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Department ofBotany

No. 299
November 2009

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In This Issue

Losing Paradise? Endangered Plants Here and Around the World

The traveling exhibition "Losing Paradise? Endangered Plants Here and Around the World" opened in October in the Ridgway Gallery of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. Featuring 44 botanical artworks of endangered plants, the exhibition was curated by the American Society of Botanical Artists (ASBA), and developed in collaboration with the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH). Technical assistance was provided by the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC), based in St. Louis. A dozen artworks portray subjects in CPC's National Collection of Endangered Plants. The exhibition and accompanying book are the result of a three-year project undertaken by artists from the U.S., including NMNH artist Alice Tangerini, and others from around the world, all members of the ASBA.

Seeking to draw attention to today's at-risk plants, artists documented endangered plants in botanical gardens, in the field, and in horticultural collections. About half of the plants represented are North American, and half are from around the world, including those with such fascinating stories as that of the Wollemi pine, thought to be extinct for 2 million years but found in a remote Australian canyon, and Phragmipedium kovachii, a stunning violet slipper orchid discovered in 2002 in the Peruvian rainforest. American rarities include the Midwestern lakeside daisy, with only two natural colonies remaining in the U.S., the Everglades "ghost orchid," a rare white poppy from the Mojave Desert in Utah, and California's coastal Santa Cruz cypress, all listed as Federally Endangered or Threatened.

Peter H. Raven, President of Missouri Botanical Garden, wrote the introduction to the book accompanying the exhibition, and Prof. Sir Peter Crane FRS contributed an essay on botanical art. Essays by Kathryn Kennedy, President of the Center for Plant Conservation; Gary Krupnick, Head of the Plant Conservation Unit at NMNH; and James Miller, Dean and Vice-President for Science, New York Botanical Garden are also featured.

Each artwork in the book is accompanied by the story behind the plant's endangerment and how the artist went about finding and capturing it artistically. Artists with works in the show are from the U.S., Australia, Brazil, Israel, South Korea, South Africa, and the U.K. Some of the world's most well-known botanical artists are included, as are some relative newcomers to the field.

From Missouri Botanical Garden, where it remains on view through November 15, the exhibition will travel to Chicago Botanic Garden (January 16 - April 4, 2010); The New York Botanical Garden (May 6 - July 25, 2010); and to the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (August 14 - Dececember 10, 2010).

Current Literature

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Can, Ö.E., and Togan, I. 2009. Camera trapping of large mammals in Yenice Forest, Turkey: local information versus camera traps. Oryx 43(3):427-430.

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Ceriani, R.M., Pierce, S., and Cerabolini, B. 2009. The survival strategy of the alpine endemic Primula glaucescens is fundamentally unchanged throughout its climate envelope despite superficial phenotypic variability. Plant Ecol. 204(1):1-10.

Child, M.F. 2009. Two cultures of conservation. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1071-1072.

Chung, M.Y. 2009. Low levels of genetic variation within populations of the four rare orchids Gymnadenia cucullata, Gymnadenia camtschatica, Amitostigma gracile, and Pogonia minor in South Korea: indication of genetic drift and implications for conservation. Plant Syst. Evol. 281(1-4):65-76.

Clark, C.J., Poulsen, J.R., Malonga, R., and Elkan, P.W. 2009. Logging concessions can extend the conservation estate for Central African tropical forests. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1281-1293.

Cohen, I.M., and Ackerman, J.D. 2009. Oeceoclades maculata, an alien tropical orchid in a Caribbean rainforest. Ann. Botany 104(3):557-563.

Colding, J., Lundberg, J., Lundberg, S., and Andersson, E. 2009. Golf courses and wetland fauna. Ecol. Appl. 19(6):1481-1491.

Copsey, J.A., Jones, J.P.G., Andrianandrasana, H., Rajaonarison, L.H., and Fa, J.E. 2009. Burning to fish: local explanations for wetland burning in Lac Alaotra, Madagascar. Oryx 43(3):403-406.

Costea, M., and Stefanoviæ, S. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of the Cuscuta californica complex (Convolvulaceae) and a new species from New Mexico and trans-Pecos. Syst. Bot. 34(3):570-579.

Costello, M.J. 2009. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1672):3385-3394.

Cuello, M.E., Perotti, M.G., and Iglesias, G.J. 2009. Dramatic decline and range contraction of the Endangered Patagonian frog Atelognathus patagonicus (Anura, Leptodactylidae). Oryx 43(3):443-446.

Darst, C.R., Huffman, K.A., and Jarvis, J. 2009. Conservation significance of America's newest system of protected areas: national landscape conservation system. Nat. Areas J. 29(3):224-254.

de Melo, J.G., de Amorim, E.L.C., and de Albuquerque, U.P. 2009. Native medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil - priorities for conservation. Environ. Monit. Assess. 156(1-4):567-580.

Della Bella, V., and Mancini, L. 2009. Freshwater diatom and macroinvertebrate diversity of coastal permanent ponds along a gradient of human impact in a Mediterranean eco-region. Hydrobiologia 634(1):25-41.

Devey, D.S., Bateman, R.M., Fay, M.F., and Hawkins, J.A. 2009. Genetic structure and systematic relationships within the Ophrys fuciflora aggregate (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae): high diversity in Kent and a wind-induced discontinuity bisecting the Adriatic. Ann. Botany 104(3):483-495.

Dijkstra, J.A., and Harris, L.G. 2009. Maintenance of diversity altered by a shift in dominant species: implications for species coexistence. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 387:71-80.

Dixo, M., and Metzger, J.P. 2009. Are corridors, fragment size and forest structure important for the conservation of leaf-litter lizards in a fragmented landscape? Oryx 43(3):435-442.

Dover, J.W., Dennis, R.L.H., and Atkins, L. 2009. The western jewel butterfly (Hypochrysops halyaetus: Lycaenidae) II: factors affecting oviposition within native Banksia bushland in an urban setting. J. Insect Conserv. 13(5):487-503.

Dubois, A. 2009. Endangered species and endangered knowledge. Zootaxa 2201:26-29.

Dunk, J.R., and Hawley, J.J.V.G. 2009. Red-tree vole habitat suitability modeling: implications for conservation and management. Forest Ecol. Manag. 258(5):626-634.

Dunn, R.R., Harris, N.C., Colwell, R.K., Koh, L.P., and Sodhi, N.S. 2009. The sixth mass coextinction: are most endangered species parasites and mutualists? Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1670):3037-3045.

Dutra, D., Kane, M.E., Adams, C.R., and Richardson, L. 2009. Reproductive biology of Cyrtopodium punctatum in situ: implications for conservation of an endangered Florida orchid. Plant Species Biol. 24(2):92-103.

Elzinga, J.A., and Bernasconi, G. 2009. Enhanced frugivory on invasive Silene latifolia in its native range due to increased oviposition. J. Ecology 97(5):1010-1019.

Essl, F., and Kobler, J. 2009. Spiny invaders - patterns and determinants of cacti invasion in Europe. Flora 204(7):485-494.

Fay, M.F., and Chase, M.W. 2009. Orchid biology: from Linnaeus via Darwin to the 21st century. Ann. Botany 104(3):359-364.

Feng, T.T., van Manen, F.T., Zhao, N.X., Li, M., and Wei, F.W. 2009. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling mountain region of China. J. Wildlife Manag. 73(6):852-858.

Finn, D.S., Bogan, M.T., and Lytle, D.A. 2009. Demographic stability metrics for conservation prioritization of isolated populations. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1185-1194.

Fisher, B., Balmford, A., Green, R.E., and Trevelyan, R. 2009. Conservation science training: the need for an extra dimension. Oryx 43(3):361-363.

Fisher, B., Bolt, K., Bradbury, R.B., Gardner, T.A., Green, J.M.H., Hole, D.G., and Naidoo, R. 2009. Two cultures of conservation. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1069-1071.

Fleishman, E., and Murphy, D.D. 2009. A realistic assessment of the indicator potential of butterflies and other charismatic taxonomic groups. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1109-1116.

Forister, M.L. 2009. Anthropogenic islands in the arid west: comparing the richness and diversity of insect communities in cultivated fields and neighboring wildlands. Environ. Entomol. 38(4):1028-1037.

Frajman, B., and Schneeweiss, G.M. 2009. A campanulaceous fate: the Albanian stenoendemic Asyneuma comosiforme in fact belongs to isophyllous Campanula. Syst. Bot. 34(3):595-601.

Franken, K.M., Coons, J.M., Owen, H.R., Smith, E.L., and Ebinger, J.E. 2009. Influence of reproductive and environmental factors on population size of wild hyacinth [Camassia angusta (Engelm. and A. Gray) Blank. (Liliaceae)], an Illinois endangered species. Castanea 74(2):114-122.

Franks, A.J., Yates, C.J., and Hobbs, R.J. 2009. Defining plant functional groups to guide rare plant management. Plant Ecol. 204(2):207-216.

Fujita, G., Totsu, K., Shibata, E., Matsuoka, Y., Morita, H., Kitamura, W., Kuramoto, N., Masuda, N., and Higuchi, H. 2009. Habitat management of little terns in Japan's highly developed landscape. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1891-1898.

Fulgione, D., Maselli, V., Pavarese, G., Rippa, D., and Rastogi, R.K. 2009. Landscape fragmentation and habitat suitability in endangered Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus) and European hare (Lepus europaeus) populations. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 55(4):385-396.

Gaertner, M., Den Breeyen, A., Hui, C., and Richardson, D.M. 2009. Impacts of alien plant invasions on species richness in Mediterranean-type ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Prog. Phys. Geog. 33(3):319-338.

Gargano, D., Gullo, T., and Bernardo, L. 2009. Do inefficient selfing and inbreeding depression challenge the persistence of the rare Dianthus guliae Janka (Caryophyllaceae)? Influence of reproductive traits on a plant's proneness to extinction. Plant Species Biol. 24(2):69-76.

Gibson, D.J., Delong, M., Chandy, S., and Honu, Y.A.K. 2009. Reproductive challenges of a rare grass, Calamagrostis porteri subsp. insperata (Swallen) C. Greene: implications for habitat restoration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(3):316-327.

Gleason, M., Cook, C., Bell, M., and Feller, E. 2009. Are we missing the boat? Collaborative solutions for North American fish wars. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1065-1067.

Golden, C.D. 2009. Bushmeat hunting and use in the Makira Forest north-eastern Madagascar: a conservation and livelihoods issue. Oryx 43(3):386-392.

Greenwald, K.R., Gibbs, H.L., and Waite, T.A. 2009. Efficacy of land-cover models in predicting isolation of marbled salamander populations in a fragmented landscape. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1232-1241.

Grey-Ross, R., Downs, C.T., and Kirkman, K. 2009. Is use of translocation for the conservation of subpopulations of oribi Ourebia ourebi (Zimmermann) effective? A case study. Afr. J. Ecol. 47(3):409-415.

Grouios, C.P., and Manne, L.L. 2009. Utility of measuring abundance versus consistent occupancy in predicting biodiversity persistence. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1260-1269.

Grueter, C.C., Jiang, X.L., Konrad, R., Fan, P.F., Guan, Z.H., and Geissmann, T. 2009. Are Hylobates lar extirpated from China? Int. J. Primatol. 30(4):553-567.

Hanson, C.T., Odion, D.C., Dellasala, D.A., and Baker, W.L. 2009. Overestimation of fire risk in the northern spotted owl recovery plan. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1314-1319.

Harmon-Threatt, A.N., Burns, J.H., Shemyakina, L.A., and Knight, T.M. 2009. Breeding system and pollination ecology of introduced plants compared to their native relatives. Am. J. Bot. 96(8):1544-1550.

Hausser, Y., Weber, H., and Meyer, B. 2009. Bees, farmers, tourists and hunters: conflict dynamics around Western Tanzania protected areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2679-2703.

Hawkins, T.S., Skojac, D.A., Lockhart, B.R., Leininger, T.D., Devall, M.S., and Schiff, N.M. 2009. Bottomland forests in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley associated with the endangered Lindera melissifolia. Castanea 74(2):105-113.

Hayes, M.A. 2009. Into the field: naturalistic education and the future of conservation. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1075-1079.

Hazelton, P.D., and Grossman, G.D. 2009. Turbidity, velocity and interspecific interactions affect foraging behaviour of rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides) and yellowfin shiners (Notropis lutippinis). Ecol. Freshw. Fish 18(3):427-436.

Heenan, P.B. 2009. Leptinella conjuncta (Asteraceae), a diminutive new species from and habitats in the South Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 47(2):127-132.

Heenan, P.B. 2009. A new species of Pachycladon (Brassicaceae) from limestone in eastern Marlborough, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 47(2):155-161.

Higuchi, H., and Primack, R.B. 2009. Conservation and management of biodiversity in Japan: an introduction. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1881-1883.

Hill, E.C., Vogel, H.J., Rosburg, T.R., Lown, L., and Summerville, K.S. 2009. Response of a population of Terrapene ornata ornata to long distance relocation. Nat. Areas J. 29(3):311-316.

Hill, S.B., and Kotanen, P.M. 2009. Evidence that phylogenetically novel non-indigenous plants experience less herbivory. Oecologia 161(3):581-590.

Hilty, S.L., and Ascanio, D. 2009. A new species of spinetail (Furnariidae: Synallaxis) from the Río Orinoco of Venezuela. Auk 126(3):485-492.

Hipkin, C.R., and Facey, P.D. 2009. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Coincya monensis (L.) Greuter & Burdet ssp. monensis (Rhyncosinapis monensis (L.) Dandy ex A.R. Clapham) and ssp. cheiranthos (Vill.) Aedo, Leadley & Muñoz Garm. (Rhyncosinapis cheiranthos (Vill.) Dandy). J. Ecology 97(5):1101-1116.

Hnatkovich, A.M., and Yorks, T.E. 2009. Current status and future development of the only Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white-cedar) population in Pennsylvania. Nat. Areas J. 29(3):216-223.

Hoeinghaus, D.J., Agostinho, A.A., Gomes, L.C., Pelicice, F.M., Okada, E.K., Latini, J.D., Kashiwaqui, E.A.L., and Winemiller, K.O. 2009. Effects of river impoundment on ecosystem services of large tropical rivers: embodied energy and market value of artisanal fisheries. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1222-1231.

Hokkanen, P.J., Kouki, J., and Komonen, A. 2009. Nestedness, SLOSS and conservation networks of boreal herb-rich forests. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(3):295-303.

Holland, T.G., Peterson, G.D., and Gonzalez, A. 2009. A cross-national analysis of how economic inequality predicts biodiversity loss. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1304-1313.

Holzhauer, S.I.J., Wolff, K., and Wolters, V. 2009. Changes in land use and habitat availability affect the population genetic structure of Metrioptera roeselii (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). J. Insect Conserv. 13(5):543-552.

Holzmueller, E.J., Jose, S., and Jenkins, M.A. 2009. The response of understory species composition, diversity, and seedling regeneration to repeated burning in southern Appalachian oak-hickory forests. Nat. Areas J. 29(3):255-262.

Hopper, S.D. 2009. Taxonomic turmoil down-under: recent developments in Australian orchid systematics. Ann. Botany 104(3):447-455.

Huanca, N.E., Hosner, P.A., and Hennessey, A.B. 2009. Nests, vocalizations, and conservation status of endangered Cochabamba Mountain-Finches (Compsospiza garleppi). J. Field Ornithol. 80(3):215-223.

Humphries, P., and Winemiller, K.O. 2009. Historical impacts on river fauna, shifting baselines, and challenges for restoration. BioScience 59(8):673-684.

Izawa, M., Doi, T., Nakanishi, N., and Teranishi, A. 2009. Ecology and conservation of two endangered subspecies of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) on Japanese islands. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1884-1890.

Jarchow, M.E., and Cook, B.J. 2009. Allelopathy as a mechanism for the invasion of Typha angustifolia. Plant Ecol. 204(1):113-124.

Jennings, N., and Pocock, M.J.O. 2009. Relationships between sensitivity to agricultural intensification and ecological traits of insectivorous mammals and arthropods. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1195-1203.

Jenouvrier, S., Barbraud, C., Weimerskirch, H., and Caswell, H. 2009. Limitation of population recovery: a stochastic approach to the case of the emperor penguin. Oikos 118(9):1292-1298.

Jepson, P., and Ladle, R.J. 2009. Governing bird-keeping in Java and Bali: evidence from a household survey. Oryx 43(3):364-374.

Johns, D. 2009. 110 most important questions. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1069-1069.

Joubert, L., Esler, K.J., and Privett, S.D.J. 2009. The effect of ploughing and augmenting natural vegetation with commercial fynbos species on the biodiversity of Overberg Sandstone fynbos on the Agulhas Plain, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 75(3):526-531.

Kadoya, T., Suda, S., and Washitani, I. 2009. Dragonfly crisis in Japan: a likely consequence of recent agricultural habitat degradation. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1899-1905.

Kapos, V., Balmford, A., Aveling, R., Bubb, P., Carey, P., Entwistle, A., Hopkins, J., Mulliken, T., Safford, R., Stattersfield, A., Walpole, M., and Manica, A. 2009. Outcomes, not implementation, predict conservation success. Oryx 43(3):336-342.

Karsten, K.B., Andriamandimbiarisoa, L.N., Fox, S.F., and Raxworthy, C.J. 2009. Population densities and conservation assessments for three species of chameleons in the Toliara region of south-western Madagascar. Amphibia-Reptilia 30(3):341-350.

Katoh, K., Sakai, S., and Takahashi, T. 2009. Factors maintaining species diversity in satoyama, a traditional agricultural landscape of Japan. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1930-1936.

Keith, S.A., Newton, A.C., Morecroft, M.D., Bealey, C.E., and Bullock, J.M. 2009. Taxonomic homogenization of woodland plant communities over 70 years. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1672):3539-3544.

Keitt, T.H. 2009. Habitat conversion, extinction thresholds, and pollination services in agroecosystems. Ecol. Appl. 19(6):1561-1573.

Kerstetter, D.W. 2009. Practicing fisheries conservation biology within harvesting regimes. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1072-1073.

Khan, M.F., and Panikkar, P. 2009. Assessment of impacts of invasive fishes on the food web structure and ecosystem properties of a tropical reservoir in India. Ecol. Model. 220(18):2281-2290.

Kobori, H. 2009. Current trends in conservation education in Japan. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1950-1957.

Koh, L.P., Levang, P., and Ghazoul, J. 2009. Designer landscapes for sustainable biofuels. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(8):431-438.

Kothamasi, D., and Kiers, E.T. 2009. Emerging conflicts between biodiversity conservation laws and scientific research: the case of the Czech entomologists in India. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1328-1330.

Kozubíková, E., Filipová, L., Kozák, P., Duriš, Z., Martín, M.P., Diéguez-Uribeondo, J., Oidtmann, B., and Petrusek, A. 2009. Prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci in invasive American crayfishes in the Czech Republic. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1204-1213.

Kueffer, C., Kronauer, L., and Edwards, P.J. 2009. Wider spectrum of fruit traits in invasive than native floras may increase the vulnerability of oceanic islands to plant invasions. Oikos 118(9):1327-1334.

Kwong, K.L., Chan, R.K.Y., and Qiu, J.W. 2009. The potential of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata as a predator of various life-stages of five species of freshwater snails. Malacologia 51(2):343-356.

La Sorte, F.A., and Pyšek, P. 2009. Extra-regional residence time as a correlate of plant invasiveness: European archaeophytes in North America. Ecology 90(9):2589-2597.

Labiak, P.H., and Matos, F.B. 2009. Cyathea atrocastanea, a new tree fern from the Atlantic rain forest of southeastern Brazil. Syst. Bot. 34(3):476-480.

Lampila, S., Kvist, L., Wistbacka, R., and Orell, M. 2009. Genetic diversity and population differentiation in the endangered Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) in a fragmented landscape. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 55(4):397-406.

Lee, T., Burch, J.B., Coote, T., Pearce-Kelly, P., Hickman, C., Meyer, J.Y., and Foighil, D.O. 2009. Moorean tree snail survival revisited: a multi-island genealogical perspective. BMC Evol. Biol. 9:16.

Leroy, R., de Visscher, M.N., Halidou, O., and Boureima, A. 2009. The last African white giraffes live in farmers' fields. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2663-2677.

Letnic, M., Koch, F., Gordon, C., Crowther, M.S., and Dickman, C.R. 2009. Keystone effects of an alien top-predator stem extinctions of native mammals. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1671):3249-3256.

Lilley, P.L., and Vellend, M. 2009. Negative native-exotic diversity relationship in oak savannas explained by human influence and climate. Oikos 118(9):1373-1382.

Lindsell, J.A., Serra, G., Peške, L., Abdullah, M.S., al Qaim, G., Kanani, A., and Wondafrash, M. 2009. Satellite tracking reveals the migration route and wintering area of the Middle East population of Critically Endangered northern bald ibis Geronticus eremita. Oryx 43(3):329-335.

Lloyd, J.D., Slater, G.L., and Snow, S. 2009. Demography of reintroduced eastern bluebirds and brown-headed nuthatches. J. Wildlife Manag. 73(6):955-964.

Lorimer, J. 2009. International conservation volunteering from the UK: what does it contribute? Oryx 43(3):352-360.

Lovvorn, J.R., Grebmeier, J.M., Cooper, L.W., Bump, J.K., and Richman, S.E. 2009. Modeling marine protected areas for threatened eiders in a climatically changing Bering Sea. Ecol. Appl. 19(6):1596-1613.

Lu, T., Wu, N., and Luo, P. 2009. Sedentarization of Tibetan nomads. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1074-1074.

Lynch, R.L., Chen, H.J., Brandt, L.A., and Mazzotti, F.J. 2009. Old world climbing fern (Lygodium microphyllum) invasion in hurricane caused treefalls. Nat. Areas J. 29(3):210-215.

Margalida, A., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Eguía, S., Arroyo, A.B.M., Hernández, F.J., and Bautista, J. 2009. Assessing the diet of breeding bearded vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) in mid-20th century in Spain: a comparison to recent data and implications for conservation. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 55(4):443-447.

Marie, C.N., Sibelet, N., Dulcire, M., Rafalimaro, M., Danthu, P., and Carrière, S.M. 2009. Taking into account local practices and indigenous knowledge in an emergency conservation context in Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2759-2777.

Marshall, A.J., and Meijaard, E. 2009. Orang-utan nest surveys: the devil is in the details. Oryx 43(3):416-418.

Martin, E.A., Ratsimisetra, L., Laloë, F., and Carrière, S.M. 2009. Conservation value for birds of traditionally managed isolated trees in an agricultural landscape of Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2719-2742.

Marvin, D.C., Bradley, B.A., and Wilcove, D.S. 2009. A novel, web-based, ecosystem mapping tool using expert opinion. Nat. Areas J. 29(3):281-292.

Matsuda, H., Makino, M., and Sakurai, Y. 2009. Development of an adaptive marine ecosystem management and co-management plan at the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1937-1942.

Matsui, T., Takahashi, K., Tanaka, N., Hijioka, Y., Horikawa, M., Yagihashi, T., and Harasawa, H. 2009. Evaluation of habitat sustainability and vulnerability for beech (Fagus crenata) forests under 110 hypothetical climatic change scenarios in Japan. Appl. Veg. Sci. 12(3):328-339.

Mawdsley, J.R., O'Malley, R., and Ojima, D.S. 2009. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1080-1089.

McEachern, A.K., Thomson, D.M., and Chess, K.A. 2009. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores. Ecol. Appl. 19(6):1574-1584.

Melbourne, B.A., and Hastings, A. 2009. Highly variable spread rates in replicated biological invasions: fundamental limits to predictability. Science 325(5947):1536-1539.

Miller, M.W., Valdivia, A., Kramer, K.L., Mason, B., Williams, D.E., and Johnston, L. 2009. Alternate benthic assemblages on reef restoration structures and cascading effects on coral settlement. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 387:147-156.

Miller, R.J., Carroll, A.D., Wilson, T.P., and Shaw, J. 2009. Spatiotemporal analysis of three common wetland invasive plant species using herbarium specimens and geographic information systems. Castanea 74(2):133-145.

Mitchell, R., Engstrom, T., Sharitz, R.R., De Steven, D., Hiers, K., Cooper, R., and Kirkman, L.K. 2009. Old forests and endangered woodpeckers: old-growth in the southern coastal plain. Nat. Areas J. 29(3):301-310.

Mombeshora, S., and Le Bel, S. 2009. Parks-people conflicts: the case of Gonarezhou National Park and the Chitsa community in south-east Zimbabwe. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2601-2623.

Monterroso, P., Brito, J.C., Ferreras, P., and Alves, P.C. 2009. Spatial ecology of the European wildcat in a Mediterranean ecosystem: dealing with small radio-tracking datasets in species conservation. J. Zool. 279(1):27-35.

Mooney, H., and Mace, G. 2009. Biodiversity policy challenges. Science 325(5947):1474.

Moore, G.E., Peter, C.R., Burdick, D.M., and Keirstead, D.R. 2009. Status of the eastern grasswort, Lilaeopsis chinensis (Apiaceae), in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Rhodora 111(946):171-188.

Murdoch, J.D., Munkhzul, T., Buyandelger, S., Reading, R.P., and Sillero-Zubiri, C. 2009. The Endangered Siberian marmot Marmota sibirica as a keystone species? Observations and implications of burrow use by corsac foxes Vulpes corsac in Mongolia. Oryx 43(3):431-434.

Murphree, M.W. 2009. The strategic pillars of communal natural resource management: benefit, empowerment and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2551-2562.

Murray, K.A., Skerratt, L.F., Speare, R., and McCallum, H. 2009. Impact and dynamics of disease in species threatened by the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1242-1252.

Mwavu, E.N., and Witkowski, E.T.F. 2009. Population structure and regeneration of multiple-use tree species in a semi-deciduous African tropical rainforest: implications for primate conservation. Forest Ecol. Manag. 258(5):840-849.

Nadkarni, N.M., and Haber, W.A. 2009. Canopy seed banks as time capsules of biodiversity in pasture-remnant tree crowns. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1117-1126.

Nelson, F. 2009. Conservation and aid: designing more effective investments in natural resource governance reform. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1102-1108.

Nelson, M.P., and Vucetich, J.A. 2009. On advocacy by environmental scientists: what, whether, why, and how. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1090-1101.

Nishihiro, J., Uesugi, R., Takagawa, S., and Washitani, I. 2009. Toward the restoration of a sustainable population of a threatened aquatic plant, Nymphoides peltata: integrated genetic/demographic studies and practices. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1906-1912.

Nuñez, M.A., Horton, T.R., and Simberloff, D. 2009. Lack of belowground mutualisms hinders Pinaceae invasions. Ecology 90(9):2352-2359.

O'Farrell, P.J., Donaldson, J.S., and Hoffman, M.T. 2009. Local benefits of retaining natural vegetation for soil retention and hydrological services. S. Afr. J. Bot. 75(3):573-583.

Oertli, B., Céréghino, R., Hull, A., and Miracle, R. 2009. Pond conservation: from science to practice. Hydrobiologia 634(1):1-9.

Olupot, W., Barigyira, R., and McNeilage, A.J. 2009. Edge-related variation in medicinal and other "useful" wild plants of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1138-1145.

Orivel, J., Grangier, J., Foucaud, J., Le Breton, J., Andrès, F.X., Jourdan, H., Delabie, J.H.C., Fournier, D., Cerdan, P., Facon, B., Estoup, A., and Dejean, A. 2009. Ecologically heterogeneous populations of the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata within its native and introduced ranges. Ecol. Entomol. 34(4):504-512.

Packett, D.L., and Dunning, J.B. 2009. Stopover habitat selection by migrant landbirds in a fragmented forest-agricultural landscape. Auk 126(3):579-589.

Pare, S., Savadogo, P., Tigabu, M., Oden, P.C., and Ouadba, J.M. 2009. Regeneration and spatial distribution of seedling populations in Sudanian dry forests in relation to conservation status and human pressure. Trop. Ecol. 50(2):339-353.

Parry, L., Barlow, J., and Peres, C.A. 2009. Hunting for sustainability in tropical secondary forests. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1270-1280.

Pautasso, M. 2009. Geographical genetics and the conservation of forest trees. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 11(3):157-189.

Paviolo, A., Di Blanco, Y.E., De Angelo, C.D., and Di Bitetti, M.S. 2009. Protection affects the abundance and activity patterns of pumas in the Atlantic forest. J. Mammal. 90(4):926-934.

Peacock, M.M., Beard, K.H., O'Neill, E.M., Kirchoff, V.S., and Peters, M.B. 2009. Strong founder effects and low genetic diversity in introduced populations of Coqui frogs. Mol. Ecol. 18(17):3603-3615.

Perry, L.G., Cronin, S.A., and Paschke, M.W. 2009. Native cover crops suppress exotic annuals and favor native perennials in a greenhouse competition experiment. Plant Ecol. 204(2):247-259.

Pino, J., Font, X., de Cáceres, M., and Molowny-Horas, R. 2009. Floristic homogenization by native ruderal and alien plants in north-east Spain: the effect of environmental differences on a regional scale. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 18(5):563-574.

Pinto-Cruz, C., Molina, J.A., Barbour, M., Silva, V., and Espírito-Santo, M.D. 2009. Plant communities as a tool in temporary ponds conservation in SW Portugal. Hydrobiologia 634(1):11-24.

Primack, R.B., Higuchi, H., and Miller-Rushing, A.J. 2009. The impact of climate change on cherry trees and other species in Japan. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1943-1949.

Pruett, C.L., Patten, M.A., and Wolfe, D.H. 2009. Avoidance behavior by prairie grouse: implications for development of wind energy. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1253-1259.

Raghubanshi, A.S., and Tripathi, A. 2009. Effect of disturbance, habitat fragmentation and alien invasive plants on floral diversity in dry tropical forests of Vindhyan highland: a review. Trop. Ecol. 50(1):57-69.

Rana, M.S., and Samant, S.S. 2009. Prioritization of habitats and communities for conservation in the Indian Himalayan Region: a state-of-the-art approach from Manali Wildlife Sanctuary. Curr. Sci. 97(3):326-335.

Rannap, R., Lõhmus, A., and Briggs, L. 2009. Restoring ponds for amphibians: a success story. Hydrobiologia 634(1):87-95.

Rawat, G.S. 2009. Current trends in tropical biodiversity research and conservation. Trop. Ecol. 50(1):5-6.

Régnier, C., Fontaine, B., and Bouchet, P. 2009. Not knowing, not recording, not listing: numerous unnoticed mollusk extinctions. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1214-1221.

Rhazi, M., Grillas, P., Rhazi, L., Charpentier, A., and Médail, F. 2009. Competition in microcosm between a clonal plant species (Bolboschoenus maritimus) and a rare quillwort (Isoetes setacea) from Mediterranean temporary pools of southern France. Hydrobiologia 634(1):115-124.

Ritchie, E.G., and Johnson, C.N. 2009. Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation. Ecol. Lett. 12(9):982-998.

Rodary, E. 2009. Mobilizing for nature in southern African community-based conservation policies, or the death of the local. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2585-2600.

Rodriguez-Cabal, M.A., Stuble, K.L., Nuñez, M.A., and Sanders, N.J. 2009. Quantitative analysis of the effects of the exotic Argentine ant on seed-dispersal mutualisms. Biol. Lett. 5(4):499-502.

Rompré, G., Robinson, W.D., Desrochers, A., and Angehr, G. 2009. Predicting declines in avian species richness under nonrandom patterns of habitat loss in a Neotropical landscape. Ecol. Appl. 19(6):1614-1627.

Rossiter-Rachor, N.A., Setterfield, S.A., Douglas, M.M., Hutley, L.B., Cook, G.D., and Schmidt, S. 2009. Invasive Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) is an ecosystem transformer of nitrogen relations in Australian savanna. Ecol. Appl. 19(6):1546-1560.

Roubik, D.W., and Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R. 2009. Invasive Africanized honey bee impact on native solitary bees: a pollen resource and trap nest analysis. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 98(1):152-160.

Roura-Pascual, N., Bas, J.M., Thuiller, W., Hui, C., Krug, R.M., and Brotons, L. 2009. From introduction to equilibrium: reconstructing the invasive pathways of the Argentine ant in a Mediterranean region. Global Change Biol. 15(9):2101-2115.

Rubin, E.S., Stermer, C.J., Boyce, W.M., and Torres, S.G. 2009. Assessment of predictive habitat models for bighorn sheep in California's peninsular ranges. J. Wildlife Manag. 73(6):859-869.

Rull, V., Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T., Nogué, S., and Huber, O. 2009. Conservation of the unique Neotropical vascular flora of the Guayana Highlands in the face of global warming. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1323-1327.

Sachs, J.D., Baillie, J.E.M., Sutherland, W.J., Armsworth, P.R., Ash, N., Beddington, J., Blackburn, T.M., Collen, B., Gardiner, B., Gaston, K.J., Godfray, H.C.J., Green, R.E., Harvey, P.H., House, B., Knapp, S., Kümpel, N.F., Macdonald, D.W., Mace, G.M., Mallet, J., Matthews, A., May, R.M., Petchey, O., Purvis, A., Roe, D., Safi, K., Turner, K., Walpole, M., Watson, R., and Jones, K.E. 2009. Biodiversity conservation and the millennium development goals. Science 325(5947):1502-1503.

Sánchez-Velásquez, L.R., Pineda-López, M.D., Galindo-González, J., Díaz-Fleischer, F., and González, J.L.Z. 2009. Opportunity for the study of critical successional processes for the restoration and conservation of mountain forest: the case of Mexican pine plantations. Interciencia 34(7):518-522.

Santos, A., Santos, L.N., García-Berthou, E., and Hayashi, C. 2009. Could native predators help to control invasive fishes? Microcosm experiments with the Neotropical characid, Brycon orbignyanus. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 18(3):491-499.

Scalici, M., Chiesa, S., Gherardi, F., Ruffini, M., Gibertini, G., and Marzano, F.N. 2009. The new threat to Italian inland waters from the alien crayfish "gang'': the Australian Cherax destructor Clark, 1936. Hydrobiologia 632(1):341-345.

Schutzenhofer, M.R., Valone, T.J., and Knight, T.M. 2009. Herbivory and population dynamics of invasive and native Lespedeza. Oecologia 161(1):57-66.

Selkoe, K.A., Halpern, B.S., Ebert, C.M., Franklin, E.C., Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., Bruno, J., and Toonen, R.J. 2009. A map of human impacts to a "pristine" coral reef ecosystem, the PapahAnaumokuAkea Marine National Monument. Coral Reefs 28(3):635-650.

Shearer, T.L., Porto, I., and Zubillaga, A.L. 2009. Restoration of coral populations in light of genetic diversity estimates. Coral Reefs 28(3):727-733.

Shekelle, M., and Salim, A. 2009. An acute conservation threat to two tarsier species in the Sangihe Island chain, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryx 43(3):419-426.

Shen, S.K., Wang, Y.H., Wang, B.Y., Ma, H.Y., Shen, G.Z., and Han, Z.W. 2009. Distribution, stand characteristics and habitat of a critically endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum H. T. Chang (Theaceae): implications for conservation. Plant Species Biol. 24(2):133-138.

Singh, S.P., and Sharma, C.M. 2009. Tropical ecology: an overview. Trop. Ecol. 50(1):7-21.

Sloggett, J.J., Haynes, K.F., and Obrycki, J.J. 2009. Hidden costs to an invasive intraguild predator from chemically defended native prey. Oikos 118(9):1396-1404.

Sousa, W.T.Z., Thomaz, S.M., Murphy, K.J., Silveira, M.J., and Mormul, R.P. 2009. Environmental predictors of the occurrence of exotic Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle and native Egeria najas Planch. in a sub-tropical river floodplain: the Upper River Paraná, Brazil. Hydrobiologia 632(1):65-78.

Spear, D., and Chown, S.L. 2009. Non-indigenous ungulates as a threat to biodiversity. J. Zool. 279(1):1-17.

Stachura-Skierczynska, K., Tumiel, T., and Skierczynski, M. 2009. Habitat prediction model for three-toed woodpecker and its implications for the conservation of biologically valuable forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 258(5):697-703.

Stuble, K.L., Kirkman, L.K., and Carroll, C.R. 2009. Patterns of abundance of fire ants and native ants in a native ecosystem. Ecol. Entomol. 34(4):520-526.

Swarts, N.D., and Dixon, K.W. 2009. Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction. Ann. Botany 104(3):543-556.

Tabuti, J.R.S., Ticktin, T., Arinaitwe, M.Z., and Muwanika, V.B. 2009. Community attitudes and preferences towards woody species: implications for conservation in Nawaikoke, Uganda. Oryx 43(3):393-402.

Takahashi, M.A. 2009. Overview of the structure and the challenges of Japanese wildlife law and policy. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1958-1964.

Takatsuki, S. 2009. Effects of sika deer on vegetation in Japan: a review. Biol. Conserv. 142(9):1922-1929.

Tallent-Halsell, N.G., and Watt, M.S. 2009. The invasive Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush). Bot. Rev. 75(3):292-325.

Tassin, J., Médoc, J.M., Kull, C.A., Rivière, J.N., and Balent, G. 2009. Can invasion patches of Acacia mearnsii serve as colonizing sites for native plant species on Réunion (Mascarene archipelago)? Afr. J. Ecol. 47(3):422-432.

Taylor, R. 2009. Community based natural resource management in Zimbabwe: the experience of CAMPFIRE. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2563-2583.

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Tuya, F., and Silliman, B.R. 2009. Evidence for impacts of non-indigenous macroalgae: a meta-analysis of experimental field studies. J. Phycol. 45(4):812-819.

Torquebiau, E., and Taylor, R.D. 2009. Natural resource management by rural citizens in developing countries: innovations still required. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2537-2550.

Triest, L., and Sierens, T. 2009. High diversity of Ruppia meadows in saline ponds and lakes of the western Mediterranean. Hydrobiologia 634(1):97-105.

Turner, E.C., Granroth, H.M.V., Johnson, H.R., Lucas, C.B.H., Thompson, A.M., Froy, H., German, R.N., and Holdgate, R. 2009. Habitat preference and dispersal of the Duke of Burgundy butterfly (Hamearis lucina) on an abandoned chalk quarry in Bedfordshire, UK. J. Insect Conserv. 13(5):475-486.

Vázquez-Luis, M., Sanchez-Jerez, P., and Bayle-Sempere, J.T. 2009. Comparison between amphipod assemblages associated with Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea and those of other Mediterranean habitats on soft substrate. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 84(2):161-170.

Venkataraman, K. 2009. India's Biodiversity Act 2002 and its role in conservation. Trop. Ecol. 50(1):23-30.

Vermeulen, C., Julve, C., Doucet, J.L., and Monticelli, D. 2009. Community hunting in logging concessions: towards a management model for Cameroon's dense forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(10):2705-2718.

Vodka, S., Konvicka, M., and Cizek, L. 2009. Habitat preferences of oak-feeding xylophagous beetles in a temperate woodland: implications for forest history and management. J. Insect Conserv. 13(5):553-562.

Walker, K.L. 2009. Protected-area monitoring dilemmas: a new tool to assess success. Conserv. Biol. 23(5):1294-1303.

Walker, N.F., Hulme, P.E., and Hoelzel, A.R. 2009. Population genetics of an invasive riparian species, Impatiens glandulifera. Plant Ecol. 203(2):243-252.

Walpole, M., Almond, R.E.A., Besançon, C., Butchart, S.H.M., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Carr, G.M., Collen, B., Collette, L., Davidson, N.C., Dulloo, E., Fazel, A.M., Galloway, J.N., Gill, M., Goverse, T., Hockings, M., Leaman, D.J., Morgan, D.H.W., Revenga, C., Rickwood, C.J., Schutyser, F., Simons, S., Stattersfield, A.J., Tyrrell, T.D., Vié, J.C., and Zimsky, M. 2009. Tracking progress toward the 2010 biodiversity target and beyond. Science 325(5947):1503-1504.

Wang, Y., Liu, Y.F., Liu, S.B., and Huang, H.W. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of Myricaria (Tamaricaceae): implications for taxonomy and conservation in China. Bot. Stud. 50(3):343-352.

Ware, J.L., Simaika, J.P., and Samways, M.J. 2009. Biogeography and divergence time estimation of the relict Cape dragonfly genus Syncordulia: global significance and implications for conservation. Zootaxa 2216:22-36.

Waylen, K.A., McGowan, P.J.K., Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Pawi Study Group. 2009. Ecotourism positively affects awareness and attitudes but not conservation behaviours: a case study at Grande Riviere, Trinidad. Oryx 43(3):343-351.

Weinstein, M.P., Litvin, S.Y., and Guida, V.G. 2009. Essential fish habitat and wetland restoration success: a tier III approach to the biochemical condition of common mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in common reed Phragmites australis- and smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora-dominated salt marshes. Estuaries Coasts 32(5):1011-1022.

White, E., Vivian-Smith, G., and Barnes, A. 2009. Variation in exotic and native seed arrival and recruitment of bird dispersed species in subtropical forest restoration and regrowth. Plant Ecol. 204(2):231-246.

Wright, S.D., Gillman, L.N., Ross, H.A., and Keeling, D.J. 2009. Slower tempo of microevolution in island birds: implications for conservation biology. Evolution 63(9):2275-2287.

Yoshimura, M. 2009. Impact of secondary forest management on ant assemblage composition in the temperate region in Japan. J. Insect Conserv. 13(5):563-568.

Young, B.F., Franke, I., Hernandez, P.A., Herzog, S.K., Paniagua, L., Tovar, C., and Valqui, T. 2009. Using spatial models to predict areas of endemism and gaps in the protection of Andean slope birds. Auk 126(3):554-565.

Zapata-Ríos, G., Urgilés, C., and Suárez , E. 2009. Mammal hunting by the Shuar of the Ecuadorian Amazon: is it sustainable? Oryx 43(3):375-385.

Zellmer, A.J., and Knowles, L.L. 2009. Disentangling the effects of historic vs. contemporary landscape structure on population genetic divergence. Mol. Ecol. 18(17):3593-3602.

Zenni, R.D., Wilson, J.R.U., Le Roux, J.J., and Richardson, D.M. 2009. Evaluating the invasiveness of Acacia paradoxa in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 75(3):485-496.

Zhang, L.B., and He, H. 2009. Polystichum minutissimum sp. nov. (sect. Haplopolystichum, Dryopteridaceae): the smallest Polystichum found in a karst cave in China. Bot. Stud. 50(3):353-358.

Zheng, Y.L., Feng, Y.L., Liu, W.X., and Liao, Z.Y. 2009. Growth, biomass allocation, morphology, and photosynthesis of invasive Eupatorium adenophorum and its native congeners grown at four irradiances. Plant Ecol. 203(2):263-271.

Zipkin, E.F., Kraft, C.E., Cooch, E.G., and Sullivan, P.J. 2009. When can efforts to control nuisance and invasive species backfire? Ecol. Appl. 19(6):1585-1595.

Zografou, K., Sfenthourakis, S., Pullin, A., and Kati, V. 2009. On the surrogate value of red-listed butterflies for butterflies and grasshoppers: a case study in Grammos site of Natura 2000, Greece. J. Insect Conserv. 13(5):505-514.

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