In This Issue
by George Zug
Hawaii now has seven frogs, 20 lizards, one snake, and four freshwater turtles. Before Captain Cook and the whalers arrived, Hawaii had no frogs and, at best, two geckos and two skinks. Before the Polynesians arrived, there were no terrestrial reptiles and amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands!
Human's colonization of the Pacific profoundly altered the herpetofaunas of the Pacific islands. From the paleontological investigations of Helen James, Storrs Olson (Smithsonian Institution), and David Steadman (University of Florida), we know that Pacific bird diversity was halved within a century or less of the arrival of the Polynesians. At the present, we have only a vague hint of the effect of Polynesian's colonization on the diversity of Pacific terrestrial reptiles, specifically lizards because only a few Oceanic islands have native frogs and snakes. Larger lizards, such as the giant Tongan and Fijian iguanas, disappeared quickly, being found in pre-human arrival layers and the earliest human middens and then they are gone. Assorted other lizard bones are found but with low diversity. These subfossils usually represent the smaller skinks and geckos, and with a few exceptions, appear to be the species currently present on the islands.
Because we have little information on lizard diversity prior to the arrival of humans, zoologists have accepted the current fauna of each island as the original fauna. This thought pattern is slowly changing, and it now seems likely that many lizard species on most islands are recent arrivals, probably within the last 2,000 to 2,500 years. Testing this concept is only beginning. Christopher Austin (Louisiana State University) examined the genetic relatedness of populations of the moth skink from New Guinea to Polynesia and discovered that all populations, no matter how distant, were genetically identical. He interpreted these data as the moth skink colonizing the Pacific as canoe stowaways, hopping from island to islands with pigs, rats, dogs and people. That interpretation is certainly possible, but the moth skinks and other lizards may have been even later arrivals, perhaps with whaling and trading Euroamericans.
Identifying and verifying native versus invasive species is challenging. Two criteria for verifying native species are speciation and occurrence in prehuman fossil layers. Because human colonization of the Pacific oceanic islands is recent, post last Ice Age, differentiation and speciation of lizard populations is highly unlikely, and we assume that distinct and localized species are native species, in contrast to those species with widespread distributions across many island groups. A pre-human fossil occurrence obviously negates human transport.
An intriguing discovery of a large arboreal skink in the Cook Islands reveals the difficulties of discerning native versus invasive species. During the mid-1980s, while Steadman and Gregory Pregill were searching and mining fossil sites on Rarotonga, they saw and collected several tiger-barred treeskinks. At the same time, another pair of herpetologists working in Fiji recognized similar appearing treeskinks as a new species. The immediate interpretation was that the Rarotongan treeskink was a recent introduction from Tonga or Fiji. Was it? There were no earlier records of the treeskink from the Cooks. Perhaps molecules could answer the question. In 1999, Pat and George Zug (Smithsonian Institution) visited Rarotonga and collected tissues, which eventually became part of a molecular study of the treeskinks (Emoia samoensis species group) of the Southwest Pacific (part of Alison Hamilton's doctoral dissertation). The surprising results, published in the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, showed that the Rarotongan treeskink was not closely related to any Fijian, Samoan or Tongan lizards in the samples. Indeed, it had a sister group relationship to a group of Vanuatuan treeskinks.
This result stimulated a closer morphological analysis, and, not surprisingly, the Rarotongan treeskink was morphologically distinct from Fijian, Samoan, Tongan, and Vanuatuan treeskinks. Morphology provides no phylogenetic information, other than confirming the uniqueness of this population and differentiation in several other populations, ones that were also indicated by molecular analysis. What they had not answered, however, is the origins of the Rarotongan treeskink. Has it been in the Cooks for millennia, thus representing in situ speciation, or is it a recent introduction from an island for which we have no samples?
Their interpretation is the latter. These treeskinks are not cryptic and are seen regularly by island residents and visitors. There are no museum vouchers prior to the 1980s or literature records of an earlier sighting. Their molecular sample includes ten individuals, and they were genetically identical. Neither of these two pieces of evidences makes the interpretation the only possible one. For the moment, their interpretation is the most parsimonious one and recommends returning to the Pacific and different islands for more samples.
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Jantke, K., and Schneider, U.A. 2010. Multiple-species conservation planning for European wetlands with different degrees of coordination. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1812-1821.
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Kajita, Y., and Evans, E.W. 2010. Alfalfa fields promote high reproductive rate of an invasive predatory lady beetle. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2293-2302.
Kenchington, R. 2010. Strategic roles of marine protected areas in ecosystem scale conservation. Bull. Mar. Sci. 86(2):303-313.
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Knowlton, J.L., and Graham, C.H. 2010. Using behavioral landscape ecology to predict species' responses to land-use and climate change. Biol. Conserv. 143(6):1342-1354.
Kobayashi, T., Kitahara, M., Ohkubo, T., and Aizawa, M. 2010. Relationships between the age of northern Kantou plain (central Japan) coppice woods used for production of Japanese forest mushroom logs and butterfly assemblage structure. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2147-2166.
Koch, E.W., Ailstock, M.S., Booth, D.M., Shafer, D.J., and Magoun, A.D. 2010. The role of currents and waves in the dispersal of submersed angiosperm seeds and seedlings. Restor. Ecol. 18(4):584-595.
Komulaynen, S. 2010. Algae protection, conservation areas and the red data book of the Republic of Karelia. Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 39(2):147-152.
Kreyling, J., Wana, D., and Beierkuhnlein, C. 2010. Potential consequences of climate warming for tropical plant species in high mountains of southern Ethiopia. Divers. Distrib. 16(4):593-605.
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Küster, E.C., Durka, W., Kühn, I., and Klotz, S. 2010. Differences in the trait compositions of non-indigenous and native plants across Germany. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2001-2012.
Kutt, A.S., and Martin, T.G. 2010. Bird foraging height predicts bird species response to woody vegetation change. Biodivers. Conserv. 19(8):2247-2262.
Laiolo, P. 2010. The emerging significance of bioacoustics in animal species conservation. Biol. Conserv. 143(7):1635-1645.
Lankau, R. 2010. Soil microbial communities alter allelopathic competition between Alliaria petiolata and a native species. Biol. Invasions 12(7):2059-2068.
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