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Department ofBotany

No. 317
May 2011

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In This Issue

Invasive Burmese Pythons are Taking a Toll on Florida's Native Birds

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The Everglades National Park in Florida is home to hundreds of species of native wildlife. It has also become the well-established home of the non-native Burmese python - known to be a predator of native species. Now scientists, for the first time, have conducted a detailed analysis of the avian component of the python's diet and the negative impact the snakes may have on Florida's native birds, including some endangered species.

The Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus), native to Southeast Asia, was first recorded in the Everglades in 1979 - thought to be escaped or discarded pets. Their numbers have since grown, with an estimated breeding population in Florida in the tens of thousands. As researchers investigate the impact of this snake in the Everglades, scientists from the Smithsonian Institution, South Florida Natural Resources Center and the University of Florida examined the snake's predation of the area's birds. They found that birds, including endangered species, accounted for 25 percent of the python's diet in the Everglades.

"These invasive Burmese pythons are particularly hazardous to native bird populations in North America because the birds didn't evolve with this large reptile as a predator," said Carla Dove, ornithologist at the Smithsonian's Feather Identification Lab in the National Museum of Natural History.

The scientists collected 343 Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park as part of their study between 2003 and 2008. Eighty-five of these snakes had bird remains in their intestinal tract. From these remains the team identified 25 species of birds by comparing feathers and bone fragments with specimens in the Smithsonian's collection. The results reflected a wide variety of species, from the 5-inch-long house wren to the 4-foot-long great blue heron. Four of the species identified (snowy egret, little blue heron, white ibis and limpkin) are listed as "species of special concern" by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The team also identified the remains of a wood stork, which is a federally endangered species.

"The python's high reproductive rate, longevity, ability to consume large prey and consumption of bird species are causes for serious conservation and control measure," Dove said. The team's findings are published in the scientific journal The Wilson Journal of Ornithology.

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Langdon, B., Pauchard, A., and Aguayo, M. 2010. Pinus contorta invasion in the Chilean Patagonia: local patterns in a global context. Biol. Invasions 12(12):3961-3971.

Laurance, W.F., Camargo, J.L.C., Luizão, R.C.C., Laurance, S.G., Pimm, S.L., Bruna, E.M., Stouffer, P.C., Williamson, G.B., Benítez-Malvido, J., Vasconcelos, H.L., Van Houtan, K.S., Zartman, C.E., Boyle, S.A., Didham, R.K., Andrade, A., and Lovejoy, T.E. 2011. The fate of Amazonian forest fragments: a 32-year investigation. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):56-67.

Laurance, W.F., Useche, D.C., Shoo, L.P., Herzog, S.K., Kessler, M., Escobar, F., Brehm, G., Axmacher, J.C., Chen, I.C., Gámez, L.A., Hietz, P., Fiedler, K., Pyrcz, T., Wolf, J., Merkord, C.L., Cardelus, C., Marshall, A.R., Ah-Peng, C., Aplet, G.H., Arizmendi, M.D., Baker, W.J., Barone, J., Brühl, C.A., Bussmann, R.W., Cicuzza, D., Eilu, G., Favila, M.E., Hemp, A., Hemp, C., Homeier, J., Hurtado, J., Jankowski, J., Kattán, G., Kluge, J., Krömer, T., Lees, D.C., Lehnert, M., Longino, J.T., Lovett, J., Martin, P.H., Patterson, B.D., Pearson, R.G., Peh, K.S.H., Richardson, B., Richardson, M., Samways, M.J., Senbeta, F., Smith, T.B., Utteridge, T.M.A., Watkins, J.E., Wilson, R., Williams, S.E., and Thomas, C.D. 2011. Global warming, elevational ranges and the vulnerability of tropical biota. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):548-557.

Le Lay, G., Engler, R., Franc, E., and Guisan, A. 2010. Prospective sampling based on model ensembles improves the detection of rare species. Ecography 33(6):1015-1027.

Le Roux, J.J., Geerts, S., Ivey, P., Krauss, S., Richardson, D.M., Suda, J., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2010. Molecular systematics and ecology of invasive Kangaroo Paws in South Africa: management implications for a horticulturally important genus. Biol. Invasions 12(12):3989-4002.

Lindenmayer, D.B., and Cunningham, R.B. 2011. Longitudinal patterns in bird reporting rates in a threatened ecosystem: is change regionally consistent? Biol. Conserv. 144(1):430-440.

Lindenmayer, D.B., Likens, G.E., Krebs, C.J., and Hobbs, R.J. 2010. Improved probability of detection of ecological "surprises". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107(51):21957-21962.

Lindsay, E.A., and Cunningham, S.A. 2011. Native grass establishment in grassy woodlands with nutrient enriched soil and exotic grass invasion. Restor. Ecol. 19(Sp. Iss.):131-140.

Liu, F., McShea, W.J., Garshelis, D.L., Zhu, X.J., Wang, D.J., and Shao, L.K. 2011. Human-wildlife conflicts influence attitudes but not necessarily behaviors: factors driving the poaching of bears in China. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):538-547.

Llosa, Z.B. 2010. Terrestrial mollusks (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Costa Rica: classification, distribution and conservation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58(4):1165-1175.

Loss, S.R., Terwilliger, L.A., and Peterson, A.C. 2011. Assisted colonization: integrating conservation strategies in the face of climate change. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):92-100.

Machado-Schiaffino, G., Juanes, F., and Garcia-Vazquez, E. 2011. Identifying unique populations in long-dispersal marine species: gulfs as priority conservation areas. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):330-338.

Maes, D., Titeux, N., Hortal, J., Anselin, A., Decleer, K., De Knijf, G., Fichefet, V., and Luoto, M. 2010. Predicted insect diversity declines under climate change in an already impoverished region. J. Insect Conserv. 14(5):485-498.

Magris, R.A., and Déstro, G.F.G. 2010. Predictive modeling of suitable habitats for threatened marine invertebrates and implications for conservation assessment in Brazil. Braz. J. Oceanogr. 58:57-68.

Maltchik, L., Rolon, A.S., and Stenert, C. 2010. Aquatic macrophyte and macroinvertebrate diversity and conservation in wetlands of the Sinos River basin. Braz. J. Biol. 70(4):1179-1184.

Mandle, L., Warren, D.L., Hoffmann, M.H., Peterson, A.T., Schmitt, J., and von Wettberg, E.J. 2010. Conclusions about niche expansion in introduced Impatiens walleriana populations depend on method of analysis. PLoS ONE 5(12):e15297.

Martin, C.W., Valentine, M.M., and Valentine, J.F. 2010. Competitive interactions between invasive Nile tilapia and native fish: the potential for altered trophic exchange and modification of food webs. PLoS ONE 5(12):e14395.

Martin, S.M., Lorenzen, K., Arthur, R.I., Kaisone, P., and Souvannalangsy, K. 2011. Impacts of fishing by dewatering on fish assemblages of tropical floodplain wetlands: a matter of frequency and context. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):633-640.

Martin, T.G., Arcese, P., and Scheerder, N. 2011. Browsing down our natural heritage: deer impacts on vegetation structure and songbird populations across an island archipelago. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):459-469.

Martínez-Abraín, A., and Oro, D. 2010. Applied conservation services of the evolutionary theory. Evol. Ecol. 24(6):1381-1392.

Mazzola, M.B., Chambers, J.C., Blank, R.R., Pyke, D.A., Schupp, E.W., Allcock, K.G., Doescher, P.S., and Nowak, R.S. 2011. Effects of resource availability and propagule supply on native species recruitment in sagebrush ecosystems invaded by Bromus tectorum. Biol. Invasions 13(2):513-526.

McClay, A., Sissons, A., Wilson, C., and Davis, S. 2010. Evaluation of the Australian weed risk assessment system for the prediction of plant invasiveness in Canada. Biol. Invasions 12(12):4085-4098.

McDonald, R.I., and Boucher, T.M. 2011. Global development and the future of the protected area strategy. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):383-392.

McGlone, C.M., Sieg, C.H., and Kolb, T.E. 2011. Invasion resistance and persistence: established plants win, even with disturbance and high propagule pressure. Biol. Invasions 13(2):291-304.

Mendoza-Fernández, A., Pérez-García, F.J., Medina-Cazorla, J.M., Martínez-Hernández, F., Garrido-Becerra, J.A., Sánchez, E.S., and Mota, J.F. 2010. Gap Analysis and selection of reserves for the threatened flora of eastern Andalusia, a hot spot in the eastern Mediterranean region. Acta Bot. Gallica 157(4):749-767.

Merckx, T., Feber, R., Parsons, M., Bourn, N., Townsend, M., Riordan, P., and Macdonald, D. 2010. Habitat preference and mobility of Polia bombycina: are non-tailored agri-environment schemes any good for a rare and localised species? J. Insect Conserv. 14(5):499-510.

Meyer, J.Y., and Fourdrigniez, M. 2011. Conservation benefits of biological control: the recovery of a threatened plant subsequent to the introduction of a pathogen to contain an invasive tree species. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):106-113.

Michael, D.R., Cunningham, R.B., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2011. Regrowth and revegetation in temperate Australia presents a conservation challenge for reptile fauna in agricultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):407-415.

Milton, S.J., and Dean, W.R.J. 2010. Plant invasions in arid areas: special problems and solutions: a South African perspective. Biol. Invasions 12(12):3935-3948.

Moffitt, E.A., White, J.W., and Botsford, L.W. 2011. The utility and limitations of size and spacing guidelines for designing marine protected area (MPA) networks. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):306-318.

Moilanen, A., and Arponen, A. 2011. Setting conservation targets under budgetary constraints. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):650-653.

Monavari, S.M., and Fard, S.M.B. 2010. A GIS based assessment tool for biodiversity conservation. Int. J. Environ. Res. 4(4):701-712.

Namoff, S., Veloz, A., Jiménez, F., Rodríguez-Peña, R.A., Peguero, B., Lewis, C., Moynihan, J., Abdo, M., Maunder, M., Von Wettberg, E., Meerow, A.W., Griffith, M.P., and Francisco-Ortega, J. 2011. Sweet drinks are made of this: conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic. J. Heredity 102(1):1-10.

New, T.R., Yen, A.L., Sands, D.P.A., Greenslade, P., Neville, P.J., York, A., and Collett, N.G. 2010. Planned fires and invertebrate conservation in south east Australia. J. Insect Conserv. 14(5):567-574.

Newsome, S.D., Ralls, K., Job, C.V., Fogel, M.L., and Cypher, B.L. 2010. Stable isotopes evaluate exploitation of anthropogenic foods by the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica). J. Mammal. 91(6):1313-1321.

Newton, I.P., and Knight, R.S. 2010. How homogeneous is West Coast Renosterveld? Implications for conservation. Bothalia 40(2):219-226.

Niemiller, M.L., Osbourn, M.S., Fenolio, D.B., Pauley, T.K., Miller, B.T., and Holsinger, J.R. 2010. Conservation status and habitat use of the West Virginia spring salamander (Gyrinophilus subterraneus) and spring salamander (G. porphyriticus) in General Davis Cave, Greenbrier Co., West Virginia. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 5(1):32-43.

Noël, F., Prati, D., van Kleunen, M., Gygax, A., Moser, D., and Fischer, M. 2011. Establishment success of 25 rare wetland species introduced into restored habitats is best predicted by ecological distance to source habitats. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):602-609.

Noel, N.M., and Finch, O.D. 2010. Effects of the abandonment of alpine summer farms on spider assemblages (Araneae). J. Insect Conserv. 14(5):427-438.

O'Donnell, C.F.J., Christie, J.E., Hitchmough, R.A., Lloyd, B., and Parsons, S. 2010. The conservation status of New Zealand bats, 2009. New Zeal. J. Zool. 37(4):297-311.

Ohsawa, M. 2010. Beetle families as indicators of Coleopteran diversity in forests: a study using Malaise traps in the central mountainous region of Japan. J. Insect Conserv. 14(5):479-484.

Oreska, M.P.J., and Aldridge, D.C. 2011. Estimating the financial costs of freshwater invasive species in Great Britain: a standardized approach to invasive species costing. Biol. Invasions 13(2):305-319.

Osem, Y., Lavi, A., and Rosenfeld, A. 2011. Colonization of Pinus halepensis in Mediterranean habitats: consequences of afforestation, grazing and fire. Biol. Invasions 13(2):485-498.

Pacioni, C., Wayne, A.F., and Spencer, P.B.S. 2011. Effects of habitat fragmentation on population structure and long-distance gene flow in an endangered marsupial: the woylie. J. Zool. 283(2):98-107.

Paplinska, J.Z., Taggart, D.A., Corrigan, T., Eldridge, M.D.B., and Austin, J.J. 2011. Using DNA from museum specimens to preserve the integrity of evolutionarily significant unit boundaries in threatened species. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):290-297.

Patrick, B.H., Hoare, R.J.B., and Rhode, B.E. 2010. Taxonomy and conservation of allopatric moth populations: a revisionary study of the Notoreas perornata Walker complex (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae), with special reference to southern New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Zool. 37(4):257-283.

Pawlikowski, P. 2010. Carex disperma Dewey versus Carex loliacea L. (Cyperaceae): distribution dynamics and conservation status in Poland. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 79(4):277-283.

Penman, T.D., and Brassil, T.E. 2010. Management of amphibian populations in Booderee National Park, south-eastern Australia. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 5(1):73-79.

Pinheiro, H.T., Martins, A.S., and Gasparini, J.L. 2010. Impact of commercial fishing on Trindade Island and Martin Vaz Archipelago, Brazil: characteristics, conservation status of the cpecies involved and prospects for preservation. Braz. Arch. Biol. Tech. 53(6):1417-1423.

Pinzón, J., and Spence, J.R. 2010. Bark-dwelling spider assemblages (Araneae) in the boreal forest: dominance, diversity, composition and life-histories. J. Insect Conserv. 14(5):439-458.

Plentovich, S., Swenson, C., Reimer, N., Richardson, M., and Garon, N. 2010. The effects of hydramethylnon on the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and non-target arthropods on Spit Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii. J. Insect Conserv. 14(5):459-465.

Plummer, M.V. 2010. Habitat use and movements of kingsnakes (Lampropeltis getula holbrooki) in a partially abandoned and reforested agricultural landscape. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 5(2):214-222.

Pocewicz, A., Kiesecker, J.M., Jones, G.P., Copeland, H.E., Daline, J., and Mealor, B.A. 2011. Effectiveness of conservation easements for reducing development and maintaining biodiversity in sagebrush ecosystems. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):567-574.

Power, A., Corley, B., Atkinson, D., Walker, R., Harris, D., Manley, J., and Johnson, T. 2010. A caution against interpreting and quantifying oyster habitat loss from historical surveys. J. Shellfish Res. 29(4):927-936.

Price, J.N., Macdonald, M.J., Gross, C.L., Whalley, R.D.B., and Simpson, I.H. 2011. Vegetative reproduction facilitates early expansion of Phyla canescens in a semi-arid floodplain. Biol. Invasions 13(2):285-289.

Procópio, L.C., Gayot, M., Sist, P., and Ferraz, I.D.K. 2010. "Tauari" species (Lecythidaceae) in non-flooded Amazon forest: patterns of geographic distribution, abundance, and implications for conservation. Acta Bot. Bras. 24(4):883-897.

Rader, R.B., Belk, M.C., Hotchkiss, R., and Brown, J. 2010. The stream-lake ecotone: potential habitat for juvenile endangered June suckers (Chasmistes liorus). West. N. Am. Naturalist 70(4):553-561.

Raebel, E.M., Merckx, T., Riordan, P., Macdonald, D.W., and Thompson, D.J. 2010. The dragonfly delusion: why it is essential to sample exuviae to avoid biased surveys. J. Insect Conserv. 14(5):523-533.

Randrianantoandro, J.C., Andriantsimanarilafy, R.R., Rakotovololonalimanana, H., Hantalalaina, E.F., Rakotondravony, D., Ramilijaona, O.R., Ratsimbazafy, J., Razafindrakoto, G.F., and Jenkins, R.K.B. 2010. Population assessments of chameleons from two montane sites in Madagascar. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 5(1):23-31.

Randrianasolo, A., and Lowry, P.P. 2010. A new species of Ellipanthus Hook.f. (Connaraceae) from humid forest in east-central Madagascar. Adansonia 32(2):229-233.

Richardson, D.M., Daehler, C.C., Leishman, M.R., Pauchard, A., and Pyšek, P. 2010. Plant invasions: theoretical and practical challenges. Biol. Invasions 12(12):3907-3911.

Richardson, D.M., Iponga, D.M., Roura-Pascual, N., Krug, R.M., Milton, S.J., Hughes, G.O., and Thuiller, W. 2010. Accommodating scenarios of climate change and management in modelling the distribution of the invasive tree Schinus molle in South Africa. Ecography 33(6):1049-1061.

Roberts, S.L., van Wagtendonk, J.W., Miles, A.K., and Kelt, D.A. 2011. Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):610-619.

Rolls, R.J. 2011. The role of life-history and location of barriers to migration in the spatial distribution and conservation of fish assemblages in a coastal river system. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):339-349.

Romano, A., Ventre, N., de Riso, L., Pignataro, C., and Spilinga, C. 2010. Amphibians of the "Cilento e Vallo di Diano" National Park (Campania, Southern Italy): updated checklist, distribution and conservation notes. Acta Herpetol. 5(2):233-244.

Rozylowicz, L., and Dobre, M. 2010. Assessing the threatened status of Testudo hermanni boettgeri Mojsisovics, 1889 (Reptilia: Testudines: Testudinidae) population from Romania. North-West. J. Zool. 6(2):190-202.

Sakurai, R., Jacobson, S.K., Kobori, H., Primack, R., Oka, K., Komatsu, N., and Machida, R. 2011. Culture and climate change: Japanese cherry blossom festivals and stakeholders' knowledge and attitudes about global climate change. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):654-658.

Santos, M.J., Anderson, L.W., and Ustin, S.L. 2011. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional scale. Biol. Invasions 13(2):443-457.

Sargent, L.W., Golladay, S.W., Covich, A.P., and Opsahl, S.P. 2011. Physicochemical habitat association of a native and a non-native crayfish in the lower Flint river, Georgia: implications for invasion success. Biol. Invasions 13(2):499-511.

Schatz, G.E., and Maas, P.J.M. 2010. Synoptic revision of Stenanona (Annonaceae). Blumea 55(3):205-223.

Schenková, J., Paril, P., Petrivalská, K., and Bojková, J. 2010. Aquatic oligochaetes (Annelida: Clitellata) of the Czech Republic: check-list, new records, and ecological remarks. Zootaxa 2676:29-44.

Schoppe, S., Matillano, J., Cervancia, M., and Acosta, D. 2010. Conservation needs of the critically endangered Philippine forest turtle, Siebenrockiella leytensis, in Palawan, Philippines. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 9(2):145-153.

Seavey, J.R., Gilmer, B., and McGarigal, K.M. 2011. Effect of sea-level rise on piping plover (Charadrius melodus) breeding habitat. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):393-401.

Shaw, J.D., Wilson, J.R.U., and Richardson, D.M. 2010. Initiating dialogue between scientists and managers of biological invasions. Biol. Invasions 12(12):4077-4083.

Slade, E.M., Mann, D.J., and Lewis, O.T. 2011. Biodiversity and ecosystem function of tropical forest dung beetles under contrasting logging regimes. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):166-174.

Small, C.J., White, D.C., and Hargbol, B. 2010. Allelopathic influences of the invasive Ailanthus altissima on a native and a non-native herb. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137(4):366-372.

Smith, M.J., Benítez-Díaz, H., Clemente-Muñoz, M.Á., Donaldson, J., Hutton, J.M., McGough, H.N., Medellin, R.A., Morgan, D.H.W., O'Criodain, C., Oldfield, T.E.E., Schippmann, U., and Williams, R.J. 2011. Assessing the impacts of international trade on CITES-listed species: current practices and opportunities for scientific research. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):82-91.

Smith, R.K., Pullin, A.S., Stewart, G.B., and Sutherland, W.J. 2011. Is nest predator exclusion an effective strategy for enhancing bird populations? Biol. Conserv. 144(1):1-10.

Snyder, B.A., Callaham, M.A., and Hendrix, P.F. 2011. Spatial variability of an invasive earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) population and potential impacts on soil characteristics and millipedes in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Biol. Invasions 13(2):349-358.

Sripanomyom, S., Round, P.D., Savini, T., Trisurat, Y., and Gale, G.A. 2011. Traditional salt-pans hold major concentrations of overwintering shorebirds in Southeast Asia. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):526-537.

St Clair, J.J.H. 2011. The impacts of invasive rodents on island invertebrates. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):68-81.

Steers, R.J. 2010. Rock outcrops harbor native perennials in type-converted coastal scrub. West. N. Am. Naturalist 70(4):516-525.

Sullivan, B.K., and Williams, R.E. 2010. Common chuckwallas (Sauromalus ater) in urban preserves: do food plants or crevice retreats influence abundance? Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 5(1):102-110.

Swenson, U., and Munzinger, J. 2010. Revision of Pycnandra subgenus Sebertia (Sapotaceae) and a generic key to the family in New Caledonia. Adansonia 32(2):239-249.

Tandy, S., Wallace, H.L., Jones, D.L., Nason, M.A., Williamson, J.C., and Healey, J.R. 2011. Can a mesotrophic grassland community be restored on a post-industrial sandy site with compost made from waste materials? Biol. Conserv. 144(1):500-510.

Tanentzap, A.J., Bazely, D.R., Koh, S., Timciska, M., Haggith, E.G., Carleton, T.J., and Coomes, D.A. 2011. Seeing the forest for the deer: do reductions in deer-disturbance lead to forest recovery? Biol. Conserv. 144(1):376-382.

Tang, C.Q., Yang, Y.C., Ohsawa, M., Momohara, A., Hara, M., Cheng, S.L., and Fan, S.H. 2011. Population structure of relict Metasequoia glyptostroboides and its habitat fragmentation and degradation in south-central China. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):279-289.

Taylor, C.A., and Schuster, G.A. 2010. Monotypic no more, a description of a new crayfish of the genus Barbicambarus Hobbs, 1969 (Decapoda Cambaridae) from the Tennessee River drainage using morphology and molecules. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 123(4):324-334.

Tomasevic, J.A., Hodum, P.J., and Estades, C.F. 2010. On the ecology and conservation of the critically endangered Másafuera Rayadito (Aphrastura masafuerae). Ornitolog. Neotrop. 21(4):535-543.

Trtikova, M., Güsewell, S., Baltisberger, M., and Edwards, P.J. 2011. Distribution, growth performance and genetic variation of Erigeron annuus in the Swiss Alps. Biol. Invasions 13(2):413-422.

Trueman, M., Atkinson, R., Guézou, A., and Wurm, P. 2010. Residence time and human-mediated propagule pressure at work in the alien flora of Galapagos. Biol. Invasions 12(12):3949-3960.

Tuberville, T.D., Norton, T.M., Waffa, B.J., Hagen, C., and Glenn, T.C. 2011. Mating system in a gopher tortoise population established through multiple translocations: apparent advantage of prior residence. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):175-183.

Tulloch, A., Possingham, H.P., and Wilson, K. 2011. Wise selection of an indicator for monitoring the success of management actions. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):141-154.

Valkó, O., Török, P., Tóthmérész, B., and Matus, G. 2011. Restoration potential in seed banks of acidic fen and dry-mesophilous meadows: can restoration be based on local seed banks? Restor. Ecol. 19(Sp. Iss.):9-15.

van Swaay, C., Maes, D., Collins, S., Munguira, M.L., Šašic, M., Settele, J., Verovnik, R., Warren, M., Wiemers, M., Wynhoff, I., and Cuttelod, A. 2011. Applying IUCN criteria to invertebrates: how red is the Red List of European butterflies? Biol. Conserv. 144(1):470-478.

Vicente, J., Alves, P., Randin, C., Guisan, A., and Honrado, J. 2010. What drives invasibility? A multi-model inference test and spatial modelling of alien plant species richness patterns in northern Portugal. Ecography 33(6):1081-1092.

Vuidot, A., Paillet, Y., Archaux, F., and Gosselin, F. 2011. Influence of tree characteristics and forest management on tree microhabitats. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):441-450.

Vukovic, N., Bernardic, A., Nikolic, T., Hršak, V., Plazibat, M., and Jelaska, S.D. 2010. Analysis and distributional patterns of the invasive flora in a protected mountain area - a case study of Medvednica Nature Park (Croatia). Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 79(4):285-294.

Wang, Z., Li, Z.Q., Beauchamp, G., and Jiang, Z.G. 2011. Flock size and human disturbance affect vigilance of endangered red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis). Biol. Conserv. 144(1):101-105.

Warren, R.J., Wright, J.P., and Bradford, M.A. 2011. The putative niche requirements and landscape dynamics of Microstegium vimineum: an invasive Asian grass. Biol. Invasions 13(2):471-483.

Watari, Y., Nagata, J., and Funakoshi, K. 2011. New detection of a 30-year-old population of introduced mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus on Kyushu Island, Japan. Biol. Invasions 13(2):269-276.

Weinberg, A., Gibbons, P., Briggs, S.V., and Bonser, S.P. 2011. The extent and pattern of Eucalyptus regeneration in an agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):227-233.

West, N.M., Gibson, D.J., and Minchin, P.R. 2010. Microhabitat analysis of the invasive exotic liana Lonicera japonica Thunb. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137(4):380-390.

Whipple, A.A., Grossinger, R.M., and Davis, F.W. 2011. Shifting baselines in a California oak savanna: nineteenth century data to inform restoration scenarios. Restor. Ecol. 19(Sp. Iss.):88-101.

Wilson, L., Wilson, J.M., and Johnstone, I. 2011. The effect of blanket bog drainage on habitat condition and on sheep grazing, evidence from a Welsh upland bog. Biol. Conserv. 144(1):193-201.

Wong, Y.T., Meier, R., and Tan, K.S. 2011. High haplotype variability in established Asian populations of the invasive Caribbean bivalve Mytilopsis sallei (Dreissenidae). Biol. Invasions 13(2):341-348.

Woodroffe, R. 2011. Ranging behaviour of African wild dog packs in a human-dominated landscape. J. Zool. 283(2):88-97.

Yamada, F., Kawauchi, N., Nakata, K., Abe, S., Kotaka, N., Takashima, A., Murata, C., and Kuroiwa, A. 2010. Rediscovery after thirty years since the last capture of the critically endangered Okinawa spiny rat Tokudaia muenninki in the northern part of Okinawa Island. Mamm. Stud. 35(4):243-255.

Yott, A., Rosatte, R., Schaefer, J.A., Hamr, J., and Fryxell, J. 2011. Movement and spread of a founding population of reintroduced elk (Cervus elaphus) in Ontario, Canada. Restor. Ecol. 19(Sp. Iss.):70-77.

Zaroban, D.W. 2010. Considerations for Wood River sculpin conservation: historical occurrence and sampling efficiency. West. N. Am. Naturalist 70(4):446-456.

Zhou, G.Y., Yang, L.C., Li, C.L., Xua, W.H., and Chen, G.C. 2010. Genetic diversity in endangered Notopterygium forbesii Boissieu based on intraspecies sequence variation of chloroplast DNA and implications for conservation. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 38(5):911-916.

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