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Department ofBotany

No. 310
October 2010

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In This Issue

The Changing Herpetofauna of the Pacific

by George Zug

Hawaii now has seven frogs, 20 lizards, one snake, and four freshwater turtles. Before Captain Cook and the whalers arrived, Hawaii had no frogs and, at best, two geckos and two skinks. Before the Polynesians arrived, there were no terrestrial reptiles and amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands!

Human's colonization of the Pacific profoundly altered the herpetofaunas of the Pacific islands. From the paleontological investigations of Helen James, Storrs Olson (Smithsonian Institution), and David Steadman (University of Florida), we know that Pacific bird diversity was halved within a century or less of the arrival of the Polynesians. At the present, we have only a vague hint of the effect of Polynesian's colonization on the diversity of Pacific terrestrial reptiles, specifically lizards because only a few Oceanic islands have native frogs and snakes. Larger lizards, such as the giant Tongan and Fijian iguanas, disappeared quickly, being found in pre-human arrival layers and the earliest human middens and then they are gone. Assorted other lizard bones are found but with low diversity. These subfossils usually represent the smaller skinks and geckos, and with a few exceptions, appear to be the species currently present on the islands.

Because we have little information on lizard diversity prior to the arrival of humans, zoologists have accepted the current fauna of each island as the original fauna. This thought pattern is slowly changing, and it now seems likely that many lizard species on most islands are recent arrivals, probably within the last 2,000 to 2,500 years. Testing this concept is only beginning. Christopher Austin (Louisiana State University) examined the genetic relatedness of populations of the moth skink from New Guinea to Polynesia and discovered that all populations, no matter how distant, were genetically identical. He interpreted these data as the moth skink colonizing the Pacific as canoe stowaways, hopping from island to islands with pigs, rats, dogs and people. That interpretation is certainly possible, but the moth skinks and other lizards may have been even later arrivals, perhaps with whaling and trading Euroamericans.

Identifying and verifying native versus invasive species is challenging. Two criteria for verifying native species are speciation and occurrence in prehuman fossil layers. Because human colonization of the Pacific oceanic islands is recent, post last Ice Age, differentiation and speciation of lizard populations is highly unlikely, and we assume that distinct and localized species are native species, in contrast to those species with widespread distributions across many island groups. A pre-human fossil occurrence obviously negates human transport.

An intriguing discovery of a large arboreal skink in the Cook Islands reveals the difficulties of discerning native versus invasive species. During the mid-1980s, while Steadman and Gregory Pregill were searching and mining fossil sites on Rarotonga, they saw and collected several tiger-barred treeskinks. At the same time, another pair of herpetologists working in Fiji recognized similar appearing treeskinks as a new species. The immediate interpretation was that the Rarotongan treeskink was a recent introduction from Tonga or Fiji. Was it? There were no earlier records of the treeskink from the Cooks. Perhaps molecules could answer the question. In 1999, Pat and George Zug (Smithsonian Institution) visited Rarotonga and collected tissues, which eventually became part of a molecular study of the treeskinks (Emoia samoensis species group) of the Southwest Pacific (part of Alison Hamilton's doctoral dissertation). The surprising results, published in the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, showed that the Rarotongan treeskink was not closely related to any Fijian, Samoan or Tongan lizards in the samples. Indeed, it had a sister group relationship to a group of Vanuatuan treeskinks.

This result stimulated a closer morphological analysis, and, not surprisingly, the Rarotongan treeskink was morphologically distinct from Fijian, Samoan, Tongan, and Vanuatuan treeskinks. Morphology provides no phylogenetic information, other than confirming the uniqueness of this population and differentiation in several other populations, ones that were also indicated by molecular analysis. What they had not answered, however, is the origins of the Rarotongan treeskink. Has it been in the Cooks for millennia, thus representing in situ speciation, or is it a recent introduction from an island for which we have no samples?

Their interpretation is the latter. These treeskinks are not cryptic and are seen regularly by island residents and visitors. There are no museum vouchers prior to the 1980s or literature records of an earlier sighting. Their molecular sample includes ten individuals, and they were genetically identical. Neither of these two pieces of evidences makes the interpretation the only possible one. For the moment, their interpretation is the most parsimonious one and recommends returning to the Pacific and different islands for more samples.

Current Literature

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Bruel, B.O., Marques, M.C.M., and Britez, R.M. 2010. Survival and growth of tree species under two direct seedling planting systems. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):414-417.

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Chimera, C.G., and Drake, D.R. 2010. Patterns of seed dispersal and dispersal failure in a Hawaiian dry forest having only introduced birds. Biotropica 42(4):493-502.

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Collen, B., and Baillie, J.E.M. 2010. Barometer of life: sampling. Science 329(5988):140.

Corbin, J.D., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2010. Not novel, just better: competition between native and non-native plants in California grasslands that share species traits. Plant Ecol. 209(1):71-81.

Corti, P., Wittmer, H.U., and Festa-Bianchet, M. 2010. Dynamics of a small population of endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Chilean Patagonia. J. Mammal. 91(3):690-697.

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Curran, T.J., Reid, E.M., and Skorik, C. 2010. Effects of a severe frost on riparian rainforest restoration in the Australian wet tropics: foliage retention by species and the role of forest shelter. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):408-413.

Darling, E.S., McClanahan, T.R., and Cote, I.M. 2010. Combined effects of two stressors on Kenyan coral reefs are additive or antagonistic, not synergistic. Conserv. Lett. 3(2):122-130.

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Ferse, S.C.A. 2010. Poor performance of corals transplanted onto substrates of short durability. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):399-407.

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Flueck, W.T. 2010. Exotic deer in southern Latin America: what do we know about impacts on native deer and on ecosystems? Biol. Invasions 12(7):1909-1922.

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Foucaud, J., Orivel, J., Loiseau, A., Delabie, J.H.C., Jourdan, H., Konghouleux, D., Vonshak, M., Tindo, M., Mercier, J.L., Fresneau, D., Mikissa, J.B., McGlynn, T., Mikheyev, A.S., Oettler, J., and Estoup, A. 2010. Worldwide invasion by the little fire ant: routes of introduction and eco-evolutionary pathways. Evol. Appl. 3(4):363-374.

Fouquet, A., Ficetola, G.F., Haigh, A., and Gemmell, N. 2010. Using ecological niche modelling to infer past, present and future environmental suitability for Leiopelma hochstetteri, an endangered New Zealand native frog. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1375-1384.

Freed, L.A., and Cann, R.L. 2010. Misleading trend analysis and decline of Hawaiian forest birds. Condor 112(2):213-221.

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Fujii, A., and Forstner, M.R.J. 2010. Genetic variation and population structure of the Texas tortoise, Gopherus berlandieri (Testudinidae), with implications for conservation. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 9(1):61-69.

Fuller, R.A., McDonald-Madden, E., Wilson, K.A., Carwardine, J., Grantham, H.S., Watson, J.E.M., Klein, C.J., Green, D.C., and Possingham, H.P. 2010. Replacing underperforming protected areas achieves better conservation outcomes. Nature 466(7304):365-367.

Gallagher, R.V., Beaumont, L.J., Hughes, L., and Leishman, M.R. 2010. Evidence for climatic niche and biome shifts between native and novel ranges in plant species introduced to Australia. J. Ecology 98(4):790-799.

García-Berthou, E. 2010. Invasion ecology fifty years after Elton's book. Biol. Invasions 12(7):1941-1942.

Gärdenfors, U. 2010. Barometer of life: national red lists. Science 329(5988):140.

Gardiner, A.J., and Terblanche, R.F. 2010. Taxonomy, biology, biogeography, evolution and conservation of the genus Erikssonia Trimen (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Afr. Entomol. 18(1):171-191.

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Giam, X., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Tan, H.T.W., and Sodhi, N.S. 2010. Future habitat loss and the conservation of plant biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1594-1602.

Golden, R.R., Busch, K.E., Karrh, L.P., Parham, T.A., Lewandowski, M.J., and Naylor, M.D. 2010. Large-scale Zostera marina (eelgrass) restoration in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA. Part II: a comparison of restoration methods in the Patuxent and Potomac Rivers. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):501-513.

Gosper, C.R., and Vivian-Smith, G. 2010. Fruit traits of vertebrate-dispersed alien plants: smaller seeds and more pulp sugar than indigenous species. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2153-2163.

Grimsby, J.L., and Kesseli, R. 2010. Genetic composition of invasive Japanese knotweed s.l. in the United States. Biol. Invasions 12(7):1943-1946.

Hagen, M., and Kraemer, M. 2010. Agricultural surroundings support flower-visitor networks in an Afrotropical rain forest. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1654-1663.

Haines, A.M., Leu, M., Svancara, L.K., Wilson, G., and Scott, J.M. 2010. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species. Northwest Sci. 84(2):170-182.

Hamilton, A.M., Zug, G.R., and Austin, C.C. 2010. Biogeographic anomaly or human introduction: a cryptogenic population of tree skink (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Cook Islands, Oceania. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 100(2):318-328.

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Hansen, D.M., Donlan, C.J., Griffiths, C.J., and Campbell, K.J. 2010. Ecological history and latent conservation potential: large and giant tortoises as a model for taxon substitutions. Ecography 33(2):272-284.

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Hasselman, D.J., Bradford, R.G., and Bentzen, P. 2010. Taking stock: defining populations of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) in Canada using neutral genetic markers. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 67(6):1021-1039.

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Henery, M.L., Bowman, G., Mráz, P., Treier, U.A., Gex-Fabry, E., Schaffner, U., and Müller-Schärer, H. 2010. Evidence for a combination of pre-adapted traits and rapid adaptive change in the invasive plant Centaurea stoebe. J. Ecology 98(4):800-813.

Hengst, A., Melton, J., and Murray, L. 2010. Estuarine restoration of submersed aquatic vegetation: the nursery bed effect. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):605-614.

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Hoehn, P., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Tscharntke, T. 2010. Relative contribution of agroforestry, rainforest and openland to local and regional bee diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2189-2200.

Holmes, S.E., Roy, B.A., Reed, J.P., and Johnson, B.R. 2010. Context-dependent pattern and process: the distribution and competitive dynamics of an invasive grass, Brachypodium sylvaticum. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2303-2318.

Hooper, D.U., and Dukes, J.S. 2010. Functional composition controls invasion success in a California serpentine grassland. J. Ecology 98(4):764-777.

Huebner, C.D. 2010. Establishment of an invasive grass in closed-canopy deciduous forests across local and regional environmental gradients. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2069-2080.

Huebner, C.D. 2010. Spread of an invasive grass in closed-canopy deciduous forests across local and regional environmental gradients. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2081-2089.

Il Choi, W., Choi, K.S., Lyu, D.P., Lee, J.S., Lim, J., Lee, S., Shin, S.C., Chung, Y.J., and Park, Y.S. 2010. Seasonal changes of functional groups in coleopteran communities in pine forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2291-2305.

Inzunza, E.R., Goodrich, L.J., and Hoffman, S.W. 2010. North American population estimates of waterbirds, vultures and hawks from migration counts in Veracruz, México. Bird Conserv. Int. 20(2):124-133.

Jantke, K., and Schneider, U.A. 2010. Multiple-species conservation planning for European wetlands with different degrees of coordination. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1812-1821.

Jha, S., and Vandermeer, J.H. 2010. Impacts of coffee agroforestry management on tropical bee communities. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1423-1431.

Josefsson, T., Olsson, J., and Östlund, L. 2010. Linking forest history and conservation efforts: long-term impact of low-intensity timber harvest on forest structure and wood-inhabiting fungi in northern Sweden. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1803-1811.

Kajita, Y., and Evans, E.W. 2010. Alfalfa fields promote high reproductive rate of an invasive predatory lady beetle. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2293-2302.

Kenchington, R. 2010. Strategic roles of marine protected areas in ecosystem scale conservation. Bull. Mar. Sci. 86(2):303-313.

Knight, A.T., Bode, M., Fuller, R.A., Grantham, H.S., Possingham, H.P., Watson, J.E.M., and Wilson, K.A. 2010. Barometer of life: more action, not more data. Science 329(5988):141.

Knowlton, J.L., and Graham, C.H. 2010. Using behavioral landscape ecology to predict species' responses to land-use and climate change. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1342-1354.

Kobayashi, T., Kitahara, M., Ohkubo, T., and Aizawa, M. 2010. Relationships between the age of northern Kantou plain (central Japan) coppice woods used for production of Japanese forest mushroom logs and butterfly assemblage structure. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2147-2166.

Koch, E.W., Ailstock, M.S., Booth, D.M., Shafer, D.J., and Magoun, A.D. 2010. The role of currents and waves in the dispersal of submersed angiosperm seeds and seedlings. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):584-595.

Komulaynen, S. 2010. Algae protection, conservation areas and the red data book of the Republic of Karelia. Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 39(2):147-152.

Kreyling, J., Wana, D., and Beierkuhnlein, C. 2010. Potential consequences of climate warming for tropical plant species in high mountains of southern Ethiopia. Divers. Distrib. 16(4):593-605.

Kueffer, C., Schumacher, E., Dietz, H., Fleischmann, K., and Edwards, P.J. 2010. Managing successional trajectories in alien-dominated, novel ecosystems by facilitating seedling regeneration: a case study. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1792-1802.

Küster, E.C., Durka, W., Kühn, I., and Klotz, S. 2010. Differences in the trait compositions of non-indigenous and native plants across Germany. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2001-2012.

Kutt, A.S., and Martin, T.G. 2010. Bird foraging height predicts bird species response to woody vegetation change. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2247-2262.

Laiolo, P. 2010. The emerging significance of bioacoustics in animal species conservation. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1635-1645.

Lankau, R. 2010. Soil microbial communities alter allelopathic competition between Alliaria petiolata and a native species. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2059-2068.

Last, P.R., Lyne, V.D., Williams, A., Davies, C.R., Butler, A.J., and Yearsley, G.K. 2010. A hierarchical framework for classifying seabed biodiversity with application to planning and managing Australia's marine biological resources. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1675-1686.

Lavoie, C. 2010. Should we care about purple loosestrife? The history of an invasive plant in North America. Biol. Invasions 12(7):1967-1999.

Leng, X., Musters, C.J.M., and de Snoo, G.R. 2010. Synergy between nature reserves and agri-environmental schemes in enhancing ditch bank target species plant diversity. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1470-1476.

Liao, Y.C., Chen, L.S., and Shao, K.T. 2010. The predatory Atlantic red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, has invaded the western Taiwanese coast in the Indo-West Pacific. Biol. Invasions 12(7):1961-1965.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and Likens, G.E. 2010. The science and application of ecological monitoring. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1317-1328.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Steffen, W., Burbidge, A.A., Hughes, L., Kitching, R.L., Musgrave, W., Smith, M.S., and Werner, P.A. 2010. Conservation strategies in response to rapid climate change: Australia as a case study. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1587-1593.

Liu, X.A., Li, Y.M., and McGarrity, M. 2010. Geographical variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of introduced American bullfrogs in southwestern China. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2037-2047.

Lorence, D.H., Wagner, W.L., and Laidlaw, W.G. 2010. Kadua haupuensis (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new endemic species from Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands. Brittonia 62(2):137-144.

Lötters, S., van der Meijden, A., Rödder, D., Köster, T.E., Kraus, T., La Marca, E., Haddad, C.F.B., and Veith, M. 2010. Reinforcing and expanding the predictions of the disturbance vicariance hypothesis in Amazonian harlequin frogs: a molecular phylogenetic and climate envelope modelling approach. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2125-2146.

Mackenzie, D.D., and Naeth, M.A. 2010. The role of the forest soil propagule bank in assisted natural recovery after oil sands mining. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):418-427.

Maltez-Mouro, S., Maestre, F.T., and Freitas, H. 2010. Weak effects of the exotic invasive Carpobrotus edulis on the structure and composition of Portuguese sand-dune communities. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2117-2130.

Mandl, N., Lehnert, M., Kessler, M., and Gradstein, S.R. 2010. A comparison of alpha and beta diversity patterns of ferns, bryophytes and macrolichens in tropical montane forests of southern Ecuador. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2359-2369.

Marchetti, M.P., Garr, M., and Smith, A.N.H. 2010. Evaluating wetland restoration success using aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Sacramento Valley, California. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):457-466.

Marion, S.R., and Orth, R.J. 2010. Factors influencing seedling establishment rates in Zostera marina and their implications for seagrass restoration. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):549-559.

Marion, S.R., and Orth, R.J. 2010. Innovative techniques for large-scale seagrass restoration using Zostera marina (eelgrass) seeds. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):514-526.

Marr, S.M., Marchetti, M.P., Olden, J.D., García-Berthou, E., Morgan, D.L., Arismendi, I., Day, J.A., Griffiths, C.L., and Skelton, P.H. 2010. Freshwater fish introductions in mediterranean-climate regions: are there commonalities in the conservation problem? Divers. Distrib. 16(4):606-619.

Marsh, C.J., Lewis, O.T., Said, I., and Ewers, R.M. 2010. Community-level diversity modelling of birds and butterflies on Anjouan, Comoro Islands. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1364-1374.

Martin, J., O'Connell, A.F., Kendall, W.L., Runge, M.C., Simons, T.R., Waldstein, A.H., Schulte, S.A., Converse, S.J., Smith, G.W., Pinion, T., Rikard, M., and Zipkin, E.F. 2010. Optimal control of native predators. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1751-1758.

Martin, P.H., Canham, C.D., and Kobe, R.K. 2010. Divergence from the growth-survival trade-off and extreme high growth rates drive patterns of exotic tree invasions in closed-canopy forests. J. Ecology 98(4):778-789.

Meyer, C.G., Papastamatiou, Y.P., and Clark, T.B. 2010. Differential movement patterns and site fidelity among trophic groups of reef fishes in a Hawaiian marine protected area. Mar. Biol. 157(7):1499-1511.

Miracle, M.R., Oertli, B., Céréghino, R., and Hull, A. 2010. Preface: conservation of European ponds-current knowledge and future needs. Limnetica 29(1):1-8.

Mogollones, S.C., Rodríguez, D.J., Hernández, O., and Barreto, G.R. 2010. A demographic study of the arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa) in the Middle Orinoco River, Venezuela. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 9(1):79-89.

Molina-Montenegro, M.A., Atala, C., and Gianoli, E. 2010. Phenotypic plasticity and performance of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) in habitats of contrasting environmental heterogeneity. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2277-2284.

Molnár, P.K., Derocher, A.E., Thiemann, G.W., and Lewis, M.A. 2010. Predicting survival, reproduction and abundance of polar bears under climate change. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1612-1622.

Moore, K.A., Shields, E.C., and Jarvis, J.C. 2010. The role of habitat and herbivory on the restoration of tidal freshwater submerged aquatic vegetation populations. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):596-604.

Murray, B.R., and Phillips, M.L. 2010. Investment in seed dispersal structures is linked to invasiveness in exotic plant species of south-eastern Australia. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2265-2275.

Nicastro, K.R., Zardi, G.I., and McQuaid, C.D. 2010. Differential reproductive investment, attachment strength and mortality of invasive and indigenous mussels across heterogeneous environments. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2165-2177.

Nielsen, S.E., McDermid, G., Stenhouse, G.B., and Boyce, M.S. 2010. Dynamic wildlife habitat models: seasonal foods and mortality risk predict occupancy-abundance and habitat selection in grizzly bears. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1623-1634.

Nikolov, S.C. 2010. Effects of land abandonment and changing habitat structure on avian assemblages in upland pastures of Bulgaria. Bird Conserv. Int. 20(2):200-213.

Nogueira, C., Buckup, P.A., Menezes, N.A., Oyakawa, O.T., Kasecker, T.P., Neto, M.B.R., and da Silva, J.M.C. 2010. Restricted-range fishes and the conservation of Brazilian freshwaters. PLoS ONE 5(6):e11390.

Norris, D., Michalski, F., and Peres, C.A. 2010. Habitat patch size modulates terrestrial mammal activity patterns in Amazonian forest fragments. J. Mammal. 91(3):551-560.

Obrist, M.K., and Duelli, P. 2010. Rapid biodiversity assessment of arthropods for monitoring average local species richness and related ecosystem services. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2201-2220.

Ogawa-Onishi, Y., Berry, P.M., and Tanaka, N. 2010. Assessing the potential impacts of climate change and their conservation implications in Japan: a case study of conifers. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1728-1736.

Pascual, S., Villalba, A., Abollo, E., Garci, M., González, A.F., Nombela, M., Posada, D., and Guerra, A. 2010. The mussel Xenostrobus securis: a well-established alien invader in the Ria de Vigo (Spain, NE Atlantic). Biol. Invasions 12(7):2091-2103.

Platt, S.G., Myo, K.M., Ko, W.K., Maung, A., and Rainwater, T.R. 2010. Field observations and conservation of Heosemys depressa in the Rakhine Yoma Elephant Range of western Myanmar. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 9(1):114-119.

Platts, P.J., Ahrends, A., Gereau, R.E., McClean, C.J., Lovett, J.C., Marshall, A.R., Pellikka, P.K.E., Mulligan, M., Fanning, E., and Marchant, R. 2010. Can distribution models help refine inventory-based estimates of conservation priority? A case study in the Eastern Arc forests of Tanzania and Kenya. Divers. Distrib. 16(4):628-642.

Polo-Cavia, N., López, P., and Martin, J. 2010. Competitive interactions during basking between native and invasive freshwater turtle species. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2141-2152.

Portela, R.D.Q., Bruna, E.M., and dos Santos, F.A.M. 2010. Demography of palm species in Brazil's Atlantic forest: a comparison of harvested and unharvested species using matrix models. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2389-2403.

Powell, M., Accad, A., Austin, M.P., Choy, S.L., Williams, K.J., and Shapcott, A. 2010. Predicting loss and fragmentation of habitat of the vulnerable subtropical rainforest tree Macadamia integrifolia with models developed from compiled ecological data. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1385-1396.

Prado, A., Hawkins, J.A., Yesson, C., and Bárcenas, R.T. 2010. Multiple diversity measures to identify complementary conservation areas for the Baja California peninsular cacti. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1510-1520.

Pyšek, P., Jarošík, V., Hulme, P.E., Kühn, I., Wild, J., Arianoutsou, M., Bacher, S., Chiron, F., Didžiulis, V., Essl, F., Genovesi, P., Gherardi, F., Hejda, M., Kark, S., Lambdon, P.W., Desprez-Loustau, M.L., Nentwig, W., Pergl, J., Poboljšaj, K., Rabitsch, W., Roques, A., Roy, D.B., Shirley, S., Solarz, W., Vilà, M., and Winter, M. 2010. Disentangling the role of environmental and human pressures on biological invasions across Europe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107(27):12157-12162.

Reichlin, T.S., Hobson, K.A., Wassenaar, L.I., Schaub, M., Tolkmitt, D., Becker, D., Jenni, L., and Arlettaz, R. 2010. Migratory connectivity in a declining bird species: using feather isotopes to inform demographic modelling. Divers. Distrib. 16(4):643-654.

Reid, N., McDonald, R.A., and Montgomery, W.I. 2010. Homogeneous habitat can meet the discrete and varied resource requirements of hares but may set an ecological trap. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1701-1706.

Reiskind, M.H., Zarrabi, A.A., and Lounibos, L.P. 2010. Invasive leaf resources alleviate density dependence in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2319-2328.

Richards, C.L., Wares, J.P., and Mackie, J.A. 2010. Evaluating adaptive processes for conservation and management of estuarine and coastal resources. Estuaries Coasts 33(4):805-810.

Rigg, L.S., Enright, N.J., Jaffré, T., and Perry, G.L.W. 2010. Contrasting population dynamics of the endemic New Caledonian conifer Araucaria laubenfelsii in maquis and rain forest. Biotropica 42(4):479-487.

Robledo, G.L., and Renison, D. 2010. Wood-decaying polypores in the mountains of central Argentina in relation to Polylepis forest structure and altitude. Fungal Ecol. 3(3):178-184.

Rojas-Soto, O.R., Navarro-Sigüenza, A.C., and De Los Monteros, A.E. 2010. Systematics and bird conservation policies: the importance of species limits. Bird Conserv. Int. 20(2):176-185.

Rondinini, C., and Chiozza, F. 2010. Quantitative methods for defining percentage area targets for habitat types in conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1646-1653.

Roohi, A., Kideys, A.E., Sajjadi, A., Hashemian, A., Pourgholam, R., Fazli, H., Khanari, A.G., and Eker-Develi, E. 2010. Changes in biodiversity of phytoplankton, zooplankton, fishes and macrobenthos in the Southern Caspian Sea after the invasion of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2343-2361.

Roux, J.J., Wieczorek, A.M., Tran, C.T., and Vorsino, A.E. 2010. Disentangling the dynamics of invasive fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis Poir. species complex) in the Hawaiian Islands. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2251-2264.

Sampaio, R., Lima, A.P., Magnusson, W.E., and Peres, C.A. 2010. Long-term persistence of midsized to large-bodied mammals in Amazonian landscapes under varying contexts of forest cover. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2421-2439.

Sang, A., Teder, T., Helm, A., and Pärtel, M. 2010. Indirect evidence for an extinction debt of grassland butterflies half century after habitat loss. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1405-1413.

Scheerer, P.D., and O'Neill, T.A. 2010. A species crediting methodology that supports conservation banking for an endangered floodplain minnow. Fisheries 35(6):280-291.

Schielzeth, H., Kamp, J., Eichhorn, G., Heincke, T., Koshkin, M.A., Lachmann, L., Sheldon, R.D., and Koshkin, A.V. 2010. Wader, gull and tern population estimates for a key breeding and stopover site in Central Kazakhstan. Bird Conserv. Int. 20(2):186-199.

Schindler, D.W., and Lee, P.G. 2010. Comprehensive conservation planning to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services in Canadian boreal regions under a warming climate and increasing exploitation. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1571-1586.

Schneider, R.R., Hauer, G., Adarnowicz, W.L., and Boutin, S. 2010. Triage for conserving populations of threatened species: the case of woodland caribou in Alberta. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1603-1611.

Schultz, C. 2010. Challenges in connecting cumulative effects analysis to effective wildlife conservation planning. BioScience 60(7):545-551.

Scott, J.M., Goble, D.D., Haines, A.M., Wiens, J.A., and Neel, M.C. 2010. Conservation-reliant species and the future of conservation. Conserv. Lett. 3(2):91-97.

Seewagen, C.L. 2010. Threats of environmental mercury to birds: knowledge gaps and priorities for future research. Bird Conserv. Int. 20(2):112-123.

Seigel, A.B., and Lockwood, J.L. 2010. How increasing levels of private land enrollment in conservation agreements affect the population viability of grassland birds. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2343-2357.

Seoane, J., Carrascal, L.M., Palomino, D., and Alonso, C.L. 2010. Population size and habitat relationships of Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis in the Canary Islands, Spain. Bird Conserv. Int. 20(2):161-175.

Shafer, D., and Bergstrom, P. 2010. An introduction to a special issue on large-scale submerged aquatic vegetation restoration research in the Chesapeake Bay: 2003-2008. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):481-489.

Shrader, A.M., Pimm, S.L., and van Aarde, R.J. 2010. Elephant survival, rainfall and the confounding effects of water provision and fences. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2235-2245.

Sidorovich, V.E., Polozov, A.G., and Zalewski, A. 2010. Food niche variation of European and American mink during the American mink invasion in north-eastern Belarus. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2207-2217.

Siles, G., Alcántara, J.M., Rey, P.J., and Bastida, J.M. 2010. Defining a target map of native species assemblages for restoration. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):439-448.

Simpfendorfer, C.A., Wiley, T.R., and Yeiser, B.G. 2010. Improving conservation planning for an endangered sawfish using data from acoustic telemetry. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1460-1469.

Singh, N.J., Grachev, I.A., Bekenov, A.B., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2010. Saiga antelope calving site selection is increasingly driven by human disturbance. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1770-1779.

Sirkiä, S., Lindén, A., Helle, P., Nikula, A., Knape, J., and Lindén, H. 2010. Are the declining trends in forest grouse populations due to changes in the forest age structure? A case study of Capercaillie in Finland. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1540-1548.

Somaweera, R., Somaweera, N., and Shine, R. 2010. Frogs under friendly fire: how accurately can the general public recognize invasive species? Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1477-1484.

Speed, C.W., Field, I.C., Meekan, M.G., and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2010. Complexities of coastal shark movements and their implications for management. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 408:275-293.

Stévart, T., Cawoy, V., Damen, T., and Droissart, V. 2010. Taxonomy of Atlantic central African orchids 1. A new species of Angraecum sect. Pectinaria (Orchidaceae) from Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. Syst. Bot. 35(2):252-256.

Strassburg, B.B.N., Kelly, A., Balmford, A., Davies, R.G., Gibbs, H.K., Lovett, A., Miles, L., Orme, C.D.L., Price, J., Turner, R.K., and Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2010. Global congruence of carbon storage and biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Conserv. Lett. 3(2):98-105.

Stuart, S.N., Wilson, E.O., McNeely, J.A., Mittermeier, R.A., and Rodríguez, J.P. 2010. Barometer of life: response. Science 329(5988):141-142.

Sullivan, C.A., Skeffington, M.S., Gormally, M.J., and Finn, J.A. 2010. The ecological status of grasslands on lowland farmlands in western Ireland and implications for grassland classification and nature value assessment. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1529-1539.

Sweeney, O.F.M., Wilson, M.W., Irwin, S., Kelly, T.C., and O'Halloran, J. 2010. Are bird density, species richness and community structure similar between native woodlands and non-native plantations in an area with a generalist bird fauna? Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2329-2342.

Symes, C.T., and Woodborne, S. 2010. Migratory connectivity and conservation of the Amur Falcon Falco amurensis: a stable isotope perspective. Bird Conserv. Int. 20(2):134-148.

Székely, T., and Sutherland, W.J. 2010. Hunting the cause of a population crash. Nature 466(7305):448.

Tallamy, D.W., Ballard, M., and D'Amico, V. 2010. Can alien plants support generalist insect herbivores? Biol. Invasions 12(7):2285-2292.

Tanentzap, A.J., Bazely, D.R., and Lafortezza, R. 2010. Diversity-invasibility relationships across multiple scales in disturbed forest understoreys. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2105-2116.

Tanner, C., Hunter, S., Reel, J., Parham, T., Naylor, M., Karrh, L., Busch, K., Golden, R.R., Lewandowski, M., Rybicki, N., and Schenk, E. 2010. Evaluating a large-scale eelgrass restoration project in the Chesapeake Bay. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):538-548.

Tanner, C.E., and Parham, T. 2010. Growing Zostera marina (eelgrass) from seeds in land-based culture systems for use in restoration projects. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):527-537.

Taylor, E.B. 2010. Changes in taxonomy and species distributions and their influence on estimates of faunal homogenization and differentiation in freshwater fishes. Divers. Distrib. 16(4):676-689.

Thiele, J., Kollmann, J., Markussen, B., and Otte, A. 2010. Impact assessment revisited: improving the theoretical basis for management of invasive alien species. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2025-2035.

Thor, G., Johansson, P., and Jönsson, M.T. 2010. Lichen diversity and red-listed lichen species relationships with tree species and diameter in wooded meadows. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2307-2328.

Tiley, G.E.D. 2010. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. J. Ecology 98(4):938-983.

Tischew, S., Baasch, A., Conrad, M.K., and Kirmer, A. 2010. Evaluating restoration success of frequently implemented compensation measures: results and demands for control procedures. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):467-480.

Travis, J.M.J., Smith, H.S., and Ranwala, S.M.W. 2010. Towards a mechanistic understanding of dispersal evolution in plants: conservation implications. Divers. Distrib. 16(4):690-702.

Triantis, K.A., Borges, P.A.V., Ladle, R.J., Hortal, J., Cardoso, P., Gaspar, C., Dinis, F., Mendonça, E., Silveira, L.M.A., Gabriel, R., Melo, C., Santos, A.M.C., Amorim, I.R., Ribeiro, S.P., Serrano, A.R.M., Quartau, J.A., and Whittaker, R.J. 2010. Extinction debt on oceanic islands. Ecography 33(2):285-294.

Unsworth, R.K.F., and Cullen, L.C. 2010. Recognising the necessity for Indo-Pacific seagrass conservation. Conserv. Lett. 3(2):63-73.

Väli, Ü., Dombrovski, V., Treinys, R., Bergmanis, U., Daróczi, S.J., Dravecky, M., Ivanovski, V., Lontkowski, J., Maciorowski, G., Meyburg, B.U., Mizera, T., Zeitz, R., and Ellegren, H. 2010. Widespread hybridization between the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Europe. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 100(3):725-736.

Veron, G., Patou, M.L., Simberloff, D., McLenachan, P.A., and Morley, C.G. 2010. The Indian brown mongoose, yet another invader in Fiji. Biol. Invasions 12(7):1947-1951.

Walls, R.L. 2010. Hybridization and plasticity contribute to divergence among coastal and wetland populations of invasive hybrid Japanese knotweed s.l. (Fallopia spp.). Estuaries Coasts 33(4):902-918.

Watanabe, S., Scheibling, R.E., and Metaxas, A. 2010. Contrasting patterns of spread in interacting invasive species: Membranipora membranacea and Codium fragile off Nova Scotia. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2329-2342.

Wilke, B.J., and Irwin, R.E. 2010. Variation in the phenology and abundance of flowering by native and exotic plants in subalpine meadows. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2363-2372.

Wolf, S.G., Snyder, M.A., Sydeman, W.J., Doak, D.F., and Croll, D.A. 2010. Predicting population consequences of ocean climate change for an ecosystem sentinel, the seabird Cassin's auklet. Global Change Biol. 16(7):1923-1935.

Wu, S.H., Sun, H.T., Teng, Y.C., Rejmánek, M., Chaw, S.M., Yang, T.Y.A., and Hsieh, C.F. 2010. Patterns of plant invasions in China: taxonomic, biogeographic, climatic approaches and anthropogenic effects. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2179-2206.

Zalewski, A., Michalska-Parda, A., Bartoszewicz, M., Kozakiewicz, M., and Brzezinski, M. 2010. Multiple introductions determine the genetic structure of an invasive species population: American mink Neovison vison in Poland. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1355-1363.

Zelnik, I., Šilc, U., Carni, A., and Košir, P. 2010. Revegetation of motorway slopes using different seed mixtures. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):449-456.

Zhang, M.X., Fellowes, J.R., Jiang, X.L., Wang, W., Chan, B.P.L., Ren, G.P., and Zhu, J.G. 2010. Degradation of tropical forest in Hainan, China, 1991-2008: conservation implications for Hainan Gibbon (Nomascus hainanus). Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1397-1404.

Zhulidov, A.V., Kozhara, A.V., Scherbina, G.H., Nalepa, T.F., Protasov, A., Afanasiev, S.A., Pryanichnikova, E.G., Zhulidov, D.A., Gurtovaya, T.Y., and Pavlov, D.F. 2010. Invasion history, distribution, and relative abundances of Dreissena bugensis in the old world: a synthesis of data. Biol. Invasions 12(7):1923-1940.

Zöckler, C., Syroechkovskiy, E.E., and Atkinson, P.W. 2010. Rapid and continued population decline in the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus indicates imminent extinction unless conservation action is taken. Bird Conserv. Int. 20(2):95-111.

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