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Department ofBotany

No. 304
April 2010

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In This Issue

Climate Change May Drastically Alter Chesapeake Bay

Adapted from

It is one of the largest and most productive estuaries in the world, yet dramatic changes are in store for the Chesapeake Bay in coming decades if climate change predictions hold true, say a team of scientists from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC), the University of Maryland, Pennsylvania State University, and other research organizations in a recent paper published in the journal Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (Najjar et al. 2010).

Using forecasts of atmospheric carbon dioxide production for the coming century, the scientists predict the water of the Bay will see rising levels of dissolved carbon dioxide and higher water temperatures. As a result, climate change is expected to worsen problems of low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Chesapeake's water and cause sea levels to rise.

For organisms living in the Bay, the scientists predict:

  • Populations of marine fish that favor warmer water and whose northern range ends near the Chesapeake can be expected to increase. These include southern flounder, Spanish mackerel, mullet, and Southern kingfish.
  • Many fish species that favor cold water will disappear or become less abundant in the Chesapeake Bay, including soft clams, yellow perch, white perch, striped bass, black sea bass, tautog, summer and winter flounder and scup.
  • Fish susceptible to winter die-offs due to the seasonal cold weather of the Chesapeake may see a strengthening of their populations due to warmer water, with more juveniles surviving through the winter.
  • Warmer water also may result in longer growing seasons for fish, resulting in increased yield by some commercial fisheries.
  • Some fish parasites also will likely benefit from warmer water, increasing their impact on fish and oysters in the bay.
  • Rising sea levels will submerge some of the Bay's wetlands, which many ecologically and economically important fish use as nursery areas and as foraging grounds. Degradation of these habitats could affect the larger ecosystem of the Northeast U.S. continental shelf.

With warming temperatures, "the species that make up the food web of the Chesapeake Bay will be impacted differently, likely disrupting the normal predator prey interactions between these animals," says SERC scientist Denise Breitburg. A lack of oxygen in the water, will be one prevailing characteristic of warmer Bay water, Breitburg predicts. "At warmer temperatures microbes will consume oxygen at a higher rate and less oxygen can dissolve in warm water. At the same time fish and perhaps other animals, will require more oxygen in warmer water." With these factors in mind, "we would expect more severe episodes and negative effects of low oxygen in the Chesapeake," Breitburg says.


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Gardener, M.R., Atkinson, R., and Rentería, J.L. 2010. Eradications and people: lessons from the plant eradication program in Galapagos. Restor. Ecol. 18(1):20-29.

Gavin, M.C., Solomon, J.N., and Blank, S.G. 2010. Measuring and monitoring illegal use of natural resources. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):89-100.

Gifford, N.A., Deppen, J.M., and Bried, J.T. 2010. Importance of an urban pine barrens for the conservation of early-successional shrubland birds. Landscape Urban Plan. 94:54-62.

Gift, D.M., Groffman, P.M., Kaushal, S.S., and Mayer, P.M. 2010. Denitrification potential, root biomass, and organic matter in degraded and restored urban riparian zones. Restor. Ecol. 18(1):113-120.

Goldyn, H. 2010. Changes in plant species diversity of aquatic ecosystems in the agricultural landscape in West Poland in the last 30 years. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:61-80.

Graening, G.O., Fenolio, D.B., Niemiller, M.L., Brown, A.V., and Beard, J.B. 2010. The 30-year recovery effort for the Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae): Analysis of current distribution, population trends, and conservation status of this threatened species. Environ. Biol. Fish. 87:55-88.

Graf, M.D., and Rochefort, L. 2010. Moss regeneration for fen restoration: field and greenhouse experiments. Restor. Ecol. 18(1):121-130.

Granek, E.F., Polasky, S., Kappel, C.V., Reed, D.J., Stoms, D.M., Koch, E.W., Kennedy, C.J., Cramer, L.A., Hacker, S.D., Barbier, E.B., Aswani, S., Ruckelshaus, M., Perillo, G.M.E., Silliman, B.R., Muthiga, N., Bael, D., and Wolanski, E. 2010. Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):207-216.

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Griffiths, C.J., Jones, C.G., Hansen, D.M., Puttoo, M., Tatayah, R.V., Müller, C.B., and Harris, S. 2010. The use of extant non-indigenous tortoises as a restoration tool to replace extinct ecosystem engineers. Restor. Ecol. 18(1):1-7.

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Hallstan, S., Grandin, U., and Goedkoop, W. 2010. Current and modeled potential distribution of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Sweden. Biol. Invasions 12:285-296.

Hannah, L. 2010. A global conservation system for climate-change adaptation. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):70-77.

Hansen, L., Hoffman, J., Drews, C., and Mielbrecht, E. 2010. Designing climate-smart conservation: guidance and case studies. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):63-69.

Hanson, C.T., Odion, D.C., Dellasala, D.A., and Baker, W.L. 2010. More-comprehensive recovery actions for northern spotted owls in dry forests: reply to Spies et al. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):334-337.

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Holcomb, K., Young, J.K., and Gerber, L.R. 2009. The influence of human disturbance on California sea lions during the breeding season. Anim. Conserv. 12(6):592-598.

Holsbeek, G., and Jooris, R. 2010. Potential impact of genome exclusion by alien species in the hybridogenetic water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex). Biol. Invasions 12:1-13.

Hong-Wa, C. 2009. Endemic families of Madagascar. XII. Resurrection and taxonomic revision of the genera Mediusella (Cavaco) Hutchinson and Xerochlamys Baker (Sarcolaenaceae). Adansonia 31:311-339.

Hourigan, T.F. 2009. Managing fishery impacts on deep-water coral ecosystems of the USA: emerging best practices. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 397:333-340.

Hutchings, J.A., and Festa-Bianchet, M. 2009. Canadian species at risk (2006-2008), with particular emphasis on fishes. Environ. Rev. 17:53-65.

Hwang, B.C., and Lauenroth, W.K. 2010. Effect of nitrogen, water and neighbors on the growth of Hesperis matronalis in a natural community. Am. Midl. Nat. 163:212-219.

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Jacques, H., Veron, G., Alary, F., and Aulagnier, S. 2009. The Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congicus) (Mustelidae: Lutrinae): a review of its systematics, distribution and conservation status. Afr. Zool. 44(2):159-170.

Johns, D. 2010. The International Year of Biodiversity - from talk to action. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):338-340.

Jones, T., and Cresswell, W. 2010. The phenology mismatch hypothesis: are declines of migrant birds linked to uneven global climate change? J. Anim. Ecol. 79:98-108.

Jost, L., DeVries, P., Walla, T., Greeney, H., Chao, A., and Ricotta, C. 2010. Partitioning diversity for conservation analyses. Divers. Distrib. 16(1):65-76.

Judziewicz, E.J. 2009. Toliara (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae), a new grass genus endemic to southern Madagascar. Adansonia 31:273-277.

Kipp, R., Bailey, S.A., MacIsaac, H.J., and Ricciardi, A. 2010. Transoceanic ships as vectors for nonindigenous freshwater bryozoans. Divers. Distrib. 16(1):77-83.

Klanderud, K., Mbolatiana, H.Z.H., Vololomboahangy, M.N., Radimbison, M.A., Roger, E., Totland, Ø., and Rajeriarison, C. 2010. Recovery of plant species richness and composition after slash-and-burn agriculture in a tropical rainforest in Madagascar. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:187-204.

Klein, J.C., and Verlaque, M. 2009. Macrophyte assemblage associated with an invasive species exhibiting temporal variability in its development pattern. Hydrobiologia 636(1):369-378.

Koh, L.P., Ghazoul, J., Butler, R.A., Laurance, W.F., Sodhi, N.S., Mateo-Vega, J., and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2010. Wash and spin cycle threats to tropical biodiversity. Biotropica 42(1):67-71.

Krupp, F., Al-Jumaily, M., Bariche, M., Khalaf, M., Malek, M., and Streit, B. 2009. The Middle Eastern Biodiversity Network: Generating and sharing knowledge for ecosystem management and conservation. Zookeys 31:3-15.

Kueffer, C. 2010. Reduced risk for positive soil-feedback on seedling regeneration by invasive trees on a very nutrient-poor soil in Seychelles. Biol. Invasions 12:97-102.

Kümpel, N.F., Rowcliffe, J.M., Cowlishaw, G., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2009. Trapper profiles and strategies: insights into sustainability from hunter behaviour. Anim. Conserv. 12(6):531-539.

Laikre, L., Allendorf, F.W., Aroner, L.C., Baker, C.S., Gregovich, D.P., Hansen, M.M., Jackson, J.A., Kendall, K.C., McKelvey, K., Neel, M.C., Olivieri, I., Ryman, N., Schwartz, M.K., Bull, R.S., Stetz, J.B., Tallmon, D.A., Taylor, B.L., Vojta, C.D., Waller, D.M., and Waples, R.S. 2010. Neglect of genetic diversity in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):86-88.

Landry, M.S., and Taggart, C.T. 2010. "Turtle watching" conservation guidelines: green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tourism in nearshore coastal environments. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:305-312.

Lavergne, S., Muenke, N.J., and Molofsky, J. 2010. Genome size reduction can trigger rapid phenotypic evolution in invasive plants. Ann. Botany 105:109-116.

Lawler, J.J., Shafer, S.L., and Blaustein, A.R. 2010. Projected climate impacts for the amphibians of the western hemisphere. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):38-50.

Lawrence, A.J., Afifi, R., Ahmed, M., Khalifa, S., and Paget, T. 2010. Bioactivity as an options value of sea cucumbers in the Egyptian Red Sea. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):217-225.

Leishman, M.R., Thomson, V.P., and Cooke, J. 2010. Native and exotic invasive plants have fundamentally similar carbon capture strategies. J. Ecology 98:28-42.

Limburg, K.E., and Waldman, J.R. 2009. Dramatic declines in North Atlantic diadromous fishes. BioScience 59(11):955-965.

Linares-Palomino, R., Kvist, L.P., Aguirre-Mendoza, Z., and Gonzales-Inca, C. 2010. Diversity and endemism of woody plant species in the Equatorial Pacific seasonally dry forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:169-185.

Lorrilliere, R., Boisteau, B., and Robert, A. 2010. Modelling the spatial dynamics of a recovering species: the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea in France. Ibis 152:118-126.

Lourival, R., McCallum, H., Grigg, G., Arcangelo, C., Machado, R., and Possingham, H. 2009. A systematic evaluation of the conservation plans for the Pantanal wetland in Brazil. Wetlands 29:1189-1201.

Lovari, S., Boesi, R., Minder, I., Mucci, N., Randi, E., Dematteis, A., and Ale, S.B. 2009. Restoring a keystone predator may endanger a prey species in a human-altered ecosystem: the return of the snow leopard to Sagarmatha National Park. Anim. Conserv. 12(6):559-570.

Lu, X.M., and Ding, J.Q. 2010. Flooding compromises compensatory capacity of an invasive plant: implications for biological control. Biol. Invasions 12:179-189.

Mac Nally, R., De Vries, L., and Thomson, J.R. 2010. Are replanted floodplain forests in southeastern Australia providing bird biodiversity benefits? Restor. Ecol. 18(1):85-94.

MacGregor-Fors, I., Morales-Pérez, L., Quesada, J., and Schondube, J.E. 2010. Relationship between the presence of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Neotropical bird community structure and diversity. Biol. Invasions 12:87-96.

Markert, A., Wehrmann, A., and Kroncke, I. 2010. Recently established Crassostrea-reefs versus native Mytilus-beds: differences in ecosystem engineering affects the macrofaunal communities (Wadden Sea of Lower Saxony, southern German Bight). Biol. Invasions 12:15-32.

McGeoch, M.A., Butchart, S.H.M., Spear, D., Marais, E., Kleynhans, E.J., Symes, A., Chanson, J., and Hoffmann, M. 2010. Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses. Divers. Distrib. 16(1):95-108.

Medley, K.A. 2010. Niche shifts during the global invasion of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae), revealed by reciprocal distribution models. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 19:122-133.

Meyer, C.K., Whiles, M.R., and Baer, S.G. 2010. Plant community recovery following restoration in temporally variable riparian wetlands. Restor. Ecol. 18(1):52-64.

Meyerson, L.A., Viola, D.V., and Brown, R.N. 2010. Hybridization of invasive Phragmites australis with a native subspecies in North America. Biol. Invasions 12:103-111.

Miller, K., Neil, H., and Tracey, D. 2009. Recent advances in deep-sea coral science and emerging links to conservation and management of deep-sea ecosystems. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 397:1-5.

Miller, S.W., Budy, P., and Schmidt, J.C. 2010. Quantifying macroinvertebrate responses to in-stream habitat restoration: applications of meta-analysis to river restoration. Restor. Ecol. 18(1):8-19.

Montefalcone, M., Parravicini, V., Vacchi, M., Albertelli, G., Ferrari, M., Morri, C., and Bianchi, C.N. 2010. Human influence on seagrass habitat fragmentation in NW Mediterranean Sea. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 86(2):292-298.

Mooney, H.A. 2010. The ecosystem-service chain and the biological diversity crisis. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 365:31-39.

Mueller, J.G., Assanou, I.H.B., Guimbo, I.D., and Almedom, A.M. 2010. Evaluating rapid participatory rural appraisal as an assessment of ethnoecological knowledge and local biodiversity patterns. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):140-150.

Nájera, A., and Simonetti, J.A. 2010. Enhancing avifauna in commercial plantations. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):319-324.

Najjar, R.G., Pyke, C.R., Adams, M.B., Breitburg, D., Hershner, C., Kemp, M., Howarth, R., Mulholland, M.R., Paolisso, M., Secor, D., Sellner, K., Wardrop, D., and Wood, R. 2010. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 86(1):1-20.

Nelson, F., Foley, C., Foley, L.S., Leposo, A., Loure, E., Peterson, D., Peterson, M., Peterson, T., Sachedina, H., and Williams, A. 2010. Payments for ecosystem services as a framework for community-based conservation in northern Tanzania. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):78-85.

Nentwig, W., Kühnel, E., and Bacher, S. 2010. A generic impact-scoring system applied to alien mammals in Europe. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):302-311.

Norton, D.A., and Molloy, B.P.J. 2009. Heliohebe maccaskillii (Plantaginaceae) - a new rank for a threatened limestone endemic, North Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 47(4):405-409.

Ogurlu, I., Gundogdu, E., and Yildirim, I.C. 2010. Population status of jungle cat (Felis chaus) in Egirdir lake, Turkey. J. Environ. Biol. 31(1):179-183.

Olden, J.D., Larson, E.R., and Mims, M.C. 2009. Home-field advantage: native signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) out consume newly introduced crayfishes for invasive Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis). Aquat. Ecol. 43:1073-1084.

Oliveira-Santos, L.G.R., and Fernandez, F.A.S. 2010. Pleistocene rewilding, Frankenstein ecosystems, and an alternative conservation agenda. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):4-5.

Orendt, C., Schmitt, C., van Liefferinge, C., Wolfram, G., and de Deckere, E. 2010. Include or exclude? A review on the role and suitability of aquatic invertebrate neozoa as indicators in biological assessment with special respect to fresh and brackish European waters. Biol. Invasions 12:265-283.

Orrock, J.L., and Witter, M.S. 2010. Multiple drivers of apparent competition reduce re-establishment of a native plant in invaded habitats. Oikos 119:101-108.

Ozturk, M., Gucel, S., Kucuk, M., and Sakcali, S. 2010. Forest diversity, climate change and forest fires in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. J. Environ. Biol. 31(1):1-9.

Paillet, Y., Bergès, L., Hjältén, J., Ódor, P., Avon, C., Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Bijlsma, R.J., De Bruyn, L., Fuhr, M., Grandin, U., Kanka, R., Lundin, L., Luque, S., Magura, T., Matesanz, S., Mészáros, I., Sebastià, M.T., Schmidt, W., Standovár, T., Tóthmérész, B., Uotila, A., Valladares, F., Vellak, K., and Virtanen, R. 2010. Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):101-112.

Palmer, M.A., Menninger, H.L., and Bernhardt, E. 2010. River restoration, habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity: a failure of theory or practice? Freshwater Biol. 55(1):205-222.

Patten, M.A., de Silva, H.G., and Smith-Patten, B.D. 2010. Long-term changes in the bird community of Palenque, Chiapas, in response to rainforest loss. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:21-36.

Pauli, J.N., Whiteman, J.P., Riley, M.D., and Middleton, A.D. 2010. Defining noninvasive approaches for sampling of vertebrates. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):349-352.

Penman, T.D., Pike, D.A., Webb, J.K., and Shine, R. 2010. Predicting the impact of climate change on Australia's most endangered snake, Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Divers. Distrib. 16(1):109-118.

Perry, N. 2010. The ecological importance of species and the Noah's Ark problem. Ecol. Econ. 69:478-485.

Pesek, T., Abramiuk, M., Fini, N., Rojas, M.O., Collins, S., Cal, V., Sanchez, P., Poveda, L., and Arnason, J. 2010. Q'eqchi' Maya healers' traditional knowledge in prioritizing conservation of medicinal plants: culturally relative conservation in sustaining traditional holistic health promotion. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:1-20.

Peterson, M.J., Hall, D.M., Feldpausch-Parker, A.M., and Peterson, T.R. 2010. Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):113-119.

Pettorelli, N., Katzner, T., Gordon, I., Garner, T., Mock, K., Redpath, S., and Gompper, M. 2009. Possible consequences of the Copenhagen climate change meeting for conservation of animals. Anim. Conserv. 12(6):503-504.

Pierce, A.M., and Reich, P.B. 2010. The effects of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) invasion and removal on a dry bluff prairie ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 12:241-252.

Pinto, J.R.R., Sano, E.E., Reino, C.M., and Pinto, C.A.D. 2009. National parks in the cerrado and the types of preserved vegetation. Nat. Conservacao 7:149-163.

Pompeu, P.D., dos Reis, L.S., Gandini, C.V., de Souza, R.C.R., and del Favero, J.M. 2009. The ichthyofauna of upper rio Capivari: defining conservation strategies based on the composition and distribution of fish species. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 7(4):659-666.

Pongsiri, M.J., Roman, J., Ezenwa, V.O., Goldberg, T.L., Koren, H.S., Newbold, S.C., Ostfeld, R.S., Pattanayak, S.K., and Salkeld, D.J. 2009. Biodiversity loss affects global disease ecology. BioScience 59(11):945-954.

Previtali, M.A., Meserve, P.L., Kelt, D.A., Milstead, W.B., and Gutierrez, J.R. 2010. Effects of more frequent and prolonged El Niño events on life-history parameters of the degu, a long-lived and slow-reproducing rodent. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):18-28.

Projecto-Garcia, J., Cabral, H., and Schubart, C.D. 2010. High regional differentiation in a North American crab species throughout its native range and invaded European waters: a phylogeographic analysis. Biol. Invasions 12:253-263.

Putz, F.E., and Redford, K.H. 2010. The importance of defining 'forest': tropical forest degradation, deforestation, long-term phase shifts, and further transitions. Biotropica 42(1):10-20.

Qian, H., and Guo, Q.F. 2010. Linking biotic homogenization to habitat type, invasiveness and growth form of naturalized alien plants in North America. Divers. Distrib. 16(1):119-125.

Quéméré, E., Champeau, J., Besolo, A., Rasolondraibe, E., Rabarivola, C., Crouau-Roy, B., and Chikhi, L. 2010. Spatial variation in density and total size estimates in fragmented primate populations: the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli). Am. J. Primatol. 72:72-80.

Quintero, C., Morales, C.L., and Aizen, M.A. 2010. Effects of anthropogenic habitat disturbance on local pollinator diversity and species turnover across a precipitation gradient. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:257-274.

Radeloff, V.C., Stewart, S.I., Hawbaker, T.J., Gimmi, U., Pidgeon, A.M., Flather, C.H., Hammer, R.B., and Helmers, D.P. 2010. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:940-945.

Radford, I.J., Dickinson, K.J.M., and Lord, J.M. 2009. Does the invader Hieracium lepidulum have a comparative growth advantage over co-occurring plants? High leaf area and low metabolic costs as invasive traits. New Zeal. J. Bot. 47(4):395-403.

Rahlao, S.J., Milton, S.J., Esler, K.J., Van Wilgen, B.W., and Barnard, P. 2009. Effects of invasion of fire-free arid shrublands by a fire-promoting invasive alien grass (Pennisetum setaceum) in South Africa. Austral Ecol. 34(8):920-928.

Raj, R.D., Kiran, A.G., and Thomas, G. 2010. Population genetic structure and conservation priorities of Oryza rufipogon Griff. populations in Kerala, India. Curr. Sci. 98:65-68.

Ramírez-Herrejón, J.P., Moncayo-Estrada, R., Medina-Nava, M., and Domínguez-Domínguez, O. 2010. Threatened fishes of the world: Hubbsinna turneri (De Buen, 1941) (Goodeidae). Environ. Biol. Fish. 87:9-10.

Rao, R.R., Murugan, R., and Kavitha, S. 2009. Botanical conservatories and ex situ conservation of some rare and endemic medicinal and aromatic plants: a case study from Western Ghats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India B 79:350-368.

Regehr, E.V., Hunter, C.M., Caswell, H., Amstrup, S.C., and Stirling, I. 2010. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice. J. Anim. Ecol. 79:117-127.

Richter, S.C., Crother, B.I., and Broughton, R.E. 2009. Genetic consequences of population reduction and geographic isolation in the critically endangered frog, Rana sevosa. Copeia 2009(4):799-806.

Ricotta, C., Godefroid, S., and Rocchini, D. 2010. Patterns of native and exotic species richness in the urban flora of Brussels: rejecting the 'rich get richer' model. Biol. Invasions 12:233-240.

Roberts, D.L., Elphick, C.S., and Reed, J.M. 2010. Identifying anomalous reports of putatively extinct species and why it matters. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):189-196.

Rodewald, A.D., Shustack, D.P., and Hitchcock, L.E. 2010. Exotic shrubs as ephemeral ecological traps for nesting birds. Biol. Invasions 12:33-39.

Rödder, D., Schmidtlein, S., Veith, M., and Lötters, S. 2009. Alien invasive slider turtle in unpredicted habitat: a matter of niche shift or of predictors studied? PLoS ONE 4(11):e7843.

Rödder, D., and Lötters, S. 2010. Potential distribution of the alien invasive brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis (Reptilia: Colubridae). Pacific Sci. 64(1):11-22.

Rubinoff, D., Holland, B.S., Shibata, A., Messing, R.H., and Wright, M.G. 2010. Rapid invasion despite lack of genetic variation in the erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim). Pacific Sci. 64(1):23-31.

Ryder, O.A., and Steiner, C.C. 2009. How much hybridization and in what direction? Anim. Conserv. 12(6):516-517.

Samways, M.J., and Sharratt, N.J. 2010. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):267-277.

Sánchez-Velásquez, L.R., and Pineda-López, M.D. 2010. Comparative demographic analysis in contrasting environments of Magnolia dealbata: an endangered species from Mexico. Pop. Ecol. 52:203-210.

Santos, X., and Llorente, G.A. 2009. Decline of a common reptile: case study of the viperine snake Natrix maura in a Mediterranean wetland. Acta Herpetologica 4:161-169.

Saunders, M.I., and Metaxas, A. 2009. Population dynamics of a nonindigenous epiphytic bryozoan Membranipora membranacea in the western North Atlantic: effects of kelp substrate. Aquat. Biol. 8:83-94.

Sayre, N.F., and Knight, R.L. 2010. Potential effects of United States-Mexico border hardening on ecological and human communities in the Malpai borderlands. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):345-348.

Scalera, R. 2010. How much is Europe spending on invasive alien species? Biol. Invasions 12:173-177.

Sepúlveda, M.A., Bartheld, J.L., Meynard, C., Benavides, M., Astorga, C., Parra, D., and Medina-Vogel, G. 2009. Landscape features and crustacean prey as predictors of the Southern river otter distribution in Chile. Anim. Conserv. 12(6):522-530.

Serreze, M.C. 2010. Understanding recent climate change. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):10-17.

Shah, M.A., Reshi, Z.A., and Khasa, D.P. 2009. Arbuscular mycorrhizas: drivers or passengers of alien plant invasion. Bot. Rev. 75:397-417.

Shukla, A.N., Singh, K.P., and Singh, J.S. 2009. Invasive alien species of Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve, Central India. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India B 79:384-392.

Skroch, M., and López-Hoffman, L. 2010. Saving nature under the big tent of ecosystem services: a response to Adams and Redford. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):325-327.

Smith, M.A., and Fisher, B.L. 2009. Invasions, DNA barcodes, and rapid biodiversity assessment using ants of Mauritius. Front. Zool. 6

Sorace, A., and Gustin, M. 2010. Bird species of conservation concern along urban gradients in Italy. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:205-221.

Sousa, W.T.Z., Thomaz, S.M., and Murphy, K.J. 2010. Response of native Egeria najas Planch. and invasive Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle to altered hydroecological regime in a subtropical river. Aquat. Bot. 92:40-48.

Spies, T.A., Miller, J.D., Buchanan, J.B., Lehmkuhl, J.F., Franklin, J.F., Healey, S.P., Hessburg, P.F., Safford, H.D., Cohen, W.B., Kennedy, R.S.H., Knapp, E.E., Agee, J.K., and Moeur, M. 2010. Underestimating risks to the northern spotted owl in fire-prone forests: response to Hanson et al. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):330-333.

Strayer, D.L. 2010. Alien species in fresh waters: ecological effects, interactions with other stressors, and prospects for the future. Freshwater Biol. 55(1):152-174.

Sulawa, J., Robert, A., Köppen, U., Hauff, P., and Krone, O. 2010. Recovery dynamics and viability of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Germany. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:97-112.

Swenson, U., and Munzinger, J. 2009. Revision of Pycnandra subgenus Pycnandra (Sapotaceae), a genus endemic to New Caledonia. Aust. Syst. Bot. 22:437-465.

Tecco, P.A., Díaz, S., Cabido, M., and Urcelay, C. 2010. Functional traits of alien plants across contrasting climatic and land-use regimes: do aliens join the locals or try harder than them? J. Ecology 98:17-27.

Teel, T.L., and Manfredo, M.J. 2010. Understanding the diversity of public interests in wildlife conservation. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):128-139.

Thompson, J.D., Gaudeul, M., and Debussche, M. 2010. Conservation value of sites of hybridization in peripheral populations of rare plant species. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):236-245.

Thum, R.A., and Lennon, J.T. 2010. Comparative ecological niche models predict the invasive spread of variable-leaf milfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum) and its potential impact on closely related native species. Biol. Invasions 12:133-143.

Travis, S.E., Marburger, J.E., Windels, S., and Kubátová, B. 2010. Hybridization dynamics of invasive cattail (Typhaceae) stands in the Western Great Lakes Region of North America: a molecular analysis. J. Ecology 98:7-16.

Underwood, J.G., D'Agrosa, C., and Gerber, L.R. 2010. Identifying conservation areas on the basis of alternative distribution data sets. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):162-170.

van Langevelde, F., and Wynhoff, I. 2009. What limits the spread of two congeneric butterfly species after their reintroduction: quality or spatial arrangement of habitat? Anim. Conserv. 12(6):540-548.

Veldtman, R., Chown, S.L., and McGeoch, M.A. 2010. Using scale-area curves to quantify the distribution, abundance and range expansion potential of an invasive species. Divers. Distrib. 16(1):159-169.

Venter, O., Watson, J.E.M., Meijaard, E., Laurance, W.F., and Possingham, H.P. 2010. Avoiding unintended outcomes from REDD. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):5-6.

Verissimo, D., Fraser, I., Groombridge, J., Bristol, R., and MacMillan, D.C. 2009. Birds as tourism flagship species: a case study of tropical islands. Anim. Conserv. 12(6):549-558.

Vignon, M., and Sasal, P. 2010. Fish introduction and parasites in marine ecosystems: a need for information. Environ. Biol. Fish. 87:1-8.

Vogel, V., Pedersen, J.S., Giraud, T., Krieger, M.J.B., and Keller, L. 2010. The worldwide expansion of the Argentine ant. Divers. Distrib. 16(1):170-186.

Vohmann, A., Borcherding, J., Kureck, A., de Vaate, A.B., Arndt, H., and Weitere, M. 2010. Strong body mass decrease of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea during summer. Biol. Invasions 12:53-64.

Wade, A.A., and Theobald, D.M. 2010. Residential development encroachment on U.S. protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):151-161.

Watts, S.M. 2010. Pocket gophers and the invasion and restoration of native bunchgrass communities. Restor. Ecol. 18(1):34-40.

Weekley, C.W., Zaya, D.N., Menges, E.S., and Faivre, A.E. 2010. Multiple causes of seedling rarity in scrub plum, Prunus geniculata (Rosaceae), an endangered shrub of the Florida scrub. Am. J. Bot. 97:144-155.

Werner, C., Zumkier, U., Beyschlag, W., and Máguas, C. 2010. High competitiveness of a resource demanding invasive acacia under low resource supply. Plant Ecol. 206:83-96.

Wiens, J.A., and Bachelet, D. 2010. Matching the multiple scales of conservation with the multiple scales of climate change. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):51-62.

Wilkin, P., Hladik, A., Jeannoda, V., and Weber, O. 2009. The threatened edible yams of the Dioscorea sambiranensis R.Knuth species complex (Dioscoreaceae): a new species and subspecies. Adansonia 31:249-266.

Wilson, J.D., Evans, A.D., and Grice, P.V. 2010. Bird conservation and agriculture: a pivotal moment? Ibis 152:176-179.

Woodcock, B.A., and Pywell, R.F. 2010. Effects of vegetation structure and floristic diversity on detritivore, herbivore and predatory invertebrates within calcareous grasslands. Biodivers. Conserv. 19:81-95.

Xu, C.Y., Julien, M.H., Fatemi, M., Girod, C., Van Klinken, R.D., Gross, C.L., and Novak, S.J. 2010. Phenotypic divergence during the invasion of Phyla canescens in Australia and France: evidence for selection-driven evolution. Ecol. Lett. 13:32-44.

Yemshanov, D., McKenney, D.W., Pedlar, J.H., Koch, F.H., and Cook, D. 2009. Towards an integrated approach to modelling the risks and impacts of invasive forest species. Environ. Rev. 17:163-178.

Zhang, J.J., Ye, Q.G., Yao, X.H., and Huang, H.W. 2010. Spontaneous interspecific hybridization and patterns of pollen dispersal in ex situ populations of a tree species (Sinojackia xylocarpa) that is extinct in the wild. Conserv. Biol. 24(1):246-255.

Zhou, T.H., Qian, Z.Q., Li, S., Guo, Z.G., Huang, Z.H., Liu, Z.L., and Zhao, G.F. 2010. Genetic diversity of the endangered Chinese endemic herb Saruma henryi Oliv. (Aristolochiaceae) and its implications for conservation. Pop. Ecol. 52:223-231.

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