

Gassó, N., Sol, D., Pino, J., Dana, E.D., Lloret, F., Sanz-Elorza, M., Sobrino, E., and Vilà, M. 2009. Exploring species attributes and site characteristics to assess plant invasions in Spain. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):50-58.

Germano, J.M., and Bishop, P.J. 2009. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):7-15.

Ghaffari, H., Taskavak, E., and Karami, M. 2008. Conservation status of the Euphrates softshell turtle, Rafetus euphraticus, in Iran. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):223-229.

González-Pérez, M.A., Sosa, P.A., Rivero, E., González-González, E.A., and Naranjo, A. 2009. Molecular markers reveal no genetic differentiation between Myrica rivas-martinezii and M. faya (Myricaceae). Ann. Botany 103(1):79-86.

González-Oreja, J.A. 2008. The Encyclopedia of Life vs. the Brochure of Life: exploring the relationships between the extinction of species and the inventory of life on Earth. Zootaxa 1965:61-68.

González-Suárez, M., and Gerber, L.R. 2008. Habitat preferences of California sea lions: implications for conservation. J. Mammal. 89(6):1521-1528.

Granek, E., and Ruttenberg, B.I. 2008. Changes in biotic and abiotic processes following mangrove clearing. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 80(4):555-562.

Gribben, P.E., Wright, J.T., O'Connor, W.A., Doblin, M.A., Eyre, B., and Steinberg, P.D. 2009. Reduced performance of native infauna following recruitment to a habitat-forming invasive marine alga. Oecologia 158(4):733-745.

Griscom, H.P., Griscom, B.W., and Ashton, M.S. 2009. Forest regeneration from pasture in the dry tropics of Panama: effects of cattle, exotic grass, and forested riparia. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):117-126.

Grixti, J.C., Wong, L.T., Cameron, S.A., and Favret, C. 2009. Decline of bumble bees (Bombus) in the North American Midwest. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):75-84.

Guerra, J.E., Cruz-Nieto, J., Ortiz-Maciel, S.G., and Wright, T.F. 2008. Limited geographic variation in the vocalizations of the endangered thick-billed parrot: implications for conservation strategies. Condor 110(4):639-647.

Gugerli, F., Englisch, T., Niklfeld, H., Tribsch, A., Mirek, Z., Ronikier, M., Zimmermann, N.E., Holderegger, R., Taberlet, P., and IntraBioDiv Consortium. 2008. Relationships among levels of biodiversity and the relevance of intraspecific diversity in conservation - a project synopsis. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 10(4):259-281.

Haas, S.E., Kimball, R.T., Martin, J., and Kitchens, W.M. 2009. Genetic divergence among Snail Kite subspecies: implications for the conservation of the endangered Florida Snail Kite Rostrhamus sociabilis. Ibis 151(1):181-185.

Han, M., Fukushima, M., and Fukushima, T. 2008. Species richness of exotic and endangered fishes in Japan's reservoirs. Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(4):409-416.

Hansen, D.M., and Müller, C.B. 2009. Reproductive ecology of the endangered enigmatic Mauritian endemic Roussea simplex (Rousseaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 170(1):42-52.

Hanspach, J., Kühn, I., Pyšek, P., Boos, E., and Klotz, S. 2008. Correlates of naturalization and occupancy of introduced ornamentals in Germany. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 10(4):241-250.

Harfush-Meléndez, M., and Buskirk, J.R. 2008. New distributional data on the Tehuantepec slider, Trachemys grayi, in Oaxaca, Mexico. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):274-276.

Haroni, S.A., Alifriqui, M., and Simonneaux, V. 2009. Recent dynamics of the wet pastures at Oukaimeden plateau (High Atlas mountains, Morroco). Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):167-189.

Hayward, M.W., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2009. Fencing for conservation: restriction of evolutionary potential or a riposte to threatening processes? Biol. Conserv. 142(1):1-13.

Heller, N.E., and Zavaleta, E.S. 2009. Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of recommendations. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):14-32.

Herrera, J.M., and García, D. 2009. The role of remnant trees in seed dispersal through the matrix: being alone is not always so sad. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):149-158.

Hobbs, R. 2009. Looking for the silver lining: making the most of failure. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):1-3.

Hockey, P.A.R., and Curtis, O.E. 2009. Use of basic biological information for rapid prediction of the response of species to habitat loss. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):64-71.

Holdsworth, A.R., Frelich, L.E., and Reich, P.B. 2008. Litter decomposition in earthworm-invaded northern hardwood forests: role of invasion degree and litter chemistry. Ecoscience 15(4):536-544.

Homyack, J.A., and Haas, C.A. 2009. Long-term effects of experimental forest harvesting on abundance and reproductive demography of terrestrial salamanders. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):110-121.

Huebner, C.D., Morin, R.S., Zurbriggen, A., White, R.L., Moore, A., and Twardus, D. 2009. Patterns of exotic plant invasions in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest using intensive Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. Forest Ecol. Manag. 257(1):258-270.

Hynes, S., and Hanley, N. 2009. The "Crex crex" lament: estimating landowners willingness to pay for corncrake conservation on Irish farmland. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):180-188.

Ilmarinen, K., Mikola, J., Nissinen, K., and Vestberg, M. 2009. Role of soil organisms in the maintenance of species-rich seminatural grasslands through mowing. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):78-88.

Ives, I.E., Platt, S.G., Tasirin, J.S., Hunowu, I., Siwu, S., and Rainwater, T.R. 2008. Field surveys, natural history observations, and comments on the exploitation and conservation of Indotestudo forstenii, Leucocephalon yuwonoi, and Cuora amboillensis in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):240-248.

Jaffé, R., Peñaloza, C., and Barreto, G.R. 2008. Monitoring an endangered freshwater turtle management program: effects of nest relocation on growth and locomotive performance of the giant South American turtle (Podocnemis expansa, Podocnemididae). Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):213-222.

Jaquiéry, J., Guillaume, F., and Perrin, N. 2009. Predicting the deleterious effects of mutation load in fragmented populations. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):207-218.

Jennings, D.E., Gruber, S.H., Franks, B.R., Kessel, S.T., and Robertson, A.L. 2008. Effects of large-scale anthropogenic development on juvenile lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) populations of Bimini, Bahamas. Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(4):369-377.

Jentsch, A., Friedrich, S., Steinlein, T., Beyschlag, W., and Nezadal, W. 2009. Assessing conservation action for substitution of missing dynamics on former military training areas in central Europe. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):107-116.

Jiang, L.F., Luo, Y.Q., Chen, J.K., and Li, B. 2009. Ecophysiological characteristics of invasive Spartina alterniflora and native species in salt marshes of Yangtze River estuary, China. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 81(1):74-82.

Johnson, J.A., Tingay, R.E., Culver, M., Hailer, F., Clarke, M.L., and Mindell, D.P. 2009. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle. Mol. Ecol. 18(1):54-63.

Jüriado, I., Liira, J., Paal, J., and Suija, A. 2009. Tree and stand level variables influencing diversity of lichens on temperate broad-leaved trees in boreo-nemoral floodplain forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):105-125.

Karatayev, A.Y., Burlakova, L.E., Karatayev, V.A., and Padilla, D.K. 2009. Introduction, distribution, spread, and impacts of exotic freshwater gastropods in Texas. Hydrobiologia 619:181-194.

Keddy, P.A., Fraser, L.H., Solomeshch, A.I., Junk, W.J., Campbell, D.R., Arroyo, M.T.K., and Alho, C.J.R. 2009. Wet and wonderful: the world's largest wetlands are conservation priorities. BioScience 59(1):39-51.

Kenis, M., Auger-Rozenberg, M.A., Roques, A., Timms, L., Péré, C., Cock, M., Settele, J., Augustin, S., and Lopez-Vaamonde, C. 2009. Ecological effects of invasive alien insects. Biol. Invasions 11(1):21-45.

Kindberg, J., Ericsson, G., and Swenson, J.E. 2009. Monitoring rare or elusive large mammals using effort-corrected voluntary observers. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):159-165.

Kobayashi, T., Nakashizuka, T., and Kitahara, M. 2009. Effects of fragmentation of secondary broadleaf deciduous forests on populations of the near-threatened butterfly, Sasakia charonda (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae), in central Japan. Ecol. Res. 24(1):57-64.

Kohn, D.D., Hulme, P.E., Hollingsworth, P.M., and Butler, A. 2009. Are native bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) at risk from alien congenerics? Evidence from distributions and co-occurrence in Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):61-74.

Kowalczyk, R., Jedrzejewska, B., Zalewski, A., and Jedrzejewski, W. 2008. Facilitative interactions between the Eurasian badger (Meles meles), the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. Can. J. Zool. 86(12):1389-1396.

Krawczyk, R., Nobis, A., Nobis, M., and Cwener, A. 2008. Is Viola uliginosa critically endangered in Poland? - New data on the distribution of the species. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 77(4):345-349.

Kubo, M., Kobayashi, T., Kitahara, M., and Hayashi, A. 2009. Seasonal fluctuations in butterflies and nectar resources in a semi-natural grassland near Mt. Fuji, central Japan. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):229-246.

Lambert, J.D., King, D.I., Buortaccorsi, J.P., and Prout, L.S. 2008. Decline of a New Hampshire Bicknell's thrush population, 1993-2003. Northeastern Nat. 15(4):607-618.

Lammertink, M., Prawiradilaga, D.M., Setiorini, U., Naing, T.Z., Duckworth, J.W., and Menken, S.B.J. 2009. Global population decline of the Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus). Biol. Conserv. 142(1):166-179.

Lane, C.P., and Texler, H.D. 2009. Generating quantitative regional plant community descriptions for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):42-50.

Langor, D., DeHaas, L., and Foottit, R. 2009. Diversity of non-native terrestrial arthropods on woody plants in Canada. Biol. Invasions 11(1):5-19.

Langor, D., and Sweeney, J. 2009. Ecological impacts of non-native invertebrates and fungi on terrestrial ecosystems. Biol. Invasions 11(1):1-3.

Larsen, F.W., Bladt, J., and Rahbek, C. 2009. Indicator taxa revisited: useful for conservation planning? Divers. Distrib. 15(1):70-79.

Le Roux, J., and Wieczorek, A.M. 2009. Molecular systematics and population genetics of biological invasions: towards a better understanding of invasive species management. Ann. Appl. Biol. 154(1):1-17.

Leung, G.P.C., Hau, B.C.H., and Corlett, R.T. 2009. Exotic plant invasion in the highly degraded upland landscape of Hong Kong, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):191-202.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Welsh, A., Donnelly, C., Crane, M., Michael, D., Macgregor, C., McBurney, L., Montague-Drake, R., and Gibbons, P. 2009. Are nest boxes a viable alternative source of cavities for hollow-dependent animals? Long-term monitoring of nest box occupancy, pest use and attrition. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):33-42.

Liu, M.Z., Jiang, G.M., Yu, S.L., Li, Y.G., and Li, G. 2009. The role of soil seed banks in natural restoration of the degraded Hunshandak sandlands, northern China. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):127-136.

Loo, J. 2009. Ecological impacts of non-indigenous invasive fungi as forest pathogens. Biol. Invasions 11(1):81-96.

López-Sepulcre, A., Norris, K., and Kokko, H. 2009. Reproductive conflict delays the recovery of an endangered social species. J. Anim. Ecol. 78(1):219-225.

Lougheed, V.L., McIntosh, M.D., Parker, C.A., and Stevenson, R.J. 2008. Wetland degradation leads to homogenization of the biota at local and landscape scales. Freshwater Biol. 53(12):2402-2413.

MacLeod, C.J., Blackwell, G., Moller, H., Innes, J., and Powlesland, R. 2008. The forgotten 60%: bird ecology and management in New Zealand's agricultural landscape. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 32(2):240-255.

MacLeod, C.J., Newson, S.E., Blackwell, G., and Duncan, R.P. 2009. Enhanced niche opportunities: can they explain the success of New Zealand's introduced bird species? Divers. Distrib. 15(1):41-49.

Marmion, M., Parviainen, M., Luoto, M., Heikkinen, R.K., and Thuiller, W. 2009. Evaluation of consensus methods in predictive species distribution modelling. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):59-69.

Maron, M., and Cockfield, G. 2008. Managing trade-offs in landscape restoration and revegetation projects. Ecol. Appl. 18(8):2041-2049.

Martinuzzi, S., Gould, W.A., Lugo, A.E., and Medina, E. 2009. Conversion and recovery of Puerto Rican mangroves: 200 years of change. Forest Ecol. Manag. 257(1):75-84.

Mascia, M.B., and Claus, C.A. 2009. A property rights approach to understanding human displacement from protected areas: the case of marine protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):16-23.

Matisziw, T.C., and Murray, A.T. 2009. Connectivity change in habitat networks. Landscape Ecol. 24(1):89-100.

Matsuzaki, S.S., Usio, N., Takamura, N., and Washitani, I. 2009. Contrasting impacts of invasive engineers on freshwater ecosystems: an experiment and meta-analysis. Oecologia 158(4):673-686.

McDermott, M.E., and Wood, P.B. 2009. Short- and long-term implications of clearcut and two-age silviculture for conservation of breeding forest birds in the central Appalachians, USA. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):212-220.

McNair, D.B. 2008. Conservation implications of the current breeding distribution and abundance of the white-crowned pigeon Patagioenas leucocephala at St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Caribbean J. Sci. 44(3):311-320.

Meyer, C.F.J., Kalko, E.K.V., and Kerth, G. 2009. Small-scale fragmentation effects on local genetic diversity in two phyllostomid bats with different dispersal abilities in Panama. Biotropica 41(1):95-102.

Miller, J.R., Groom, M., Hess, G.R., Steelman, T., Stokes, D.L., Thompson, J., Bowman, T., Fricke, L., King, B., and Marquardt, R. 2009. Biodiversity conservation in local planning. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):53-63.

Miller, W., Drautz, D.I., Janecka, J.E., Lesk, A.M., Ratan, A., Tomsho, L.P., Packard, M., Zhang, Y., McClellan, L.R., Qi, J., Zhao, F., Gilbert, M.T.P., Dalén, L., Arsuaga, J.L., Ericson, P.G.P., Huson, D.H., Helgen, K.M., Murphy, W.J., Götherström, A., and Schuster, S.C. 2009. The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus). Genome Res. 19(2):213-220.

Moorhouse, T.P., Gelling, M., and Macdonald, D.W. 2009. Effects of habitat quality upon reintroduction success in water voles: evidence from a replicated experiment. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):53-60.

Mosepele, K., Moyle, P.B., Merron, G.S., Purkey, D.R., and Mosepele, B. 2009. Fish, floods, and ecosystem engineers: aquatic conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. BioScience 59(1):53-64.

Murray-Smith, C., Brummitt, N.A., Oliveira-Filho, A.T., Bachman, S., Moat, J., Lughadha, E.M.N., and Lucas, E.J. 2009. Plant diversity hotspots in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):151-163.

Mustin, K., Benton, T.G., Dytham, C., and Travis, J.M.J. 2009. The dynamics of climate-induced range shifting; perspectives from simulation modelling. Oikos 118(1):131-137.

Mwaura, F., and Kaburu, H. 2009. Spatial variability in woody species richness along altitudinal gradient in a lowland-dryland site, Lokapel Turkana, Kenya. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):19-32.

Naujokaitis-Lewis, I.R., Curtis, J.M.R., Arcese, P., and Rosenfeld, J. 2009. Sensitivity analyses of spatial population viability analysis models for species at risk and habitat conservation planning. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):225-229.

Nicastro, K.R., Zardi, G.I., and McQuaid, C.D. 2008. Movement behaviour and mortality in invasive and indigenous mussels: resilience and resistance strategies at different spatial scales. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 372:119-126.

Okada, M., Lyle, M., and Jasieniuk, M. 2009. Inferring the introduction history of the invasive apomictic grass Cortaderia jubata using microsatellite markers. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):148-157.

Olfert, O., Elliott, R., and Hartley, S. 2009. Non-native insects in agriculture: strategies to manage the economic and environmental impact of wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, in Saskatchewan. Biol. Invasions 11(1):127-133.

Orrock, J.L., Witter, M.S., and Reichman, O.J. 2009. Native consumers and seed limitation constrain the restoration of a native perennial grass in exotic habitats. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):148-157.

Outerbridge, M.E. 2008. Ecological notes on feral populations of Trachemys scripta elegans in Bermuda. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):265-269.

Ozinga, W.A., Römermann, C., Bekker, R.M., Prinzing, A., Tamis, W.L.M., Schaminée, J.H.J., Hennekens, S.M., Thompson, K., Poschlod, P., Kleyer, M., Bakker, J.P., and van Groenendael, J.M. 2009. Dispersal failure contributes to plant losses in NW Europe. Ecol. Lett. 12(1):66-74.

Park, M.G., and Blossey, B. 2008. Importance of plant traits and herbivory for invasiveness of Phragmites australis (Poaceae). Am. J. Bot. 95(12):1557-1568.

Parry, D. 2009. Beyond Pandora's Box: quantitatively evaluating non-target effects of parasitoids in classical biological control. Biol. Invasions 11(1):47-58.

Pathikonda, S., Ackleh, A.S., Hasenstein, K.H., and Mopper, S. 2009. Invasion, disturbance, and competition: modeling the fate of coastal plant populations. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):164-173.

Pattison, R.R., and Mack, R.N. 2009. Environmental constraints on the invasion of Triadica sebifera in the eastern United States: an experimental field assessment. Oecologia 158(4):591-602.

Pavlovic, N.B., Leicht-Young, S.A., Frohnapple, K.J., and Grundel, R. 2009. Effect of removal of Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket) on species cover of forest understory vegetation in NW Indiana. Am. Midl. Nat. 161(1):165-176.

Pearon, K.J., and Goater, C.P. 2008. Distribution of long-toed salamanders and introduced trout in high- and low-elevation wetlands in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Ecoscience 15(4):453-459.

Pena, V., and Barbara, I. 2008. Biological importance of an Atlantic European maerl bed off Benencia Island (northwest Iberian Peninsula). Bot. Mar. 51(6):493-505.

Pérez, J.E., Alfonsi, C., Nirchio, M., and Salazar, S.K. 2008. Bioinvaders: the acquisition of new genetic variation. Interciencia 33(12):935-940.

Pfaller, J.B., Limpus, C.J., and Bjorndal, K.A. 2009. Nest-site selection in individual loggerhead turtles and consequences for doomed-egg relocation. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):72-80.

Platt, K., Platt, S.G., Thirakhupt, K., and Rainwater, T.R. 2008. Recent records and conservation status of the Critically Endangered mangrove terrapin, Batagur baska, in Myanmar. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):261-265.

Platt, S.G., Sovannara, H., Kheng, L., Holloway, R., Stuart, B.L., and Rainwater, T.R. 2008. Biodiversity, exploitation, and conservation of turtles in the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve, Cambodia, with notes on reproductive ecology of Malayemys subtrijuga. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):195-204.

Prider, J., Watling, J., and Facelli, J.M. 2009. Impacts of a native parasitic plant on an introduced and a native host species: implications for the control of an invasive weed. Ann. Botany 103(1):107-115.

Puth, L.M., and Burns, C.E. 2009. New York's nature: a review of the status and trends in species richness across the metropolitan region. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):12-21.

Raman, T.R.S., Mudappa, D., and Kapoor, V. 2009. Restoring rainforest fragments: survival of mixed-native species seedlings under contrasting site conditions in the Western Ghats, India. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):137-147.

Raoul, F., Pleydell, D., Quere, J.P., Vaniscotte, A., Rieffel, D., Takahashi, K., Bernard, N., Wang, J.L., Dobigny, T., Galbreath, K.E., and Giraudoux, P. 2008. Small-mammal assemblage response to deforestation and afforestation in central China. Mammalia 72(4):320-332.

Régnière, J., Nealis, V., and Porter, K. 2009. Climate suitability and management of the gypsy moth invasion into Canada. Biol. Invasions 11(1):135-148.

Rheinhardt, R.D., McKenney-Easterling, M., Brinson, M.M., Masina-Rubbo, J., Brooks, R.P., Whigham, D.F., O'Brien, D., Hite, J.T., and Armstrong, B.K. 2009. Canopy composition and forest structure provide restoration targets for low-order riparian ecosystems. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):51-59.

Riffell, S.K., and Gutzwiller, K.J. 2009. Interannual variation in bird-landscape relations: understanding sources of a pervasive conservation dilemma. Oikos 118(1):45-54.

Roberts, J.H., and Rosenberger, A.E. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Percina rex (Jordan and Evermann 1889) (Percidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(4):439-440.

Roesler, I., Formoso, A.E., Moschione, F.N., Juhant, M.A., and Podestá, D.H. 2008. New records of Black-and-chestnut Eagle (Spizaetus isidori) and comments about its conservation in Argentina. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19(4):611-616.

Roscher, C., Bessler, H., Oelmann, Y., Engels, C., Wilcke, W., and Schulze, E.D. 2009. Resources, recruitment limitation and invader species identity determine pattern of spontaneous invasion in experimental grasslands. J. Ecology 97(1):32-47.

Ross, L.C., Lambdon, P.W., and Hulme, P.E. 2008. Disentangling the roles of climate, propagule pressure and land use on the current and potential elevational distribution of the invasive weed Oxalis pes-caprae L. on Crete. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 10(4):251-258.

Rossman, A. 2009. The impact of invasive fungi on agricultural ecosystems in the United States. Biol. Invasions 11(1):97-107.

Rowles, A.D., and O'Dowd, D.J. 2009. New mutualism for old: indirect disruption and direct facilitation of seed dispersal following Argentine ant invasion. Oecologia 158(4):709-716.

Sadlier, R.A., Smith, S.A., Whitaker, A., and Bauer, A.M. 2009. A new live-bearing species of scincid lizard (Reptilia: Scincidae) from New Caledonia, Southwest Pacific. Pacific Sci. 63(1):123-136.

Sagarin, R.D., and Crowder, L.B. 2009. Breaking through the crisis in marine conservation and management: insights from the philosophies of Ed Ricketts. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):24-30.

Sánchez-González, L.A., and Navarro-Sigüenza, A.G. 2009. History meets ecology: a geographical analysis of ecological restriction in the Neotropical humid montane forests avifaunas. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):1-11.

Sanford, M.P., Manley, P.N., and Murphy, D.D. 2009. Effects of urban development on ant communities: implications for ecosystem services and management. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):131-141.

Sasaki, K., Fox, S.F., and Duvall, D. 2009. Rapid evolution in the wild: changes in body size, life-history traits, and behavior in hunted populations of the Japanese mamushi snake. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):93-102.

Schachner, L.J., Mack, R.N., and Novak, S.J. 2008. Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) in midcontinental United States: population genetic analysis of an ongoing invasion. Am. J. Bot. 95(12):1584-1595.

Schleuning, M., and Matthies, D. 2009. Habitat change and plant demography: assessing the extinction risk of a formerly common grassland perennial. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):174-183.

Schmidt, B.R., and Meyer, A.H. 2008. On the analysis of monitoring data: testing for no trend in population size. J. Nature Conserv. 16(3):157-163.

Schouten, M.A., Verweij, P.A., Barendregt, A., Kleukers, R.M.J.C., Kalkman, V.J., and de Ruiter, P.C. 2009. Determinants of species richness patterns in the Netherlands across multiple taxonomic groups. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):203-217.

Sergio, F., Marchesi, L., and Pedrini, P. 2009. Conservation of Scops Owl Otus scops in the Alps: relationships with grassland management, predation risk and wider biodiversity. Ibis 151(1):40-50.

Sfenthourakis, S., and Triantis, K.A. 2009. Habitat diversity, ecological requirements of species and the Small Island Effect. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):131-140.

Shapcott, A., Bau, B., and Powell, M. 2009. Fragmentation and genetic diversity in Romnalda (Dasypogonaceae), a rare rain forest herbaceous genus from New Guinea and Australia. Biotropica 41(1):128-136.

Shaw, P. 2009. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):68-77.

Simberloff, D. 2009. We can eliminate invasions or live with them. Successful management projects. Biol. Invasions 11(1):149-157.

Smith, B.M., Diaz, A., Daniels, R., Winder, L., and Holland, J.M. 2009. Regional and ecotype traits in Lotus corniculatus L., with reference to restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol. 17(1):12-23.

Soares, A.H.B., and de Araujo, A.F.B. 2008. Experimental introduction of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae) in Praia das Neves, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: a descriptive study 18 years later. Rev. Bras. Zool. 25(4):640-646.

Sodhi, N.S., Lee, T.M., Koh, L.P., and Brook, B.W. 2009. A meta-analysis of the impact of anthropogenic forest disturbance on Southeast Asia's biotas. Biotropica 41(1):103-109.

Soininen, J., Paavola, R., Kwandrans, J., and Muotka, T. 2009. Diatoms: unicellular surrogates for macroalgal community structure in streams? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):79-89.

Souza, F.L., Raizer, J., da Costa, H.T.M., and Martins, F.I. 2008. Dispersal of Phrynops geoffroanus (Chelidae) in an urban river in central Brazil. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):257-261.

Squires, S.E., Hermanutz, L., and Dixon, P.L. 2009. Agricultural insect pest compromises survival of two endemic Braya (Brassicaceae). Biol. Conserv. 142(1):203-211.

Stergiou, K.I., Tsikliras, A.C., and Pauly, D. 2009. Farming up Mediterranean food webs. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):230-232.

Stralberg, D., Applegate, D.L., Phillips, S.J., Herzog, M.P., Nur, N., and Warnock, N. 2009. Optimizing wetland restoration and management for avian communities using a mixed integer programming approach. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):94-109.

Svenning, J.C., Harlev, D., Sørensen, M., and Balslev, H. 2009. Topographic and spatial controls of palm species distributions in a montane rain forest, southern Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):219-228.

Swanack, T.M., Grant, W.E., and Forstner, M.R.J. 2009. Projecting population trends of endangered amphibian species in the face of uncertainty: a pattern-oriented approach. Ecol. Model. 220(2):148-159.

Tosi, C.H., and Ferreira, R.G. 2009. Behavior of estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae), in controlled boat traffic situation at southern coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):67-78.

Truscott, A.M., Palmer, S.C., Soulsby, C., Westaway, S., and Hulme, P.E. 2008. Consequences of invasion by the alien plant Mimulus guttatus on the-species composition and soil properties of riparian plant communities in Scotland. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 10(4):231-240.

Türkozan, O., and Yilmaz, C. 2008. Loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, at Dalyan beach, Turkey: nesting activity (2004-2005) and 19-year abundance trend (1987-2005). Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):178-187.

Türkozan, O., Özdemir, A., and Kiremit, F. 2008. International Testudo trade. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 7(2):269-274.

Underwood, E.C., Klausmeyer, K.R., Cox, R.L., Busby, S.M., Morrison, S.A., and Shaw, M.R. 2009. Expanding the global network of protected areas to save the imperiled Mediterranean biome. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):43-52.

Urquiza-Haas, T., Peres, C.A., and Dolman, P.M. 2009. Regional scale effects of human density and forest disturbance on large-bodied vertebrates throughout the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):134-148.

Valentine, L.E., and Schwarzkopf, L. 2009. Effects of weed-management burning on reptile assemblages in Australian tropical savannas. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):103-113.

Van Riper, L.C., and Larson, D.L. 2009. Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities. Plant Ecol. 200(1):129-139.

Vergara, P.M., and Armesto, J.J. 2009. Responses of Chilean forest birds to anthropogenic habitat fragmentation across spatial scales. Landscape Ecol. 24(1):25-38.

Vieira, W.L.D., Santana, G.G., and Arzabe, C. 2009. Diversity of reproductive modes in anurans communities in the Caatinga (dryland) of northeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):55-66.

Villa-Bonilla, B., Rojas-Soto, O.R., Colodner-Chamudis, A.G., and Tejeda-Cruz, C. 2008. Municipal-level inventories of the avifauna and its application to conservation: the case of Zacapoaxtla, Puebla, Mexico. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 19(4):531-551.

Villard, M.A., and Jonsson, B.G. 2009. Biodiversity as patient: diagnoses and treatment. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):3-4.

von der Meden, C.E.O., Porri, F., Erlandsson, J., and McQuaid, C.D. 2008. Coastline topography affects the distribution of indigenous and invasive mussels. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 372:135-145.

Wagenitz, G., and Kandemir, A. 2008. Two new species of the genus Psephellus (Compositae, Cardueae) from eastern Turkey. Willdenowia 38(2):521-526.

Wale, E., Chishakwe, N., and Lewis-Lettington, R. 2009. Cultivating participatory policy processes for genetic resources policy: lessons from the Genetic Resources Policy Initiative (GRPI) project. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):1-18.

Walker, S., Brower, A.L., Clarkson, B.D., Lee, W.G., Myers, S.C., Shaw, W.B., and Stephens, R.T.T. 2008. Halting indigenous biodiversity decline: ambiguity, equity, and outcomes in RMA assessment of significance. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 32(2):225-237.

Wallach, A.D., Murray, B.R., and O'Neill, A.J. 2009. Can threatened species survive where the top predator is absent? Biol. Conserv. 142(1):43-52.

Wegge, P., Odden, M., Pokharel, C.P., and Storaas, T. 2009. Predator-prey relationships and responses of ungulates and their predators to the establishment of protected areas: a case study of tigers, leopards and their prey in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Biol. Conserv. 142(1):189-202.

Wilhere, G.F. 2009. Society needs a range of alternatives: a reply to Villard and Jonsson. Conserv. Biol. 23(1):4-5.

Williamson, M., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Kuhn, I., Hill, M., Klotz, S., Milbau, A., Stout, J., and Pyšek, P. 2009. The distribution of range sizes of native and alien plants in four European countries and the effects of residence time. Divers. Distrib. 15(1):158-166.

Wood, K.R., and Oppenheimer, H. 2008. Stenogyne kauaulaensis (Lamiaceae), a new species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Novon 18(4):544-549.

Yang, B., Chen, X.Y., and Yang, J.X. 2008. Threatened fishes of the world: Liobagrus kingi Tchang 1935 (Actinopterygii: Amblycipitidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 83(4):471.

Zuquim, G., Costa, F.R.C., Prado, J., and Braga-Neto, R. 2009. Distribution of pteridophyte communities along environmental gradients in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(1):151-166.

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