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Department ofBotany

No. 305
May 2010

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In This Issue

Eating Like a Bird Helps Forests Grow

Lions, tigers and bears top the ecological pyramid--the diagram of the food chain that every school child knows. They eat smaller animals, feeding on energy that flows up from the base where plants convert sunlight into carbohydrates.

A new study examines complex interactions in the middle of the pyramid, where birds, bats and lizards consume insects. These predators eat enough insects to indirectly benefit plants and increase their growth, Smithsonian scientists report. "Our findings are relevant to natural communities like grasslands and forests, but also to human food production, as these insect-eating animals also reduce insect pests on crop plants," said Sunshine Van Bael, scientist at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.

Previous theory on food webs suggested that the effects of insect-eaters on plants would be weak, because animals like birds not only feed on herbivores - which is good for the plants - but may also benefit them by feeding spiders and predatory insects. If a bird eats a lot of spiders, for example, caterpillars could be "released" from spider predation and then consume more plant material. The authors found that previous theory did not hold true; in fact, the birds simply ate the spiders and the caterpillars.

The authors reviewed more than 100 studies of insect predation by birds, bats or lizards from four continents. They found that the identity of the predator didn't make much of a difference. Together, by eating herbivores and their insect predators, they reduced damage to plants by 40 percent, which resulted in a 14 percent increase in plant biomass.

"It's no longer apt to say that one 'eats like a bird'," said Van Bael, "Our study shows that birds, bats and lizards act as one big vacuum cleaner up in the treetops. Everything's on the menu."

Nevertheless, there is still a lack of experimental work on the overlap in diets of the insects that birds, lizards and bats are eating, and the insects that the predatory insects, themselves are eating. "Our study shows that birds, bats and lizards protect plants, underscoring the importance of conservation of these species in the face of global change," summed up lead author Kailen Mooney, professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of California-Irvine.

Co-authors of this study, published by the prestigious journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, also include researchers from the University of Maryland, the University of Missouri-St. Louis, the University of Toledo, and the Smithsonian's Migratory Bird Center at the National Zoological Park.

-From EurekAlert!

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Linklater, W.L., Plotz, R.D., Kerley, G.I.H., Brashares, J.S., Lent, P.C., Cameron, E.Z., Law, P.R., and Hitchins, P.M. 2010. Dissimilar home range estimates for black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis cannot be used to infer habitat change. Oryx 44(1):16-18.

Liu, Y.H., Axmacher, J.C., Wang, C.L., Li, L.T., and Yu, Z.R. 2010. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the intensively cultivated agricultural landscape of Northern China - implications for biodiversity conservation. Insect Conserv. Divers. 3:34-43.

Llewelyn, J., Phillips, B.L., Alford, R.A., Schwarzkopf, L., and Shine, R. 2010. Locomotor performance in an invasive species: cane toads from the invasion front have greater endurance, but not speed, compared to conspecifics from a long-colonised area. Oecologia 162:343-348.

López-Bao, J.V., Palomares, F., Rodríguez, A., and Delibes, M. 2010. Effects of food supplementation on home-range size, reproductive success, productivity and recruitment in a small population of Iberian lynx. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):35-42.

Lung, T., and Schaab, G. 2010. A comparative assessment of land cover dynamics of three protected forest areas in tropical eastern Africa. Environ. Monit. Assess. 161:531-548.

Majic, A., and Bath, A.J. 2010. Changes in attitudes toward wolves in Croatia. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):255-260.

Malaval, S., Lauga, B., Regnault-Roger, C., and Largier, G. 2010. Combined definition of seed transfer guidelines for ecological restoration in the French Pyrenees. Appl. Veg. Sci. 13(1):113-124.

Mangel, J.C., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Van Waerebeek, K., Cáceres, C., Bearhop, S., Witt, M.J., and Godley, B.J. 2010. Small cetacean captures in Peruvian artisanal fisheries: high despite protective legislation. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):136-143.

Marini, M.Â., Barbet-Massin, M., Martinez, J., Prestes, N.P., and Jiguet, F. 2010. Applying ecological niche modelling to plan conservation actions for the Red-spectacled Amazon (Amazona pretrei). Biol. Conserv. 143(1):102-112.

Martin, J.L., Stockton, S.A., Allombert, S., and Gaston, A.J. 2010. Top-down and bottom-up consequences of unchecked ungulate browsing on plant and animal diversity in temperate forests: lessons from a deer introduction. Biol. Invasions 12(2):353-371.

Martins, G.M., Thompson, R.C., Neto, A.I., Hawkins, S.J., and Jenkins, S.R. 2010. Enhancing stocks of the exploited limpet Patella candei d'Orbigny via modifications in coastal engineering. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):203-211.

May, S., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2010. Recent introduction or ancient ancestry? Use of genetic evidence to investigate the origins of range edge populations in natterjack toads (Bufo calamita). Conserv. Genet. 11(1):293-300.

Mazák, J.H. 2010. Craniometric variation in the tiger (Panthera tigris): implications for patterns of diversity, taxonomy and conservation. Mamm. Biol. 75:45-68.

McFadden, K.W., García-Vasco, D., Cuarón, A.D., Valenzuela-Galván, D., Medellín, R.A., and Gompper, M.E. 2010. Vulnerable island carnivores: the endangered endemic dwarf procyonids from Cozumel Island. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):491-502.

McIntosh, A.R., McHugh, P.A., Dunn, N.R., Goodman, J.M., Howard, S.W., Jellyman, P.G., O'Brien, L.K., Nyström, P., and Woodford, D.J. 2010. The impact of trout on galaxiid fishes in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 34(1):195-206.

Medina, F.M., and Martín, A. 2010. A new invasive species in the Canary Islands: a naturalized population of ferrets Mustela furo in La Palma Biosphere Reserve. Oryx 44(1):41-44.

Meek, C.S., Richardson, D.M., and Mucina, L. 2010. A river runs through it: land-use and the composition of vegetation along a riparian corridor in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):156-164.

Mena, J.L., and Medellín, R.A. 2010. Small mammal assemblages in a disturbed tropical landscape at Pozuzo, Peru. Mamm. Biol. 75:83-91.

Mendoza, J.C.E., Naruse, T., Tan, S.H., Chan, T.Y., de Forges, B.R., and Ng, P.K.L. 2010. Case studies on decapod crustaceans from the Philippines reveal deep, steep underwater slopes as prime habitats for 'rare' species. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):575-586.

Metcalfe, K., Ffrench-Constant, R., and Gordon, I. 2010. Sacred sites as hotspots for biodiversity: the Three Sisters Cave complex in coastal Kenya. Oryx 44(1):118-123.

Milankov, V., Francuski, L., Ludoški, J., Ståhls, G., and Vujic', A. 2010. Estimating genetic and phenotypic diversity in a northern hoverfly reveals lack of heterozygosity correlated with significant fluctuating asymmetry of wing traits. J. Insect Conserv. 14(1):77-88.

Milner-Gulland, E.J., Fisher, M., Browne, S., Redford, K.H., Spencer, M., and Sutherland, W.J. 2010. Do we need to develop a more relevant conservation literature? Oryx 44(1):1-2.

Minden, V., Hennenberg, K.J., Porembski, S., and Boehmer, H.J. 2010. Invasion and management of alien Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger, Zingiberaceae) alter plant species composition of a montane rainforest on the island of Hawai'i. Plant Ecol. 206:321-333.

Minden, V., Jacobi, J.D., Porembski, S., and Boehmer, H.J. 2010. Effects of invasive alien kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) on native plant species regeneration in a Hawaiian rainforest. Appl. Veg. Sci. 13(1):5-14.

Mooney, K.A., Gruner, D.S., Barber, N.A., Van Bael, S.A., Philpott, S.M., and Greenberg, R. 2010. Interactions among predators and the cascading effects of vertebrate insectivores on arthropod communities and plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107(16):7335-7340.

Morissette, E.M., Lavoie, C., and Huot, J. 2009. Fairy slipper (Calypso bulbosa) on Anticosti Island: the occurrence of a rare plant in an environment strongly modified by white-tailed deer. Botany-Botanique 87(12):1223-1231.

Mumby, P.J., and Harborne, A.R. 2010. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs. PLoS ONE 5(1):e8657.

Nelis, L.C., and Wootton, J.T. 2010. Treatment-based Markov chain models clarify mechanisms of invasion in an invaded grassland community. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 277:539-547.

Ngo, V.T., and Gamble, T. 2010. A new species of Gekko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tà Kóu Nature Reserve, Binh Thuan Province, Southern Vietnam. Zootaxa 2346:17-28.

Ntie, S., Johnston, A.R., Mickala, P., Bowkett, A.E., van Vuuren, B.J., Colyn, M., Telfer, P., Maisels, F., Hymas, O., Rouyer, R.L., Wallace, R.A., LeBlanc, K., van Vliet, N., Sonet, G., Verheyen, E., Pires, D., Wickings, E.J., Lahm, S.A., and Anthony, N.M. 2010. A molecular diagnostic for identifying central African forest artiodactyls from faecal pellets. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):80-93.

Nuñez, M.A., Bailey, J.K., and Schweitzer, J.A. 2010. Population, community and ecosystem effects of exotic herbivores: a growing global concern. Biol. Invasions 12(2):297-301.

Nuñeza, O.M., Ates, F.B., and Alicante, A.A. 2010. Distribution of endemic and threatened herpetofauna in Mt. Malindang, Mindanao, Philippines. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):503-518.

O'Reilly-Wapstra, J.M., and Cowan, P. 2010. Native plant/herbivore interactions as determinants of the ecological and evolutionary effects of invasive mammalian herbivores: the case of the common brushtail possum. Biol. Invasions 12(2):373-387.

Oduor, A.M.O., Gómez, J.M., and Strauss, S.Y. 2010. Exotic vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores differ in their impacts on native and exotic plants: a meta-analysis. Biol. Invasions 12(2):407-419.

Oliveira, L.C., Hankerson, S.J., Dietz, J.M., and Raboy, B.E. 2010. Key tree species for the golden-headed lion tamarin and implications for shade-cocoa management in southern Bahia, Brazil. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):60-70.

Olson, D., Farley, L., Patrick, A., Watling, D., Tuiwawa, M., Masibalavu, V., Lenoa, L., Bogiva, A., Qauqau, I., Atherton, J., Caginitoba, A., Tokota'a, M., Prasad, S., Naisilisili, W., Raikabula, A., Mailautoka, K., Morley, C., and Allnutt, T. 2010. Priority Forests for Conservation in Fiji: landscapes, hotspots and ecological processes. Oryx 44(1):57-70.

Panetta, F.D. 2009. Seed persistence of the invasive aquatic plant, Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae). Aust. J. Bot. 57(8):670-674.

Panzer, R., Gnaedinger, K., and Derkovitz, G. 2010. The prevalence and status of conservative prairie and sand savanna insects in the Chicago wilderness region. Nat. Areas J. 30(1):73-81.

Pennington, D.N., Hansel, J.R., and Gorchov, D.L. 2010. Urbanization and riparian forest woody communities: diversity, composition, and structure within a metropolitan landscape. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):182-194.

Penteriani, V., Pettorelli, N., Gordon, I.J., Katzner, T., Mock, K., Redpath, S., Altwegg, R., and Gompper, M.E. 2010. New European Union fisheries regulations could benefit conservation of marine animals. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):1-2.

Phillips, B.L., Greenlees, M.J., Brown, G.P., and Shine, R. 2010. Predator behaviour and morphology mediates the impact of an invasive species: cane toads and death adders in Australia. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):53-59.

Phillips, R.A., Ridley, C., Reid, K., Pugh, P.J.A., Tuck, G.N., and Harrison, N. 2010. Ingestion of fishing gear and entanglements of seabirds: monitoring and implications for management. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):501-512.

Phillips, R.D., Hopper, S.D., and Dixon, K.W. 2010. Pollination ecology and the possible impacts of environmental change in the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 365:517-528.

Portillo-Quintero, C.A., and Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A. 2010. Extent and conservation of tropical dry forests in the Americas. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):144-155.

Prevedello, J.A., and Vieira, M.V. 2010. Plantation rows as dispersal routes: a test with didelphid marsupials in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):131-135.

Pruett, C.L., Turner, T.N., Topp, C.M., Zagrebelny, S.V., and Winker, K. 2010. Divergence in an archipelago and its conservation consequences in Aleutian Island rock ptarmigan. Conserv. Genet. 11(1):241-248.

Quinten, M.C., Waltert, M., Syamsuri, F., and Hodges, J.K. 2010. Peat swamp forest supports high primate densities on Siberut Island, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 44(1):147-151.

Rainey, H.J., Iyenguet, F.C., Malanda, G.A.F., Madzoké, B., Dos Santos, D., Stokes, E.J., Maisels, F., and Strindberg, S. 2010. Survey of Raphia swamp forest, Republic of Congo, indicates high densities of Critically Endangered western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla. Oryx 44(1):124-132.

Randrianantoandro, C., Razafimahatratra, B., Soazandry, M., Ratsimbazafy, J., and Jenkins, R.K.B. 2010. Habitat use by chameleons in a deciduous forest in western Madagascar. Amphibia-Reptilia 31:27-35.

Ratcliffe, N., Bell, M., Pelembe, T., Boyle, D., Benjamin, R., White, R., Godley, B., Stevenson, J., and Sanders, S. 2010. The eradication of feral cats from Ascension Island and its subsequent recolonization by seabirds. Oryx 44(1):20-29.

Reding, D.M., Freed, L.A., Cann, R.L., and Fleischer, R.C. 2010. Spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity in an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, the Hawaii Akepa (Loxops coccineus coccineus). Conserv. Genet. 11(1):225-240.

Redpath, N., Osgathorpe, L.M., Park, K., and Goulson, D. 2010. Crofting and bumblebee conservation: the impact of land management practices on bumblebee populations in northwest Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):492-500.

Relva, M.A., Nuñez, M.A., and Simberloff, D. 2010. Introduced deer reduce native plant cover and facilitate invasion of non-native tree species: evidence for invasional meltdown. Biol. Invasions 12(2):303-311.

Reyna-Hurtado, R., Naranjo, E., Chapman, C.A., and Tanner, G.W. 2010. Hunting and the conservation of a social ungulate: the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari in Calakmul, Mexico. Oryx 44(1):89-96.

Rivera, L., Llanos, R.R., Politi, N., Hennessey, B., and Bucher, E.H. 2010. The Near Threatened Tucumán parrot Amazona tucumana in Bolivia: insights for a global assessment. Oryx 44(1):110-113.

Rizali, A., Lohman, D.J., Buchori, D., Prasetyo, L.B., Triwidodo, H., Bos, M.M., Yamane, S., and Schulze, C.H. 2010. Ant communities on small tropical islands: effects of island size and isolation are obscured by habitat disturbance and 'tramp' ant species. J. Biogeogr. 37(2):229-236.

Rogell, B., Thörngren, H., Palm, S., Laurila, A., and Höglund, J. 2010. Genetic structure in peripheral populations of the natterjack toad, Bufo calamita, as revealed by AFLP. Conserv. Genet. 11(1):173-181.

Rolon, A.S., and Maltchik, L. 2010. Does flooding of rice fields after cultivation contribute to wetland plant conservation in southern Brazil? Appl. Veg. Sci. 13(1):26-35.

Rumeu, B., Padilla, D.P., and Nogales, M. 2009. The key role of a Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus wintering population in seed dispersal of the endangered endemic Juniperus cedrus in an insular environment. Acta Ornithol. 44(2):199-204.

Ruprecht, E., Enyedi, M.Z., Eckstein, R.L., and Donath, T.W. 2010. Restorative removal of plant litter and vegetation 40 years after abandonment enhances re-emergence of steppe grassland vegetation. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):449-456.

Russell, C., and Schultz, C.B. 2010. Effects of grass-specific herbicides on butterflies: an experimental investigation to advance conservation efforts. J. Insect Conserv. 14(1):53-63.

Russello, M.A., Poulakakis, N., Gibbs, J.P., Tapia, W., Benavides, E., Powell, J.R., and Caccone, A. 2010. DNA from the past informs ex situ conservation for the future: an "extinct" species of Galápagos tortoise identified in captivity. PLoS ONE 5(1):e8683.

Rutledge, L.Y., Patterson, B.R., Mills, K.J., Loveless, K.M., Murray, D.L., and White, B.N. 2010. Protection from harvesting restores the natural social structure of eastern wolf packs. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):332-339.

Samways, M.J., Hitchins, P.M., Bourquin, O., and Henwood, J. 2010. Restoration of a tropical island: Cousine Island, Seychelles. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):425-434.

Sato, T., and Harada, Y. 2010. Human-induced population fragmentation and management of small, isolated Kirikuchi charr populations. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):24-25.

Sberze, M., Cohn-Haft, M., and Ferraz, G. 2010. Old growth and secondary forest site occupancy by nocturnal birds in a neotropical landscape. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):3-11.

Seabrook-Davison, M.N.H., Ji, W.H.J., and Brunton, D.H. 2010. Survey of New Zealand Department of Conservation staff involved in the management and recovery of threatened species. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):212-219.

Seaman, B.S., and Schulze, C.H. 2010. The importance of gallery forests in the tropical lowlands of Costa Rica for understorey forest birds. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):391-398.

Segan, D.B., Carwardine, J., Klein, C., Grantham, H., and Pressey, R.L. 2010. Can we determine conservation priorities without clear objectives? Biol. Conserv. 143(1):2-4.

Sekercioglu, C.H. 2010. The mystery of nocturnal birds in tropical secondary forests. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):12-13.

Shadbolt, A.B., and Ragai, R. 2010. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the movement patterns and dispersal ability of the brown spiny rat (Maxomys rajah) in the Planted Forest Zone of Sarawak, Eastern Malaysia. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):531-541.

Sharma, R.K., Jhala, Y., Qureshi, Q., Vattakaven, J., Gopal, R., and Nayak, K. 2010. Evaluating capture-recapture population and density estimation of tigers in a population with known parameters. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):94-103.

Sheldon, F.H., Styring, A., and Hosner, P.A. 2010. Bird species richness in a Bornean exotic tree plantation: a long-term perspective. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):399-407.

Sigel, B.J., Robinson, W.D., and Sherry, T.W. 2010. Comparing bird community responses to forest fragmentation in two lowland Central American reserves. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):340-350.

Silva-Rodríguez, E.A., Verdugo, C., Aleuy, O.A., Sanderson, J.G., Ortega-Solís, G.R., Osorio-Zúñiga, F., and González-Acuña, D. 2010. Evaluating mortality sources for the Vulnerable pudu Pudu puda in Chile: implications for the conservation of a threatened deer. Oryx 44(1):97-103.

Silveira, L., Jácomo, A.T.A., Astete, S., Sollmann, R., Tôrres, N.M., Furtado, M.M., and Marinho, J. 2010. Density of the Near Threatened jaguar Panthera onca in the caatinga of north-eastern Brazil. Oryx 44(1):104-109.

Simaika, J.P., and Samways, M.J. 2010. Large-scale estimators of threatened freshwater catchment species relative to practical conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):311-320.

Sivakumar, K. 2010. Impact of the 2004 tsunami on the Vulnerable Nicobar megapode Megapodius nicobariensis. Oryx 44(1):71-78.

Slapcinsky, J.L., Gordon, D.R., and Menges, E.S. 2010. Responses of rare plant species to fire in Florida's pyrogenic communities. Nat. Areas J. 30(1):4-19.

Slotow, R., Reid, C., Balfour, D., and Howison, O. 2010. Use of black rhino range estimates for conservation decisions: a response to Linklater et al. Oryx 44(1):18-19.

Smith, S., Belov, K., and Hughes, J. 2010. MHC screening for marsupial conservation: extremely low levels of class II diversity indicate population vulnerability for an endangered Australian marsupial. Conserv. Genet. 11(1):269-278.

Sodhi, N.S., Posa, M.R.C., Lee, T.M., Bickford, D., Koh, L.P., and Brook, B.W. 2010. The state and conservation of Southeast Asian biodiversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):317-328.

Sodhi, N.S., Wilcove, D.S., Subaraj, R., Yong, D.L., Lee, T.M., Bernard, H., and Lim, S.L.H. 2010. Insect extinctions on a small denuded Bornean island. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):485-490.

Starostová, Z., Rehák, I., and Frynta, D. 2010. New haplotypes of Cyclura nubila nubila from Cuba changed the phylogenetic tree of rock-iguanas: a challenge for conservation strategies? Amphibia-Reptilia 31:134-143.

Steinmetz, R., Chutipong, W., Seuaturien, N., Chirngsaard, E., and Khaengkhetkarn, M. 2010. Population recovery patterns of Southeast Asian ungulates after poaching. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):42-51.

Stelzenmüller, V., Ellis, J.R., and Rogers, S.I. 2010. Towards a spatially explicit risk assessment for marine management: assessing the vulnerability of fish to aggregate extraction. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):230-238.

Stelzenmüller, V., Lee, J., South, A., and Rogers, S.I. 2010. Quantifying cumulative impacts of human pressures on the marine environment: a geospatial modelling framework. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 398:19-32.

Stevens, J.T., and Beckage, B. 2010. Fire effects on demography of the invasive shrub Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida pine savannas. Nat. Areas J. 30(1):53-63.

Stork, N.E. 2010. Re-assessing current extinction rates. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):357-371.

Stritar, M.L., Schweitzer, J.A., Hart, S.C., and Bailey, J.K. 2010. Introduced ungulate herbivore alters soil processes after fire. Biol. Invasions 12(2):313-324.

Struebig, M.J., Christy, L., Pio, D., and Meijaard, E. 2010. Bats of Borneo: diversity, distributions and representation in protected areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):449-469.

Sulaiman, Z.H., and Ovenden, J.R. 2010. Population genetic evidence for the east-west division of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson, Perciformes: Teleostei) along Wallace's Line. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):563-574.

Sutherland, W.J., Clout, M., Côté, I.M., Daszak, P., Depledge, M.H., Fellman, L., Fleishman, E., Garthwaite, R., Gibbons, D.W., De Lurio, J., Impey, A.J., Lickorish, F., Lindenmayer, D., Madgwick, J., Margerison, C., Maynard, T., Peck, L.S., Pretty, J., Prior, S., Redford, K.H., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Spalding, M., and Watkinson, A.R. 2010. A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2010. Trends Ecol. Evol. 25(1):1-7.

Swatdipong, A., Primmer, C.R., and Vasemägi, A. 2010. Historical and recent genetic bottlenecks in European grayling, Thymallus thymallus. Conserv. Genet. 11(1):279-292.

Swift, T.L., and Hannon, S.J. 2010. Critical thresholds associated with habitat loss: a review of the concepts, evidence, and applications. Biol. Rev. 85:35-53.

Takakura, K.I., and Fujii, S. 2010. Reproductive interference and salinity tolerance differentiate habitat use between two alien cockleburs: Xanthium occidentale and X. italicum (Compositae). Plant Ecol. 206:309-319.

Taphorn, D.C., Armbruster, J.W., and Rodríguez-Olarte, D. 2010. Ancistrus falconensis n. sp and A. gymnorhynchus Kner (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from central Venezuelan Caribbean coastal streams. Zootaxa 2345:19-32.

Torres, J., Brito, J.C., Vasconcelos, M.J., Catarino, L., Gonçalves, J., and Honrado, J. 2010. Ensemble models of habitat suitability relate chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) conservation to forest and landscape dynamics in Western Africa. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):416-425.

Traill, L.W., Brook, B.W., Frankham, R.R., and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2010. Pragmatic population viability targets in a rapidly changing world. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):28-34.

Treves, A., Mwima, P., Plumptre, A.J., and Isoke, S. 2010. Camera-trapping forest-woodland wildlife of western Uganda reveals how gregariousness biases estimates of relative abundance and distribution. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):521-528.

Uscamaita, M.R., and Bodmer, R. 2010. Recovery of the Endangered giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis on the Yavarí-Mirín and Yavarí Rivers: a success story for CITES. Oryx 44(1):83-88.

van Heezik, Y., Smyth, A., Adams, A., and Gordon, J. 2010. Do domestic cats impose an unsustainable harvest on urban bird populations? Biol. Conserv. 143(1):121-130.

van Katwijk, M.M., Bos, A.R., Kennis, P., and de Vries, R. 2010. Vulnerability to eutrophication of a semi-annual life history: a lesson learnt from an extinct eelgrass (Zostera matina) population. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):248-254.

van Kleunen, M., Weber, E., and Fischer, M. 2010. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species. Ecol. Lett. 13(2):235-245.

van Lavieren, E., and Wich, S.A. 2010. Decline of the Endangered Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in the cedar forest of the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco. Oryx 44(1):133-138.

Van Turnhout, C.A.M., Foppen, R.P.B., Leuven, R., Van Strien, A., and Siepel, H. 2010. Life-history and ecological correlates of population change in Dutch breeding birds. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):173-181.

Vellend, M., Drummond, E.B.M., and Tomimatsu, H. 2010. Effects of genotype identity and diversity on the invasiveness and invasibility of plant populations. Oecologia 162:371-381.

Villamagna, A.M., and Murphy, B.R. 2010. Ecological and socio-economic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): a review. Freshwater Biol. 55(2):282-298.

Vincenzi, S., Crivelli, A.J., Jesensek, D., and Leo, G.A. 2010. The management of small, isolated salmonid populations: do we have to fix it if it ain't broken? Anim. Conserv. 13(1):21-23.

Vitt, P., Havens, K., Kramer, A.T., Sollenberger, D., and Yates, E. 2010. Assisted migration of plants: changes in latitudes, changes in attitudes. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):18-27.

Wagner, D.L., and Van Driesche, R.G. 2010. Threats posed to rare or endangered insects by invasions of nonnative species. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 55:547-568.

Wallem, P.K., Anderson, C.B., Martínez-Pastur, G., and Lencinas, M.V. 2010. Using assembly rules to measure the resilience of riparian plant communities to beaver invasion in subantarctic forests. Biol. Invasions 12(2):325-335.

Watson, J., Trueman, M., Tufet, M., Henderson, S., and Atkinson, R. 2010. Mapping terrestrial anthropogenic degradation on the inhabited islands of the Galapagos Archipelago. Oryx 44(1):79-82.

Watts, S.M., Uhl, M.M., Maurano, S.P., and Nuccio, E.E. 2010. Using small-scale studies to prioritize threats and guide recovery of a rare hemiparasitic plant: Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis. PLoS ONE 5(1):e8892.

Wells, J.V., Robertson, B., Rosenberg, K.V., and Mehlman, D.W. 2010. Global versus local conservation focus of U.S. state agency endangered bird species lists. PLoS ONE 5(1):e8608.

Wilhere, G.F., and Goering, M. 2010. One method does not fit all: a reply to Segan et al. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):1.

Williams, C.E., and Cook, R.E. 2010. Forest seral stage and large woody debris abundance in an Allegheny high plateau forest-stream system. Nat. Areas J. 30(1):20-26.

Willis, C.G., Ruhfel, B.R., Primack, R.B., Miller-Rushing, A.J., Losos, J.B., and Davis, C.C. 2010. Favorable climate change response explains non-native species' success in Thoreau's woods. PLoS ONE 5(1):e8878.

Wittmer, H.U., Ahrens, R.N.M., and McLellan, B.N. 2010. Viability of mountain caribou in British Columbia, Canada: effects of habitat change and population density. Biol. Conserv. 143(1):86-93.

Wong, K.M., Sugumaran, M., Lee, D.K.P., and Zahid, M.S. 2010. Ecological aspects of endemic plant populations on Klang Gates quartz ridge, a habitat island in Peninsular Malaysia. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):435-447.

Wretenberg, J., Pärt, T., and Berg, Å. 2010. Changes in local species richness of farmland birds in relation to land-use changes and landscape structure. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):375-381.

Wright, H.L., Buckingham, D.L., and Dolman, P.M. 2010. Dry season habitat use by critically endangered white-shouldered ibis in northern Cambodia. Anim. Conserv. 13(1):71-79.

Wu, Y.H., Xia, L., Zhang, Q., and Yang, Q.S. 2010. Habitat fragmentation affects genetic diversity and differentiation of the Yarkand hare. Conserv. Genet. 11(1):183-194.

Yule, C.M. 2010. Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in Indo-Malayan peat swamp forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(2):393-409.

Zhang, M.W., Rao, D.Q., Yang, J.X., Yu, G.H., and Wilkinson, J.A. 2010. Molecular phylogeography and population structure of a mid-elevation montane frog Leptobrachium ailaonicum in a fragmented habitat of southwest China. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 54:47-58.

Zimmerman, C.L., and Runkle, J.R. 2010. Using ecological land units for conservation planning in a southwestern Ohio watershed. Nat. Areas J. 30(1):27-38.

Zipkin, E.F., Royle, J.A., Dawson, D.K., and Bates, S. 2010. Multi-species occurrence models to evaluate the effects of conservation and management actions. Biol. Conserv. 143(2):479-484.

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