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Department ofBotany

No. 301
January 2010

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In This Issue

Novel Carbon-trading Scheme Could Stop Large-scale Extinctions

By Beth King, STRI

A new strategy for saving tropical forest species was published in the journal Science on the eve of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen, Denmark, by a team of researchers, including William Laurance, senior staff scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) and distinguished professor at James Cook University. The authors state that wealthy countries should adopt a carbon-payment system that explicitly incorporates biodiversity values.

"If we're smart we could combat global warming while saving some of the most endangered wildlife on Earth," said Laurance. "Billions of dollars will be spent on forest-carbon initiatives in the next decade, and this could translate into huge benefits for vanishing species if we focus some of the spending in places where tropical biodiversity is most imperiled."

Destruction of tropical forests causes about 20 percent of human-caused carbon emissions. In strategies to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, carbon-producing nations pay tropical countries to keep some of their land in forest. The authors, mostly researchers working with Hugh Possingham, director of the Ecology Centre at the University of Queensland, evaluated several carbon-based credit scenarios.

"Dollar for dollar, a carbon-focused approach contributes little to slowing biodiversity loss and will save far fewer species than a biodiversity-focused strategy that targets the most imperiled forests," said lead author Oscar Venter, doctoral candidate at the University of Queensland.

A biodiversity-based system would change where carbon funds are spent, resulting in less money for areas like the Amazon where relatively few species are endangered because considerable forest remains. Spending to stem biodiversity loss would favor high-biodiversity nations in Southeast Asia, where most forests have already vanished.


The Smithsonian's Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability and the George Mason Center for Conservation Studies is offering a graduate and professional course, "Species Monitoring and Conservation: Amphibians," at the Conservation and Research Center in Front Royal, Virginia, on May 16-28, 2010. The course will engage graduate students and practitioners in developing skills, approaches and solutions applicable to the worldwide extinction crisis affecting amphibians. Course participants will explore the many tools and techniques for in-situ and ex-situ amphibian research and conservation practice. The course fee is $2,750, which includes instruction and course materials as well as all meals, lodging, and transport to/from Dulles Airport (IAD). Course participants who seek credit through George Mason University must meet Mason graduate admissions standards and complete additional project-focused coursework. Out-of-state participants pay additional tuition to receive credit. Contact for additional information.

Current Literature

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Ahonen, H., Harcourt, R.G., and Stow, A.J. 2009. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA reveals isolation of imperilled grey nurse shark populations (Carcharias taurus). Mol. Ecol. 18(21):4409-4421.

Arndt, E., Fiedler, S., and Böhme, D. 2009. Effects of invasive benthic macroinvertebrates on assessment methods of the EU Water Frame Work Directive. Hydrobiologia 635(1):309-320.

Astles, K.L., Gibbs, P.J., Steffe, A.S., and Green, M. 2009. A qualitative risk-based assessment of impacts on marine habitats and harvested species for a data deficient wild capture fishery. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2759-2773.

Attum, O., Lee, Y.M., and Kingsbury, B.A. 2009. The status of the northern population of the copper-bellied watersnake, Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta. Northeastern Nat. 16(3):317-320.

Bacela, K., Konopacka, A., and Grabowski, M. 2009. Reproductive biology of Dikerogammarus haemobaphes: an invasive gammarid (Crustacea: Amphipoda) colonizing running waters in Central Europe. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2055-2066.

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Bascompte, J. 2009. Mutualistic networks. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(8):429-436.

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Bedward, M., Ellis, M.V., and Simpson, C.C. 2009. Simple modelling to assess if offsets schemes can prevent biodiversity loss, using examples from Australian woodlands. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2732-2742.

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Beschta, R.L., and Ripple, W.J. 2009. Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2401-2414.

Bouchet, P., Le Guyader, H., and Pascal, O. 2009. The SANTO 2006 Global Biodiversity Survey: an attempt to reconcile the pace of taxonomy and conservation. Zoosystema 31(3):401-406.

Brook, S., Grant, A., and Bell, D. 2009. Can land crabs be used as a rapid ecosystem evaluation tool? A test using distribution and abundance of several genera from the Seychelles. Acta Oecol. 35(5):711-719.

Brown, L.E., Céréghino, R., and Compin, A. 2009. Endemic freshwater invertebrates from southern France: diversity, distribution and conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2613-2619.

Brown, S.K., Hull, J.M., Updike, D.R., Fain, S.R., and Ernest, H.B. 2009. Black bear population genetics in California: signatures of population structure, competitive release, and historical translocation. J. Mammal. 90(5):1066-1074.

Buhle, E.R., Holsman, K.K., Scheuerell, M.D., and Albaugh, A. 2009. Using an unplanned experiment to evaluate the effects of hatcheries and environmental variation on threatened populations of wild salmon. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2449-2455.

Calvignac, S., Hughes, S., and Hänni, C. 2009. Genetic diversity of endangered brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):742-750.

Campbell, S., Guay, P.J., Mitrovski, P.J., and Mulder, R. 2009. Genetic differentiation among populations of a specialist fishing bat suggests lack of suitable habitat connectivity. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2657-2664.

Campomizzi, A.J., Morrison, M.L., Farrell, S.L., Wilkins, R.N., Drees, B.M., and Packard, J.M. 2009. Red imported fire ants can decrease songbird nest survival. Condor 111(3):534-537.

Cardoso, P., and Scharff, N. 2009. First record of the spider family Symphytognathidae in Europe and description of Anapistula ataecina sp. n. (Araneae). Zootaxa 2246:45-57.

Carlsson, N.O.L., and Strayer, D.L. 2009. Intraspecific variation in the consumption of exotic prey - a mechanism that increases biotic resistance against invasive species? Freshwater Biol. 54(11):2315-2319.

Caro, T., Jones, T., and Davenport, T.R.B. 2009. Realities of documenting wildlife corridors in tropical countries. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2807-2811.

Carruthers, E.H., Schneider, D.C., and Neilson, J.D. 2009. Estimating the odds of survival and identifying mitigation opportunities for common bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2620-2630.

Catry, I., Alcazar, R., Franco, A.M.A., and Sutherland, W.J. 2009. Identifying the effectiveness and constraints of conservation interventions: a case study of the endangered lesser kestrel. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2782-2791.

Chai, S.L., Tanner, E., and McLaren, K. 2009. High rates of forest clearance and fragmentation pre- and post-National Park establishment: the case of a Jamaican montane rainforest. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2484-2492.

Chen, I.S. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Onychostoma alticorpus (Oshima, 1920) (Cyprinidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 86(1):73-74.

Chetkiewicz, C.L.B., and Boyce, M.S. 2009. Use of resource selection functions to identify conservation corridors. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(5):1036-1047.

Child, M.F., Cumming, G.S., and Amano, T. 2009. Assessing the broad-scale impact of agriculturally transformed and protected area landscapes on avian taxonomic and functional richness. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2593-2601.

Chwedorzewska, K.J. 2009. Terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems in the changing world: an overview. Pol. Polar Res. 30(3):263-276.

Clark, G.F., and Johnston, E.L. 2009. Propagule pressure and disturbance interact to overcome biotic resistance of marine invertebrate communities. Oikos 118(11):1679-1686.

Clark, S.A. 2009. A review of the land snail genus Meridolum (Gastropoda: Camaenidae) from central New South Wales, Australia. Moll. Res. 29(2):61-117.

Clemento, A.J., Anderson, E.C., Boughton, D., Girman, D., and Garza, J.C. 2009. Population genetic structure and ancestry of Oncorhynchus mykiss populations above and below dams in south-central California. Conserv. Genet. 10(5):1321-1336.

Clifford, D.L., Schumaker, B.A., Stephenson, T.R., Bleich, V.C., Cahn, M.L., Gonzales, B.J., Boyce, W.M., and Mazet, J.A.K. 2009. Assessing disease risk at the wildlife-livestock interface: a study of Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2559-2568.

Colautti, R.I., Maron, J.L., and Barrett, S.C.H. 2009. Common garden comparisons of native and introduced plant populations: latitudinal clines can obscure evolutionary inferences. Evol. Appl. 2(2):187-199.

Collins, S.L. 2009. Biodiversity under global change. Science 326(5958):1353-1354.

Cottam, M.R., Robinson, S.K., Heske, E.J., Brawn, J.D., and Rowe, K.C. 2009. Use of landscape metrics to predict avian nest survival in a fragmented midwestern forest landscape. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2464-2475.

Cousins, S.A.O. 2009. Landscape history and soil properties affect grassland decline and plant species richness in rural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2752-2758.

Crabtree, D.L., and Smith, T.A. 2009. Population attributes of an endangered mussel, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana (northern riffleshell), in French Creek and implications for its recovery. Northeastern Nat. 16(3):339-354.

Cucherousset, J., Copp, G.H., Fox, M.G., Sterud, E., van Kleef, H.H., Verreycken, H., and Záhorská, E. 2009. Life-history traits and potential invasiveness of introduced pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus populations in northwestern Europe. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2171-2180.

de Oliveira, G., Diniz, J.A., Bini, L.M., and Rangel, T.F.L.V.B. 2009. Conservation biogeography of mammals in the Cerrado biome under the unified theory of macroecology. Acta Oecol. 35(5):630-638.

De Vita, A., Bernardo, L., Gargano, D., Palermo, A.M., Peruzzi, L., and Musacchio, A. 2009. Investigating genetic diversity and habitat dynamics in Plantago brutia (Plantaginaceae), implications for the management of narrow endemics in Mediterranean mountain pastures. Plant Biol. 11(6):821-828.

Desmonts, D., Fritz, H., Cornulier, T., and Maheo, R. 2009. Rise in human activities on the mudflats and Brent Geese (Branta bernicla) wintering distribution in relation to Zostera spp. beds: a 30-year study. J. Ornithol. 150(4):733-742.

Dietrich, K.S., Parrish, J.K., and Melvin, E.F. 2009. Understanding and addressing seabird bycatch in Alaska demersal longline fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2642-2656.

Diez, J.M., Williams, P.A., Randall, R.P., Sullivan, J.J., Hulme, P.E., and Duncan, R.P. 2009. Learning from failures: testing broad taxonomic hypotheses about plant naturalization. Ecol. Lett. 12(11):1174-1183.

Dimech, M., Darmanin, M., Smith, I.P., Kaiser, M.J., and Schembri, P.J. 2009. Fishers' perception of a 35-year old exclusive Fisheries Management Zone. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2691-2702.

Domínguez-Domínguez, O., Pérez-Rodríguez, R., Escalera-Vázquez, L.H., and Doadrio, I. 2009. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico. Hidrobiologica 19(2):159-172.

Donázar, J.A., Margalida, A., Carrete, M., and Sánchez-Zapata, J.A. 2009. Too sanitary for vultures. Science 326(5953):664-664.

Dowding, J.E., Murphy, E.C., Springer, K., Peacock, A.J., and Krebs, C.J. 2009. Cats, rabbits, Myxoma virus, and vegetation on Macquarie Island: a comment on Bergstrom et al. (2009). J. Appl. Ecol. 46(5):1129-1132.

Duffy, J.E. 2009. Why biodiversity is important to the functioning of real-world ecosystems. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(8):437-444.

Eisenhauer, N., Straube, D., Johnson, E.A., Parkinson, D., and Scheu, S. 2009. Exotic ecosystem engineers change the emergence of plants from the seed bank of a deciduous forest. Ecosystems 12(6):1008-1016.

Essl, F., Staudinger, M., Stöhr, O., Schratt-Ehrendorfer, L., Rabitsch, W., and Niklfeld, H. 2009. Distribution patterns, range size and niche breadth of Austrian endemic plants. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2547-2558.

Exeler, N., Kratochwil, A., and Hochkirch, A. 2009. Restoration of riverine inland sand dune complexes: implications for the conservation of wild bees. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(5):1097-1105.

Fargione, J.E., Cooper, T.R., Flaspohler, D.J., Hill, J., Lehman, C., McCoy, T., McLeod, S., Nelson, E.J., Oberhauser, K.S., and Tilman, D. 2009. Bioenergy and wildlife: threats and opportunities for grassland conservation. BioScience 59(9):767-777.

Filippi-Codaccioni, O., Clobert, J., and Julliard, R. 2009. Urbanisation effects on the functional diversity of avian agricultural communities. Acta Oecol. 35(5):705-710.

Fischer, G.A., Sieder, A., Hermans, J., Andriantiana, J., Kiehn, M., and Cribb, P.J. 2009. Description of four new species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from Madagascar. Novon 19(3):344-352.

Fischer, M.L. 2009. Reactions of the invasive alien species Achatina fulica to abiotic factors: perspectives for the management. Zoologia 26(3):379-385.

Flory, S.L., and Clay, K. 2009. Effects of roads and forest successional age on experimental plant invasions. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2531-2537.

Fukasawa, K., Koike, F., Tanaka, N., and Otsu, K. 2009. Predicting future invasion of an invasive alien tree in a Japanese oceanic island by process-based statistical models using recent distribution maps. Ecol. Res. 24(5):965-975.

Gao, Y., Tang, L., Wang, J.Q., Wang, C.H., Liang, Z.S., Li, B., Chen, J.K., and Zhao, B. 2009. Clipping at early florescence is more efficient for controlling the invasive plant Spartina alterniflora. Ecol. Res. 24(5):1033-1041.

Garcia-del-Rey, E., Fernández-Palacios, J.M., and Muñoz, P.G. 2009. Intra-annual variation in habitat choice by an endemic woodpecker: implications for forest management and conservation. Acta Oecol. 35(5):685-690.

Gascón, S., Boix, D., and Sala, J. 2009. Are different biodiversity metrics related to the same factors? A case study from Mediterranean wetlands. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2602-2612.

Gehrt, S.D., Anchor, C., and White, L.A. 2009. Home range and landscape use of coyotes in a metropolitan landscape: conflict or coexistence? J. Mammal. 90(5):1045-1057.

Gibbs, M., and Van Dyck, H. 2009. Reproductive plasticity, oviposition site selection, and maternal effects in fragmented landscapes. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 64(1):1-11.

Gillis, N.K., Walters, L.J., Fernandes, F.C., and Hoffman, E.A. 2009. Higher genetic diversity in introduced than in native populations of the mussel Mytella charruana: evidence of population admixture at introduction sites. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):784-795.

Godoy, O., Castro-Díez, P., Valladares, F., and Costa-Tenorio, M. 2009. Different flowering phenology of alien invasive species in Spain: evidence for the use of an empty temporal niche? Plant Biol. 11(6):803-811.

Gooden, B., French, K., Turner, P.J., and Downey, P.O. 2009. Impact threshold for an alien plant invader, Lantana camara L., on native plant communities. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2631-2641.

Gorokhova, E., Lehtiniemi, M., Viitasalo-Frösen, S., and Haddock, S.H.D. 2009. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of ctenophore Mertensia ovum in the northern Baltic Sea and implications for the status of the Mnemiopsis leidyi invasion. Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(6):2025-2033.

Grabowska, J., Grabowski, M., and Kostecka, A. 2009. Diet and feeding habits of monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis) in a newly invaded area. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2161-2170.

Grabowski, M., Bacela, K., Konopacka, A., and Jazdzewski, K. 2009. Salinity-related distribution of alien amphipods in rivers provides refugia for native species. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2107-2117.

Graham, N.A.J., Wilson, S.K., Pratchett, M.S., Polunin, N.V.C., and Spalding, M.D. 2009. Coral mortality versus structural collapse as drivers of corallivorous butterflyfish decline. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3325-3336.

Greenwald, K.R., Purrenhage, J.L., and Savage, W.K. 2009. Landcover predicts isolation in Ambystoma salamanders across region and species. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2493-2500.

Gribben, P.E., Byers, J.E., Clements, M., McKenzie, L.A., Steinberg, P.D., and Wright, J.T. 2009. Behavioural interactions between ecosystem engineers control community species richness. Ecol. Lett. 12(11):1127-1136.

Gusset, M., Jakoby, O., Müller, M.S., Somers, M.J., Slotow, R., and Grimm, V. 2009. Dogs on the catwalk: modelling re-introduction and translocation of endangered wild dogs in South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2774-2781.

Hahs, A.K., McDonnell, M.J., McCarthy, M.A., Vesk, P.A., Corlett, R.T., Norton, B.A., Clemants, S.E., Duncan, R.P., Thompson, K., Schwartz, M.W., and Williams, N.S.G. 2009. A global synthesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas. Ecol. Lett. 12(11):1165-1173.

Hall, J., Burgess, N.D., Lovett, J., Mbilinyi, B., and Gereau, R.E. 2009. Conservation implications of deforestation across an elevational gradient in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2510-2521.

Hansen, A.K., Ortega, Y.K., and Six, D.L. 2009. Comparison of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in Rocky Mountain savannas invaded and un-invaded by an exotic forb, spotted knapweed. Northwest Sci. 83(4):348-360.

Hazzah, L., Mulder, M.B., and Frank, L. 2009. Lions and Warriors: social factors underlying declining African lion populations and the effect of incentive-based management in Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2428-2437.

Heino, J., Tolonen, K.T., Kotanen, J., and Paasivirta, L. 2009. Indicator groups and congruence of assemblage similarity, species richness and environmental relationships in littoral macroinvertebrates. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3085-3098.

Hemson, G., Maclennan, S., Mills, G., Johnson, P., and Macdonald, D. 2009. Community, lions, livestock and money: a spatial and social analysis of attitudes to wildlife and the conservation value of tourism in a human-carnivore conflict in Botswana. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2718-2725.

Henden, J.A., Yoccoz, N.G., Ims, R.A., Bårdsen, B.J., and Angerbjörn, A. 2009. Phase-dependent effect of conservation efforts in cyclically fluctuating populations of arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2586-2592.

Hesselschwerdt, J., Tscharner, S., Necker, J., and Wantzen, K.M. 2009. A local gammarid uses kairomones to avoid predation by the invasive crustaceans Dikerogammarus villosus and Orconectes limosus. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2133-2140.

Hodgson, J.A., Moilanen, A., Bourn, N.A.D., Bulman, C.R., and Thomas, C.D. 2009. Managing successional species: modelling the dependence of heath fritillary populations on the spatial distribution of woodland management. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2743-2751.

Hodgson, J.A., Thomas, C.D., Wintle, B.A., and Moilanen, A. 2009. Climate change, connectivity and conservation decision making: back to basics. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(5):964-969.

Holt, R.D. 2009. Up against the edge: invasive species as testbeds for basic questions about evolution in heterogeneous environments. Mol. Ecol. 18(21):4347-4348.

Hostetler, J.A., McCown, J.W., Garrison, E.P., Neils, A.M., Barrett, M.A., Sunquist, M.E., Simek, S.L., and Oli, M.K. 2009. Demographic consequences of anthropogenic influences: Florida black bears in north-central Florida. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2456-2463.

Inoue, M.N., Ishikawa, S., Inoue, T., and Washitani, I. 2009. Conservation ecological study of invasion of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) into a preserved area of the Notsuke Peninsula of eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 44(3):337-342.

Jeschke, J.M. 2009. Across islands and continents, mammals are more successful invaders than birds (Reply to Rodriguez-Cabal et al.). Divers. Distrib. 15(5):913-914.

Jones, S. 2009. A long-term perspective on biodiversity and marine resource exploitation in Fiji's Lau Group. Pacific Sci. 63(4):617-648.

Josefsson, T., Hörnberg, G., and Östlund, L. 2009. Long-term human impact and vegetation changes in a boreal forest reserve: implications for the use of protected areas as ecological references. Ecosystems 12(6):1017-1036.

Jugale, S.B., Bhosale, L.J., Kad, T.D., and Nadaf, A.B. 2009. Genetic diversity assessment in intra- and inter-populations of Xylocarpus granatum Koen.: a critically endangered and narrowly distributed species of Maharashtra. Curr. Sci. 97(5):695-701.

Kappes, H., Delgado, J.D., Alonso, M.R., and Ibáñez, M. 2009. Native and introduced gastropods in laurel forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands. Acta Oecol. 35(5):581-589.

Karatayev, A.Y., Burlakova, L.E., Padilla, D.K., Mastitsky, S.E., and Olenin, S. 2009. Invaders are not a random selection of species. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2009-2019.

Keil, P., and Hawkins, B.A. 2009. Grids versus regional species lists: are broad-scale patterns of species richness robust to the violation of constant grain size? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3127-3137.

Keith, P., Marquet, G., and Pouilly, M. 2009. Stiphodon mele n. sp., a new species of freshwater goby from Vanuatu and New Caledonia (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Sicydiinae), and comments about amphidromy and regional dispersion. Zoosystema 31(3):471-483.

Kerley, G.I.H., Sims-Castley, R., Boshoff, A.F., and Cowling, R.M. 2009. Extinction of the blue antelope Hippotragus leucophaeus: modeling predicts non-viable global population size as the primary driver. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3235-3242.

Kestrup, Å.M., and Ricciardi, A. 2009. Environmental heterogeneity limits the local dominance of an invasive freshwater crustacean. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2095-2105.

Kettenring, K.M., Weekley, C.W., and Menges, E.S. 2009. Herbivory delays flowering and reduces fecundity of Liatris ohlingerae (Asteraceae), an endangered, endemic plant of the Florida scrub. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136(3):350-362.

King, D.I., Chandler, R.B., Collins, J.M., Petersen, W.R., and Lautzenheiser, T.E. 2009. Effects of width, edge and habitat on the abundance and nesting success of scrub-shrub birds in powerline corridors. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2672-2680.

Kozlowski, G., and Vallelian, S. 2009. Eutrophication and endangered aquatic plants: an experimental study on Baldellia ranunculoides (L.) Parl. (Alismataceae). Hydrobiologia 635(1):181-187.

Kroll, A.J., Runge, J.P., and MacCracken, J.G. 2009. Unreliable amphibian population metrics may obfuscate more than they reveal. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2802-2806.

LaFleur, N., Rubega, M., and Parent, J. 2009. Does frugivory by European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) facilitate germination in invasive plants? J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136(3):332-341.

Lander, T.A., Harris, S.A., and Boshier, D.H. 2009. Flower and fruit production and insect pollination of the endangered Chilean tree, Gomortega keule in native forest, exotic pine plantation and agricultural environments. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 82(3):403-412.

Leger, E.A., Espeland, E.K., Merrill, K.R., and Meyer, S.E. 2009. Genetic variation and local adaptation at a cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion edge in western Nevada. Mol. Ecol. 18(21):4366-4379.

Lehtonen, S. 2009. On the origin of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae) in Florida ("E. floridanus"), and its estimated potential as an invasive species. Hydrobiologia 635(1):107-112.

Lepetz, V., Massot, M., Schmeller, D.S., and Clobert, J. 2009. Biodiversity monitoring: some proposals to adequately study species' responses to climate change. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3185-3203.

Lessard, J.P., Fordyce, J.A., Gotelli, N.J., and Sanders, N.J. 2009. Invasive ants alter the phylogenetic structure of ant communities. Ecology 90(10):2664-2669.

Leuven, R.S.E.W., van der Velde, G., Baijens, I., Snijders, J., van der Zwart, C., Lenders, H.J.R., and de Vaate, A.B. 2009. The river Rhine: a global highway for dispersal of aquatic invasive species. Biol. Invasions 11(9):1989-2008.

Li, H.S., and Chen, G.Z. 2009. Genetic variation within the endangered mangrove species Sonneratia paracaseolaris (Sonneratiaceae) in China detected by inter-simple sequence repeats analysis. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 37(4):260-265.

Lockwood, J.L., Cassey, P., and Blackburn, T.M. 2009. The more you introduce the more you get: the role of colonization pressure and propagule pressure in invasion ecology. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):904-910.

Lõhmus, A. 2009. Factors of species-specific detectability in conservation assessments of poorly studied taxa: the case of polypore fungi. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2792-2796.

Lomov, B., Keith, D.A., and Hochuli, D.F. 2009. Linking ecological function to species composition in ecological restoration: seed removal by ants in recreated woodland. Austral Ecol. 34(7):751-760.

Loss, S.R., Ruiz, M.O., and Brawn, J.D. 2009. Relationships between avian diversity, neighborhood age, income, and environmental characteristics of an urban landscape. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2578-2585.

Lovell, S., Hamer, M., Slotow, R., and Herbert, D. 2009. An assessment of the use of volunteers for terrestrial invertebrate biodiversity surveys. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3295-3307.

Lucas, L.K., Gompert, Z., Ott, J.R., and Nice, C.C. 2009. Geographic and genetic isolation in spring-associated Eurycea salamanders endemic to the Edwards Plateau region of Texas. Conserv. Genet. 10(5):1309-1319.

Lyons, D.A., and Scheibling, R.E. 2009. Range expansion by invasive marine algae: rates and patterns of spread at a regional scale. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):762-775.

Maas, B., Putra, D.D., Waltert, M., Clough, Y., Tscharntke, T., and Schulze, C.H. 2009. Six years of habitat modification in a tropical rainforest margin of Indonesia do not affect bird diversity but endemic forest species. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2665-2671.

Macagno, A.L.M., and Palestrini, C. 2009. The maintenance of extensively exploited pastures within the Alpine mountain belt: implications for dung beetle conservation (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea). Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3309-3323.

Maclennan, S.D., Groom, R.J., Macdonald, D.W., and Frank, L.G. 2009. Evaluation of a compensation scheme to bring about pastoralist tolerance of lions. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2419-2427.

MacNeil, C., and Briffa, M. 2009. Replacement of a native freshwater macroinvertebrate species by an invader: implications for biological water quality monitoring. Hydrobiologia 635(1):321-327.

Marshall, J.M., Buckley, D.S., and Franklin, J.A. 2009. Competitive interaction between Microstegium vimineum and first-year seedlings of three central hardwoods. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136(3):342-349.

Martin, J., McIntyre, C.L., Hines, J.E., Nichols, J.D., Schmutz, J.A., and MacCluskie, M.C. 2009. Dynamic multistate site occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses relevant to conservation of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2726-2731.

Matsumoto, T., Itioka, T., Yamane, S., and Momose, K. 2009. Traditional land use associated with swidden agriculture changes encounter rates of the top predator, the army ant, in Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3139-3151.

Meynard, C.N., Howell, C.A., and Quinn, J.F. 2009. Comparing alternative systematic conservation planning strategies against a politically driven conservation plan. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3061-3083.

Milligan, S.R., Holt, W.V., and Lloyd, R. 2009. Impacts of climate change and environmental factors on reproduction and development in wildlife. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 364(1534):3313-3319.

Milne, D.J., Jackling, F.C., Sidhu, M., and Appleton, B.R. 2009. Shedding new light on old species identifications: morphological and genetic evidence suggest a need for conservation status review of the critically endangered bat, Saccolaimus saccolaimus. Wildlife Res. 36(6):496-508.

Mimura, M., Barbour, R.C., Potts, B.M., Vaillancourt, R.E., and Watanabe, K.N. 2009. Comparison of contemporary mating patterns in continuous and fragmented Eucalyptus globulus native forests. Mol. Ecol. 18(20):4180-4192.

Monteiro, C.A., Engelen, A.H., and Santos, R.O.P. 2009. Macro- and mesoherbivores prefer native seaweeds over the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum: a potential regulating role on invasions. Mar. Biol. 156(12):2505-2515.

Muratet, A., Porcher, E., Abadie, J.C., Poncet, L., Moret, J., and Robert, A. 2009. Use of extensive habitat inventories in biodiversity studies. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3115-3125.

Nepstad, D., Soares, B.S., Merry, F., Lima, A., Moutinho, P., Carter, J., Bowman, M., Cattaneo, A., Rodrigues, H., Schwartzman, S., McGrath, D.G., Stickler, C.M., Lubowski, R., Piris-Cabezas, P., Rivero, S., Alencar, A., Almeida, O., and Stella, O. 2009. The end of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 326(5958):1350-1351.

Neveu, A. 2009. Incidence of climate on common frog breeding: long-term and short-term changes. Acta Oecol. 35(5):671-678.

Noordhuis, R., van Schie, J., and Jaarsma, N. 2009. Colonization patterns and impacts of the invasive amphipods Chelicorophium curvispinum and Dikerogammarus villosus in the IJsselmeer area, The Netherlands. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2067-2084.

Nyberg, C.D., Thomsen, M.S., and Wallentinus, I. 2009. Flora and fauna associated with the introduced red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Eur. J. Phycology 44(3):395-403.

Nylin, S., and Bergström, A. 2009. Threat status in butterflies and its ecological correlates: how far can we generalize? Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3243-3267.

Ockinger, E., Franzen, M., Rundlof, M., and Smith, H.G. 2009. Mobility-dependent effects on species richness in fragmented landscapes. Basic Appl. Ecol. 10(6):573-578.

Osland, M.J., Pahl, J.W., and Richardson, C.J. 2009. Native bamboo [Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl., Poaceae] establishment and growth after the removal of an invasive non-native shrub (Ligustrum sinense Lour., Oleaceae): implications for restoration. Castanea 74(3):247-258.

Overton, J.M., Barker, G.M., and Price, R. 2009. Estimating and conserving patterns of invertebrate diversity: a test case of New Zealand land snails. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):731-741.

Pandit, R., and Laband, D.N. 2009. Economic well-being, the distribution of income and species imperilment. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3219-3233.

Parviainen, M., Marmion, M., Luoto, M., Thuiller, W., and Heikkinen, R.K. 2009. Using summed individual species models and state-of-the-art modelling techniques to identify threatened plant species hotspots. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2501-2509.

Pasachnik, S.A., Fitzpatrick, B.M., Near, T.J., and Echternacht, A.C. 2009. Gene flow between an endangered endemic iguana, and its wide spread relative, on the island of Utila, Honduras: when is hybridization a threat? Does hybridization threaten an endangered iguana? Conserv. Genet. 10(5):1247-1254.

Patterson, J.C., and Lindeman, P.V. 2009. Effects of zebra and quagga mussel (Dreissena spp.) invasion on the feeding habits of Sternotherus odoratus (stinkpot) on Presque Isle, northwestern Pennsylvania. Northeastern Nat. 16(3):365-374.

Pau, S., Gillespie, T.W., and Price, J.P. 2009. Natural history, biogeography, and endangerment of Hawaiian dry forest trees. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3167-3182.

Pinares, A., González-Astorga, J., Vovides, A.P., Lazcano, J., and Vendrame, W.A. 2009. Genetic diversity of the endangered endemic Microcycas calocoma (Miq.) A. DC (Zamiaceae, Cycadales): implications for conservation. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 37(4):385-394.

Piovesan, G., Saba, E.P., Biondi, F., Alessandrini, A., Di Filippo, A., and Schirone, B. 2009. Population ecology of yew (Taxus baccata L.) in the Central Apennines: spatial patterns and their relevance for conservation strategies. Plant Ecol. 205(1):23-46.

Piscart, C., Dick, J.T.A., McCrisken, D., and MacNeil, C. 2009. Environmental mediation of intraguild predation between the freshwater invader Gammarus pulex and the native G. duebeni celticus. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2141-2145.

Platvoet, D., Dick, J.T.A., MacNeil, C., van Riel, M.C., and van der Velde, G. 2009. Invader-invader interactions in relation to environmental heterogeneity leads to zonation of two invasive amphipods, Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky) and Gammarus tigrinus Sexton: amphipod pilot species project (AMPIS) report 6. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2085-2093.

Plumb, G.E., White, P.J., Coughenour, M.B., and Wallen, R.L. 2009. Carrying capacity, migration, and dispersal in Yellowstone bison. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2377-2387.

Pöckl, M. 2009. Success of the invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus by life history traits and reproductive capacity. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2021-2041.

Poole, A., and Lawton, C. 2009. The translocation and post release settlement of red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris to a previously uninhabited woodland. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3205-3218.

Powers, S.P., Peterson, C.H., Grabowski, J.H., and Lenihan, H.S. 2009. Success of constructed oyster reefs in no-harvest sanctuaries: implications for restoration. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 389:159-170.

Prentis, P.J., Sigg, D.P., Raghu, S., Dhileepan, K., Pavasovic, A., and Lowe, A.J. 2009. Understanding invasion history: genetic structure and diversity of two globally invasive plants and implications for their management. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):822-830.

Primack, R.B., Ibáñez, I., Higuchi, H., Lee, S.D., Miller-Rushing, A.J., Wilson, A.M., and Silander, J.A. 2009. Spatial and interspecific variability in phenological responses to warming temperatures. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2569-2577.

Pritchard, V.L., Metcalf, J.L., Jones, K., Martin, A.P., and Cowley, D.E. 2009. Population structure and genetic management of Rio Grande cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii virginalis). Conserv. Genet. 10(5):1209-1221.

Prusty, B.A.K. 2009. Need for conservation of wetlands in arid Kachchh region. Curr. Sci. 97(6):745-746.

Pyšek, P., Jarošik, V., Pergl, J., Randall, R., Chytrý, M., Kühn, I., Tichý, L., Danihelka, J., Chrtek, J.J., and Sádlo, J. 2009. The global invasion success of Central European plants is related to distribution characteristics in their native range and species traits. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):891-903.

Pyšek, P., Krivánek, M., and Jarošík, V. 2009. Planting intensity, residence time, and species traits determine invasion success of alien woody species. Ecology 90(10):2734-2744.

Raabová, J., Münzbergová, Z., and Fischer, M. 2009. Consequences of near and far between-population crosses for offspring fitness in a rare herb. Plant Biol. 11(6):829-836.

Rajagopal, S., Pollux, B.J.A., Peters, J.L., Cremers, G., Moon-van der Staay, S.Y., van Alen, T., Eygensteyn, J., van Hoek, A., Palau, A., de Vaate, A.B., and van der Velde, G. 2009. Origin of Spanish invasion by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2147-2159.

Rawat, D.S. 2009. Dipcadi Medik. (Liliaceae): a disappearing genus in India. Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 32(7-8):211-212.

Redpath, S., and Thirgood, S. 2009. Hen harriers and red grouse: moving towards consensus? J. Appl. Ecol. 46(5):961-963.

Reed, J.M., Fefferman, N., and Averill-Murray, R.C. 2009. Vital rate sensitivity analysis as a tool for assessing management actions for the desert tortoise. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2710-2717.

Reich, P.B. 2009. Elevated CO2 reduces losses of plant diversity caused by nitrogen deposition. Science 326(5958):1399-1402.

Richards-Zawacki, C.L. 2009. Effects of slope and riparian habitat connectivity on gene flow in an endangered Panamanian frog, Atelopus varius. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):796-806.

Richmond, J.Q., Reid, D.T., Ashton, K.G., and Zamudio, K.R. 2009. Delayed genetic effects of habitat fragmentation on the ecologically specialized Florida sand skink (Plestiodon reynoldsi). Conserv. Genet. 10(5):1281-1297.

Rinehart, K.A., Donovan, T.M., Mitchell, B.R., and Long, R.A. 2009. Factors influencing occupancy patterns of eastern newts across Vermont. J. Herpetol. 43(3):521-531.

Rius, M., and McQuaid, C.D. 2009. Facilitation and competition between invasive and indigenous mussels over a gradient of physical stress. Basic Appl. Ecol. 10(7):607-613.

Rocha, C.F.D., Siqueira, C.D., and Ariani, C.V. 2009. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae): current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities. Zoologia 26(3):454-460.

Rodder, D., and Lotters, S. 2009. Niche shift versus niche conservatism? Climatic characteristics of the native and invasive ranges of the Mediterranean house gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus). Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 18(6):674-687.

Rodriguez-Cabal, M.A., Barrios-Garcia, M.N., and Simberloff, D. 2009. Across island and continents, mammals are more successful invaders than birds (Reply). Divers. Distrib. 15(5):911-912.

Roscher, C., Schmid, B., and Schulze, E.D. 2009. Non-random recruitment of invader species in experimental grasslands. Oikos 118(10):1524-1540.

Sande, S.O., Crewe, R.M., Raina, S.K., Nicolson, S.W., and Gordon, I. 2009. Proximity to a forest leads to higher honey yield: another reason to conserve. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2703-2709.

Santos, X., Bros, V., and Miño, À. 2009. Recolonization of a burned Mediterranean area by terrestrial gastropods. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3153-3165.

Savage, A.M., Rudgers, J.A., and Whitney, K.D. 2009. Elevated dominance of extrafloral nectary-bearing plants is associated with increased abundances of an invasive ant and reduced native ant richness. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):751-761.

Scarnati, L., Attorre, F., De Sanctis, M., Farcomeni, A., Francesconi, F., Mancini, M., and Bruno, F. 2009. A multiple approach for the evaluation of the spatial distribution and dynamics of a forest habitat: the case of Apennine beech forests with Taxus baccata and Ilex aquifolium. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3099-3113.

Sepulveda, A.J., and Lowe, W.H. 2009. Local and landscape-scale influences on the occurrence and density of Dicamptodon aterrimus, the Idaho giant salamander. J. Herpetol. 43(3):469-484.

Serra, G., Peske, L., Abdallah, M.S., al Qaim, G., and Kanani, A. 2009. Breeding ecology and behaviour of the last wild oriental Northern Bald Ibises (Geronticus eremita) in Syria. J. Ornithol. 150(4):769-782.

Sharma, S., Herborg, L.M., and Therriault, T.W. 2009. Predicting introduction, establishment and potential impacts of smallmouth bass. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):831-840.

Slauson, K.M., Zielinski, W.J., and Stone, K.D. 2009. Characterizing the molecular variation among American marten (Martes americana) subspecies from Oregon and California. Conserv. Genet. 10(5):1337-1341.

Smith, A.L., Gardner, M.G., Fenner, A.L., and Bull, C.M. 2009. Restricted gene flow in the endangered pygmy bluetongue lizard (Tiliqua adelaidensis) in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Wildlife Res. 36(6):466-478.

Sotherton, N., Tapper, S., and Smith, A. 2009. Hen harriers and red grouse: economic aspects of red grouse shooting and the implications for moorland conservation. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(5):955-960.

Srbek-Araujo, A.C., Scoss, L.M., Hirsch, A., and Chiarello, A.G. 2009. Records of the giant-armadillo Priodontes maximus (Cingulata: Dasypodidae) in the Atlantic Forest: are Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo the last strongholds of the species? Zoologia 26(3):461-468.

Stenert, C., Bacca, R.C., Maltchik, L., and Rocha, O. 2009. Can hydrologic management practices of rice fields contribute to macroinvertebrate conservation in southern Brazil wetlands? Hydrobiologia 635(1):339-350.

Straub, S.C.K., and Doyle, J.J. 2009. Conservation genetics of Amorpha georgiana (Fabaceae), an endangered legume of the Southeastern United States. Mol. Ecol. 18(21):4349-4365.

Swarts, N.D., Sinclair, E.A., Krauss, S.L., and Dixon, K.W. 2009. Genetic diversity in fragmented populations of the critically endangered spider orchid Caladenia huegelii: implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 10(5):1199-1208.

Tanentzap, A.J., Burrows, L.E., Lee, W.G., Nugent, G., Maxwell, J.M., and Coomes, D.A. 2009. Landscape-level vegetation recovery from herbivory: progress after four decades of invasive red deer control. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(5):1064-1072.

Terribile, L.C., de Oliveira, G., Albuquerque, F., Rodríguez, M.A., and Diniz, J.A.F. 2009. Global conservation strategies for two clades of snakes: combining taxon-specific goals with general prioritization schemes. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):841-851.

Thomaz, S.M., Carvalho, P., Mormul, R.P., Ferreira, F.A., Silveira, M.J., and Michelan, T.S. 2009. Temporal trends and effects of diversity on occurrence of exotic macrophytes in a large reservoir. Acta Oecol. 35(5):614-620.

Thompson, P.S., Amar, A., Hoccom, D.G., Knott, J., and Wilson, J.D. 2009. Resolving the conflict between driven-grouse shooting and conservation of hen harriers. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(5):950-954.

Tikkanen, O.P., Punttila, P., and Heikkilä, R. 2009. Species-area relationships of red-listed species in old boreal forests: a large-scale data analysis. Divers. Distrib. 15(5):852-862.

Tocher, M.D. 2009. Life history traits contribute to decline of critically endangered lizards at Macraes Flat, Otago. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 33(2):125-137.

Tscheulin, T., Petanidou, T., Potts, S.G., and Settele, J. 2009. The impact of Solanum elaeagnifolium, an invasive plant in the Mediterranean, on the flower visitation and seed set of the native co-flowering species Glaucium flavum. Plant Ecol. 205(1):77-85.

Tyler, T., and Bertilsson, A. 2009. Hieracium (Asteraceae) of sub-alpine Dalarna, Sweden, revisited: decline in species richness attributable to both forestry and overgrowth. Nord. J. Bot. 27(5):419-424.

Uzun, A., Terzioglu, S., Palabas-Uzun, S., and Coskunçelebi, K. 2009. Astragalus ansinii sp. nov. (Fabaceae) from Turkey, and a contribution to the sectional taxonomy. Nord. J. Bot. 27(5):397-401.

Van Den Bussche, R.A., Lack, J.B., Onorato, D.P., Gardner-Santana, L.C., McKinney, B.R., Villalobos, J.D., Chamberlain, M.J., White, D., and Hellgren, E.C. 2009. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of black bears (Ursus americanus) in central and southern North America: conservation implications. J. Mammal. 90(5):1075-1082.

van der Velde, G., Leuven, R.S.E.W., Leewis, R.J., and de Vaate, A.B. 2009. Aquatic invaders: from success factors to ecological risk assessment: introduction. Biol. Invasions 11(9):1987-1988.

van der Velde, G., Leuven, R.S.E.W., Platvoet, D., Bacela, K., Huijbregts, M.A.J., Hendriks, H.W.M., and Kruijt, D. 2009. Environmental and morphological factors influencing predatory behaviour by invasive non-indigenous gammaridean species. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2043-2054.

van Klinken, R.D., Lawson, B.E., and Zalucki, M.P. 2009. Predicting invasions in Australia by a Neotropical shrub under climate change: the challenge of novel climates and parameter estimation. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 18(6):688-700.

van Riel, M.C., van der Velde, G., and de Vaate, A.B. 2009. Interference competition between alien invasive gammaridean species. Biol. Invasions 11(9):2119-2132.

Venter, O., Laurance, W.F., Iwamura, T., Wilson, K.A., Fuller, R.A., and Possingham, H.P. 2009. Harnessing carbon payments to protect biodiversity. Science 326(5958):1368.

Virah-Sawmy, M., Gillson, L., and Willis, K.J. 2009. How does spatial heterogeneity influence resilience to climatic changes? Ecological dynamics in southeast Madagascar. Ecol. Monogr. 79(4):557-574.

von der Heyden, S. 2009. Why do we need to integrate population genetics into South African marine protected area planning? Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 31(2):263-269.

Wang, X.Z., Xu, W.H., and Ouyang, Z.Y. 2009. Integrating population size analysis into habitat suitability assessment: implications for giant panda conservation in the Minshan Mountains, China. Ecol. Res. 24(5):1101-1109.

Wang, Z.S., Shi, J.Q., Xu, C.R., and Lei, G.C. 2009. Degradation of icefishes (Salangidae) in the Yangtze River basin of China: threats and strategies. Environ. Biol. Fish. 86(1):109-117.

Wehling, S., and Diekmann, M. 2009. Importance of hedgerows as habitat corridors for forest plants in agricultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2522-2530.

Weijtmans, K., Jongejans, E., and van Ruijven, J. 2009. Sod cutting and soil biota effects on seedling performance. Acta Oecol. 35(5):651-656.

Welsh, H.H., Pope, K.L., and Wheeler, C.A. 2009. How reliable are amphibian population metrics? A response to Kroll et al. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2797-2801.

Western, D., Groom, R., and Worden, J. 2009. The impact of subdivision and sedentarization of pastoral lands on wildlife in an African savanna ecosystem. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2538-2546.

Williams-Linera, G., and Lorea, F. 2009. Tree species diversity driven by environmental and anthropogenic factors in tropical dry forest fragments of central Veracruz, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(12):3269-3293.

Williams, S.E., and Hoffman, E.A. 2009. Minimizing genetic adaptation in captive breeding programs: a review. Biol. Conserv. 142(11):2388-2400.

Willis, K.J., and Bhagwat, S.A. 2009. Biodiversity and climate change. Science 326(5954):806-807.

Wiser, S.K., and Buxton, R.P. 2009. Montane outcrop vegetation of Banks Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 33(2):164-176.

Yadugiri, V.T. 2009. An endangered species goldmine in the Congo Basin. Curr. Sci. 97(5):615.

Zhang, R.J., Chen, H.F., Xing, F.W., and Ye, Y.S. 2009. Munronia yinggelingensis sp. nov. (Meliaceae) from Hainan, China. Nord. J. Bot. 27(5):376-378.

Zidana, H., Turner, G.F., Van Oosterhout, C., and Hänfling, B. 2009. Elevated mtDNA diversity in introduced populations of Cynotilapia afra (Gunther 1894) in Lake Malawi National Park is evidence for multiple source populations and hybridization. Mol. Ecol. 18(21):4380-4389.

Zimmermann, H., Renison, D., Leyer, I., and Hensen, I. 2009. Do we need livestock grazing to promote Polylepis australis tree recruitment in the Central Argentinean Mountains? Ecol. Res. 24(5):1075-1081.

Zukowski, S., and Walker, K.F. 2009. Freshwater snails in competition: alien Physa acuta (Physidae) and native Glyptophysa gibbosa (Planorbidae) in the River Murray, South Australia. Mar. Freshwater Res. 60(10):999-1005.

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