Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 296
August 2009

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In This Issue

Museum Specimens Aid in Species Conservation Assessments

Many plant species are in danger of extinction because they are threatened by the loss, degradation and fragmentation of natural habitat, by competition with invasive species, by over-exploitation and pollution, and by global climate change. Of the estimated 380,000 plant species that inhabit the planet, it is not known how many are threatened with extinction. To date only 3.2% of the world's flora is fully assessed for their conservation status and listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Unfortunately time is running out to assess the remaining species as pristine habitats, such as old-growth forests, are lost to degradation and destruction around the world. With limited funds and capacity, it will not be possible to complete an assessment of every known plant species before additional species are lost, and certainly not before 2010 as called for by the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

Researchers at various universities, botanic gardens, and herbaria are devising ways to conduct preliminary conservation assessments to serve as a first cut in identifying which plant species may be endangered. One proposed method is to use data from herbarium specimens maintained as scientific resources in botanic gardens, museums, and universities to identify rare and endangered species. National Museum of Natural History scientists Gary Krupnick, W. John Kress, and Warren Wagner have recently published a paper in Biodiversity and Conservation that includes a model that they developed for assessing preliminary conservation status that uses data obtained from herbarium records (for example, the number of records, the number of localities, and the dates of collection).

Using data of the Hawaiian flora from specimens in the United States National Herbarium, they were able to set the parameters of the model. They then applied the model to four different plant families: the Palm family (Arecaceae), the Day Flower family (Commelinaceae), the African Violet family (Gesneriaceae), and the Heliconia family (Heliconiaceae). Their results indicate that 72% of the Hawaiian taxa, 73% of the species of Arecaceae, 55% of the species of Commelinaceae, 68% of the species of Gesneriaceae, and 65% of the species of Heliconiaceae are potentially threatened with extinction, but will need further evaluation using additional herbarium material and other assessment strategies (for example, field work and taxonomic expert assessment). Conversely, 28%, 27%, 45%, 32%, and 35% of the species in the same families are clearly not threatened and will not require any additional evaluations for full assessment. This methodology provides a rapid means of determining preliminary conservation assessment of a large number of species in a short period of time and greatly decreases the number of species requiring full and labor intensive assessments.

Current Literature

Abbott, R.J., Brennan, A.C., James, J.K., Forbes, D.G., Hegarty, M.J., and Hiscock, S.J. 2009. Recent hybrid origin and invasion of the British Isles by a self-incompatible species, Oxford ragwort (Senecio squalidus L., Asteraceae). Biol. Invasions 11(5):1145-1158.

Abensperg-Traun, M. 2009. CITES, sustainable use of wild species and incentive-driven conservation in developing countries, with an emphasis on southern Africa. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):948-963.

Ackley, J.W., Muelleman, P.J., Carter, R.E., Henderson, R.W., and Powell, R. 2009. A rapid assessment of herpetofaunal diversity in variously altered habitats on Dominica. Appl. Herp. 6(2):171-184.

Adams, S.N., and Engelhardt, K.A.M. 2009. Diversity declines in Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stiltgrass) patches. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1003-1010.

Afonso, P., Fontes, J., Holland, K.N., and Santos, R.S. 2009. Multi-scale patterns of habitat use in a highly mobile reef fish, the white trevally Pseudocaranx dentex, and their implications for marine reserve design. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 381:273-286.

Ainouche, M.L., Fortune, P.M., Salmon, A., Parisod, C., Grandbastien, M.A., Fukunaga, K., Ricou, M., and Misset, M.T. 2009. Hybridization, polyploidy and invasion: lessons from Spartina (Poaceae). Biol. Invasions 11(5):1159-1173.

Alexander, J.M., Poll, M., Dietz, H., and Edwards, P.J. 2009. Contrasting patterns of genetic variation and structure in plant invasions of mountains. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):502-512.

Algar, A.C., Kharouba, H.M., Young, E.R., and Kerr, J.T. 2009. Predicting the future of species diversity: macroecological theory, climate change, and direct tests of alternative forecasting methods. Ecography 32(1):22-33.

Ashworth, L., Quesada, M., Casas, A., Aguilar, R., and Oyama, K. 2009. Pollinator-dependent food production in Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1050-1057.

Ayres, D., Ryan, F.J., Grotkopp, E., Bailey, J., and Gaskin, J. 2009. Tumbleweed (Salsola, section Kali) species and speciation in California. Biol. Invasions 11(5):1175-1187.

Ayres, D., Schierenbeck, K., and Ellstrand, N. 2009. Introduction to "Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences after Invaders Hybridize". Biol. Invasions 11(5):1087-1088.

Babweteera, F., and Brown, N. 2009. Can remnant frugivore species effectively disperse tree seeds in secondary tropical rain forests? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1611-1627.

Bailey, H., and Thompson, P.M. 2009. Using marine mammal habitat modelling to identify priority conservation zones within a marine protected area. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 378:279-287.

Bailey, J.P., Bímová, K., and Mandák, B. 2009. Asexual spread versus sexual reproduction and evolution in Japanese Knotweed s.l. sets the stage for the "Battle of the Clones". Biol. Invasions 11(5):1189-1203.

Baker, K.D., Devine, J.A., and Haedrich, R.L. 2009. Deep-sea fishes in Canada's Atlantic: population declines and predicted recovery times. Environ. Biol. Fish. 85(1):79-88.

Bakker, V.J., and Doak, D.F. 2009. Population viability management: ecological standards to guide adaptive management for rare species. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(3):158-165.

Ballesteros, E., Garrabou, J., Hereu, B., Zabala, M., Cebrian, E., and Sala, E. 2009. Deep-water stands of Cystoseira zosteroides C. Agardh (Fucales, Ochrophyta) in the Northwestern Mediterranean: insights into assemblage structure and population dynamics. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 82(3):477-484.

Bartomeus, I., and Vilà, M. 2009. Breeding system and pollen limitation in two supergeneralist alien plants invading Mediterranean shrublands. Aust. J. Bot. 57(2):109-115.

Beaumont, L.J., Gallagher, R.V., Thuiller, W., Downey, P.O., Leishman, M.R., and Hughes, L. 2009. Different climatic envelopes among invasive populations may lead to underestimations of current and future biological invasions. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):409-420.

Béchet, A., Germain, C., Sandoz, A., Hirons, G.J.M., Green, R.E., Walmsley, J.G., and Johnson, A.R. 2009. Assessment of the impacts of hydrological fluctuations and salt pans abandonment on Greater flamingos in the Camargue, South of France. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1575-1588.

Beckmann, M., Erfmeier, A., and Bruelheide, H. 2009. A comparison of native and invasive populations of three clonal plant species in Germany and New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 36(5):865-878.

BenDor, T., Westervelt, J., Aurambout, J.P., and Meyer, W. 2009. Simulating population variation and movement within fragmented landscapes: an application to the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Ecol. Model. 220(6):867-878.

Blackburn, T.M., and Jeschke, J.M. 2009. Invasion success and threat status: two sides of a different coin? Ecography 32(1):83-88.

Blaum, N., Seymour, C., Rossmanith, E., Schwager, M., and Jeltsch, F. 2009. Changes in arthropod diversity along a land use driven gradient of shrub cover in savanna rangelands: identification of suitable indicators. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1187-1199.

Bottrill, M.C., Joseph, L.N., Carwardine, J., Bode, M., Cook, C., Game, E.T., Grantham, H., Kark, S., Linke, S., McDonald-Madden, E., Pressey, R.L., Walker, S., Wilson, K.A., and Possingham, H.P. 2009. Finite conservation funds mean triage is unavoidable. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(4):183-184.

Bowen, K.D., Beever, E.A., and Gafvert, U.B. 2009. Improving the design of amphibian surveys using soil data: a case study in two wilderness areas. Nat. Areas J. 29(2):117-125.

Breuil, M. 2009. The terrestrial herpetofauna of Martinique: past, present, future. Appl. Herp. 6(2):123-149.

Brys, R., and Jacquemyn, H. 2009. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Primula veris L. J. Ecology 97(3):581-600.

Buden, D.W. 2009. Carlia ailanpalai (Reptilia: Scincidae): an invasive species of lizard in the Federated States of Micronesia. Pacific Sci. 63(2):243-251.

Buhle, E.R., and Ruesink, J.L. 2009. Impacts of invasive oyster drills on Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida Carpenter 1864) recovery in Willapa Bay, Washington, United States. J. Shellfish Res. 28(1):87-96.

Callaghan, D.A., and Ashton, P.A. 2009. Rarity and site selection for bryophyte conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1259-1272.

Camara, M.D., and Vadopalas, B. 2009. Genetic aspects of restoring Olympia oysters and other native bivalves: balancing the need for action, good intentions, and the risks of making things worse. J. Shellfish Res. 28(1):121-145.

Caparroz, R., Seixas, G.H.F., Berkunsky, I., and Collevatti, R.G. 2009. The role of demography and climatic events in shaping the phylogeography of Amazona aestiva (Psittaciformes, Aves) and definition of management units for conservation. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):459-468.

Caprio, E., Ellena, I., and Rolando, A. 2009. Assessing habitat/landscape predictors of bird diversity in managed deciduous forests: a seasonal and guild-based approach. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1287-1303.

Chaves, G., García-Rodríguez, A., Mora, A., and Leal, A. 2009. A new species of dink frog (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae: Diasporus) from Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Zootaxa 2088:1-14.

Chen, Z.B., Guo, L., Jin, B.S., Wu, J.H., and Zheng, G.H. 2009. Effect of the exotic plant Spartina alterniflora on macrobenthos communities in salt marshes of the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 82(2):265-272.

Chung, M.Y. 2009. Lack of allozyme diversity in populations of the rare, endangered terrestrial orchids Tipularia japonica and Epipactis papillosa in Korea. Plant Syst. Evol. 278(3-4):203-209.

Clough, Y., Putra, D.D., Pitopang, R., and Tscharntke, T. 2009. Local and landscape factors determine functional bird diversity in Indonesian cacao agroforestry. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1032-1041.

Coldea, G., Stoica, I.A., Puscas, M., Ursu, T., Oprea, A., and The IntraBioDiv Consortium. 2009. Alpine-subalpine species richness of the Romanian Carpathians and the current conservation status of rare species. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1441-1458.

Collard, S., Le Brocque, A., and Zammit, C. 2009. Bird assemblages in fragmented agricultural landscapes: the role of small brigalow remnants and adjoining land uses. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1649-1670.

Copenheaver, C.A., Predmore, S.A., and Askamit, D.N. 2009. Conversion of rare grassy openings to forest: have these areas lost their conservation value? Nat. Areas J. 29(2):133-139.

Coscaron, M.C., Melo, M.C., Coddington, J., and Corronca, J. 2009. Estimating biodiversity: a case study on true bugs in argentinian wetlands. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1491-1507.

Cromsigt, J.P.G.M., van Rensburg, S.J., Etienne, R.S., and Olff, H. 2009. Monitoring large herbivore diversity at different scales: comparing direct and indirect methods. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1219-1231.

Culley, T.M., and Hardiman, N.A. 2009. The role of intraspecific hybridization in the evolution of invasiveness: a case study of the ornamental pear tree Pyrus calleryana. Biol. Invasions 11(5):1107-1119.

Cunningham, R., and Olsen, P. 2009. A statistical methodology for tracking long-term change in reporting rates of birds from volunteer-collected presence-absence data. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1305-1327.

Dapporto, L., and Dennis, R.L.H. 2009. Conservation biogeography of large Mediterranean islands. Butterfly impoverishment, conservation priorities and inferences for an ecologica "island paradigm". Ecography 32(1):169-179.

Darbyson, E.A., Hanson, J.M., Locke, A., and Willison, J.H.M. 2009. Survival of European green crab (Carcinus maenus L.) exposed to simulated overland and boating-vector transport conditions. J. Shellfish Res. 28(2):377-382.

Darling, J.A., Kuenzi, A., and Reitzel, A.M. 2009. Human-mediated transport determines the non-native distribution of the anemone Nematostella vectensis, a dispersal-limited estuarine invertebrate. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 380:137-146.

Davis, A.P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D.M., Ruhsam, M., Moat, J., and Brummitt, N.A. 2009. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 96(1):68-78.

Dawson, W., Burslem, D., and Hulme, P.E. 2009. The suitability of weed risk assessment as a conservation tool to identify invasive plant threats in East African rainforests. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1018-1024.

de Lange, P.J., Norton, D.A., Courtney, S.P., Heenan, P.B., Barkla, J.W., Cameron, E.K., Hitchmough, R., and Townsend, A.J. 2009. Threatened and uncommon plants of New Zealand (2008 revision). New Zeal. J. Bot. 47(1):61-96.

De Wan, A.A., Sullivan, P.J., Lembo, A.J., Smith, C.R., Maerz, J.C., Lassoie, J.P., and Richmond, M.E. 2009. Using occupancy models of forest breeding birds to prioritize conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):982-991.

Di Franco, A., Marchini, A., Baiata, P., Milazzo, M., and Chemello, R. 2009. Developing a scuba trail vulnerability index (STVI): a case study from a Mediterranean MPA. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1201-1217.

Dornelas, M., Moonen, A.C., Magurran, A.E., and Bàrberi, P. 2009. Species abundance distributions reveal environmental heterogeneity in modified landscapes. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):666-672.

Dostalova, A. 2009. Tree seedlings: how do they establish in spontaneously developed forests? A study from a mountainous area in the Czech Republic. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1671-1684.

Dudley, M.P., Parrish, J.A.D., Post, S.L., Helm, C.G., and Wiedenmann, R.N. 2009. The effects of fertilization and time of cutting on regeneration and seed production of Dipsacus laciniatus (Dipsacacae). Nat. Areas J. 29(2):140-145.

Eckstein, R.L., Danihelka, J., and Otte, A. 2009. Variation in life-cycle between three rare and endangered floodplain violets in two regions: implications for population viability and conservation. Biologia 64(1):69-80.

Ellstrand, N.C. 2009. Evolution of invasiveness in plants following hybridization. Biol. Invasions 11(5):1089-1091.

Engel, K., and Tollrian, R. 2009. Inducible defences as key adaptations for the successful invasion of Daphnia lumholtzi in North America? Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1663):1865-1873.

Eschtruth, A.K., and Battles, J.J. 2009. Assessing the relative importance of disturbance, herbivory, diversity, and propagule pressure in exotic plant invasion. Ecol. Monogr. 79(2):265-280.

Faith, D.P. 2009. Phylogenetic triage, efficiency and risk aversion. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(4):182.

Falcucci, A., Ciucci, P., Maiorano, L., Gentile, L., and Boitani, L. 2009. Assessing habitat quality for conservation using an integrated occurrence-mortality model. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):600-609.

Fedewa, C.A., and Stewart, J.R. 2009. Seed germination characteristics of prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis). Nat. Areas J. 29(2):188-192.

Fincke, O.M., Santiago, D., Hickner, S., and Bienek, R. 2009. Susceptibility of larval dragonflies to zebra mussel colonization and its effect on larval movement and survivorship. Hydrobiologia 624(1):71-79.

Flanagan, R.J., Mitchell, R.J., Knutowski, D., and Karron, J.D. 2009. Interspecific pollinator movements reduce pollen deposition and seed production in Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae). Am. J. Bot. 96(4):809-815.

Forcada, A., Valle, C., Bonhomme, P., Criquet, G., Cadiou, G., Lenfant, P., and Sánchez-Lizaso, J.L. 2009. Effects of habitat on spillover from marine protected areas to artisanal fisheries. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 379:197-211.

Fowler, N.L., and Simmons, M.T. 2009. Savanna dynamics in central Texas: just succession? Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(1):23-31.

Foxcroft, L.C., Richardson, D.M., Rouget, M., and MacFadyen, S. 2009. Patterns of alien plant distribution at multiple spatial scales in a large national park: implications for ecology, management and monitoring. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):367-378.

Fremier, A.K., and Talley, T.S. 2009. Scaling riparian conservation with river hydrology: lessons from blue elderberry along four California rivers. Wetlands 29(1):150-162.

Fritz, Ö., Niklasson, M., and Churski, M. 2009. Tree age is a key factor for the conservation of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in beech forests. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(1):93-106.

Furlani, D., Ficetola, G.F., Colombo, G., Ugurlucan, M., and De Bernardi, F. 2009. Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica. Zool. Sci. 26(3):197-202.

Gaskin, J.F., and Kazmer, D.J. 2009. Introgression between invasive saltcedars (Tamarix chinensis and T. ramosissima) in the USA. Biol. Invasions 11(5):1121-1130.

Genovart, M. 2009. Natural hybridization and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1435-1439.

Gilbert, J., Gowing, D., and Wallace, H. 2009. Available soil phosphorus in semi-natural grasslands: assessment methods and community tolerances. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1074-1083.

Gillespie, G.E. 2009. Status of the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida Carpenter 1864, in British Columbia, Canada. J. Shellfish Res. 28(1):59-68.

Goldberg, C.S., and Waits, L.P. 2009. Using habitat models to determine conservation priorities for pond-breeding amphibians in a privately-owned landscape of northern Idaho, USA. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1096-1104.

Gollan, J.R., Ashcroft, M.B., Cassis, G., Donnelly, A.P., and Lassau, S.A. 2009. Testing common habitat-based surrogates of invertebrate diversity in a semi-arid rangeland. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1147-1159.

González-Varo, J.P., Arroyo, J., and Aparicio, A. 2009. Effects of fragmentation on pollinator assemblage, pollen limitation and seed production of Mediterranean myrtle (Myrtus communis). Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1058-1065.

Graham, C.T., and Harrod, C. 2009. Implications of climate change for the fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 74(6):1143-1205.

Graziano, R., Gilberto, P., and Alessandro, F. 2009. A rapid and cost-effective tool for managing habitats of the European Natura 2000 network: a case study in the Italian Alps. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1375-1388.

Guiasu, R.C. 2009. Conservation, status, and diversity of the crayfishes of the genus Cambarus Erichson, 1846 (Decapoda, Cambaridae). Crustaceana 82(6):721-742.

Hall, R.J., and Ayres, D.R. 2009. What can mathematical modeling tell us about hybrid invasions? Biol. Invasions 11(5):1217-1224.

Harvey, C.T., Qureshi, S.A., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2009. Detection of a colonizing, aquatic, non-indigenous species. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):429-437.

He, F.L. 2009. Price of prosperity: economic development and biological conservation in China. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):511-515.

Hejda, M., Pyšek, P., and Jarošík, V. 2009. Impact of invasive plants on the species richness, diversity and composition of invaded communities. J. Ecology 97(3):393-403.

Hejda, M., Pyšek, P., Pergl, J., Sádlo, J., Chytrý, M., and Jarošík, V. 2009. Invasion success of alien plants: do habitat affinities in the native distribution range matter? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 18(3):372-382.

Hermoso, V., Linke, S., and Prenda, J. 2009. Identifying priority sites for the conservation of freshwater fish biodiversity in a Mediterranean basin with a high degree of threatened endemics. Hydrobiologia 623(1):127-140.

Hoffman, M.T., Carrick, P.J., Gillson, L., and West, A.G. 2009. Drought, climate change and vegetation response in the succulent karoo, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 105(1-2):54-60.

Hole, D.G., Willis, S.G., Pain, D.J., Fishpool, L.D., Butchart, S.H.M., Collingham, Y.C., Rahbek, C., and Huntley, B. 2009. Projected impacts of climate change on a continent-wide protected area network. Ecol. Lett. 12(5):420-431.

Holmer, M., Marba, N., Lamote, M., and Duarte, C.M. 2009. Deterioration of sediment quality in seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica) invaded by macroalgae (Caulerpa sp.). Estuaries Coasts 32(3):456-466.

Honu, Y.A.K., Chandy, S., and Gibson, D.J. 2009. Occurrence of non-native species deep in natural areas of the Shawnee National Forest, southern Illinois, USA. Nat. Areas J. 29(2):177-187.

Horinouchi, M. 2009. Horizontal gradient in fish assemblage structures in and around a seagrass habitat: some implications for seagrass habitat conservation. Ichthyol. Res. 56(2):109-125.

Horning, M.E., and Webster, M.S. 2009. Conservation genetics of remnant Lilium philadelphicum populations in the midwestern United States. Am. Midl. Nat. 161(2):286-300.

Huang, Y., Zhang, C.Q., and Li, D.Z. 2009. Low genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation in the critically endangered Omphalogramma souliei (Primulaceae): implications for its conservation. J. Syst. Evol. 47(2):103-109.

Hyvärinen, E., Kouki, J., and Martikainen, P. 2009. Prescribed fires and retention trees help to conserve beetle diversity in managed boreal forests despite their transient negative effects on some beetle groups. Insect Conserv. Divers. 2(2):93-105.

Jachowski, D.S., and Kesler, D.C. 2009. Allowing extinction: should we let species go? Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(4):180.

Johnson, C.N., and VanDerWal, J. 2009. Evidence that dingoes limit abundance of a mesopredator in eastern Australian forests. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):641-646.

Jørgensen, R.H., and Kollmann, J. 2009. Invasion of coastal dunes by the alien shrub Rosa rugosa is associated with roads, tracks and houses. Flora 204(4):289-297.

Justus, J., Colyvan, M., Regan, H., and Maguire, L. 2009. Buying into conservation: intrinsic versus instrumental value. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(4):187-191.

Kadoya, T., Ishii, H.S., Kikuchi, R., Suda, S., and Washitani, I. 2009. Using monitoring data gathered by volunteers to predict the potential distribution of the invasive alien bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1011-1017.

Kerbiriou, C., Le Viol, I., Robert, A., Porcher, E., Gourmelon, F., and Julliard, R. 2009. Tourism in protected areas can threaten wild populations: from individual response to population viability of the chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):657-665.

Kinzler, W., Kley, A., Mayer, G., Waloszek, D., and Maier, G. 2009. Mutual predation between and cannibalism within several freshwater gammarids: Dikerogammarus villosus versus one native and three invasives. Aquat. Ecol. 43(2):457-464.

Kittelson, P.M., Pinahs, C., Dwyer, J., Ingersoll, A., Mans, E., Rieke, J., Rutman, B., and Volenec, M. 2009. Age structure and genetic diversity of four Quercus macrocarpa (Michx.) populations in fragmented oak savanna along the central Minnesota River Valley. Am. Midl. Nat. 161(2):301-312.

Klein, J.C., and Verlaque, M. 2009. Macroalgal assemblages of disturbed coastal detritic bottoms subject to invasive species. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 82(3):461-468.

Knapp, S., Kühn, I., Bakker, J.P., Kleyer, M., Klotz, S., Ozinga, W.A., Poschlod, P., Thompson, K., Thuiller, W., and Römermann, C. 2009. How species traits and affinity to urban land use control large-scale species frequency. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):533-546.

Knight, T.M., Dunn, J.L., Smith, L.A., Davis, J., and Kalisz, S. 2009. Deer facilitate invasive plant success in a Pennsylvania forest understory. Nat. Areas J. 29(2):110-116.

Koumoundouros, T., Sumner, J., Clemann, N., and Stuart-Fox, D. 2009. Current genetic isolation and fragmentation contrasts with historical connectivity in an alpine lizard (Cyclodomorphus praealtus) threatened by climate change. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):992-1002.

Krupnick, G.A., Kress, W.J., and Wagner, W.L. 2009. Achieving Target 2 of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: building a preliminary assessment of vascular plant species using data from herbarium specimens. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1459-1474.

Laborde, J., and Thompson, K. 2009. Post-dispersal fate of hazel (Corylus avellana) nuts and consequences for the management and conservation of scrub-grassland mosaics. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):974-981.

Leicht-Young, S.A., O'Donnell, H., Latimer, A.M., and Silander, J.A. 2009. Effects of an invasive plant species, Celastrus orbiculatus, on soil composition and processes. Am. Midl. Nat. 161(2):219-231.

Lemckert, F., Rosauer, D., and Slatyer, C. 2009. A comparison of Australia's anuran records against the reserve system. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1233-1246.

Li, B., Liao, C.H., Zhang, X.D., Chen, H.L., Wang, Q., Chen, Z.Y., Gan, X.J., Wu, J.H., Zhao, B., Ma, Z.J., Cheng, X.L., Jiang, L.F., and Chen, J.K. 2009. Spartina alterniflora invasions in the Yangtze River estuary, China: an overview of current status and ecosystem effects. Ecol. Eng. 35(4):511-520.

Linnebjerg, J.F., Hansen, D.M., and Olesen, J.M. 2009. Gut passage effect of the introduced red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus) on germination of invasive plant species in Mauritius. Austral Ecol. 34(3):272-277.

Lonati, M., and Siniscalco, C. 2009. Syntaxonomy, synecology and conservation of Pseudostellaria europaea Schaeftlein communities in NW Italy in comparison with populations in the Eastern Alps. Plant Biosyst. 143(1):120-136.

López-López, P., Soutullo, A., García-Ripollés, C., Urios, V., Cadahía, L., and Ferrer, M. 2009. Markov models of territory occupancy: implications for the management and conservation of competing species. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1389-1402.

Lotze, H.K., and Worm, B. 2009. Historical baselines for large marine animals. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(5):254-262.

Lucassen, E.C.H.E.T., Eygensteyn, J., Bobbink, R., Smolders, A., Van de Riet, B.P., Kuijpers, D.J.C., and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2009. The decline of metallophyte vegetation in floodplain grasslands: implications for conservation and restoration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(1):69-80.

Lucrezi, S., Schlacher, T.A., and Walker, S. 2009. Monitoring human impacts on sandy shore ecosystems: a test of ghost crabs (Ocypode spp.) as biological indicators on an urban beach. Environ. Monit. Assess. 152(1-4):413-424.

Luiselli, L. 2009. A model assessing the conservation threats to freshwater turtles of Sub-Saharan Africa predicts urgent need for continental conservation planning. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1349-1360.

Lukosiene, I.P., and Naujalis, J.R. 2009. Rare lichen associations on common oak (Quercus robur) in Lithuania. Biologia 64(1):48-52.

Lütolf, M., Bolliger, J., Kienast, F., and Guisan, A. 2009. Scenario-based assessment of future land use change on butterfly species distributions. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1329-1347.

Ma, Z.J., Li, B., Li, W.J., Han, N.Y., Chen, J.K., and Watkinson, A.R. 2009. Conflicts between biodiversity conservation and development in a biosphere reserve. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):527-535.

Mabry, C., Henry, C., and Dettman, C. 2009. Population trends in northern monkshood, Aconitum noveboracense, at four sample intervals over fifteen years. Nat. Areas J. 29(2):146-156.

MacKenzie, D.I. 2009. Getting the biggest bang for our conservation buck. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(4):175-177.

Madamombe-Manduna, I., Vibrans, H., and López-Mata, L. 2009. Diversity of coevolved weeds in smallholder maize fields of Mexico and Zimbabwe. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1589-1610.

Magige, F.J., Holmern, T., Stokke, S., Mlingwa, C., and Røskaft, E. 2009. Does illegal hunting affect density and behaviour of African grassland birds? A case study on ostrich (Struthio camelus). Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1361-1373.

Mahar, G., Dhar, U., Rawal, R.S., and Bhatt, I.D. 2009. Implications of location specific data and their usefulness in conservation planning: an example from Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1273-1286.

Mallon, D.P., and Zhigang, J. 2009. Grazers on the plains: challenges and prospects for large herbivores in Central Asia. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):516-519.

Marijnissen, S.A.E., Michel, E., Cleary, D.F.R., and McIntyre, P.B. 2009. Ecology and conservation status of endemic freshwater crabs in Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1555-1573.

Mark, A.F., Michel, P., Dickinson, K.J.M., and McLennan, B. 2009. The conservation (protected area) status of New Zealand's indigenous grasslands: an update. New Zeal. J. Bot. 47(1):53-60.

Martin, P.H., Canham, C.D., and Marks, P.L. 2009. Why forests appear resistant to exotic plant invasions: intentional introductions, stand dynamics, and the role of shade tolerance. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(3):142-149.

Mazzolli, M. 2009. Loss of historical range of jaguars in southern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1715-1717.

McAlpine, K.G., Timmins, S.M., and Westbrooke, I. 2009. Bone-seed (Chrysanthemoides monilifiera ssp. monilifiera) invasion effects on native regeneration in New Zealand coastal plant communities. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 33(1):72-82.

McGarvey, R., and Linnane, A. 2009. Estimating historical commercial rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) catch inside Australian State territorial waters for marine protected area assessment: the binomial likelihood method. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1403-1412.

McGlone, M.S. 2009. Postglacial history of New Zealand wetlands and implications for their conservation. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 33(1):1-23.

McGowan, P.J.K., Zhang, Y.Y., and Zhang, Z.W. 2009. Galliformes - barometers of the state of applied ecology and wildlife conservation in China. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):524-526.

McKinnon, J.G., Gribben, P.E., Davis, A.R., Jolley, D.F., and Wright, J.T. 2009. Differences in soft-sediment macrobenthic assemblages invaded by Caulerpa taxifolia compared to uninvaded habitats. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 380:59-71.

McNatty, A., Abbott, K.L., and Lester, P.J. 2009. Invasive ants compete with and modify the trophic ecology of hermit crabs on tropical islands. Oecologia 160(1):187-194.

Meiners, S.J., Rye, T.A., and Klass, J.R. 2009. On a level field: the utility of studying native and non-native species in successional systems. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(1):45-53.

Mitchell, R.J., Rose, R.J., and Palmer, S.C.F. 2009. The effect of restoration techniques on non-target species: case studies in moorland ecosystems. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(1):81-91.

Monterrubio-Rico, T.C., Ortega-Rodríguez, J.M., Marín-Togo, M.C., Salinas-Melgoza, A., and Renton, K. 2009. Nesting habitat of the lilac-crowned parrot in a modified landscape in Mexico. Biotropica 41(3):361-368.

Morrison, C., Keppel, G., Thomas, N., Rounds, I., and Harlow, P.S. 2009. Critically endangered Fijian crested iguana (Brachylophus vitiensis) shows habitat preference for globally threatened tropical dry forest. Pacific Sci. 63(2):223-242.

Mortelliti, A., Sanzo, G.S., and Boitani, L. 2009. Species' surrogacy for conservation planning: caveats from comparing the response of three arboreal rodents to habitat loss and fragmentation. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1131-1145.

Mudrak, E.L., Johnson, S.E., and Waller, D.A. 2009. Forty-seven year changes in vegetation at the Apostle Islands: effects of deer on the forest understory. Nat. Areas J. 29(2):167-176.

Nascimbene, J., Marini, L., Motta, R., and Nimis, P.L. 2009. Influence of tree age, tree size and crown structure on lichen communities in mature Alpine spruce forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1509-1522.

Nascimbene, J., and Tretiach, M. 2009. A critical evaluation of the Italian distribution of the rare macrolichen Usnea longissima Ach. Plant Biosyst. 143(1):14-19.

Newton, A.C., Stewart, G.B., Myers, G., Diaz, A., Lake, S., Bullock, J.M., and Pullin, A.S. 2009. Impacts of grazing on lowland heathland in north-west Europe. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):935-947.

Oberndorfer, E.C., and Lundholm, J.T. 2009. Species richness, abundance, rarity and environmental gradients in coastal barren vegetation. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1523-1553.

Ostertag, R., Cordell, S., Michaud, J., Cole, T.C., Schulten, J.R., Publico, K.M., and Enoka, J.H. 2009. Ecosystem and restoration consequences of invasive woody species removal in Hawaiian lowland wet forest. Ecosystems 12(3):503-515.

Parolo, G., Ferrarini, A., and Rossi, G. 2009. Optimization of tourism impacts within protected areas by means of genetic algorithms. Ecol. Model. 220(8):1138-1147.

Parr, M.J., Bennun, L., Boucher, T., Brooks, T., Chutas, C.A., Dinerstein, E., Drummond, G.M., Eken, G., Fenwick, G., Foster, M., Martínez-Gómez, J.E., Mittermeier, R., and Molur, S. 2009. Why we should aim for zero extinction. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(4):181.

Pelletier, F., Réale, D., Watters, J., Boakes, E.H., and Garant, D. 2009. Value of captive populations for quantitative genetics research. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(5):263-270.

Perhans, K., Appelgren, L., Jonsson, F., Nordin, U., Söderström, B., and Gustafsson, L. 2009. Retention patches as potential refugia for bryophytes and lichens in managed forest landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1125-1133.

Perry, G. 2009. First record of the frog Eleutherodactylus lentus in the British Virgin Islands: conservation implications of native or introduced status. Appl. Herp. 6(2):185-187.

Phil-Eze, P.O., and Okoro, I.C. 2009. Sustainable biodiversity conservation in the Niger Delta: a practical approach to conservation site selection. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1247-1257.

Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, M.L., and Meiners, S.J. 2009. Ever since Clements: from succession to vegetation dynamics and understanding to intervention. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(1):9-21.

Pino, J., Vilà, M., Álvarez, N., Seguí, J.M., and Guerrero, C. 2009. Niche breadth rather than reproductive traits explains the response of wetland monocotyledons to land-cover change. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(1):119-130.

Pinter-Wollman, N., Isbell, L.A., and Hart, L.A. 2009. Assessing translocation outcome: comparing behavioral and physiological aspects of translocated and resident African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1116-1124.

Pisanu, P.C., Gross, C.L., and Flood, L. 2009. Reproduction in wild populations of the threatened tree Macadamia tetraphylla: interpopulation pollen enriches fecundity in a declining species. Biotropica 41(3):391-398.

Planes, S., Jones, G.P., and Thorrold, S.R. 2009. Larval dispersal connects fish populations in a network of marine protected areas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(14):5693-5697.

Powell, R., and Incháustegui, S.J. 2009. Conservation of the herpetofauna of the Dominican Republic. Appl. Herp. 6(2):103-122.

Presley, S.J., Willig, M.R., Saldanha, L.N., Wunderle, J.M., and Castro-Arellano, I. 2009. Reduced-impact logging has little effect on temporal activity of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera) in lowland Amazonia. Biotropica 41(3):369-378.

Pringle, R.M., Syfert, M., Webb, J.K., and Shine, R. 2009. Quantifying historical changes in habitat availability for endangered species: use of pixel- and object-based remote sensing. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):544-553.

Pullin, A.S., and Knight, T.M. 2009. Doing more good than harm - building an evidence-base for conservation and environmental management. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):931-934.

Puschendorf, R., Carnaval, A.C., VanDerWal, J., Zumbado-Ulate, H., Chaves, G., Bolaños, F., and Alford, R.A. 2009. Distribution models for the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Costa Rica: proposing climatic refuges as a conservation tool. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):401-408.

Raes, N., Roos, M.C., Slik, J.W.F., van Loon, E.E., and ter Steege, H. 2009. Botanical richness and endemicity patterns of Borneo derived from species distribution models. Ecography 32(1):180-192.

Raeymaekers, J.A.M., Raeymaekers, D., Koizumi, I., Geldof, S., and Volckaert, F.A.M. 2009. Guidelines for restoring connectivity around water mills: a population genetic approach to the management of riverine fish. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):562-571.

Räikkönen, J., Vucetich, J.A., Peterson, R.O., and Nelson, M.P. 2009. Congenital bone deformities and the inbred wolves (Canis lupus) of Isle Royale. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1025-1031.

Rajakaruna, N., Harris, T.B., and Alexander, E.B. 2009. Serpentine geoecology of eastern North America: a review. Rhodora 111(945):21-108.

Raju, A.J.S., Ramana, K.V., and Jonathan, K.H. 2009. Anemophily, anemochory, seed predation and seedling ecology of Shorea tumbuggaia Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), an endemic and globally endangered red-listed semi-evergreen tree species. Curr. Sci. 96(6):827-833.

Ranganathan, J., Daniels, R.J.R., Chandran, M.D.S., Ehrlich, P.R., and Daily, G.C. 2009. Reply to Sridhar: Agricultural landscapes remain an essential front for biodiversity conservation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(14):E35.

Real, R., Barbosa, A.M., Rodríguez, A., García, F.J., Vargas, J.M., Palomo, L.J., and Delibes, M. 2009. Conservation biogeography of ecologically interacting species: the case of the Iberian lynx and the European rabbit. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):390-400.

Remm, K., and Remm, L. 2009. Similarity-based large-scale distribution mapping of orchids. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1629-1647.

Ricciardi, A., and Simberloff, D. 2009. Assisted colonization is not a viable conservation strategy. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(5):248-253.

Richardson, T.D., and Selby, J. 2009. Downstream intrabasin range extension for the endangered plicate rocksnail, Leptoxis plicata (Conrad) (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae). Southeast. Nat. 8(1):182-184.

Rocca, M.E. 2009. Fine-scale patchiness in fuel load can influence initial post-fire understory composition in a mixed conifer forest, Sequoia National Park, California. Nat. Areas J. 29(2):126-132.

Rödder, D., and Weinsheimer, F. 2009. Will future anthropogenic climate change increase the potential distribution of the alien invasive Cuban treefrog (Anura: Hylidae)? J. Nat. Hist. 43(19-20):1207-1217.

Rodríguez-Olarte, D., Taphorn, D.C., and Lobón-Cerviá, J. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Batrochoglanis mathisoni Fernández-Yépez 1972 (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 85(1):61-62.

Rolland, V., Barbraud, C., and Weimerskirch, H. 2009. Assessing the impact of fisheries, climate and disease on the dynamics of the Indian yellow-nosed Albatross. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1084-1095.

Rollins, L.A., Woolnough, A.P., Wilton, A.N., Sinclair, R., and Sherwin, W.B. 2009. Invasive species can't cover their tracks: using microsatellites to assist management of starling (Sturnus vulgaris) populations in Western Australia. Mol. Ecol. 18(8):1560-1573.

Rossi, G., Parolo, G., and Ulian, T. 2009. Human trampling as a threat factor for the conservation of peripheral plant populations. Plant Biosyst. 143(1):104-113.

Rowles, A.D., and O'Dowd, D.J. 2009. Impacts of the invasive Argentine ant on native ants and other invertebrates in coastal scrub in south-eastern Australia. Austral Ecol. 34(3):239-248.

Rowntree, J.K., and Ramsay, M.M. 2009. How bryophytes came out of the cold: successful cryopreservation of threatened species. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1413-1420.

Russell, J.C., Lecomte, V., Dumont, Y., and Le Corre, M. 2009. Intraguild predation and mesopredator release effect on long-lived prey. Ecol. Model. 220(8):1098-1104.

Salcido, R.P.G., Quiroz, I.A., and Ramírez, R.R. 2009. Understanding investment in biodiversity conservation in Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1421-1434.

Scalercio, S. 2009. On top of a Mediterranean Massif: climate change and conservation of orophilous moths at the southern boundary of their range (Lepidoptera: Macroheterocera). Eur. J. Entomol. 106(2):231-239.

Schierenbeck, K.A., and Ellstrand, N.C. 2009. Hybridization and the evolution of invasiveness in plants and other organisms. Biol. Invasions 11(5):1093-1105.

Shearman, P.L., Ash, J., Mackey, B., Bryan, J.E., and Lokes, B. 2009. Forest conversion and degradation in Papua New Guinea 1972-2002. Biotropica 41(3):379-390.

Shinen, J.S., Morgan, S.G., and Chan, A.L. 2009. Invasion resistance on rocky shores: direct and indirect effects of three native predators on an exotic and a native prey species. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 378:47-54.

Shokri, M.R., Gladstone, W., and Kepert, A. 2009. Annelids, arthropods or molluscs are suitable as surrogate taxa for selecting conservation reserves in estuaries. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1117-1130.

Simaika, J.P., and Samways, M.J. 2009. An easy-to-use index of ecological integrity for prioritizing freshwater sites and for assessing habitat quality. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1171-1185.

Sloop, C.M., Ayres, D.R., and Strong, D.R. 2009. The rapid evolution of self-fertility in Spartina hybrids (Spartina alterniflora × foliosa) invading San Francisco Bay, CA. Biol. Invasions 11(5):1131-1144.

Smith, B.D., Tun, M.T., Chit, A.M., Win, H., and Moe, T. 2009. Catch composition and conservation management of a human-dolphin cooperative cast-net fishery in the Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1042-1049.

Soejima, A., Yamazaki, N., Nishino, T., and Wakana, I. 2009. Genetic variation and structure of the endangered freshwater benthic alga Marimo, Aegagropila linnaei (Ulvophyceae) in Japanese lakes. Aquat. Ecol. 43(2):359-370.

Sokolow, S.H., Foley, P., Foley, J.E., Hastings, A., and Richardson, L.L. 2009. Disease dynamics in marine metapopulations: modelling infectious diseases on coral reefs. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):621-631.

Sridhar, H. 2009. Are arecanut plantations really suitable for biodiversity conservation? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(14):E34.

Stone, A.I., Lima, E.M., Aguiar, G.F.S., Camargo, C.C., Flores, T.A., Kelt, D.A., Marques-Aguiar, S.A., Queiroz, J.A.L., Ramos, R.M., and Silva, J.S. 2009. Non-volant mammalian diversity in fragments in extreme eastern Amazonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1685-1694.

Strayer, D.L. 2009. Twenty years of zebra mussels: lessons from the mollusk that made headlines. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(3):135-141.

Suding, K.N., and Hobbs, R.J. 2009. Threshold models in restoration and conservation: a developing framework. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(5):271-279.

Swatdipong, A., Vasemägi, A., Koskinen, M.T., Piironen, J., and Primmer, C.R. 2009. Unanticipated population structure of European grayling in its northern distribution: implications for conservation prioritization. Front. Zool. 6:6.

Swe, A., Jeewon, R., Pointing, S.B., and Hyde, K.D. 2009. Diversity and abundance of nematode-trapping fungi from decaying litter in terrestrial, freshwater and mangrove habitats. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1695-1714.

Székely, P., Plaiasu, R., Tudor, M., and Cogalniceanu, D. 2009. The distribution and conservation status of amphibians in Dobrudja (Romania). Turk. J. Zool. 33(2):147-156.

Tamis, W.L.M., Duistermaat, H., van Moorsel, R.C.M.J., Kruijer, J.D., and Roos, M.C. 2009. The loss and (re)appearance of vascular plant species in the Netherlands. Gorteria 33(4-6):166-185.

Tanneberger, F., Tegetmeyer, C., Dylawerski, M., Flade, M., and Joosten, H. 2009. Commercially cut reed as a new and sustainable habitat for the globally threatened Aquatic Warbler. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(6):1475-1489.

Thiere, G., Milenkovski, S., Lindgren, P.E., Sahlén, G., Berglund, O., and Weisner, S.E.B. 2009. Wetland creation in agricultural landscapes: biodiversity benefits on local and regional scales. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):964-973.

Todd, B.D., Luhring, T.M., Rothermel, B.B., and Gibbons, J.W. 2009. Effects of forest removal on amphibian migrations: implications for habitat and landscape connectivity. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):554-561.

Tugay, O., Uysal, T., and Ertugrul, K. 2009. Psephellus yusufeliensis sp. nov. from north-east Anatolia, Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 27(2):134-137.

van Kleunen, M., and Fischer, M. 2009. Release from foliar and floral fungal pathogen species does not explain the geographic spread of naturalized North American plants in Europe. J. Ecology 97(3):385-392.

van Rensburg, B.J., Levin, N., and Kark, S. 2009. Spatial congruence between ecotones and range-restricted species: implications for conservation biogeography at the sub-continental scale. Divers. Distrib. 15(3):379-389.

Vermonden, K., Leuven, R., van der Velde, G., van Katwijk, M.M., Roelofs, J.G.M., and Hendriks, A.J. 2009. Urban drainage systems: an undervalued habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1105-1115.

Viswanathan, M.B., and Manikandan, U. 2009. Teucrium ramaswamii sp. nov. (Lamiaceae) from India. Nord. J. Bot. 27(2):86-89.

Ward, E.J., Holmes, E.E., and Balcomb, K.C. 2009. Quantifying the effects of prey abundance on killer whale reproduction. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):632-640.

Wesener, T. 2009. Unexplored richness: discovery of 31 new species of Giant Pill-Millipedes endemic to Madagascar, with a special emphasis on microendemism (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida). Zootaxa 2097:3-134.

White, J., Ruesink, J.L., and Trimble, A.C. 2009. The nearly forgotten oyster: Ostrea lurida Carpenter 1864 (Olympia oyster) history and management in Washington State. J. Shellfish Res. 28(1):43-49.

Whitney, K.D., Ahern, J.R., and Campbell, L.G. 2009. Hybridization-prone plant families do not generate more invasive species. Biol. Invasions 11(5):1205-1215.

Whitten, T. 2009. Applying ecology for cave management in China and neighbouring countries. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(3):520-523.

Williams, I.D., Walsh, W.J., Claisse, J.T., Tissot, B.N., and Stamoulis, K.A. 2009. Impacts of a Hawaiian marine protected area network on the abundance and fishery sustainability of the yellow tang, Zebrasoma flavescens. Biol. Conserv. 142(5):1066-1073.

Willis, S.G., Hole, D.G., Collingham, Y.C., Hilton, G., Rahbek, C., and Huntley, B. 2009. Assessing the impacts of future climate change on protected area networks: a method to simulate individual species' responses. Environ. Manage. 43(5):836-845.

Wilsey, B.J., Teaschner, T.B., Daneshgar, P.P., Isbell, F.I., and Polley, H.W. 2009. Biodiversity maintenance mechanisms differ between native and novel exotic-dominated communities. Ecol. Lett. 12(5):432-442.

Xiang, S.A., Guo, R.Q., Wu, N., and Sun, S.C. 2009. Current status and future prospects of Zoige Marsh in Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Ecol. Eng. 35(4):553-562.

Yadav, S.R., Chandore, A.N., Nimbalkar, M.S., and Gurav, R.V. 2009. Reintroduction of Hubbardia heptaneuron Bor, a critically endangered endemic grass in Western Ghats. Curr. Sci. 96(7):880.

Yek, S.H., Willliams, S.E., Burwell, C.J., Robson, S.K.A., and Crozier, R.H. 2009. Ground dwelling ants as surrogates for establishing conservation priorities in the Australian wet tropics. J. Insect Sci. 9:12.

Zabin, C.J. 2009. Battle of the barnacle newcomers: niche compression in invading species in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 381:175-182.

Zager, I., Rodríguez-Clark, K.M., Eberhard, J.R., Rodríguez, J.P., and Millán, P.A. 2009. Nest poaching in the Venezuelan insular subspecies of the Brown-throated Parakeet (Aratinga pertinax). Ornitolog. Neotrop. 20(1):99-112.

Zalba, S.M., Sánchez, R., and Cozzani, N.C. 2009. Priorities for the conservation of an endangered grassland bird: clues from its nesting biology. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 20(1):35-46.

Zalewski, A., Piertney, S.B., Zalewska, H., and Lambin, X. 2009. Landscape barriers reduce gene flow in an invasive carnivore: geographical and local genetic structure of American mink in Scotland. Mol. Ecol. 18(8):1601-1615.

Zenner, E.K., and Peck, J.E. 2009. Maintaining a pine legacy in Itasca State Park. Nat. Areas J. 29(2):157-166.

Zeppelini, D., Bellini, B.C., Creão-Duarte, A.J., and Hernández, M. 2009. Collembola as bioindicators of restoration in mined sand dunes of Northeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(5):1161-1170.

Zhang, Z.R., Luo, L.C., Wu, D., and Zhang, Z.Y. 2009. Two genetically distinct units of Sinomanglietia glauca (Magnoliaceae) detected by chloroplast PCR-SSCP. J. Syst. Evol. 47(2):110-114.

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