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Department ofBotany

No. 303
March 2010

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In This Issue

DNA from a 100-Year-Old Specimen Confirms the Validity of a Potentially Extinct Hummingbird Species

by Gary Graves

Cataloguing the biota of biologically unexplored regions often follows closely on the heels of human population expansion and subsequent waves of anthropogenically caused extinctions. Many species that were rare when first encountered by biologists have not been observed since the specimens were collected. Species known only from unique specimens are rightfully viewed with caution because they may represent hybrids or aberrant phenotypes.

Living populations of these biological mysteries are occasionally 'rediscovered' in nature many decades after their scientific descriptions, providing hope to conservationists. More frequently, the mysteries remain unsolved, hinting at an unknown history of hybridization or of possible extinction. For these cases, ancient DNA (aDNA) methods provide the means for resolving disputes regarding the validity of species known only from unique holotypes.

In a recent paper in Biology Letters, Jeremy Kirchman (New York State Museum), Christopher Witt (University of New Mexico), Jimmy McGuire (University of California, Berkeley), and Gary Graves (National Museum of Natural History) used this approach to investigate the contentious case of a spectacular 100-year-old hummingbird specimen, the holotype and the only known specimen of the Bogotá Sunangel, Heliangelus zusii.

In 1947, Brother Nicéforo María presented a specimen he purchased in 1909 in Bogotá, Colombia, to Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Meyer de Schauensee was perplexed by the specimen and solicited the opinions of many leading ornithologists of his day, including Alexander Wetmore, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. There was no consensus among the experts.

In 1993, Graves conducted an exhaustive analysis of plumage and morphology, comparing the specimen to all hummingbird taxa housed in several of the largest museums. Following a well-established method of hybrid diagnosis, he concluded that the specimen represented the only known example of a valid species, which he named H. zusii. This conclusion was controversial, in part, because the exact provenance of the specimen was unknown and because hummingbirds are known to hybridize extensively. Consequently, the validity of the taxon was doubted by many authorities.

Kirchman et al. used sequence data from fragments of several mitochondrial genes to confirm that the holotype of Heliangelus zusii represents a valid species, which is genetically well differentiated from taxa previously hypothesized to have given rise to the specimen via hybridization. Phylogenetic analyses place H. zusii as sister to a clade of mid- to high-elevation Andean species currently placed in the genera Taphrolesbia and Aglaiocercus. Heliangelus zusii, presumed extinct, has never been observed in nature by biologists. Kirchman et al. infer that the species occupied a restricted distribution between the upper tropical and temperate zones of the northern Andes and that it was most probably driven to extinction by deforestation during the 19th and early 20th century. This study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining genetic material from nearly microscopic tissue samples from old museum specimens and suggests that aDNA methods could be used to resolve the taxonomy of dozens of avian taxa known only from type specimens.


The Smithsonian-Mason Global Conservation Studies Programs is offering a new graduate and professional course, Conservation Conflict Resolution, an intensive 10-day experiential training course addressing conservation conflicts, whether these are conflicts between people and wildlife or between people about wildlife or other natural resources. The course will be held May 13-22, 2010, at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, Virginia. This course teaches participants strategies for effectively addressing conservation-related conflict, including the role of neutrality in conflict prevention and reconciliation; conflict-resolving communication techniques; and applying conflict analysis and process models to develop real-life conflict resolution plans. The course fee is $2,500, which includes instruction and course materials plus all meals, lodging, and ground transport to/from Dulles Airport (IAD). Course participants earn Continuing Education Units. Graduate course credits are available for qualified applicants at additional cost through George Mason University. Visit or contact for additional information.


The Wilderness Society is now accepting applications for the 2010 Gloria Barron Wilderness Society Scholarship. This $10,000 scholarship is awarded annually to a graduate student in natural resources management, law or policy programs. The scholarship seeks to encourage individuals who have the potential to make a significant positive difference in the long-term protection of wilderness in North America. The award is made in support of research and preparation of a paper on an aspect of wilderness establishment, protection, or management. The work may apply to a particular landscape or it may address issues broadly. TWS strongly encourages proposals relating to climate change, as well as other topics regarding wilderness conservation. For more information and application instructions, please visit The application deadline is March 31, 2010.

Current Literature

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Chapman, M.G., Underwood, A.J., and Clarke, K.R. 2009. New indices for ranking conservation sites using 'relative endemism'. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3154-3162.

Cheek, M. 2009. Mussaenda epiphytica sp. nov. (Rubiaceae), an epiphytic shrub from cloud forest of the Bakossi Mts, western Cameroon. Nord. J. Bot. 27:456-459.

Chen, J., Cannon, C.H., and Hu, H.B. 2009. Tropical botanical gardens: at the in situ ecosystem management frontier. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):584-589.

Chen, Y.H. 2009. Conservation biogeography of the snake family Colubridae of China. North-West. J. Zool. 5:251-262.

Cherwin, K.L., Seastedt, T.R., and Suding, K.N. 2009. Effects of nutrient manipulations and grass removal on cover, species composition, and invasibility of a novel grassland in Colorado. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):818-826.

Clement, C.R., Santos, R.P., Desmouliere, S.J.M., Ferreira, E.J.L., and Neto, J.T.F. 2009. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia. PLoS ONE 4(2):e4564.

Clifton, J. 2009. Science, funding and participation: key issues for marine protected area networks and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Environ. Conserv. 36(2):91-96.

Collins, P.W., Latta, B.C., and Roemer, G.W. 2009. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig. PLoS ONE 4(9):e7005.

Contreras, V., Martínez-Meyer, E., Valiente, E., and Zambrano, L. 2009. Recent decline and potential distribution in the last remnant area of the microendemic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2881-2885.

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Craven, D., Hall, J., and Verjans, J.M. 2009. Impacts of herbicide application and mechanical cleanings on growth and mortality of two timber species in Saccharum spontaneum grasslands of the Panama Canal Watershed. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):751-761.

Crosby, M.K.A., Licht, L.E., and Fu, J.Z. 2009. The effect of habitat fragmentation on finescale population structure of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Conserv. Genet. 10(6):1707-1718.

D'Amen, M., and Bombi, P. 2009. Global warming and biodiversity: evidence of climate-linked amphibian declines in Italy. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3060-3067.

Daehler, C.C. 2009. Short lag times for invasive tropical plants: evidence from experimental plantings in Hawai'i. PLoS ONE 4(2):e4462.

Daleszczyk, K., and Bunevich, A.N. 2009. Population viability analysis of European bison populations in Polish and Belarusian parts of Bialowieza Forest with and without gene exchange. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3068-3075.

Davis, N.E., O'Dowd, D.J., Mac Nally, R., and Green, P.T. 2010. Invasive ants disrupt frugivory by endemic island birds. Biol. Lett. 6(1):85-88.

de Roland, L.A.R., Thorstrom, R., Razafimanjato, G., Rakotondratsima, M.P.H., Andriamalala, T.R.A., and Sam, S. 2009. Surveys, distribution and current status of the Madagascar Harrier Circus macrosceles in Madagascar. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(4):309-322.

Dent, D.H., and Wright, S.J. 2009. The future of tropical species in secondary forests: a quantitative review. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2833-2843.

Dettman, C.L., Mabry, C.M., and Schulte, L.A. 2009. Restoration of Midwestern US savannas: one size does not fit all. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):772-783.

DeVaney, S.C., McNyset, K.M., Williams, J.B., Peterson, A.T., and Wiley, E.O. 2009. A tale of four "carp": invasion potential and ecological niche modeling. PLoS ONE 4(5):e5451.

deWaard, J.R., Landry, J.F., Schmidt, B.C., Derhousoff, J., McLean, J.A., and Humble, L.M. 2009. In the dark in a large urban park: DNA barcodes illuminate cryptic and introduced moth species. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3825-3839.

Dibble, A.C., Miller, N.G., Hinds, J.W., and Fryday, A.M. 2009. Lichens and bryophytes of the alpine and subalpine zones of Katahdin, Maine, I: Overview, ecology, climate and conservation aspects. Bryologist 112:651-672.

Dietz, M., and Pir, J.B. 2009. Distribution and habitat selection of Myotis bechsteinii in Luxembourg: implications for forest management and conservation. Folia Zool. 58(3):327-340.

Diez, J.M., Buckley, H.L., Case, B.S., Harsch, M.A., Sciligo, A.R., Wangen, S.R., and Duncan, R.P. 2009. Interacting effects of management and environmental variability at multiple scales on invasive species distributions. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(6):1210-1218.

Dogu, S., Bagci, Y., and Dinç, M. 2009. Rhaponticoides aytachii sp. nov. (Asteraceae) from south Anatolia, Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 27:479-482.

Donald, P.F., Aratrakorn, S., Htun, T.W., Eames, J.C., Hla, H., Thunhikorn, S., Sribua-Rod, K., Tinun, P., Aung, S.M., Zaw, S.M., and Buchanan, G.M. 2009. Population, distribution, habitat use and breeding of Gurney's Pitta Pitta gurneyi in Myanmar and Thailand. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(4):353-366.

Donaldson, J.S. 2009. Botanic gardens science for conservation and global change. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):608-613.

Dong, A.Q., Zhou, J.S., Gong, Q., and Xing, F.W. 2009. A new species of Viola (Violaceae) from Guangdong, China. Novon 19:457-460.

Dorow, M., Beardmore, B., Haider, W., and Arlinghaus, R. 2009. Using a novel survey technique to predict fisheries stakeholders' support for European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) conservation programs. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2973-2982.

Drake, J.M., and Bossenbroek, J.M. 2009. Profiling ecosystem vulnerability to invasion by zebra mussels with support vector machines. Theor. Ecol. 2(4):189-198.

Dubois, S., Gelpi, C.G., Condrey, R.E., Grippo, M.A., and Fleeger, J.W. 2009. Diversity and composition of macrobenthic community associated with sandy shoals of the Louisiana continental shelf. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3759-3784.

Edgar, G.J., Barrett, N.S., and Stuart-Smith, R.D. 2009. Exploited reefs protected from fishing transform over decades into conservation features otherwise absent from seascapes. Ecol. Appl. 19(8):1967-1974.

Edwards, C.E., Judd, W.S., Ionta, G.M., and Herring, B. 2009. Using population genetic data as a tool to identify new species: Conradina cygniflora (Lamiaceae), a new, endangered species from Florida. Syst. Bot. 34:747-759.

Escalona, T., Engstrom, T.N., Hernandez, O.E., Bock, B.C., Vogt, R.C., and Valenzuela, N. 2009. Population genetics of the endangered South American freshwater turtle, Podocnemis unifilis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data. Conserv. Genet. 10(6):1683-1696.

Ewers, R.M., Kapos, V., Coomes, D.A., Lafortezza, R., and Didham, R.K. 2009. Mapping community change in modified landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2872-2880.

Farfán, M.A., Vargas, J.M., Duarte, J., and Real, R. 2009. What is the impact of wind farms on birds? A case study in southern Spain. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3743-3758.

Feld, C.K., da Silva, P.M., Sousa, J.P., de Bello, F., Bugter, R., Grandin, U., Hering, D., Lavorel, S., Mountford, O., Pardo, I., Partel, M., Römbke, J., Sandin, L., Jones, K.B., and Harrison, P. 2009. Indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem services: a synthesis across ecosystems and spatial scales. Oikos 118(12):1862-1871.

Ferreira, M.N.E., and Freire, N.C. 2009. Community perceptions of four protected areas in the Northern portion of the Cerrado hotspot, Brazil. Environ. Conserv. 36(2):129-138.

Fischer, L.K., von der Lippe, M., and Kowarik, I. 2009. Tree invasion in managed tropical forests facilitates endemic species. J. Biogeogr. 36(12):2251-2263.

Fishman, D.B., Adlerstein, S.A., Vanderploeg, H.A., Fahnenstiel, G.L., and Scavia, D. 2009. Causes of phytoplankton changes in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, during the zebra mussel invasion. J. Great Lakes Res. 35(4):482-495.

Fleming, G.M., Diffendorfer, J.E., and Zedler, P.H. 2009. The relative importance of disturbance and exotic-plant abundance in California coastal sage scrub. Ecol. Appl. 19(8):2210-2227.

Flöder, S., and Kilroy, C. 2009. Didymosphenia geminata (Protista, Bacillariophyceae) invasion, resistance of native periphyton communities, and implications for dispersal and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3809-3824.

Ford, H.A., Walters, J.R., Cooper, C.B., Debus, S.J.S., and Doerr, V.A.J. 2009. Extinction debt or habitat change? - Ongoing losses of woodland birds in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3182-3190.

Foucaud, J., Orivel, J., Fournier, D., Delabie, J.H.C., Loiseau, A., Le Breton, J., Cerdan, P., and Estoup, A. 2009. Reproductive system, social organization, human disturbance and ecological dominance in native populations of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata. Mol. Ecol. 18:5059-5073.

Fowler, A.C., Eadie, J.M., and Engilis, A. 2009. Identification of endangered Hawaiian ducks (Anas wyvilliana), introduced North American mallards (A. platyrhynchos) and their hybrids using multilocus genotypes. Conserv. Genet. 10(6):1747-1758.

Frouz, J., Van Diggelen, R., Pižl, V., Starý, J., Hánel, L., Tajovský, K., and Kalcík, J. 2009. The effect of topsoil removal in restored heathland on soil fauna, topsoil microstructure, and cellulose decomposition: implications for ecosystem restoration. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3963-3978.

Gavin, M.C. 2009. Conservation implications of rainforest use patterns: mature forests provide more resources but secondary forests supply more medicine. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(6):1275-1282.

Gosling, W.D., Hanselman, J.A., Knox, C., Valencia, B.G., and Bush, M.B. 2009. Long-term drivers of change in Polylepis woodland distribution in the central Andes. J. Veg. Sci. 20(6):1041-1052.

Habel, J.C., Zachos, F.E., Finger, A., Meyer, M., Louy, D., Assmann, T., and Schmitt, T. 2009. Unprecedented long-term genetic monomorphism in an endangered relict butterfly species. Conserv. Genet. 10(6):1659-1665.

Harborne, A.R. 2009. First among equals: why some habitats should be considered more important than others during marine reserve planning. Environ. Conserv. 36(2):87-90.

Haskell, D.G., and Adhikari, A. 2009. Darwin's manufactory hypothesis is confirmed and predicts the extinction risk of extant birds. PLoS ONE 4(5):e5460.

Herling, M.C., Cupido, C.F., O'Farrell, P.J., and Du Plessis, L. 2009. The financial costs of ecologically nonsustainable farming practices in a semiarid system. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):827-836.

Herr, H., Fock, H.O., and Siebert, U. 2009. Spatio-temporal associations between harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and specific fisheries in the German Bight. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2962-2972.

Hilgerloh, G. 2009. The desert at Zait Bay, Egypt: a bird migration bottleneck of global importance. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(4):338-352.

Home, R., Keller, C., Nagel, P., Bauer, N., and Hunziker, M. 2009. Selection criteria for flagship species by conservation organizations. Environ. Conserv. 36(2):139-148.

Honey-Rosés, J., López-García, J., Rendón-Salinas, E., Peralta-Higuera, A., and Galindo-Leal, C. 2009. To pay or not to pay? Monitoring performance and enforcing conditionality when paying for forest conservation in Mexico. Environ. Conserv. 36(2):120-128.

Ibáñez, I., Silander, J.A., Allen, J.M., Treanor, S.A., and Wilson, A. 2009. Identifying hotspots for plant invasions and forecasting focal points of further spread. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(6):1219-1228.

Jackson, P.W., and Kennedy, K. 2009. The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: a challenge and opportunity for the international community. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):578-580.

Jansson, N., Ranius, T., Larsson, A., and Milberg, P. 2009. Boxes mimicking tree hollows can help conservation of saproxylic beetles. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3891-3908.

Jones, T.A., and Monaco, T.A. 2009. A role for assisted evolution in designing native plant materials for domesticated landscapes. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(10):541-547.

Jordan, M.A., Morris, D.A., and Gibson, S.E. 2009. The influence of historical landscape change on genetic variation and population structure of a terrestrial salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Conserv. Genet. 10(6):1647-1658.

Karanth, K.K., Nichols, J.D., Hines, J.E., Karanth, K.U., and Christensen, N.L. 2009. Patterns and determinants of mammal species occurrence in India. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(6):1189-1200.

Karp, D.S., and Root, T.L. 2009. Sound the stressor: how Hoatzins (Opisthocomus hoazin) react to ecotourist conversation. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3733-3742.

Kilian, J.V., Frentress, J., Klauda, R.J., Becker, A.J., and Stranko, S.A. 2009. The invasion of Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda: Cambaridae) into Maryland streams following its introduction in outdoor aquaculture ponds. Northeastern Nat. 16:655-663.

Kirchman, J.J., Witt, C.C., McGuire, J.A., and Graves, G.R. 2010. DNA from a 100-year-old holotype confirms the validity of a potentially extinct hummingbird species. Biol. Lett. 6(1):112-115.

Kiviat, E. 2009. Non-target impacts of herbicides. News From Hudsonia 23(1):1-2.

Knoke, T., Calvas, B., Aguirre, N., Román-Cuesta, R.M., Günter, S., Stimm, B., Weber, M., and Mosandl, R. 2009. Can tropical farmers reconcile subsistence needs with forest conservation? Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(10):548-554.

Kojola, I., Tuomivaara, J., Heikkinen, S., Heikura, K., Kilpeläinen, K., Keränen, J., Paasivaara, A., and Ruusila, V. 2009. European wild forest reindeer and wolves: endangered prey and predators. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 46:416-422.

Kontula, T., and Raunio, A. 2009. New method and criteria for national assessments of threatened habitat types. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3861-3876.

Kopp, D., Syväranta, J., Figuerola, J., Compin, A., Santoul, F., and Céréghino, R. 2009. Environmental effects related to the local absence of exotic fish. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3207-3212.

Kostrakiewicz, K. 2009. The influence of shadow created by adjacent plants on phenotypic plasticity of endangered species Trollius europaeus L. (Ranunculaceae). Pol. J. Ecol. 57:625-634.

Kramer, A.T., and Havens, K. 2009. Plant conservation genetics in a changing world. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):599-607.

Kruckenhauser, L., Bryant, A.A., Griffin, S.C., Amish, S.J., and Pinsker, W. 2009. Patterns of within and between-colony microsatellite variation in the endangered Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis): implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 10(6):1759-1772.

Kryštufek, B., Amori, G., Mitchell-Jones, A.J., and Zima, J. 2009. Mammal conservation in Europe: status and priorities - collection of papers from the 5th European Congress of Mammalogy. Folia Zool. 58(3):245-247.

Kryštufek, B., Vohralík, V., and Obuch, J. 2009. Endemism, vulnerability and conservation issues for small terrestrial mammals from the Balkans and Anatolia. Folia Zool. 58(3):291-302.

Kumarran, R.P. 2009. Whither marine mammal conservation in India? Curr. Sci. 97:1521-1522.

Larsen, A.S., and Kjær, E.D. 2009. Pollen mediated gene flow in a native population of Malus sylvestris and its implications for contemporary gene conservation management. Conserv. Genet. 10(6):1637-1646.

Laycock, H., Moran, D., Smart, J., Raffaelli, D., and White, P. 2009. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of conservation: the UK Biodiversity Action Plan. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3120-3127.

Le Viol, I., Mocq, J., Julliard, R., and Kerbiriou, C. 2009. The contribution of motorway stormwater retention ponds to the biodiversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3163-3171.

Lee, T.M., Sodhi, N.S., and Prawiradilaga, D.M. 2009. Determinants of local people's attitude toward conservation and the consequential effects on illegal resource harvesting in the protected areas of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Environ. Conserv. 36(2):157-170.

Lerner, H.R.L., Johnson, J.A., Lindsay, A.R., Kiff, L.F., and Mindell, D.P. 2009. It's not too late for the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja): high levels of genetic diversity and differentiation can fuel conservation programs. PLoS ONE 4(10):e7336.

Levin, I., Outlaw, D.C., Vargas, F.H., and Parker, P.G. 2009. Plasmodium blood parasite found in endangered Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus). Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3191-3195.

Li, D.Z., and Pritchard, H.W. 2009. The science and economics of ex situ plant conservation. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):614-621.

Lim, D.O., Hwang, I.C., Choi, H.W., and Kim, Y.S. 2009. Ecological characteristics and management proposal of Abeliophyllum distichum subpopulations in the Byeonsanbando National Park. Korean J. Environ. Ecol. 23(2):116-126.

Liu, Y., Guo, D.S., Qiao, Y.L., Zhang, E., and Cai, B.F. 2009. Regional extirpation of the Critically Endangered Chinese Crested Tern (Thalasseus bernsteini) from the Shandong coast, China? Waterbirds 32:597-599.

Loarie, S.R., van Aarde, R.J., and Pimm, S.L. 2009. Elephant seasonal vegetation preferences across dry and wet savannas. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3099-3107.

Loarie, S.R., van Aarde, R.J., and Pimm, S.L. 2009. Fences and artificial water affect African savannah elephant movement patterns. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3086-3098.

Loch, C., Marmontel, M., and Simões-Lopes, P.C. 2009. Conflicts with fisheries and intentional killing of freshwater dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti) in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3979-3988.

Lonati, M., Gorlier, A., Ascoli, D., Marzano, R., and Lombardi, G. 2009. Response of the alien species Panicum acuminatum to disturbance in an Italian lowland heathland. Bot. Helvetica 119(2):105-111.

López-Darias, M., and Lobo, J.M. 2009. Micro-scale distribution of rabbits on Fuerteventura Island. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3687-3704.

Love, A., Babu, S., and Babu, C.R. 2009. Management of Lantana, an invasive alien weed, in forest ecosystems of India. Curr. Sci. 97(10):1421-1429.

Loy, A., Carranza, M.L., Cianfrani, C., D'Alessandro, E., Bonesi, L., Di Marzio, P., Minotti, M., and Reggiani, G. 2009. Otter Lutra lutra population expansion: assessing habitat suitability and connectivity in southern Italy. Folia Zool. 58(3):309-326.

Lughadha, E.N., and Miller, C. 2009. Accelerating global access to plant diversity information. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):622-628.

Mandelik, Y., and Roll, U. 2009. Diversity patterns of wild bees in almond orchards and their surrounding landscape. Israel J. Plant Sci. 57(3):185-191.

Marini, M.Â., Barbet-Massin, M., Lopes, L.E., and Jiguet, F. 2009. Major current and future gaps of Brazilian reserves to protect Neotropical savanna birds. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3039-3050.

Marrs, R. 2009. The importance of long-term ecological data collected systematically from multiple sites: the UK's Environmental Change Network. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2813-2813.

Martin, T.E., and Blackburn, G.A. 2009. The effectiveness of a Mesoamerican 'paper park' in conserving cloud forest avifauna. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3841-3859.

Martínez-Morales, M.A., Cruz, P.C., and Cuarón, A.D. 2009. Predicted population trends for Cozumel Curassows (Crax rubra griscomi): empirical evidence and predictive models in the face of climate change. J. Field Ornithol. 80(4):317-327.

Maslo, B., and Lockwood, J.L. 2009. Evidence-based decisions on the use of predator exclosures in shorebird conservation. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3213-3218.

Masseti, M. 2009. A possible approach to the "conservation" of the mammalian populations of ancient anthropochorous origin of the Mediterranean islands. Folia Zool. 58(3):303-308.

Matthews, J.W., Peralta, A.L., Flanagan, D.N., Baldwin, P.M., Soni, A., Kent, A.D., and Endress, A.G. 2009. Relative influence of landscape vs. local factors on plant community assembly in restored wetlands. Ecol. Appl. 19(8):2108-2123.

Matthews, J.W., Peralta, A.L., Soni, A., Baldwin, P., Kent, A.D., and Endress, A.G. 2009. Local and landscape correlates of non-native species invasion in restored wetlands. Ecography 32:1031-1039.

Matthews, J.W., Spyreas, G., and Endress, A.G. 2009. Trajectories of vegetation-based indicators used to assess wetland restoration progress. Ecol. Appl. 19(8):2093-2107.

Mattos, J.C.F., Vale, M.M., Vecchi, M.B., and Alves, M.A.S. 2009. Abundance, distribution and conservation of the Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(4):392-400.

McGowan, C.P., and Ryan, M.R. 2009. A quantitative framework to evaluate incidental take and endangered species population viability. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3128-3136.

McShea, W.J., Stewart, C., Peterson, L., Erb, P., Stuebing, R., and Giman, B. 2009. The importance of secondary forest blocks for terrestrial mammals within an Acacia/secondary forest matrix in Sarawak, Malaysia. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3108-3119.

Meinig, H.U., and Boye, P. 2009. A review of negative impact factors threatening mammal populations in Germany. Folia Zool. 58(3):279-290.

Meyer, C.G., Dale, J.J., Papastamatiou, Y.P., Whitney, N.M., and Holland, K.N. 2009. Seasonal cycles and long-term trends in abundance and species composition of sharks associated with cage diving ecotourism activities in Hawaii. Environ. Conserv. 36(2):104-111.

Miehls, A.L.J., Mason, D.M., Frank, K.A., Krause, A.E., Peacor, S.D., and Taylor, W.W. 2009. Invasive species impacts on ecosystem structure and function: a comparison of the Bay of Quinte, Canada, and Oneida Lake, USA, before and after zebra mussel invasion. Ecol. Model. 220(22):3182-3193.

Miehls, A.L.J., Mason, D.M., Frank, K.A., Krause, A.E., Peacor, S.D., and Taylor, W.W. 2009. Invasive species impacts on ecosystem structure and function: a comparison of Oneida Lake, New York, USA, before and after zebra mussel invasion. Ecol. Model. 220(22):3194-3209.

Miesel, J.R., Boerner, R.E.J., and Skinner, C.N. 2009. Mechanical restoration of California mixed-conifer forests: does it matter which trees are cut? Restor. Ecol. 17(6):784-795.

Mitchell-Jones, A.J., and White, I. 2009. Using reintroductions to reclaim the lost range of the dormouse, Muscardinus avellanarius, in England. Folia Zool. 58(3):341-348.

Montague-Drake, R.M., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Cunningham, R.B. 2009. Factors affecting site occupancy by woodland bird species of conservation concern. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2896-2903.

Morecroft, M.D., Bealey, C.E., Beaumont, D.A., Benham, S., Brooks, D.R., Burt, T.P., Critchley, C.N.R., Dick, J., Littlewood, N.A., Monteith, D.T., Scott, W.A., Smith, R.I., Walmsey, C., and Watson, H. 2009. The UK Environmental Change Network: emerging trends in the composition of plant and animal communities and the physical environment. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2814-2832.

Morrison, W.R., Lohr, J.L., Duchen, P., Wilches, R., Trujillo, D., Mair, M., and Renner, S.S. 2009. The impact of taxonomic change on conservation: does it kill, can it save, or is it just irrelevant? Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3201-3206.

Myster, R.W. 2009. Controls on Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii) establishment into the cross timbers ecotone of Oklahoma: implications for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):893-899.

Naddafi, R., Eklöv, P., and Pettersson, K. 2009. Stoichiometric constraints do not limit successful invaders: zebra mussels in Swedish lakes. PLoS ONE 4(4):e5345.

Németh, A., Révay, T., Hegyeli, Z., Farkas, J., Czabán, D., Rózsás, A., and Csorba, G. 2009. Chromosomal forms and risk assessment of Nannospalax (superspecies leucodon) (Mammalia: Rodentia) in the Carpathian Basin. Folia Zool. 58(3):349-361.

Neto, L.M., Forzza, R.C., and Zappi, D. 2009. Angiosperm epiphytes as conservation indicators in forest fragments: A case study from southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3785-3807.

Nice, C.C., Gompert, Z., Forister, M.L., and Fordyce, J.A. 2009. An unseen foe in arthropod conservation efforts: the case of Wolbachia infections in the Karner blue butterfly. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3137-3146.

Nogueira, S.L.G., Nogueira, S.S.C., and Fragoso, J.M.V. 2009. Ecological impacts of feral pigs in the Hawaiian Islands. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3677-3683.

Nordström, S., and Hedrén, M. 2009. Evolution, phylogeography and taxonomy of allopolyploid Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae) and its implications for conservation. Nord. J. Bot. 27:548-556.

Oelmann, Y., Broll, G., Hölzel, N., Kleinebecker, T., Vogel, A., and Schwartze, P. 2009. Nutrient impoverishment and limitation of productivity after 20 years of conservation management in wet grasslands of north-western Germany. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2941-2948.

Oh, H.K., Lim, D.O., and Kim, Y.S. 2009. Distribution characteristic and management counterplan of naturalized plants in the Byeonsanbando National Park . Korean J. Environ. Ecol. 23(2):105-115.

Oishi, Y. 2009. A survey method for evaluating drought-sensitive bryophytes in fragmented forests: a bryophyte life-form based approach. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2854-2861.

Oldfield, S.F. 2009. Botanic gardens and the conservation of tree species. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):581-583.

Öster, M., Ask, K., Cousins, S.A.O., and Eriksson, O. 2009. Dispersal and establishment limitation reduces the potential for successful restoration of semi-natural grassland communities on former arable fields. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(6):1266-1274.

Packer, C., Kosmala, M., Cooley, H.S., Brink, H., Pintea, L., Garshelis, D., Purchase, G., Strauss, M., Swanson, A., Balme, G., Hunter, L., and Nowell, K. 2009. Sport hunting, predator control and conservation of large carnivores. PLoS ONE 4(6):e5941.

Padilla, F.M., and Pugnaire, F.I. 2009. Species identity and water availability determine establishment success under the canopy of Retama sphaerocarpa shrubs in a dry environment. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):900-907.

Padrón, B., Traveset, A., Biedenweg, T., Díaz, D., Nogales, M., and Olesen, J.M. 2009. Impact of alien plant invaders on pollination networks in two archipelagos. PLoS ONE 4(7):e6275.

Palacin, C., and Alonso, J.C. 2009. Probable population decline of the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax in north-west Africa. Ostrich 80:165-170.

Pascual, M.A., Lancelotti, J.L., Ernst, B., Ciancio, J.E., Aedo, E., and García-Asorey, M. 2009. Scale, connectivity, and incentives in the introduction and management of non-native species: the case of exotic salmonids in Patagonia. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7(10):533-540.

Paton, A. 2009. Biodiversity informatics and the plant conservation baseline. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):629-637.

Pavlovic, N.B., and Grundel, R. 2009. Reintroduction of wild lupine (Lupinus perennis L.) depends on variation in canopy, vegetation, and litter cover. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):807-817.

Penati, F. 2009. An updated catalogue of the Histeridae (Coleoptera) of Sardinia, with faunistic, zoogeographical, ecological and conservation remarks. Zootaxa 2318:197-280.

Perry, R.W., Rudolph, D.C., and Thill, R.E. 2009. Reptile and amphibian responses to restoration of fire-maintained pine woodlands. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):917-927.

Portnoy, D.S., McDowell, J.R., McCandless, C.T., Musick, J.A., and Graves, J.E. 2009. Effective size closely approximates the census size in the heavily exploited western Atlantic population of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus. Conserv. Genet. 10(6):1697-1705.

Pringle, A., Bever, J.D., Gardes, M., Parrent, J.L., Rillig, M.C., and Klironomos, J.N. 2009. Mycorrhizal symbioses and plant invasions. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 40:699-715.

Pueyo, Y., Alados, C.L., García-Ávila, B., Kéfi, S., Maestro, M., and Rietkerk, M. 2009. Comparing direct abiotic amelioration and facilitation as tools for restoration of semiarid grasslands. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):908-916.

Raine, A.F., Brown, A.F., Amano, T., and Sutherland, W.J. 2009. Assessing population changes from disparate data sources: the decline of the Twite Carduelis flavirostris in England. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(4):401-416.

Rees, M., Roe, J.H., and Georges, A. 2009. Life in the suburbs: behavior and survival of a freshwater turtle in response to drought and urbanization. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3172-3181.

Rios-Munoz, C.A., and Navarro-Siguenza, A.G. 2009. Effects of land use change on the hypothetical habitat availability for Mexican parrots. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 20:491-509.

Robbins, M.M., Gray, M., Kagoda, E., and Robbins, A.M. 2009. Population dynamics of the Bwindi mountain gorillas. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2886-2895.

Robert, A. 2009. Captive breeding genetics and reintroduction success. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2915-2922.

Santos, T., Pérez-Tris, J., Carbonell, R., Tellería, J.L., and Díaz, J.A. 2009. Monitoring the performance of wild-born and introduced lizards in a fragmented landscape: implications for ex situ conservation programmes. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2923-2930.

Savilaakso, S., Koivisto, J., Veteli, T.O., Pusenius, J., and Roininen, H. 2009. Long lasting impact of forest harvesting on the diversity of herbivorous insects. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3931-3948.

Sawyer, H., Kauffman, M.J., Nielson, R.M., and Horne, J.S. 2009. Identifying and prioritizing ungulate migration routes for landscape-level conservation. Ecol. Appl. 19(8):2016-2025.

Scarnati, L., Attorre, F., Farcomeni, A., Francesconi, F., and De Sanctis, M. 2009. Modelling the spatial distribution of tree species with fragmented populations from abundance data. Community Ecol. 10:215-224.

Scharfy, D., Eggenschwiler, H., Venterink, H.O., Edwards, P.J., and Gusewell, S. 2009. The invasive alien plant species Solidago gigantea alters ecosystem properties across habitats with differing fertility. J. Veg. Sci. 20(6):1072-1085.

Schatz, G.E. 2009. Plants on the IUCN Red List: setting priorities to inform conservation. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):638-642.

Schilling, E.G., Loftin, C.S., and Huryn, A.D. 2009. Effects of introduced fish on macroinvertebrate communities in historically fishless headwater and kettle lakes. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3030-3038.

Scovronick, N.C., and Turpie, J.K. 2009. Is enhanced tourism a reasonable expectation for transboundary conservation? An evaluation of the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. Environ. Conserv. 36(2):149-156.

Selvan, K.B.M. 2009. Endangered Asiatic wild dog (Cuon alpinus) needs conservation in eastern India. Curr. Sci. 97(10):1400-1401.

Shavit, O., Dafni, A., and Ne'eman, G. 2009. Competition between honeybees (Apis mellifera) and native solitary bees in the Mediterranean region of Israel - implications for conservation. Israel J. Plant Sci. 57(3):171-183.

Simberloff, D. 2009. The role of propagule pressure in biological invasions. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 40:81-102.

Simmons, R.E., and Legra, L.A.T. 2009. Is the Papuan Harrier Circus spilonotus spilothorax a globally threatened species? Ecology, climate change threats and first population estimates from Papua New Guinea. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(4):379-391.

Simpfendorfer, C.A., and Kyne, P.M. 2009. Limited potential to recover from overfishing raises concerns for deep-sea sharks, rays and chimaeras. Environ. Conserv. 36(2):97-103.

Sinclair, E.A., and Hobbs, R.J. 2009. Sample size effects on estimates of population genetic structure: implications for ecological restoration. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):837-844.

Sözen, E., and Özaydin, B. 2009. A preliminary study on the genetic diversity of the critically endangered Centaurea nivea (Asteraceae). Ann. Bot. Fenn. 46:541-548.

Spanhove, T., Lehouck, V., and Lens, L. 2009. Inverse edge effect on nest predation in a Kenyan forest fragment: an experimental case study. Bird Conserv. Int. 19(4):367-378.

Spiegelberger, T., Müller-Schärer, H., Matthies, D., and Schaffner, U. 2009. Sawdust addition reduces the productivity of nitrogen-enriched mountain grasslands. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):865-872.

Stokes, V.L., Banks, P.B., Pech, R.P., and Spratt, D.M. 2009. Competition in an invaded rodent community reveals black rats as a threat to native bush rats in littoral rainforest of south-eastern Australia. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(6):1239-1247.

Strubbe, D., and Matthysen, E. 2009. Establishment success of invasive ring-necked and monk parakeets in Europe. J. Biogeogr. 36(12):2264-2278.

Sugiura, S. 2009. Seasonal fluctuation of invasive flatworm predation pressure on land snails: implications for the range expansion and impacts of invasive species. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3013-3019.

Suren, A.M. 2009. Using macrophytes in urban stream rehabilitation: a cautionary tale. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):873-883.

Swarts, N.D., and Dixon, K.W. 2009. Perspectives on orchid conservation in botanic gardens. Trends Plant Sci. 14(11):590-598.

Szabó, L., Heltai, M., Szucs, E., Lanszki, J., and Lehoczki, R. 2009. Expansion range of the golden jackal in Hungary between 1997 and 2006. Mammalia 73(4):307-311.

Tavecchia, G., Viedma, C., Martínez-Abraín, A., Bartolomé, M.A., Gómez, J.A., and Oro, D. 2009. Maximizing re-introduction success: assessing the immediate cost of release in a threatened waterfowl. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3005-3012.

Temple, H.J., and Terry, A. 2009. European mammals: Red List status, trends, and conservation priorities. Folia Zool. 58(3):248-269.

Tognelli, M.F., Fernández, M., and Marquet, P.A. 2009. Assessing the performance of the existing and proposed network of marine protected areas to conserve marine biodiversity in Chile. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):3147-3153.

Trape, S. 2009. Impact of climate change on the relict tropical fish fauna of central Sahara: threat for the survival of Adrar Mountains fishes, Mauritania. PLoS ONE 4(2):e4400.

Treves, A. 2009. Hunting for large carnivore conservation. J. Appl. Ecol. 46(6):1350-1356.

Treves, A., Jurewicz, R.L., Naughton-Treves, L., and Wilcove, D.S. 2009. The price of tolerance: wolf damage payments after recovery. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):4003-4021.

Treydte, A.C., Grant, C.C., and Jeltsch, F. 2009. Tree size and herbivory determine below-canopy grass quality and species composition in savannahs. Biodivers. Conserv. 18(14):3989-4002.

Tuchman, N.C., Larkin, D.J., Geddes, P., Wildova, R., Jankowski, K., and Goldberg, D.E. 2009. Patterns of environmental change associated with Typha x glauca invasion in a Great Lakes coastal wetland. Wetlands 29:964-975.

Vaccaro, L.E., Bedford, B.L., and Johnston, C.A. 2009. Litter accumulation promotes dominance of invasive species of cattails (Typha spp.) in Lake Ontario wetlands. Wetlands 29:1036-1048.

Wang, J., Tang, Y., Xie, Z.H., and Zhang, M.Y. 2009. Autecology and conservation status of Magnolia sargentiana Rehder & Wilson (Magnoliaceae) in the Dafengding region, southern Sichuan Province, China. J. Syst. Evol. 47:525-534.

Weber, M.A., and Stewart, S. 2009. Public values for river restoration options on the Middle Rio Grande. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):762-771.

Weinrich, M., and Corbelli, C. 2009. Does whale watching in Southern New England impact humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) calf production or calf survival? Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2931-2940.

Wendelberger, K.S., and Maschinski, J. 2009. Linking geographical information systems and observational and experimental studies to determine optimal seedling microsites of an endangered plant in a subtropical urban fire-adapted ecosystem. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):845-853.

Western, D., Russell, S., and Cuthill, I. 2009. The status of wildlife in protected areas compared to non-protected areas of Kenya. PLoS ONE 4(7):e6140.

Wiedenmann, J., Fujiwara, M., and Mangel, M. 2009. Transient population dynamics and viable stage or age distributions for effective conservation and recovery. Biol. Conserv. 142(12):2990-2996.

Wilkin, P., Muasya, A.M., Banks, H., Furness, C.A., Vollesen, K., Weber, O., and Demissew, S. 2009. A new species of yam from Kenya, Dioscorea kituiensis: pollen morphology, conservation status, and speciation. Syst. Bot. 34:652-659.

Wilson, D., Alm, J., Laine, J., Byrne, K.A., Farrell, E.P., and Tuittila, E.S. 2009. Rewetting of cutaway peatlands: are we re-creating hot spots of methane emissions? Restor. Ecol. 17(6):796-806.

Wolkovich, E.M., Bolger, D.T., and Cottingham, K.L. 2009. Invasive grass litter facilitates native shrubs through abiotic effects. J. Veg. Sci. 20(6):1121-1132.

Yang, J.H., Zhang, S.P., Liu, J.A., Zhai, W., and Wang, R.Q. 2009. Genetic diversity of the endangered species Rosa rugosa Thunb. in China and implications for conservation strategies. J. Syst. Evol. 47:515-524.

Young, S.L., Barney, J.N., Kyser, G.B., Jones, T.S., and DiTomaso, J.M. 2009. Functionally similar species confer greater resistance to invasion: implications for grassland restoration. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):884-892.

Zahawi, R.A., and Holl, K.D. 2009. Comparing the performance of tree stakes and seedlings to restore abandoned tropical pastures. Restor. Ecol. 17(6):854-864.

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