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Department ofBotany

No. 295
July 2009

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In This Issue

Major Losses for Caribbean Reef Fish in Last 15 Years

By combining data from 48 studies of coral reefs from around the Caribbean, researchers have found that fish densities that have been stable for decades have given way to significant declines since 1995. The study appears in Current Biology, a Cell Press publication.

"We were most surprised to discover that this decrease is evident for both large-bodied species targeted by fisheries as well as small-bodied species that are not fished," said Michelle Paddack of Simon Fraser University in Canada. "This suggests that overfishing is probably not the only cause."

Rather, they suggest that the recent declines may be explained by drastic losses in coral cover and other changes in coral reef habitats that have occurred in the Caribbean over the past 30 years. Those changes are the result of many factors, including warming ocean temperatures, coral diseases, and a rise in sedimentation and pollution from coastal development. Overfishing has also led to declines of many fish species, and now seems to also be removing those that are important for keeping the reefs free of algae.

"All of these factors are stressing the reefs and making them less able to recover from disturbances such as hurricanes," Paddack said.

The research team, including Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's D. Ross Robertson, compiled data on reef fish densities from 48 studies representing 318 reefs across the Caribbean from 1955 to 2007. Their analysis found that overall reef fish density has been declining significantly for more than a decade, at rates that are consistent across all sub-regions of the Caribbean basin. Specifically, they show losses in fish density of 2.7 to 6 percent per year.

"If we want to have coral reefs in our future, we must ensure that we reduce damage to these ecosystems," Paddack said. "On a personal level, this may mean not buying wild-caught aquarium fish and corals, not eating reef fish species that are declining, taking care not to anchor on reefs, and reducing our carbon emissions to help control climate change. But importantly, we need to let lawmakers and resource managers know that we care about these ecosystems and we need to push for changes in how they are managed."

- Adapted from materials provided by Cell Press, via EurekAlert!

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Gosselin, F. 2009. Management on the basis of the best scientific data or integration of ecological research within management? Lessons learned from the Northern spotted owl saga on the connection between research and management in conservation biology. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):777-793.

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Hillen, J., Kiefer, A., and Veith, M. 2009. Foraging site fidelity shapes the spatial organisation of a population of female western barbastelle bats. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):817-823.

Hu, L.M., and Wroblewski, J.S. 2009. Conserving a subpopulation of the northern Atlantic cod metapopulation with a marine protected area. Aquat. Conserv. 19(2):178-193.

Huang, B.Q., Sun, Y.N., Yu, X.H., Luo, Y.B., Hutchings, M.J., and Tang, S.Y. 2009. Impact of proximity to a pathway on orchid pollination success in Huanglong National Park, South-West China. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):701-708.

Hummel, S., Donovan, G.H., Spies, T.A., and Hemstrom, M.A. 2009. Conserving biodiversity using risk management: hoax or hope? Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(2):103-109.

Hussain, S.A. 2009. Basking site and water depth selection by gharial Gavialis gangeticus Gmelin 1789 (Crocodylia, Reptilia) in National Chambal Sanctuary, India and its implication for river conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 19(2):127-133.

Hylander, K., and Nemomissa, S. 2009. Complementary roles of home gardens and exotic tree plantations as alternative habitats for plants of the Ethiopian montane rainforest. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):400-409.

Ibáñez, I., Silander, J.A., Wilson, A.M., Lafleur, N., Tanaka, N., and Tsuyama, I. 2009. Multivariate forecasts of potential distributions of invasive plant species. Ecol. Appl. 19(2):359-375.

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King, C.M., McDonald, R.M., Martin, R.D., and Dennis, T. 2009. Why is eradication of invasive mustelids so difficult? Biol. Conserv. 142(4):806-816.

Knight, C.M., Parris, M.J., and Gutzke, W.H.N. 2009. Influence of priority effects and pond location on invaded larval amphibian communities. Biol. Invasions 11(4):1033-1044.

Kotiluoto, R., Ruokolainen, K., and Kettunen, M. 2009. Invasive Acacia auriculiformis Benth. in different habitats in Unguja, Zanzibar. Afr. J. Ecol. 47(1):77-86.

Lach, L., Hobbs, R.J., and Majer, J.D. 2009. Herbivory-induced extrafloral nectar increases native and invasive ant worker survival. Pop. Ecol. 51(2):237-243.

LaJeunesse, T.C., Loh, W., and Trench, R.K. 2009. Do introduced endosymbiotic dinoflagellates 'take' to new hosts? Biol. Invasions 11(4):995-1003.

Lang, S.Y., Xue, D.Y., and Han, H.X. 2009. Threatened butterflies: a new subspecies of Neptis manasa Moore, 1858 from Hainan Island (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Zootaxa 2062:65-68.

Latta, S.C., and Faaborg, J. 2009. Benefits of studies of overwintering birds for understanding resident bird ecology and promoting development of conservation capacity. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):286-293.

Laurance, W.F. 2009. How should the ATBC approach conservation ? Biotropica 41(2):139-141.

Lenzen, M., Lane, A., Widmer-Cooper, A., and Williams, M. 2009. Effects of land use on threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):294-306.

Leprieur, F., Brosse, S., García-Berthou, E., Oberdorff, T., Olden, J.D., and Townsend, C.R. 2009. Scientific uncertainty and the assessment of risks posed by non-native freshwater fishes. Fish Fish. 10(1):88-97.

Lermen, D., Blömeke, B., Browne, R., Clarke, A., Dyce, P.W., Fixemer, T., Fuhr, G.R., Holt, W.V., Jewgenow, K., Lloyd, R.E., Lötters, S., Paulus, M., Reid, G.M., Rapoport, D.H., Rawson, D., Ringleb, J., Ryder, O.A., Spörl, G., Schmitt, T., Veith, M., and Müller, P. 2009. Cryobanking of viable biomaterials: implementation of new strategies for conservation purposes. Mol. Ecol. 18(6):1030-1033.

Lohmeyer, A.M., and Garvey, J.E. 2009. Placing the North American invasion of Asian carp in a spatially explicit context. Biol. Invasions 11(4):905-916.

Long, J.D., Trussell, G.C., and Elliman, T. 2009. Linking invasions and biogeography: Isolation differentially affects exotic and native plant diversity. Ecology 90(4):863-868.

Lozano-Zambrano, F.H., Ulloa-Chacón, P., and Armbrecht, I. 2009. Ants: species-area relationship in tropical dry forest fragments. Neotrop. Entomol. 38(1):44-54.

Maccherini, S., Bacaro, G., Favilli, L., Piazzini, S., Santi, E., and Marignani, M. 2009. Congruence among vascular plants and butterflies in the evaluation of grassland restoration success. Acta Oecol. 35(2):311-317.

Marchante, E., Kjoller, A., Struwe, S., and Freitas, H. 2009. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration. Biol. Invasions 11(4):813-823.

Marín, L., León-Cortés, J.L., and Stefanescu, C. 2009. The effect of an agro-pasture landscape on diversity and migration patterns of frugivorous butterflies in Chiapas, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):919-934.

Marshall, A.J. 2009. Are montane forests demographic sinks for Bornean white-bearded gibbons Hylobates albibarbis? Biotropica 41(2):257-267.

Martin, L.J., and Blossey, B. 2009. A framework for ecosystem services valuation. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):494-496.

Martorell, C., and Peters, E.M. 2009. Disturbance-response analysis: a method for rapid assessment of the threat to species in disturbed areas. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):377-387.

Mattfeldt, S.D., Bailey, L.L., and Grant, E.H.C. 2009. Monitoring multiple species: estimating state variables and exploring the efficacy of a monitoring program. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):720-737.

McCulloch, N. 2009. Recent decline of the St Helena Wirebird Charadrius sanctaehelenae. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(1):33-48.

McDaniel, C.N. 2009. When fantasy has consequences. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):254-255.

McEwan, R.W., Rieske, L.K., and Arthur, M.A. 2009. Potential interactions between invasive woody shrubs and the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), an invasive insect herbivore. Biol. Invasions 11(4):1053-1058.

McKinney, S.T., Fiedler, C.E., and Tomback, D.F. 2009. Invasive pathogen threatens bird-pine mutualism: implications for sustaining a high-elevation ecosystem. Ecol. Appl. 19(3):597-607.

McPhee, D.A., and Loo, J.A. 2009. Past and present distribution of New Brunswick bur oak populations: a case for conservation. Northeastern Nat. 16(1):85-100.

Medina, F.M., and Nogales, M. 2009. A review on the impacts of feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in the Canary Islands: implications for the conservation of its endangered fauna. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):829-846.

Mendoza, I., Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zamora, R., and Matías, L. 2009. Recruitment limitation of forest communities in a degraded Mediterranean landscape. J. Veg. Sci. 20(2):367-376.

Michel, G., Malard, F., Deharveng, L., Di Lorenzo, T., Sket, B., and De Broyer, C. 2009. Reserve selection for conserving groundwater biodiversity. Freshwater Biol. 54(4):861-876.

Miglietta, M.P., and Lessios, H.A. 2009. A silent invasion. Biol. Invasions 11(4):825-834.

Milbau, A., Stout, J.C., Graae, B.J., and Nijs, I. 2009. A hierarchical framework for integrating invasibility experiments incorporating different factors and spatial scales. Biol. Invasions 11(4):941-950.

Miller, K.A., Chapple, D.G., Towns, D.R., Ritchie, P.A., and Nelson, N.J. 2009. Assessing genetic diversity for conservation management: a case study of a threatened reptile. Anim. Conserv. 12(2):163-171.

Mishra, S.S., Acharjee, S.K., and Chakraborty, S.K. 2009. Development of tools for assessing conservation categories of siluroid fishes of fresh water and brackish water wetlands of South West Bengal, India. Environ. Biol. Fish. 84(4):395-407.

Mönkkönen, M., Ylisirniö, A.L., and Hämäläinen, T. 2009. Ecological efficiency of voluntary conservation of boreal-forest biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):339-347.

Moore, C.G., Bates, C.R., Mair, J.M., Saunders, G.R., Harries, D.B., and Lyndon, A.R. 2009. Mapping serpulid worm reefs (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) for conservation management. Aquat. Conserv. 19(2):226-236.

Moreno-Mateos, D., Pedrocchi, C., and Comin, F.A. 2009. Avian communities' preferences in recently created agricultural wetlands in irrigated landscapes of semi-arid areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):811-828.

Morgan, D.L. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Nannatherina balstoni Regan 1906 (Nannopercidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 84(4):409-410.

Moritz, C., Hoskin, C.J., MacKenzie, J.B., Phillips, B.L., Tonione, M., Silva, N., VanDerWal, J., Williams, S.E., and Graham, C.H. 2009. Identification and dynamics of a cryptic suture zone in tropical rainforest. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1660):1235-1244.

Morrison, S.A., and Boyce, W.M. 2009. Conserving connectivity: some lessons from mountain lions in southern California. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):275-285.

Mucientes, G.R., Queiroz, N., Sousa, L.L., Tarroso, P., and Sims, D.W. 2009. Sexual segregation of pelagic sharks and the potential threat from fisheries. Biol. Lett. 5(2):156-159.

Mulder, M.B., Schacht, R., Caro, T., Schacht, J., and Caro, B. 2009. Knowledge and attitudes of children of the Rupununi: implications for conservation in Guyana. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):879-887.

Nakamura, M., and Soberón, J. 2009. Use of approximate inference in an index of completeness of biological inventories. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):469-474.

Nemésio, A. 2009. Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Zootaxa 2041:3-242.

Neve, G., Pavlicko, A., and Konvicka, M. 2009. Loss of genetic diversity through spontaneous colonization in the bog fritillary butterfly, Proclossiana eunomia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Czech Republic. Eur. J. Entomol. 106(1):11-19.

Neves, A.C.D. 2009. Conservation of the Pantanal wetlands: the definitive moment for decision making. Ambio 38(2):127-128.

Nichols, E., Gardner, T.A., Peres, C.A., Spector, S., and Scarabaeinae Research Network. 2009. Co-declining mammals and dung beetles: an impending ecological cascade. Oikos 118(4):481-487.

Nicholson, E., Keith, D.A., and Wilcove, D.S. 2009. Assessing the threat status of ecological communities. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):259-274.

O'Hanley, J.R. 2009. Using the right tool to get the job done - recommendations on the use of exact and heuristics methods for solving resource allocation problems in environmental planning and management. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):697-698.

Olabarria, C., Rodil, I.F., Incera, M., and Troncoso, J.S. 2009. Limited impact of Sargassum muticum on native algal assemblages from rocky intertidal shores. Mar. Environ. Res. 67(3):153-158.

Olupot, W. 2009. A variable edge effect on trees of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, and its bearing on measurement parameters. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):789-797.

Orr, D.W. 2009. Shelf life. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):248-251.

Ottewell, K.M., Donnellan, S.C., Lowe, A.J., and Paton, D.C. 2009. Predicting reproductive success of insect- versus bird-pollinated scattered trees in agricultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):888-898.

Özcan, G., and Turan, C. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Capoeta pestai (Pietschmann, 1933) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 84(4):359-360.

Paddack, M.J., Reynolds, J.D., Aguilar, C., Appeldoorn, R.S., Beets, J., Burkett, E.W., Chittaro, P.M., Clarke, K., Esteves, R., Fonseca, A.C., Forrester, G.E., Friedlander, A.M., García-Sais, J., González-Sansón, G., Jordan, L.K.B., McClellan, D.B., Miller, M.W., Molloy, P.P., Mumby, P.J., Nagelkerken, I., Nemeth, M., Navas-Camacho, R., Pitt, J., Polunin, N.V.C., Reyes-Nivia, M.C., Robertson, D.R., Rodríguez-Ramírez, A., Salas, E., Smith, S.R., Spieler, R.E., Steele, M.A., Williams, I.D., Wormald, C.L., Watkinson, A.R., and Côté, I.M. 2009. Recent region-wide declines in Caribbean reef fish abundance. Curr. Biol. 19(7):590-595.

Parsons, K.M., Balcomb, K.C., Ford, J.K.B., and Durban, J.W. 2009. The social dynamics of southern resident killer whales and conservation implications for this endangered population. Anim. Behav. 77(4):963-971.

Perotto-Baldivieso, H.L., Meléndez-Ackerman, E., García, M.A., Leimgruber, P., Cooper, S.M., Martínez, A., Calle, P., Ramos Gonzáles, O.M., Quiñones, M., Christen, C.A., and Pons, G. 2009. Spatial distribution, connectivity, and the influence of scale: habitat availability for the endangered Mona Island rock iguana. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):905-917.

Phalan, B., Fitzherbert, E.B., Rafflegeau, S., Struebig, M.J., and Verwilghen, A. 2009. Conservation in oil-palm landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):244-245.

Pinto, M.P., and Viveiros Grelle, C.E. 2009. Reserve selection and persistence: complementing the existing Atlantic Forest reserve system. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):957-968.

Pintor, L.M., Sih, A., and Kerby, J.L. 2009. Behavioral correlations provide a mechanism for explaining high invader densities and increased impacts on native prey. Ecology 90(3):581-587.

Policht, R., Petru, M., Lastimoza, L., and Suarez, L. 2009. Potential for the use of vocal individuality as a conservation research tool in two threatened Philippine hornbill species, the Visayan Hornbill and the Rufous-headed Hornbill. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(1):83-97.

Primack, R.B., and Miller-Rushing, A.J. 2009. The role of botanical gardens in climate change research. New Phytol. 182(2):303-313.

Pruett, C.L., Patten, M.A., and Wolfe, D.H. 2009. It's not easy being green: wind energy and a declining grassland bird. BioScience 59(3):257-262.

Raatikainen, K.M., Heikkinen, R.K., and Luoto, M. 2009. Relative importance of habitat area, connectivity, management and local factors for vascular plants: spring ephemerals in boreal semi-natural grasslands. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):1067-1085.

Rabenandrasana, M., Zefania, S., Long, P., Seing, S.T., Virginie, M.C., Randrianarisoa, M., Safford, R., and Székely, T. 2009. Distribution, habitat and status of 'Endangered' Sakalava Rail of Madagascar. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(1):23-32.

Rahmig, C.J., Jensen, W.E., and With, K.A. 2009. Grassland bird responses to land management in the largest remaining tallgrass prairie. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):420-432.

Ramsey, D.S.L., Parkes, J., and Morrison, S.A. 2009. Quantifying eradication success: the removal of feral pigs from Santa Cruz Island, California. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):449-459.

Rasingam, L., and Parthasarathy, N. 2009. Diversity of understory plants in undisturbed and disturbed tropical lowland forests of Little Andaman Island, India. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):1045-1065.

Reino, L., Beja, P., Osborne, P.E., Morgado, R., Fabião, A., and Rotenberry, J.T. 2009. Distance to edges, edge contrast and landscape fragmentation: interactions affecting farmland birds around forest plantations. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):824-838.

Reitalu, T., Sykes, M.T., Johansson, L.J., Lönn, M., Hall, K., Vandewalle, M., and Prentice, H.C. 2009. Small-scale plant species richness and evenness in semi-natural grasslands respond differently to habitat fragmentation. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):899-908.

Ribeiro, R., Santos, X., Sillero, N., Carretero, M.A., and Llorente, G.A. 2009. Biodiversity and land uses at a regional scale: is agriculture the biggest threat for reptile assemblages? Acta Oecol. 35(2):327-334.

Rius, M., Turon, X., and Marshall, D.J. 2009. Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages. Oecologia 159(4):873-882.

Roche, D.G., Torchin, M.E., Leung, B., and Binning, S.A. 2009. Localized invasion of the North American Harris mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, in the Panama Canal: implications for eradication and spread. Biol. Invasions 11(4):983-993.

Rödel, M.O., Kosuch, J., Grafe, T.U., Boistel, R., Assemian, N.E., Kouamé, N.G., Tohé, B., Gourène, G., Perret, J.L., Henle, K., Tafforeau, P., Pollet, N., and Veith, M. 2009. A new tree-frog genus and species from Ivory Coast, West Africa (Amphibia: Anura: Hyperoliidae). Zootaxa 2044:23-45.

Rodríguez-Buriticá, S., and Miriti, M.N. 2009. Biting the hand that feeds: the invasive grass Schismus barbatus (Poaceae) is facilitated by, but reduces establishment of, the native shrub Ambrosia dumosa (Asteraceae). J. Veg. Sci. 20(2):241-250.

Rokich, D.P., Harma, J., Turner, S.R., Sadler, R.J., and Tan, B.H. 2009. Fluazifop-p-butyl herbicide: implications for germination, emergence and growth of Australian plant species. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):850-869.

Roura-Pascual, N., Brotons, L., Peterson, A.T., and Thuiller, W. 2009. Consensual predictions of potential distributional areas for invasive species: a case study of Argentine ants in the Iberian Peninsula. Biol. Invasions 11(4):1017-1031.

Ruiz-López, M.J., Roldán, E.R.S., Espeso, G., and Gomendio, M. 2009. Pedigrees and microsatellites among endangered ungulates: what do they tell us? Mol. Ecol. 18(7):1352-1364.

Salafsky, N., Butchart, S.H.M., Salzer, D., Stattersfield, A.J., Neugarten, R., Hilton-Taylor, C., Collen, B., Master, L.L., O'Connor, S., and Wilkie, D. 2009. Pragmatism and practice in classifying threats: reply to Balmford et al. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):488-493.

Sanderson, B.L., Barnas, K.A., and Rub, A.M.W. 2009. Nonindigenous species of the Pacific Northwest: an overlooked risk to endangered salmon? BioScience 59(3):245-256.

Sankaran, M. 2009. Diversity patterns in savanna grassland communities: implications for conservation strategies in a biodiversity hotspot. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):1099-1115.

Scheffrahn, R.H., Kr(ec(ek, J., Ripa, R., and Luppichini, P. 2009. Endemic origin and vast anthropogenic dispersal of the West Indian drywood termite. Biol. Invasions 11(4):787-799.

Schmeller, D.S., Henry, P.Y., Julliard, R., Gruber, B., Clobert, J., Dziock, F., Lengyel, S., Nowicki, P., Déri, E., Budrys, E., Kull, T., Tali, K., Bauch, B., Settele, J., Van Swaay, C., Kobler, A., Babij, V., Papastergiadou, E., and Henle, K. 2009. Advantages of volunteer-based biodiversity monitoring in Europe. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):307-316.

Schwartz, M.K. 2009. Uniting ecological and genetic data for the conservation of wild ibex. Anim. Conserv. 12(2):103-104.

Scobie, A.R., and Wilcock, C.C. 2009. Limited mate availability decreases reproductive success of fragmented populations of Linnaea borealis, a rare, clonal self-incompatible plant. Ann. Botany 103(6):835-846.

Seifert, E.K., Bever, J.D., and Maron, J.L. 2009. Evidence for the evolution of reduced mycorrhizal dependence during plant invasion. Ecology 90(4):1055-1062.

Semeniuk, C.A.D., Haider, W., Beardmore, B., and Rothley, K.D. 2009. A multi-attribute trade-off approach for advancing the management of marine wildlife tourism: a quantitative assessment of heterogeneous visitor preferences. Aquat. Conserv. 19(2):194-208.

Sheil, D., and Murdiyarso, D. 2009. How forests attract rain: an examination of a new hypothesis. BioScience 59(4):341-347.

Sitters, J., Heitkönig, I.M.A., Holmgren, M., and Ojwang', G.S.O. 2009. Herded cattle and wild grazers partition water but share forage resources during dry years in East African savannas. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):738-750.

Smith, B.D., Braulik, G., Strindberg, S., Mansur, R., Diyan, M.A.A., and Ahmed, B. 2009. Habitat selection of freshwater-dependent cetaceans and the potential effects of declining freshwater flows and sea-level rise in waterways of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. Aquat. Conserv. 19(2):209-225.

Somanathan, E., Prabhakar, R., and Mehta, B.S. 2009. Decentralization for cost-effective conservation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(11):4143-4147.

Songer, M., Aung, M., Senior, B., DeFries, R., and Leimgruber, P. 2009. Spatial and temporal deforestation dynamics in protected and unprotected dry forests: a case study from Myanmar (Burma). Biodivers. Conserv. 18(4):1001-1018.

Stone, D.E., Oh, S.H., Tripp, E.A., Ríos, L.E., and Manos, P.S. 2009. Natural history, distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation of Central American black walnuts (Juglans sect. Rhysocaryon). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136(1):1-25.

Svensson, P., Rodwell, L.D., and Attrill, M.J. 2009. Privately managed marine reserves as a mechanism for the conservation of coral reef ecosystems: a case study from Vietnam. Ambio 38(2):72-78.

Swarts, H.M., Crooks, K.R., Willits, N., and Woodroffe, R. 2009. Possible contemporary evolution in an endangered species, the Santa Cruz Island fox. Anim. Conserv. 12(2):120-127.

Takakura, K., Nishida, T., Matsumoto, T., and Nishida, S. 2009. Alien dandelion reduces the seed-set of a native congener through frequency-dependent and one-sided effects. Biol. Invasions 11(4):973-981.

Tasch, W. 2009. The reality behind our economic myth. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):256-256.

terHorst, C.P., and Dudgeon, S.R. 2009. Beyond the patch: disturbance affects species abundances in the surrounding community. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 370(1-2):120-126.

Thiele, J., Kollmann, J., and Andersen, U.R. 2009. Ecological and socioeconomic correlates of plant invasions in Denmark: the utility of environmental assessment data. Ambio 38(2):89-94.

Tinoco, B.A., Astudillo, P.X., Latta, S.C., and Graham, C.H. 2009. Distribution, ecology and conservation of an endangered Andean hummingbird: the Violet-throated Metaltail (Metallura baroni). Bird Conserv. Int. 19(1):63-76.

Towns, D.R., Wardle, D.A., Mulder, C.P.H., Yeates, G.W., Fitzgerald, B.M., Parrish, G.R., Bellingham, P.J., and Bonner, K.I. 2009. Predation of seabirds by invasive rats: multiple indirect consequences for invertebrate communities. Oikos 118(3):420-430.

Trontelj, P., and Fiser, C. 2009. Cryptic species diversity should not be trivialised. Syst. Biodivers. 7(1):1-3.

Tuttle, N.C., Beard, K.H., and Pitt, W.C. 2009. Invasive litter, not an invasive insectivore, determines invertebrate communities in Hawaiian forests. Biol. Invasions 11(4):845-855.

Van Looy, K., Jacquemyn, H., Breyne, P., and Honnay, O. 2009. Effects of flood events on the genetic structure of riparian populations of the grassland plant Origanum vulgare. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):870-878.

Velázquez-Velázquez, E., Schmitter-Soto, J., and Domínguez-Cisneros, S. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Profundulus hildebrandi Miller, 1950 (Profundulidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 84(4):345-346.

Vitt, P., Havens, K., Kendall, B.E., and Knight, T.M. 2009. Effects of community-level grassland management on the non-target rare annual Agalinis auriculata. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):798-805.

Von Ellenrieder, N. 2009. Odonata of the Argentine Yungas cloud forest: distribution patterns and conservation status. Odonatologica 38(1):39-53.

Wallace, L.E., and Helenurm, K. 2009. Has herbivory negatively impacted genetic variability in the flora of the California Channel Islands? Insights from Crossosoma californicum (Crossosomataceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 170(3):311-322.

Williams, R., Lusseau, D., and Hammond, P.S. 2009. The role of social aggregations and protected areas in killer whale conservation: the mixed blessing of critical habitat. Biol. Conserv. 142(4):709-719.

Wilson, M.W., Irwin, S., Norriss, D.W., Newton, S.F., Collins, K., Kelly, T.C., and O'Halloran, J. 2009. The importance of pre-thicket conifer plantations for nesting Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in Ireland. Ibis 151(2):332-343.

Wilson, P.H., Schaller, H.A., Petrosky, C.E., and Loomis, J. 2009. Judging cost-effectiveness of management of Snake River salmon: response to Halsing and Moore. Conserv. Biol. 23(2):475-478.

Wilson, R.J., Davies, Z.G., and Thomas, C.D. 2009. Modelling the effect of habitat fragmentation on range expansion in a butterfly. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1661):1421-1427.

Wixted, K., and McGraw, J.B. 2009. A Panax-centric view of invasive species. Biol. Invasions 11(4):883-893.

Wyckhuys, K.A.G., Koch, R.L., Kula, R.R., and Heimpel, G.E. 2009. Potential exposure of a classical biological control agent of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, on non-target aphids in North America. Biol. Invasions 11(4):857-871.

Yamaura, Y., Amano, T., Koizumi, T., Mitsuda, Y., Taki, H., and Okabe, K. 2009. Does land-use change affect biodiversity dynamics at a macroecological scale? A case study of birds over the past 20 years in Japan. Anim. Conserv. 12(2):110-119.

Yu, H., He, W.M., Liu, J., Miao, S.L., and Dong, M. 2009. Native Cuscuta campestris restrains exotic Mikania micrantha and enhances soil resources beneficial to natives in the invaded communities. Biol. Invasions 11(4):835-844.

Zhang, F., Li, Y., Guo, Z., and Murray, B.R. 2009. Climate warming and reproduction in Chinese alligators. Anim. Conserv. 12(2):128-137.

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