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Department ofBotany

No. 300
December 2009

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In This Issue

The Rediscovery of Globba arracanensis

By Michael Bordelon and W. John Kress

In October of 1869 north of Akyab (now called Sittwe) in the Kolodyne River Valley of Arracan (now called Rakhine) State in Myanmar, Wilhelm Silpuz Kurz collected a plant in the family Zingiberaceae that he would later name Globba arracanensis. The plant was reported by Kurz to be widely distributed in the mixed deciduous forests of the low hills of the region. The month of October marks the start of the dry season in the western hills of Myanmar and the plant must have been in the early stages of dormancy when collected by Kurz. Seed was present when he found it.

Only three known voucher specimens of Globba arracanensis were made by Kurz. He published this new species in 1870 in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (vol. 39, page 83-84). Globba arracanensis, in subgenus Mantisia section Haplanthera, is the least studied and least understood species in the entire genus and is closely related to G. andersonii from the Darjeeling region of India.

Globba arracanensis (Photo by Leslie Brothers)

Globba arracanensis
(Photo by Leslie Brothers)

This species was not collected again in Myanmar or any other country for 135 years and was presumed to be extinct. We discovered it again during a collecting expedition to Myanmar in mid-November 2004, 32 miles north of Sittwe, just north of Ponnagyun in Rakhine State. The plant was dormant and the foliage was dry and unrecognizable. The rhizome was attached to a large boulder in a dry stream bed in the understory of a bamboo forest. We were collecting any gingers that we found, even if dormant. Until this collection, Globba arracanensis was only known from the type specimen. We knew at the time we collected it that we were in the area visited by Kurz in 1869, but we did not know we had rediscovered this species until the plants flowered sixth months later in our greenhouses.

The rhizomes we collected in Myanmar were brought back to the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Botany Research Greenhouses in Washington, D.C. They were potted up and allowed to complete their dormancy cycle. In May of the next year (and each year after that), the plants broke dormancy and flowered; in 2008, they finally set seed, either due to natural visitation by bumble bees in the greenhouses or as a result of hand-pollination by one of us.

Although Globba arracanensis is now known not to be extinct in its native habitat, the rapid degradation of the forests and natural habitats of Rakhine State suggest that measures should be sought to insure the conservation of this and other species under threat in the region.


The Singapore Botanic Gardens is pleased to offer an annual Humphrey Morrison Burkill Research Fellowship on a competitive basis to a qualified botanist with special interest in the flora of South East Asia. The H.M. Burkill Research Fellowship is a generous bequest to honor the former directors of the Singapore Botanic Gardens: I.H. Burkill (1912-1925) and H.M. Burkill (1957-1969). Its primary aim is to help promising young botanists to develop a career in tropical botany. The yearly fellowship offers the successful applicant a one-time sum of up to S$4,500. The money is to be used for a proposed period of up to three weeks stay in Singapore to carry out research in the Singapore Botanic Gardens. Applicants must hold a PhD degree in Botany, preferably be below the age of 30, and demonstrate a strong interest and promising research skills/potential in tropical botany. Interested applicants shall send their application letter, together with the research proposal and a CV, by email or air mail to Dr. Chin See Chung, Director, Singapore Botanic Gardens, 1 Cluny Road, Singapore 259569; email: The proposal should state the proposed period of stay in Singapore and the requested amount of financial support. The deadline for the submission of applications is 31 March 2010.

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Louette, G., Declerck, S., Vandekerkhove, J., and De Meester, L. 2009. Evaluation of restoration measures in a shallow lake through a comparison of present day zooplankton communities with historical samples. Restor. Ecol. 17(5):629-640.

Lowman, M. 2009. Canopy walkways for conservation: a tropical biologist's panacea or fuzzy metrics to justify ecotourism. Biotropica 41(5):545-548.

Lugo, A.E. 2009. The emerging era of novel tropical forests. Biotropica 41(5):589-591.

Lukoschek, V., Funahashi, N., Lavery, S., Dalebout, M.L., Cipriano, F., and Baker, C.S. 2009. High proportion of protected minke whales sold on Japanese markets is due to illegal, unreported or unregulated exploitation. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):385-395.

Lukoschek, V., Funahashi, N., Lavery, S., Dalebout, M.L., Cipriano, F., and Baker, C.S. 2009. The rise of commercial 'by-catch whaling' in Japan and Korea. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):398-399.

Lye, G., Park, K., Osborne, J., Holland, J., and Goulson, D. 2009. Assessing the value of Rural Stewardship schemes for providing foraging resources and nesting habitat for bumblebee queens (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2023-2032.

Manning, A.D., Gordon, I.J., and Ripple, W.J. 2009. Restoring landscapes of fear with wolves in the Scottish Highlands. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2314-2321.

Marcelli, M., and Fusillo, R. 2009. Assessing range re-expansion and recolonization of human-impacted landscapes by threatened species: a case study of the otter (Lutra lutra) in Italy. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(11):2941-2959.

Márquez-Ferrando, R., Pleguezuelos, J.M., Santos, X., Ontiveros, D., and Fernández-Cardenete, J.R. 2009. Recovering the reptile community after the mine-tailing accident of Aznalcóllar (Southwestern Spain). Restor. Ecol. 17(5):660-667.

Martin, M.R., Tipping, P.W., and Sickman, J.O. 2009. Invasion by an exotic tree alters above and belowground ecosystem components. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1883-1894.

McCay, T.S., and McCay, D.H. 2009. Processes regulating the invasion of European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) in three habitats of the northeastern United States. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1835-1844.

McDonald, R.I. 2009. The promise and pitfalls of systematic conservation planning. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(36):15101-15102.

McGinnity, P., Jennings, E., DeEyto, E., Allott, N., Samuelsson, P., Rogan, G., Whelan, K., and Cross, T. 2009. Impact of naturally spawning captive-bred Atlantic salmon on wild populations: depressed recruitment and increased risk of climate-mediated extinction. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1673):3601-3610.

McGlynn, C.A. 2009. Native and invasive plant interactions in wetlands and the minimal role of invasiveness. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1929-1939.

McLeod, E., Salm, R., Green, A., and Almany, J. 2009. Designing marine protected area networks to address the impacts of climate change. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(7):362-370.

Mehes, M., Nkongolo, K.K., and Michael, P. 2009. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of fragmented populations of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and western white pine (P. monticola) for conservation management. J. Plant Ecol.-UK 2(3):143-151.

Meinke, C.W., Knick, S.T., and Pyke, D.A. 2009. A spatial model to prioritize sagebrush landscapes in the Intermountain West (USA) for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 17(5):652-659.

Menz, M.H.M., Brotons, L., and Arlettaz, R. 2009. Habitat selection by Ortolan Buntings Emberiza hortulana in post-fire succession in Catalonia: implications for the conservation of farmland populations. Ibis 151(4):752-761.

Mills, J.E., Reinartz, J.A., Meyer, G.A., and Young, E.B. 2009. Exotic shrub invasion in an undisturbed wetland has little community-level effect over a 15-year period. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1803-1820.

Miskelly, C.M., Taylor, G.A., Gummer, H., and Williams, R. 2009. Translocations of eight species of burrow-nesting seabirds (genera Pterodroma, Pelecanoides, Pachyptila and Puffinus: Family Procellariidae). Biol. Conserv. 142(10):1965-1980.

Moga, C.I., Hartel, T., and Ollerer, K. 2009. Ancient oak wood-pasture as a habitat for the endangered tree pipit Anthus trivialis. Biologia 64(5):1011-1015.

Mondol, S., Karanth, K.U., Kumar, N.S., Gopalaswamy, A.M., Andheria, A., and Ramakrishnan, U. 2009. Evaluation of non-invasive genetic sampling methods for estimating tiger population size. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2350-2360.

Mooers, A.O., and Redding, D.W. 2009. Where the rare species are. Mol. Ecol. 18(19):3955-3957.

Morell, V. 2009. Research wolves of Yellowstone killed in hunt. Science 326(5952):506-507.

Moreno-Leon, M.A., and Ortega-Rubio, A. 2009. First record of Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester, 1880 (Cnidaria: Limnomedusae: Olindiidae) in Mexico (Adolfo Lopez Mateos reservoir), with notes on their feeding habits and limnological dates. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1827-1834.

Moreno-Rueda, G., Pizarro, M., Ontiveros, D., and Pleguezuelos, J.M. 2009. The coexistence of the eagles Aquila chrysaetos and Hieraaetus fasciatus increases with low human population density, intermediate temperature, and high prey diversity. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 46(4):283-290.

Morris, C., and Schupp, E.W. 2009. Comparison of emergence speed and sterility in two sterile annual hybrid cereal grasses developed for use in restoration. Restor. Ecol. 17(5):678-685.

Moser, K.F., Ahn, C., and Noe, G.B. 2009. The influence of microtopography on soil nutrients in created mitigation wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 17(5):641-651.

Murcia, C., and Kattan, G. 2009. Application of science to protected area management: overcoming the barriers. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 96(3):508-520.

Naug, D. 2009. Nutritional stress due to habitat loss may explain recent honeybee colony collapses. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2369-2372.

Negro, M., Isaia, M., Palestrini, C., and Rolando, A. 2009. The impact of forest ski-pistes on diversity of ground-dwelling arthropods and small mammals in the Alps. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(11):2799-2821.

Newbold, S.C., and Siikamaki, J. 2009. Prioritizing conservation activities using reserve site selection methods and population viability analysis. Ecol. Appl. 19(7):1774-1790.

Nielsen, S.E., Haughland, D.L., Bayne, E., and Schieck, J. 2009. Capacity of large-scale, long-term biodiversity monitoring programmes to detect trends in species prevalence. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(11):2961-2978.

Noordijk, J., Delille, K., Schaffers, A.P., and Sýkora, K.V. 2009. Optimizing grassland management for flower-visiting insects in roadside verges. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2097-2103.

Nordling, L. 2009. Hazy goals hold up conservation. Nature 461(7267):1037-1037.

Norén, K., Kvaløy, K., Nyström, V., Landa, A., Dalén, L., Eide, N.E., Østbye, E., Henttonen, H., and Angerbjörn, A. 2009. Farmed arctic foxes on the Fennoscandian mountain tundra: implications for conservation. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):434-444.

Okes, N.C., Hockey, P.A.R., Pichegru, L., van der Lingen, C.D., Crawford, R.J.M., and Grémillet, D. 2009. Competition for shifting resources in the southern Benguela upwelling: seabirds versus purse-seine fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2361-2368.

Ormerod, S.J. 2009. Climate change, river conservation and the adaptation challenge. Aquat. Conserv. 19(6):609-613.

Paton, D.C., Rogers, D.J., Hill, B.M., Bailey, C.P., and Ziembicki, M. 2009. Temporal changes to spatially stratified waterbird communities of the Coorong, South Australia: implications for the management of heterogenous wetlands. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):408-417.

Pejchar, L., and Mooney, H.A. 2009. Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(9):497-504.

Pelicice, F.M., and Agostinho, A.A. 2009. Fish fauna destruction after the introduction of a non-native predator (Cichla kelberi) in a Neotropical reservoir. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1789-1801.

Peters, M.K., and Okalo, B. 2009. Severe declines of ant-following birds in African rainforest fragments are facilitated by a subtle change in army ant communities. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2050-2058.

Pétillon, J., Puzin, C., Acou, A., and Outreman, Y. 2009. Plant invasion phenomenon enhances reproduction performance in an endangered spider. Naturwissenschaften 96(10):1241-1246.

Pinter-Wollman, N. 2009. Spatial behaviour of translocated African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in a novel environment: using behaviour to inform conservation actions. Behaviour 146:1171-1192.

Pintor, L.M., and Sih, A. 2009. Differences in growth and foraging behavior of native and introduced populations of an invasive crayfish. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1895-1902.

Polo-Cavia, N., López, P., and Martín, J. 2009. Interspecific differences in heat exchange rates may affect competition between introduced and native freshwater turtles. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1755-1765.

Popescu, V.D., and Gibbs, J.P. 2009. Interactions between climate, beaver activity, and pond occupancy by the cold-adapted mink frog in New York State, USA. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2059-2068.

Possley, J., Maschinski, J., Rodriguez, C., and Dozier, J.G. 2009. Alternatives for reintroducing a rare ecotone species: manually thinned forest edge versus restored habitat remnant. Restor. Ecol. 17(5):668-677.

Prasad, A.G.D., Venkataramana, G.V., and Thomas, M. 2009. Fish diversity and its conservation in major wetlands of Mysore. J. Environ. Biol. 30(5):713-718.

Praschag, P., Holloway, R., Georges, A., Päckert, M., Hundsdörfer, A.K., and Fritz, U. 2009. A new subspecies of Batagur affinis (Cantor, 1847), one of the world's most critically endangered chelonians (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Zootaxa 2233:57-68.

Price, A.R.G., and Harris, A. 2009. Decadal changes (1996-2006) in coastal ecosystems of the Chagos archipelago determined from rapid assessment. Aquat. Conserv. 19(6):637-644.

Rangel-Negrín, A., Alfaro, J.L., Valdez, R.A., Romano, M.C., and Serio-Silva, J.C. 2009. Stress in Yucatan spider monkeys: effects of environmental conditions on fecal cortisol levels in wild and captive populations. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):496-502.

Ratcliffe, N., Mitchell, I., Varnham, K., Verboven, N., and Higson, P. 2009. How to prioritize rat management for the benefit of petrels: a case study of the UK, Channel Islands and Isle of Man. Ibis 151(4):699-708.

Raymundo, L.J., Halford, A.R., Maypa, A.P., and Kerr, A.M. 2009. Functionally diverse reef-fish communities ameliorate coral disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106(40):17067-17070.

Read, A.J. 2009. Lessons from Japanese markets for the conservation of whale populations. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):396-397.

Reid, A.M., Morin, L., Downey, P.O., French, K., and Virtue, J.G. 2009. Does invasive plant management aid the restoration of natural ecosystems? Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2342-2349.

Robinet, C., and Liebhold, A.M. 2009. Dispersal polymorphism in an invasive forest pest affects its ability to establish. Ecol. Appl. 19(7):1935-1943.

Roll, U., Dayan, T., Simberloff, D., and Mienis, H.K. 2009. Non-indigenous land and freshwater gastropods in Israel. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1963-1972.

Rosauer, D., Laffan, S.W., Crisp, M.D., Donnellan, S.C., and Cook, L.G. 2009. Phylogenetic endemism: a new approach for identifying geographical concentrations of evolutionary history. Mol. Ecol. 18(19):4061-4072.

Rowe, H.I., Brown, C.S., and Paschke, M.W. 2009. The influence of soil inoculum and nitrogen availability on restoration of high-elevation steppe communities invaded by Bromus tectorum. Restor. Ecol. 17(5):686-694.

Saether, B.E., Engen, S., and Solberg, E.J. 2009. Effective size of harvested ungulate populations. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):488-495.

Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., Quesada, M., Cuevas-Reyes, P., Castillo, A., and Sánchez-Montoya, G. 2009. Land cover and conservation in the area of influence of the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Forest Ecol. Manag. 258(6):907-912.

Sandker, M., Campbell, B.M., Nzooh, Z., Sunderland, T., Amougou, V., Defo, L., and Sayer, J. 2009. Exploring the effectiveness of integrated conservation and development interventions in a Central African forest landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(11):2875-2892.

Schenková, J., Sychra, J., Košel, V., Kubová, N., and Horecký, J. 2009. Freshwater leeches (Annelida: Clitellata: Hirudinida) of the Czech Republic (Central Europe): check-list, new records, and remarks on species distributions. Zootaxa 2227:32-52.

Schick, R.S., Halpin, P.N., Read, A.J., Slay, C.K., Kraus, S.D., Mate, B.R., Baumgartner, M.F., Roberts, J.J., Best, B.D., Good, C.P., Loarie, S.R., and Clark, J.S. 2009. Striking the right balance in right whale conservation. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 66(9):1399-1403.

Schmitt, C.B., Burgess, N.D., Coad, L., Belokurov, A., Besançon, C., Boisrobert, L., Campbell, A., Fish, L., Gliddon, D., Humphries, K., Kapos, V., Loucks, C., Lysenko, I., Miles, L., Mills, C., Minnemeyer, S., Pistorius, T., Ravilious, C., Steininger, M., and Winkel, G. 2009. Global analysis of the protection status of the world's forests. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2122-2130.

Schumacher, E., Kueffer, C., Edwards, P.J., and Dietz, H. 2009. Influence of light and nutrient conditions on seedling growth of native and invasive trees in the Seychelles. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1941-1954.

Schödelbauerová, I., Roberts, D.L., and Kindlmann, P. 2009. Size of protected areas is the main determinant of species diversity in orchids. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2329-2334.

Seidel, R.A., Lang, B.K., and Berg, D.J. 2009. Phylogeographic analysis reveals multiple cryptic species of amphipods (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in Chihuahuan Desert springs. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2303-2313.

Sha, J.C.M., Gumert, M.D., Lee, B., Fuentes, A., Rajathurai, S., Chan, S., and Jones-Engel, L. 2009. Status of the long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis in Singapore and implications for management. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(11):2909-2926.

Shackleton, C.M., Cundill, G., and Knight, A.T. 2009. Beyond just research: experiences from southern Africa in developing social learning partnerships for resource conservation initiatives. Biotropica 41(5):563-570.

Shanley, P., and López, C. 2009. Out of the loop: why research rarely reaches policy makers and the public and what can be done. Biotropica 41(5):535-544.

Shokri, M.R., and Gladstone, W. 2009. Higher taxa are effective surrogates for species in the selection of conservation reserves in estuaries. Aquat. Conserv. 19(6):626-636.

Shucksmith, R., Cook, E.J., Hughes, D.J., and Burrows, M.T. 2009. Competition between the non-native amphipod Caprella mutica and two native species of caprellids Pseudoprotella phasma and Caprella linearis. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 89(6):1125-1132.

Simbana, W., and Tye, A. 2009. Reproductive biology and responses to threats and protection measures of the total population of a Critically Endangered Galapagos plant, Linum cratericola (Linaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161(1):89-102.

Singh, N.J., Yoccoz, N.G., Bhatnagar, Y.V., and Fox, J.L. 2009. Using habitat suitability models to sample rare species in high-altitude ecosystems: a case study with Tibetan argali. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(11):2893-2908.

Smith, S.M., Roman, C.T., James-Pirri, M.J., Chapman, K., Portnoy, J., and Gwilliam, E. 2009. Responses of plant communities to incremental hydrologic restoration of a tide-restricted salt marsh in southern New England (Massachusetts, USA). Restor. Ecol. 17(5):606-618.

St-Laurent, M.H., Dussault, C., Ferron, J., and Gagnon, R. 2009. Dissecting habitat loss and fragmentation effects following logging in boreal forest: conservation perspectives from landscape simulations. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2240-2249.

Stevens, C.J., Maskell, L.C., Smart, S.M., Caporn, S.J.M., Dise, N.B., and Gowing, D.J.G. 2009. Identifying indicators of atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts in acid grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2069-2075.

Stewart, K. 2009. Effects of bark harvest and other human activity on populations of the African cherry (Prunus africana) on Mount Oku, Cameroon. Forest Ecol. Manag. 258(7):1121-1128.

Struebig, M.J., Kingston, T., Zubaid, A., Le Comber, S.C., Mohd-Adnan, A., Turner, A., Kelly, J., Bozek, M., and Rossiter, S.J. 2009. Conservation importance of limestone karst outcrops for Palaeotropical bats in a fragmented landscape. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2089-2096.

Suárez-Gracida, C.G., and Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T. 2009. Physical and biological variables related to habitat preferences of rodents. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(11):2779-2797.

Suazo, A.A., Fauth, J.E., Roth, J.D., Parkinson, C.L., and Stout, I.J. 2009. Responses of small rodents to habitat restoration and management for the imperiled Florida Scrub-Jay. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2322-2328.

Sullivan, B.L., Wood, C.L., Iliff, M.J., Bonney, R.E., Fink, D., and Kelling, S. 2009. eBird: a citizen-based bird observation network in the biological sciences. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2282-2292.

Sunderland, T., Sunderland-Groves, J., Shanley, P., and Campbell, B. 2009. Bridging the gap: how can information access and exchange between conservation biologists and field practitioners be improved for better conservation outcomes? Biotropica 41(5):549-554.

Sutherland, W.J., and Woodroof, H.J. 2009. The need for environmental horizon scanning. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(10):523-527.

Teillac-Deschamps, P., Lorrillière, R., Servais, V., Delmas, V., Cadi, A., and Prévot-Julliard, A.C. 2009. Management strategies in urban green spaces: models based on an introduced exotic pet turtle. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2258-2269.

Thelen, B.A., and Thiet, R.K. 2009. Molluscan community recovery following partial tidal restoration of a New England estuary, USA. Restor. Ecol. 17(5):695-703.

Thorogood, C.J., Rumsey, F.J., Harris, S.A., and Hiscock, S.J. 2009. Gene flow between alien and native races of the holoparasitic angiosperm Orobanche minor (Orobanchaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 282(1-2):31-42.

Tilbury, C.R., and Tolley, K.A. 2009. A new species of dwarf chameleon (Sauria; Chamaeleonidae, Bradypodion Fitzinger) from KwaZulu Natal South Africa with notes on recent climatic shifts and their influence on speciation in the genus. Zootaxa 2226:43-57.

Timm, R.M., Lieberman, D., Lieberman, M., and McClearn, D. 2009. Mammals of Cabo Blanco: history, diversity, and conservation after 45 years of regrowth of a Costa Rican dry forest. Forest Ecol. Manag. 258(6):997-1013.

Ureta, C., and Martorell, C. 2009. Identifying the impacts of chronic anthropogenic disturbance on two threatened cacti to provide guidelines for population-dynamics restoration. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):1992-2001.

Vázquez, L., Moya, H., and Arizmendi, M.D. 2009. Avifauna of the tropical dry forest in the Sabino Canyon, Oaxaca, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 80(2):535-549.

Veldman, J.W., Mostacedo, B., Peña-Claros, M., and Putz, F.E. 2009. Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest. Forest Ecol. Manag. 258(7):1643-1649.

Vélez-Espino, L.A., and Koops, M.A. 2009. Quantifying allowable harm in species at risk: application to the Laurentian black redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei). Aquat. Conserv. 19(6):676-688.

Veysey, J.S., Babbitt, K.J., and Cooper, A. 2009. An experimental assessment of buffer width: implications for salamander migratory behavior. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2227-2239.

Vignoli, L., Mocaer, I., Luiselli, L., and Bologna, M.A. 2009. Can a large metropolis sustain complex herpetofauna communities? An analysis of the suitability of green space fragments in Rome. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):456-466.

Vilà, M., Bartomeus, I., Dietzsch, A.C., Petanidou, T., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Stout, J.C., and Tscheulin, T. 2009. Invasive plant integration into native plant-pollinator networks across Europe. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 276(1674):3887-3893.

Vitt, P., Havens, K., and Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 2009. Assisted migration: part of an integrated conservation strategy. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24(9):473-474.

Watling, J.I., Gerow, K., and Donnelly, M.A. 2009. Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles on Neotropical forest islands. Anim. Conserv. 12(5):467-476.

Wilkins, C.F., Ladd, P.G., Vincent, B.J., Crawford, A.D., and Sage, L.W. 2009. Using hierarchies of cause to inform conservation of a naturally rare but critically endangered shrub Lasiopetalum pterocarpum (Malvaceae s.l.). Aust. J. Bot. 57(5):414-424.

Willette, D.A., and Ambrose, R.F. 2009. The distribution and expansion of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea in Dominica, West Indies, with a preliminary report from St. Lucia. Aquat. Bot. 91(3):137-142.

Wimbush, J., Frischer, M.E., Zarzynski, J.W., and Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A. 2009. Eradication of colonizing populations of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by early detection and SCUBA removal: Lake George, NY. Aquat. Conserv. 19(6):703-713.

Wisdom, M.J., and Chambers, J.C. 2009. A landscape approach for ecologically based management of Great Basin shrublands. Restor. Ecol. 17(5):740-749.

Wolkovich, E.M., Bolger, D.T., and Holway, D.A. 2009. Complex responses to invasive grass litter by ground arthropods in a Mediterranean scrub ecosystem. Oecologia 161(4):697-708.

Woods, T.M., Hartnett, D.C., and Ferguson, C.J. 2009. High propagule production and reproductive fitness homeostasis contribute to the invasiveness of Lespedeza cuneata (Fabaceae). Biol. Invasions 11(8):1913-1927.

Wu, H.Q., Zha, K., Zhang, M., and Yang, X.J. 2009. Nest site selection by Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis in the Ruoergai Wetland, China. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(3):277-286.

Xu, W.H., Wang, X.Z., Ouyang, Z.Y., Zhang, J.D., Li, Z.Q., Xiao, Y., and Zheng, H. 2009. Conservation of giant panda habitat in South Minshan, China, after the May 2008 earthquake. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(7):353-358.

Yamaura, Y., Ikeno, S., Sano, M., Okabe, K., and Ozaki, K. 2009. Bird responses to broad-leaved forest patch area in a plantation landscape across seasons. Biol. Conserv. 142(10):2155-2165.

Young, K.A., Stephenson, J., Terreau, A., Thailly, A.F., Gajardo, G., and de Leaniz, C.G. 2009. The diversity of juvenile salmonids does not affect their competitive impact on a native galaxiid. Biol. Invasions 11(8):1955-1961.

Young, K.R. 2009. Andean land use and biodiversity: humanized landscapes in a time of change. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 96(3):492-507.

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