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Department ofBotany

No. 298
October 2009

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In This Issue

The Weeping Goldsmith: Discoveries in the Secret Land of Myanmar

A distinguished Curator and Research Scientist at the Smithsonian Institution, W. John Kress recounts his natural history exploration over the course of nine years in the wild lands of Myanmar in search of rare, beautiful, and scientifically unknown plants in the new book The Weeping Goldsmith: Discoveries in the Secret Land of Myanmar (2009; Abbeville Press).

This book is a first-person narrative of daunting travel and scientific discovery in the little-known country of Myanmar. Kress explored many areas in this enigmatic country, surveying its teak forests, bamboo thickets, timber plantations, rivers, and mangroves to document its incredible botanical diversity. Myanmar is one of the great biodiversity "hot spots" in Asia, but because of its social isolation and reputation for political repression it has been closed to - or avoided by - many scientists. Nevertheless, Kress was determined to search for and record plants that had not been studied since they were first discovered by Western botanists over a century ago. Among the rarities he came upon was a new species of plant called "the weeping goldsmith," a ginger flower whose Burmese name was derived from the legend that the local goldsmiths were reduced to tears because none of their own creations could rival its exquisiteness.

Kress also relates how he came to appreciate the people and culture of Myanmar through an understanding of their flora, natural habitats, and human-dominated environments. Included are fascinating excerpts from his field journals that serve as counterpoints to the accounts of earlier plant explorers. Illustrating the text are some 200 of Kress's own color photographs of the incredible plants, people, landscapes, and temples he witnessed in his travels as well as 30 archival images of Burma taken by past explorers. The back matter features an illustrated portfolio of representative native plants.

This lively armchair exploration should appeal to a general readership as well as to botanists, conservationists, and environmentalists.


The Smithsonian's Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability and the George Mason Center for Conservation Studies are offering a graduate and professional course, Effective Conservation Leadership, to be held at the Conservation and Research Center, Front Royal, Virginia, on January 3-13, 2010. In the course, conservation practitioners as well as students at the outset of their careers will become more effective leaders and managers through case studies and hands-on exploration of the leadership skills practiced in many professional fields. The curriculum includes: cross-cultural learning and team building, program planning and management, conflict resolution and negotiation, cross-disciplinary skills for multi-stakeholder conservation processes, networking and communication skills, fundraising and grant-writing techniques, and development of a personal leadership plan. The course fee is $2,500, which includes instruction and course materials as well as all meals, lodging, and transportation to/from Dulles Airport (IAD). All other travel costs are the participant's responsibility. Course participants who seek credit through George Mason University must meet Mason graduate admissions standards and complete additional project-focused coursework. Out-of-state participants pay additional tuition to receive credit. Contact for additional information.

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Kress, W.J. 2009. The Weeping Goldsmith: Discoveries in the Secret Land of Myanmar. Abbeville Press. New York. 288 pp.

Kress, W.J., and Betancur, J. 2009. A new species of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) from the Choco Region of Colombia. Caldasia 31(1):99-104.

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Lehmann, P., Montoya-López, A.F., and Botero, M. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Salminus affinis Steindachner, 1880 (Characidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 85(4):285-286.

Letnic, M., Crowther, M.S., and Koch, F. 2009. Does a top-predator provide an endangered rodent with refuge from an invasive mesopredator? Anim. Conserv. 12(4):302-312.

Levick, S.R., Asner, G.P., Kennedy-Bowdoin, T., and Knapp, D.E. 2009. The relative influence of fire and herbivory on savanna three-dimensional vegetation structure. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1693-1700.

Levin, P.S., Kaplan, I., Grober-Dunsmore, R., Chittaro, P.M., Oyamada, S., Andrews, K., and Mangel, M. 2009. A framework for assessing the biodiversity and fishery aspects of marine reserves. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(4):735-742.

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Liukkonen, T., Mykrä, S., Bisi, J., and Kurki, S. 2009. Conflicts and compromises in lynx Lynx lynx conservation and management in Finland. Wildlife Biol. 15(2):165-174.

Longcore, T., Rich, C., and Sullivan, L.M. 2009. Critical assessment of claims regarding management of feral cats by trap-neuter-return. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):887-894.

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Magnuson-Ford, K., Ingram, T., Redding, D.W., and Mooers, A.Ø. 2009. Rockfish (Sebastes) that are evolutionarily isolated are also large, morphologically distinctive and vulnerable to overfishing. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1787-1796.

Malmstrom, C.M., Butterfield, H.S., Barber, C., Dieter, B., Harrison, R., Qi, J.Q., Riaño, D., Schrotenboer, A., Stone, S., Stoner, C.J., and Wirka, J. 2009. Using remote sensing to evaluate the influence of grassland restoration activities on ecosystem forage provisioning services. Restor. Ecol. 17(4):526-538.

Manconi, R., Ledda, F.D., Serusi, A., Corso, G., and Stocchino, G.A. 2009. Sponges of marine caves: notes on the status of the Mediterranean palaeoendemic Petrobiona massiliana (Porifera: Calcarea: Lithonida) with new records from Sardinia. Italian J. Zool. 76(3):306-315.

Mann, C.C. 2009. Addicted to rubber. Science 325(5940):564-566.

Manolis, J.C., Chan, K.M., Finkelstein, M.E., Stephens, S., Nelson, C.R., Grant, J.B., and Dombeck, M.P. 2009. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):879-886.

Maran, T., Põdra, M., Põlma, M., and Macdonald, D.W. 2009. The survival of captive-born animals in restoration programmes - case study of the endangered European mink Mustela lutreola. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1685-1692.

Matisoo-Smith, E., and Robins, J. 2009. Mitochondrial DNA evidence for the spread of Pacific rats through Oceania. Biol. Invasions 11(7):1521-1527.

McEwan, R.W., Birchfield, M.K., Schoergendorfer, A., and Arthur, M.A. 2009. Leaf phenology and freeze tolerance of the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle and potential native competitors. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136(2):212-220.

McKibben, B. 2009. Surviving climate change through mitigation and adaptation. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):796.

McNeely, J.A., Kapoor-Vijay, P., Zhi, L., Olsvig-Whittaker, L., Sheikh, K.M., and Smith, A.T. 2009. Conservation biology in Asia: the major policy challenges. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):805-810.

Meador, M.R., and Carlisle, D.M. 2009. Predictive models for fish assemblages in eastern U.S. streams: implications for assessing biodiversity. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 138(4):725-740.

Meuser, E., Harshaw, H.W., and Mooers, A.Ø. 2009. Public preference for endemism over other conservation-related species attributes. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):1041-1046.

Meyer, J.Y., and Butaud, J.F. 2009. The impacts of rats on the endangered native flora of French Polynesia (Pacific Islands): drivers of plant extinction or coup de grâce species? Biol. Invasions 11(7):1569-1585.

Moilanen, A., van Teeffelen, A.J.A., Ben-Haim, Y., and Ferrier, S. 2009. How much compensation is enough? A framework for incorporating uncertainty and time discounting when calculating offset ratios for impacted habitat. Restor. Ecol. 17(4):470-478.

Molloy, P.P., McLean, I.B., and Côté, I.M. 2009. Effects of marine reserve age on fish populations: a global meta-analysis. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(4):743-751.

Moorman, M.C., Eggleston, D.B., Anderson, C.B., Mansilla, A., and Szejner, P. 2009. Implications of beaver Castor canadensis and trout introductions on native fish in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 138(2):306-313.

Mordecai, R.S., Cooper, R.J., and Justicia, R. 2009. A threshold response to habitat disturbance by forest birds in the Choco Andean corridor, Northwest Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(9):2421-2431.

Mulder, C.P.H., Grant-Hoffman, M.N., Towns, D.R., Bellingham, P.J., Wardle, D.A., Durrett, M.S., Fukami, T., and Bonner, K.I. 2009. Direct and indirect effects of rats: does rat eradication restore ecosystem functioning of New Zealand seabird islands? Biol. Invasions 11(7):1671-1688.

Muriel, S.B., and Kattan, G.H. 2009. Effects of patch size and type of coffee matrix on ithomiine butterfly diversity and dispersal in cloud-forest fragments. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):948-956.

Neff, K.P., Rusello, K., and Baldwin, A.H. 2009. Rapid seed bank development in restored tidal freshwater wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 17(4):539-548.

Nel, J.L., Reyers, B., Roux, D.J., and Cowlingc, R.M. 2009. Expanding protected areas beyond their terrestrial comfort zone: identifying spatial options for river conservation. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1605-1616.

Normile, D. 2009. Bringing coral reefs back from the living dead. Science 325(5940):559-561.

Normile, D. 2009. Restoring a ‘biological desert’ on Borneo. Science 325(5940):557.

Norton, D.A. 2009. Species invasions and the limits to restoration: learning from the New Zealand experience. Science 325(5940):569-571.

Noss, R.F., Fleishman, E., Dellasala, D.A., Fitzgerald, J.M., Gross, M.R., Main, M.B., Nagle, F., O'Malley, S.L., and Rosales, J. 2009. Priorities for improving the scientific foundation of conservation policy in North America. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):825-833.

Nuzzo, V.A., Maerz, J.C., and Blossey, B. 2009. Earthworm invasion as the driving force behind plant invasion and community change in northeastern North American forests. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):966-974.

O'Brien, J., Devillard, S., Say, L., Vanthomme, H., Léger, F., Ruette, S., and Pontier, D. 2009. Preserving genetic integrity in a hybridising world: are European Wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris) in eastern France distinct from sympatric feral domestic cats? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(9):2351-2360.

Ogden, J., and Gilbert, J. 2009. Prospects for the eradication of rats from a large inhabited island: community based ecosystem studies on Great Barrier Island, New Zealand. Biol. Invasions 11(7):1705-1717.

Olea, P.P., and Mateo-Tomás, P. 2009. The role of traditional farming practices in ecosystem conservation: the case of transhumance and vultures. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1844-1853.

Olsson, K., Stenroth, P., Nyström, P., and Granéli, W. 2009. Invasions and niche width: does niche width of an introduced crayfish differ from a native crayfish? Freshwater Biol. 54(8):1731-1740.

Oprea, M., Mendes, P., Vieira, T.B., and Ditchfield, A.D. 2009. Do wooded streets provide connectivity for bats in an urban landscape? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(9):2361-2371.

Oro, D., Pérez-Rodríguez, A., Martínez-Vilalta, A., Bertolero, A., Vidal, F., and Genovart, M. 2009. Interference competition in a threatened seabird community: a paradox for a successful conservation. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1830-1835.

Orr, D.W. 2009. Baggage: the case for climate mitigation. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):790-793.

Oswald, K.J., Rohde, F.C., Arndt, R.G., Grady, J.M., and Quattro, J.M. 2009. Evolutionarily independent genes and genomes and insights on genetic structure, evolution and conservation of the collis group of darters. Anim. Conserv. 12(4):374-383.

Palmer, M.A., and Filoso, S. 2009. Restoration of ecosystem services for environmental markets. Science 325(5940):575-576.

Papanastasis, V.P. 2009. Restoration of degraded grazing lands through grazing management: can it work? Restor. Ecol. 17(4):441-445.

Paquin, P., and Vink, C.J. 2009. Testing compatibility between molecular and morphological techniques for arthropod systematics: a minimally destructive DNA extraction method that preserves morphological integrity, and the effect of lactic acid on DNA quality. J. Insect Conserv. 13(4):453-457.

Parry, L., Barlow, J., and Peres, C.A. 2009. Allocation of hunting effort by Amazonian smallholders: implications for conserving wildlife in mixed-use landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1777-1786.

Peng, S.L., Hou, Y.P., and Chen, B.M. 2009. Vegetation restoration and its effects on carbon balance in Guangdong Province, China. Restor. Ecol. 17(4):487-494.

Perry, G., and Vice, D. 2009. Forecasting the risk of brown tree snake dispersal from Guam: a mixed transport-establishment model. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):992-1000.

Petit, S., Jusaitis, M., and Bickerton, D. 2009. Effect of pollen load, self-pollination and plant size on seeds and germination in the endangered pink-lipped spider orchid, Caladenia behrii. Aust. J. Bot. 57(4):307-314.

Phillips, R.D., Backhouse, G., Brown, A.P., and Hopper, S.D. 2009. Biogeography of Caladenia (Orchidaceae), with special reference to the South-west Australian Floristic Region. Aust. J. Bot. 57(4):259-275.

Phillips, R.D., Faast, R., Bower, C.C., Brown, G.R., and Peakall, R. 2009. Implications of pollination by food and sexual deception for pollinator specificity, fruit set, population genetics and conservation of Caladenia (Orchidaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 57(4):287-306.

Pinna, S., Varady-Szabo, H., Boivin, P., and Lucas, E. 2009. Relevance of using a vegetation-based method to conserve urban carabid diversity. J. Insect Conserv. 13(4):387-397.

Potts, J.B., and Stephens, S.L. 2009. Invasive and native plant responses to shrubland fuel reduction: comparing prescribed fire, mastication, and treatment season. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1657-1664.

Pratt, T.C., O'Connor, L.M., Hallett, A.G., McLaughlin, R.L., Katopodis, C., Hayes, D.B., and Bergstedt, R.A. 2009. Balancing aquatic habitat fragmentation and control of invasive species: enhancing selective fish passage at sea lamprey control barriers. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 138(3):652-665.

Prebble, M., and Wilmshurst, J.M. 2009. Detecting the initial impact of humans and introduced species on island environments in Remote Oceania using palaeoecology. Biol. Invasions 11(7):1529-1556.

Prowse, T.D., Furgal, C., Wrona, F.J., and Reist, J.D. 2009. Implications of climate change for northern Canada: freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Ambio 38(5):282-289.

Pullin, A.S., Báldi, A., Can, O.E., Dieterich, M., Kati, V., Livoreil, B., Lövei, G., Mihók, B., Nevin, O., Selva, N., and Sousa-Pinto, I. 2009. Conservation focus on Europe: major conservation policy issues that need to be informed by conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):818-824.

Ranjbar, M. 2009. Astragalus sect. Trachycercis (Fabaceae) in Iran. Nord. J. Bot. 27(4):328-335.

Redford, K.H., and Adams, W.M. 2009. Payment for ecosystem services and the challenge of saving nature. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):785-787.

Riggins, J.J., Davis, C.A., and Hoback, W.W. 2009. Biodiversity of belowground invertebrates as an indicator of wet meadow restoration success (Platte River, Nebraska). Restor. Ecol. 17(4):495-505.

Roberts, L., Stone, R., and Sugden, A. 2009. The rise of restoration ecology. Science 325(5940):555.

Robinson, W.D. 2009. Avian reproductive failure in tropical forest fragments. Anim. Conserv. 12(4):276-278.

Robison, B.H. 2009. Conservation of deep pelagic biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):847-858.

Rodríguez, J.P. 2009. Priorities for policy-relevant conservation research: a view from SCB regional sections - introduction. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):797-798.

Romagosa, C.M., Guyer, C., and Wooten, M.C. 2009. Contribution of the live-vertebrate trade toward taxonomic homogenization. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):1001-1007.

Roslin, T., Avomaa, T., Leonard, M., Luoto, M., and Ovaskainen, O. 2009. Some like it hot: microclimatic variation affects the abundance and movements of a critically endangered dung beetle. Insect Conserv. Divers. 2(3):232-241.

Roura-Pascual, N., Richardson, D.M., Krug, R.M., Brown, A., Chapman, R.A., Forsyth, G.G., Le Maitre, D.C., Robertson, M.P., Stafford, L., Van Wilgen, B.W., Wannenburgh, A., and Wessels, N. 2009. Ecology and management of alien plant invasions in South African fynbos: accommodating key complexities in objective decision making. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1595-1604.

Ruffino, L., Bourgeois, K., Vidal, E., Duhem, C., Paracuellos, M., Escribano, F., Sposimo, P., Baccetti, N., Pascal, M., and Oro, D. 2009. Invasive rats and seabirds after 2,000 years of an unwanted coexistence on Mediterranean islands. Biol. Invasions 11(7):1631-1651.

Russell, J.C., Abdelkrim, J., and Fewster, R.M. 2009. Early colonisation population structure of a Norway rat island invasion. Biol. Invasions 11(7):1557-1567.

Saha, H.K., and Haldar, P. 2009. Acridids as indicators of disturbance in dry deciduous forest of West Bengal in India. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(9):2343-2350.

Sayre, N.F. 2009. Bad abstractions: response to Sullivan. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):1050-1052.

Schlicht, D., Swengel, A., and Swengel, S. 2009. Meta-analysis of survey data to assess trends of prairie butterflies in Minnesota, USA during 1979-2005. J. Insect Conserv. 13(4):429-447.

Seddon, P.J., Armstrong, D.P., Soorae, P., Launay, F., Walker, S., Ruiz-Miranda, C.R., Molur, S., Koldewey, H., and Kleiman, D.G. 2009. The risks of assisted colonization. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):788-789.

Semeniuk, C.A.D., Bourgeon, S., Smith, S.L., and Rothley, K.D. 2009. Hematological differences between stingrays at tourist and non-visited sites suggest physiological costs of wildlife tourism. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1818-1829.

Simberloff, D. 2009. Rats are not the only introduced rodents producing ecosystem impacts on islands. Biol. Invasions 11(7):1735-1742.

Sodhi, N.S. 2009. Forest fragmentation positively affecting forest birds? Anim. Conserv. 12(4):282-283.

Soliva, R., and Hunziker, M. 2009. How do biodiversity and conservation values relate to landscape preferences? A case study from the Swiss Alps. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(9):2483-2507.

Spanhove, T., Lehouck, V., Boets, P., and Lens, L. 2009. Forest fragmentation relaxes natural nest predation in an Afromontane forest. Anim. Conserv. 12(4):267-275.

Spanhove, T., Lehouck, V., and Lens, L. 2009. Edge effects on avian nest predation: the quest for a conceptual framework. Anim. Conserv. 12(4):284-286.

Stefenon, V.M., Steiner, N., Guerra, M.P., and Nodari, R.O. 2009. Integrating approaches towards the conservation of forest genetic resources: a case study of Araucaria angustifolia. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(9):2433-2448.

Stephenson, E.H., Steneck, R.S., and Seeley, R.H. 2009. Possible temperature limits to range expansion of non-native Asian shore crabs in Maine. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 375(1-2):21-31.

Ström, L., Hylander, K., and Dynesius, M. 2009. Different long-term and short-term responses of land snails to clear-cutting of boreal stream-side forests. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1580-1587.

Stone, R. 2009. Nursing China's ailing forests back to health. Science 325(5940):556-558.

Strubbe, D., and Matthysen, E. 2009. Experimental evidence for nest-site competition between invasive ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) and native nuthatches (Sitta europaea). Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1588-1594.

Suárez, E., Morales, M., Cueva, R., Bucheli, V.U., Zapata-Ríos, G., Toral, E., Torres, J., Prado, W., and Olalla, J.V. 2009. Oil industry, wild meat trade and roads: indirect effects of oil extraction activities in a protected area in north-eastern Ecuador. Anim. Conserv. 12(4):364-373.

Sugiura, S., Tsuru, T., Yamaura, Y., and Makihara, H. 2009. Small off-shore islands can serve as important refuges for endemic beetle conservation. J. Insect Conserv. 13(4):377-385.

Sullivan, B.K. 2009. The greening of public lands grazing in the southwestern USA. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):1047-1049.

Suutari, E., Salmela, J., Paasivirta, L., Rantala, M.J., Tynkkynen, K., Luojumäki, M., and Suhonen, J. 2009. Macroarthropod species richness and conservation priorities in Stratiotes aloides (L.) lakes. J. Insect Conserv. 13(4):413-419.

Tallamy, D.W., and Shropshire, K.J. 2009. Ranking lepidopteran use of native versus introduced plants. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):941-947.

Thomas, S.L., Wagner, R.G., and Halteman, W.A. 2009. Influence of harvest gaps and coarse woody material on click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in Maine's Acadian forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(9):2405-2419.

Towns, D.R. 2009. Eradications as reverse invasions: lessons from Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) removals on New Zealand islands. Biol. Invasions 11(7):1719-1733.

Tóth, S.F., Haight, R.G., Snyder, S.A., George, S., Miller, J.R., Gregory, M.S., and Skibbe, A.M. 2009. Reserve selection with minimum contiguous area restrictions: an application to open space protection planning in suburban Chicago. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1617-1627.

Traveset, A., Nogales, M., Alcover, J.A., Delgado, J.D., López-Darias, M., Godoy, D., Igual, J.M., and Bover, P. 2009. A review on the effects of alien rodents in the Balearic (Western Mediterranean Sea) and Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). Biol. Invasions 11(7):1653-1670.

Tremblay, R.L., Perez, M.E., Larcombe, M., Brown, A., Quarmby, J., Bickerton, D., French, G., and Bould, A. 2009. Population dynamics of Caladenia: Bayesian estimates of transition and extinction probabilities. Aust. J. Bot. 57(4):351-360.

Tripp, S.J., Colombo, R.E., and Garvey, J.E. 2009. Declining recruitment and growth of shovelnose sturgeon in the middle Mississippi River: implications for conservation. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 138(2):416-422.

Valdovinos, F.S., Chiappa, E., and Simonetti, J.A. 2009. Nestedness of bee assemblages in an endemic South American forest: the role of pine matrix and small fragments. J. Insect Conserv. 13(4):449-452.

Valdovinos, F.S., Ramos-Jiliberto, R., Flores, J.D., Espinoza, C., and López, G. 2009. Structure and dynamics of pollination networks: the role of alien plants. Oikos 118(8):1190-1200.

Vall-Ilosera, M., and Sol, D. 2009. A global risk assessment for the success of bird introductions. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(4):787-795.

Van De Wiel, C.C.M., Van Der Schoot, J., Van Valkenburg, J., Duistermaat, H., and Smulders, M.J.M. 2009. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive plant species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives. Mol. Ecol. Resour. 9(4):1086-1091.

Van Dyck, H., Van Strien, A.J., Maes, D., and Van Swaay, C.A.M. 2009. Declines in common, widespread butterflies in a landscape under intense human use. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):957-965.

Vieira, D.L.M., Holl, K.D., and Peneireiro, F.M. 2009. Agro-successional restoration as a strategy to facilitate tropical forest recovery. Restor. Ecol. 17(4):451-459.

Wakamiya, S.M., and Roy, C.L. 2009. Use of monitoring data and population viability analysis to inform reintroduction decisions: Peregrine falcons in the Midwestern United States. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1767-1776.

Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Feeley, K.J., Jiang, P., and Ding, P. 2009. Life-history traits associated with fragmentation vulnerability of lizards in the Thousand Island Lake, China. Anim. Conserv. 12(4):329-337.

Wang, Y.P., Siefferman, L., Wang, Y.J., Ding, T.S., Chiou, C.R., Shieh, B.S., Hsu, F.S., and Yuan, H.W. 2009. Nest site restoration increases the breeding density of blue-tailed bee-eaters. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1748-1753.

Wanless, R.M., Ryan, P.G., Altwegg, R., Angel, A., Cooper, J., Cuthbert, R., and Hilton, G.M. 2009. From both sides: dire demographic consequences of carnivorous mice and longlining for the Critically Endangered Tristan albatrosses on Gough Island. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1710-1718.

Warkentin, I.G., Bickford, D., Sodhi, N.S., and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2009. Eating frogs to extinction. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):1056-1059.

Waycott, M., Duarte, C.M., Carruthers, T.J.B., Orth, R.J., Dennison, W.C., Olyarnik, S., Calladine, A., Fourqurean, J.W., Heck, K.L., Hughes, A.R., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., Short, F.T., and Williams, S.L. 2009. Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(30):12377-12381.

West, E.J., Davis, A.R., Barnes, P.B., and Wright, J.T. 2009. The role of recreational activities in creating fragments of invasive Caulerpa taxifolia. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 376(1):17-25.

Wiersma, Y.F., and Nudds, T.D. 2009. Efficiency and effectiveness in representative reserve design in Canada: the contribution of existing protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1639-1646.

Williams, P., Colla, S., and Xie, Z.H. 2009. Bumblebee vulnerability: common correlates of winners and losers across three continents. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):931-940.

Wilson, D.S., Stoddard, M.A., Betts, M.G., and Puettmann, K.J. 2009. Bayesian small area models for assessing wildlife conservation risk in patchy populations. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):982-991.

Wilson, E.E., Mullen, L.M., and Holway, D.A. 2009. Life history plasticity magnifies the ecological effects of a social wasp invasion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(31):12809-12813.

Wilson, L.J., McSorley, C.A., Gray, C.M., Dean, B.J., Dunn, T.E., Webb, A., and Reid, J.B. 2009. Radio-telemetry as a tool to define protected areas for seabirds in the marine environment. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1808-1817.

Winfree, R., Aguilar, R., Vázquez, D.P., LeBuhn, G., and Aizen, M.A. 2009. A meta-analysis of bees' responses to anthropogenic disturbance. Ecology 90(8):2068-2076.

Witt, M.J., Baert, B., Broderick, A.C., Formia, A., Fretey, J., Gibudi, A., Mounguengui, G.A.M., Moussounda, C., Ngouessono, S., Parnell, R.J., Roumet, D., Sounguet, G.P., Verhage, B., Zogo, A., and Godley, B.J. 2009. Aerial surveying of the world's largest leatherback turtle rookery: a more effective methodology for large-scale monitoring. Biol. Conserv. 142(8):1719-1727.

Worm, B., Hilborn, R., Baum, J.K., Branch, T.A., Collie, J.S., Costello, C., Fogarty, M.J., Fulton, E.A., Hutchings, J.A., Jennings, S., Jensen, O.P., Lotze, H.K., Mace, P.M., McClanahan, T.R., Minto, C., Palumbi, S.R., Parma, A.M., Ricard, D., Rosenberg, A.A., Watson, R., and Zeller, D. 2009. Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325(5940):578-585.

Wright, M., Cross, R., Dixon, K., Huynh, T., Lawrie, A., Nesbitt, L., Pritchard, A., Swarts, N., and Thomson, R. 2009. Propagation and reintroduction of Caladenia. Aust. J. Bot. 57(4):373-387.

Xavier, R., Santos, A.M., Lima, F.P., and Branco, M. 2009. Invasion or invisibility: using genetic and distributional data to investigate the alien or indigenous status of the Atlantic populations of the peracarid isopod, Stenosoma nadejda (Rezig 1989). Mol. Ecol. 18(15):3283-3290.

Zachos, F.E., Hajji, G.M., Hmwe, S.S., Hartl, G.B., Lorenzini, R., and Mattioli, S. 2009. Population viability analysis and genetic diversity of the endangered red deer Cervus elaphus population from Mesola, Italy. Wildlife Biol. 15(2):175-186.

Zidon, R., Saltz, D., Shore, L.S., and Motro, U. 2009. Behavioral changes, stress, and survival following reintroduction of Persian fallow deer from two breeding facilities. Conserv. Biol. 23(4):1026-1035.

Zizka, G., Schmidt, M., Schulte, K., Novoa, P., Pinto, R., and König, K. 2009. Chilean Bromeliaceae: diversity, distribution and evaluation of conservation status. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(9):2449-2471.

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