Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 320
August 2011

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In This Issue

Tiger Numbers Could Triple

The tiger reserves of Asia could support more than 10,000 wild tigers - three times the current number - if they are managed as large-scale landscapes that allow for connectivity between core breeding sites, a new study from some of the world's leading conservation scientists finds. The study, published in Conservation Letters, is the first assessment of the political commitment made by all 13 tiger range countries last November to double the tiger population across Asia by 2022.

The study, by Eric Wikramanayake, et al., finds that the commitment to double the wild tiger population is not only possible, but can be exceeded. However, it will take a global effort to ensure that core breeding reserves are maintained and connected via habitat corridors.

"In the midst of a crisis, it's tempting to circle the wagons and only protect a limited number of core protected areas, but we can and should do better," said Eric Dinerstein, chief scientist at the U.S. World Wildlife Fund and a co-author of the study. "We absolutely need to stop the bleeding, the poaching of tigers and their prey in core breeding areas, but we need to go much further and secure larger tiger landscapes before it is too late."

Wild tiger numbers have declined from about 100,000 in the early 1900s to as few as 3,200 today due to poaching of tigers and their prey, habitat destruction and human/tiger conflict. Most of the remaining tigers are scattered in small, isolated pockets across their range in 13 Asian countries.

"Tiger conservation is the face of biodiversity conservation and competent sustainable land-use management at the landscape level," said John Seidensticker of the Smithsonian Conservation Research Institute. "By saving the tiger we save all the plants and animals that live under the tiger's umbrella."

Besides poaching and habitat loss, the $7.5 trillion in infrastructure projects like roads, dams and mines that will be invested in Asia over the next decade threatens tiger landscapes. A focus only on core sites and protected areas like reserves, instead of larger landscapes, could be seen by developers and politicians as a green light to move forward with harmful infrastructure projects outside of core sites.

The authors insist that conservationists and governments must be involved in helping design infrastructure projects to mitigate their impacts on tigers both inside core sites and in current and potential forest corridors.

Current Literature


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Calvino-Cancela, M. 2011. Seed dispersal of alien and native plants by vertebrate herbivores. Biol. Invasions 13(4):895-904.

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Carvalho, S.B., Brito, J.C., Crespo, E.J., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. Incorporating evolutionary processes into conservation planning using species distribution data: a case study with the western Mediterranean herpetofauna. Divers. Distrib. 17(3):408-421.

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Chaves-Campos, J., Johnson, S.G., de León, F.J.G., and Hulsey, C.D. 2011. Phylogeography, genetic structure, and gene flow in the endemic freshwater shrimp Palaemonetes suttkusi from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. Conserv. Genet. 12(2):557-567.

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Coggins, L.G., Yard, M.D., and Pine, W.E. 2011. Nonnative fish control in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: an effective program or serendipitous timing? Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 140(2):456-470.

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Conley, A.K., Watling, J.I., and Orrock, J.L. 2011. Invasive plant alters ability to predict disease vector distribution. Ecol. Appl. 21(2):329-334.

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Cortés-Delgado, N., and Pérez-Torres, J. 2011. Habitat edge context and the distribution of phyllostomid bats in the Andean forest and anthropogenic matrix in the Central Andes of Colombia. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(5):987-999.

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Couceiro, L., Maneiro, I., Ruiz, J.M., and Barreiro, R. 2011. Multiscale genetic structure of an endangered seaweed Ahnfeltiopsis pusilla (Rhodophyta): implications for its conservation. J. Phycol. 47(2):259-268.

Cruz-Neto, O., Machado, I.C., Duarte, J., and Lopes, A.V. 2011. Synchronous phenology of hawkmoths (Sphingidae) and Inga species (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae): implications for the restoration of the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(4):751-765.

Culmsee, H., Pitopang, R., Mangopo, H., and Sabir, S. 2011. Tree diversity and phytogeographical patterns of tropical high mountain rain forests in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(5):1103-1123.

Cumberlidge, N., Ng, P.K.L., Yeo, D.C.J., Naruse, T., Meyer, K.S., and Esser, L.J. 2011. Diversity, endemism and conservation of the freshwater crabs of China (Brachyura: Potamidae and Gecarcinucidae). Integr. Zool. 6(1):45-55.

da Silva, P.M., Aguiar, C.A.S., Silva, I.D.F.E., and Serrano, A.R.M. 2011. Orchard and riparian habitats enhance ground dwelling beetle diversity in Mediterranean agro-forestry systems. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(4):861-872.

Dahlberg, A., and Mueller, G.M. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecol. 4(2):147-162.

Dapporto, L. 2011. Predicting distribution of Zygaena moths on West Mediterranean islands. Implications for biogeography and conservation (Lepidoptera Zygaenidae). J. Insect Conserv. 15(3):445-454.

Dassonville, N., Guillaumaud, N., Piola, F., Meerts, P., and Poly, F. 2011. Niche construction by the invasive Asian knotweeds (species complex Fallopia): impact on activity, abundance and community structure of denitrifiers and nitrifiers. Biol. Invasions 13(5):1115-1133.

Daszak, P., Ball, S.J., Streicker, D.G., Jones, C.G., and Snow, K.R. 2011. A new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the endangered Round Island boa Casarea dussumieri (Schlegel) (Serpentes: Bolyeridae) of Round Island, Mauritius: an endangered parasite? Syst. Parasitol. 78(2):117-122.

Dávalos, L.M., Bejarano, A.C., Hall, M.A., Correa, H.L., Corthals, A., and Espejo, O.J. 2011. Forests and drugs: coca-driven deforestation in tropical biodiversity hotspots. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45(4):1219-1227.

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Dawson, T.P., Jackson, S.T., House, J.I., Prentice, I.C., and Mace, G.M. 2011. Beyond predictions: biodiversity conservation in a changing climate. Science 332(6025):53-58.

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de Vries, H.H., Ens, S.H., de Graaf, G., Teunissen, L., van der Velde, R., Vogelaar, L., Winterink, A., and Visser, M.E. 2011. Synchronisation of egg hatching of brown hairstreak (Thecla betulae) and budburst of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) in a warmer future. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):311-319.

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Dia, A., and Dumont, H.J. 2011. The Odonata of Lebanon (Insecta: Odonata). Zool. Middle East 52:63-70.

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Dover, J.W., Spencer, S., Collins, S., Hadjigeorgiou, I., and Rescia, A. 2011. Grassland butterflies and low intensity farming in Europe. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):129-137.

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Dumbauld, B.R., Kauffman, B.E., Trimble, A.C., and Ruesink, J.L. 2011. The Willapa Bay oyster reserves in Washington state: fishery collapse, creating a sustainable replacement, and the potential for habitat conservation and restoration. J. Shellfish Res. 30(1):71-83.

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Durigon, J., and Waechter, J.L. 2011. Floristic composition and biogeographic relations of a subtropical assemblage of climbing plants. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(5):1027-1044.

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Evans, M.C., Watson, J.E.M., Fuller, R.A., Venter, O., Bennett, S.C., Marsack, P.R., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. The spatial distribution of threats to species in Australia. BioScience 61(4):281-289.

Fabianek, F., Gagnon, D., and Delorme, M. 2011. Bat distribution and activity in Montreal Island green spaces: responses to multi-scale habitat effects in a densely urbanized area. Ecoscience 18(1):9-17.

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Ferenti, S., Cupsa, D., and Telcean, I.C. 2011. Dolichophis caspius (Gmelin, 1789) is indeed continuously distributed in southern Romania: zoogeographical and conservational implications of identifying new populations. Carpath. J. Earth Env. 6(1):273-276.

Feria, T.P., and Faulkes, Z. 2011. Forecasting the distribution of Marmorkrebs, a parthenogenetic crayfish with high invasive potential, in Madagascar, Europe, and North America. Aquat. Invasions 6(1):55-67.

Fessl, B., Loaiza, A.D., Tebbich, S., and Young, H.G. 2011. Feeding and nesting requirements of the critically endangered Mangrove Finch Camarhynchus heliobates. J. Ornithol. 152(2):453-460.

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Fletcher, R.J., Robertson, B.A., Evans, J., Doran, P.J., Alavalapati, J.R.R., and Schemske, D.W. 2011. Biodiversity conservation in the era of biofuels: risks and opportunities. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(3):161-168.

Foley, J., Clifford, D., Castle, K., Cryan, P., and Ostfeld, R.S. 2011. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):223-231.

Forbes, P. 2011. Transforming conservation for the 21st century. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):209-211.

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Frank, H., and Wilson, D.J. 2011. Distribution, status and conservation measures for lizards in limestone areas of South Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Zool. 38(1):15-28.

Franklin, J., Regan, H.M., Hierl, L.A., Deutschman, D.H., Johnson, B.S., and Winchell, C.S. 2011. Planning, implementing, and monitoring multiple-species habitat conservation plans. Am. J. Bot. 98(3):559-571.

French, K., Mason, T.J., and Sullivan, N. 2011. Recruitment limitation of native species in invaded coastal dune communities. Plant Ecol. 212(4):601-609.

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Gange, A.C., Gange, E.G., Mohammad, A.B., and Boddy, L. 2011. Host shifts in fungi caused by climate change? Fungal Ecol. 4(2):184-190.

Garayalde, A.F., Poverene, M., Cantamutto, M., and Carrera, A.D. 2011. Wild sunflower diversity in Argentina revealed by ISSR and SSR markers: an approach for conservation and breeding programmes. Ann. Appl. Biol. 158(3):305-317.

García-Barriuso, M., Bernardos, S., Nabais, C., Pereira, D., and Amich, F. 2011. Phytogeochemical, geographical and vulnerability study of the Paleosubtropical element Notholaena marantae subsp. marantae (Sinopteridaceae) at the western edge of its range. Biologia 66(2):258-265.

Garrick, R.C. 2011. Montane refuges and topographic complexity generate and maintain invertebrate biodiversity: recurring themes across space and time. J. Insect Conserv. 15(3):469-478.

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Gerrodette, T., and Rojas-Bracho, L. 2011. Estimating the success of protected areas for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Mar. Mammal Sci. 27(2):E101-E125.

Giacomini, H.C., Lima, D.P., Latini, A.O., and Espírito-Santo, H.M.V. 2011. Spatio-temporal segregation and size distribution of fish assemblages as related to non-native species occurrence in the middle rio Doce Valley, MG, Brazil. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 9(1):135-146.

Giam, X., Ting, H.N., Lok, A.F.S.L., and Heok, H.N. 2011. Local geographic range predicts freshwater fish extinctions in Singapore. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(2):356-363.

Gibbs, H.L., Murphy, M., and Chiucchi, J.E. 2011. Genetic identity of endangered massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus sp.) in Missouri. Conserv. Genet. 12(2):433-439.

Gidis, M., Spinks, P.Q., Çevik, E., Kaska, Y., and Shaffer, B. 2011. Shallow genetic divergence indicates a Congo-Nile riverine connection for the softshell turtle Trionyx triunguis. Conserv. Genet. 12(2):589-594.

Gladieux, P., Giraud, T., Kiss, L., Genton, B.J., Jonot, O., and Shykoff, J.A. 2011. Distinct invasion sources of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Eastern and Western Europe. Biol. Invasions 13(4):933-944.

Glowacki, L. 2011. Accuracy of species richness estimators applied to fish in small and large temperate lowland rivers. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(6):1365-1384.

Godefroid, S., Van de Vyver, A., Stoffelen, P., Robbrecht, E., and Vanderborght, T. 2011. Testing the viability of seeds from old herbarium specimens for conservation purposes. Taxon 60(2):565-569.

Godet, L., Zelnio, K.A., and Van Dover, C.L. 2011. Scientists as stakeholders in conservation of hydrothermal vents. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):214-222.

Goedkoop, W., Naddafi, R., and Grandin, U. 2011. Retention of N and P by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas) and its quantitative role in the nutrient budget of eutrophic Lake Ekoln, Sweden. Biol. Invasions 13(5):1077-1086.

Goertzen, L.R., Trusty, J.L., and Boyd, R.S. 2011. Clonal diversity and structure in the endangered Alabama leather flower Clematis socialis Kral (Ranunculaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 138(1):41-51.

Gogol-Prokurat, M. 2011. Predicting habitat suitability for rare plants at local spatial scales using a species distribution model. Ecol. Appl. 21(1):33-47.

Goodwin, S.E., and Shriver, W.G. 2011. Effects of traffic noise on occupancy patterns of forest birds. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):406-411.

Gore, M.L., Muter, B.A., Lapinski, M.K., Neuberger, L., and van der Heide, B. 2011. Risk frames on shark diving websites: implications for global shark conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 21(2):165-172.

Graham, N.A.J., Chabanet, P., Evans, R.D., Jennings, S., Letourneur, Y., MacNeil, M.A., McClanahan, T.R., Ohman, M.C., Polunin, N.V.C., and Wilson, S.K. 2011. Extinction vulnerability of coral reef fishes. Ecol. Lett. 14(4):341-348.

Grech, A., Sheppard, J., and Marsh, H. 2011. Informing species conservation at multiple scales using data collected for marine mammal stock assessments. PLoS ONE 6(3):e17993.

Griffiths, A.M., Sims, D.W., Johnson, A., Lynghammar, A., McHugh, M., Bakken, T., and Genner, M.J. 2011. Levels of connectivity between longnose skate (Dipturus oxyrinchus) in the Mediterranean Sea and the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean. Conserv. Genet. 12(2):577-582.

Groenendijk, D., and Ellis, W.N. 2011. The state of the Dutch larger moth fauna. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):95-101.

Gubili, C., Bilgin, R., Kalkan, E., Karhan, S.U., Jones, C.S., Sims, D.W., Kabasakal, H., Martin, A.P., and Noble, L.R. 2011. Antipodean white sharks on a Mediterranean walkabout? Historical dispersal leads to genetic discontinuity and an endangered anomalous population. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1712):1679-1686.

Gurevitch, J., Fox, G.A., Wardle, G.M., Inderjit, and Taub, D. 2011. Emergent insights from the synthesis of conceptual frameworks for biological invasions. Ecol. Lett. 14(4):407-418.

Gutiérrez-Ruiz, C.V., Román-Vives, M.A.M., Vergara, C.H., and Badano, E.I. 2011. Impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the diversity of shallow stony corals in the Veracruz Reef System National Park. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 82(1):249-260.

Haaland, C., and Bersier, L.F. 2011. What can sown wildflower strips contribute to butterfly conservation?: an example from a Swiss lowland agricultural landscape. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):301-309.

Haanes, H., and Gulliksen, B. 2011. A high local species richness and biodiversity within high-latitude calcareous aggregates of tube-building polychaetes. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(4):793-806.

Haeger, J.F., Jordano, D., and Meléndez, M.L. 2011. Status and conservation of Asclepiadaceae and Danaus in southern Spain. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):361-365.

Hall, M., and Miller, A.G. 2011. Strategic requirements for plant conservation in the Arabian Peninsula. Zool. Middle East Sup-3:169-182.

Hanski, I. 2011. Habitat loss, the dynamics of biodiversity, and a perspective on conservation. Ambio 40(3):248-255.

Hardwick, K.A., Fiedler, P., Lee, L.C., Pavlik, B., Hobbs, R.J., Aronson, J., Bidartondo, M., Black, E., Coates, D., Daws, M.I., Dixon, K., Elliott, S., Ewing, K., Gann, G., Gibbons, D., Gratzfeld, J., Hamilton, M., Hardman, D., Harris, J., Holmes, P.M., Jones, M., Mabberley, D., Mackenzie, A., Magdalena, C., Marrs, R., Milliken, W., Mills, A., Lughadha, E.N., Ramsay, M., Smith, P., Taylor, N., Trivedi, C., Way, M., Whaley, O., and Hopper, S.D. 2011. The role of botanic gardens in the science and practice of ecological restoration. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):265-275.

He, K.S., Rocchini, D., Neteler, M., and Nagendra, H. 2011. Benefits of hyperspectral remote sensing for tracking plant invasions. Divers. Distrib. 17(3):381-392.

Heck, N., Dearden, P., McDonald, A., and Carver, S. 2011. Developing MPA performance indicators with local stakeholders' input in the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, Canada. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(4):895-911.

Heenan, P.B., and de Lange, P.J. 2011. Myoporum semotum (Scrophulariaceae), a new tree species from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Bot. 49(1):17-26.

Hendry, A.P., Kinnison, M.T., Heino, M., Day, T., Smith, T.B., Fitt, G., Bergstrom, C.T., Oakeshott, J., Jørgensen, P.S., Zalucki, M.P., Gilchrist, G., Southerton, S., Sih, A., Strauss, S., Denison, R.F., and Carroll, S.P. 2011. Evolutionary principles and their practical application. Evol. Appl. 4(2):159-183.

Hermoso, V., Clavero, M., Blanco-Garrido, F., and Prenda, J. 2011. Invasive species and habitat degradation in Iberian streams: an analysis of their role in freshwater fish diversity loss. Ecol. Appl. 21(1):175-188.

Herrera, A.M., Carruthers, R.I., and Mills, N.J. 2011. No evidence for increased performance of a specialist psyllid on invasive French broom. Acta Oecol. 37(2):79-86.

Herrera, L.P., and Laterra, P. 2011. Relative influence of size, connectivity and disturbance history on plant species richness and assemblages in fragmented grasslands. Appl. Veg. Sci. 14(2):181-188.

Hirsch, P.D., Adams, W.M., Brosius, J.P., Zia, A., Bariola, N., and Dammert, J.L. 2011. Acknowledging conservation trade-offs and embracing complexity. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):259-264.

Hladyz, S., Åbjörnsson, K., Giller, P.S., and Woodward, G. 2011. Impacts of an aggressive riparian invader on community structure and ecosystem functioning in stream food webs. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(2):443-452.

Höffle, H., Thomsen, M.S., and Holmer, M. 2011. High mortality of Zostera marina under high temperature regimes but minor effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 92(1):35-46.

Hogg, B.N., and Daane, K.M. 2011. Diversity and invasion within a predator community: impacts on herbivore suppression. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(2):453-461.

Hogg, B.N., and Daane, K.M. 2011. Ecosystem services in the face of invasion: the persistence of native and nonnative spiders in an agricultural landscape. Ecol. Appl. 21(2):565-576.

Hole, D.G., Huntley, B., Arinaitwe, J., Butchart, S.H.M., Collingham, Y.C., Fishpool, L.D.C., Pain, D.J., and Willis, S.G. 2011. Toward a management framework for networks of protected areas in the face of climate change. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):305-315.

Holness, S., Knight, M., Sorensen, M., Ramadan, Y., and Othman, A. 2011. Towards a systematic conservation plan for the Arabian Peninsula. Zool. Middle East Sup-3:197-208.

Horák, J., Zaitsev, A.A., and Vávrová, E. 2011. Ecological requirements of a rare saproxylic beetle Cucujus haematodes - the beetles' stronghold on the edge of its distribution area. Insect Conserv. Divers. 4(2):81-88.

Howe, C., Medzhidov, R., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2011. Evaluating the relative effectiveness of alternative conservation interventions in influencing stated behavioural intentions: the saiga antelope in Kalmykia (Russia). Environ. Conserv. 38(1):37-44.

Huang, J.H., Chen, J.H., Ying, J.S., and Ma, K.P. 2011. Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species. J. Syst. Evol. 49(2):81-94.

Hulme, P.E. 2011. Addressing the threat to biodiversity from botanic gardens. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26(4):168-174.

Humber, F., Godley, B.J., Ramahery, V., and Broderick, A.C. 2011. Using community members to assess artisanal fisheries: the marine turtle fishery in Madagascar. Anim. Conserv. 14(2):175-185.

Huth, N., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. Basic ecological theory can inform habitat restoration for woodland birds. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(2):293-300.

Inderjit, Evans, H., Crocoll, C., Bajpai, D., Kaur, R., Feng, Y.L., Silva, C., Carreón, J.T., Valiente-Banuet, A., Gershenzon, J., and Callaway, R.M. 2011. Volatile chemicals from leaf litter are associated with invasiveness of a Neotropical weed in Asia. Ecology 92(2):316-324.

Isaac, N.J.B., Girardello, M., Brereton, T.M., and Roy, D.B. 2011. Butterfly abundance in a warming climate: patterns in space and time are not congruent. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):233-240.

Izquierdo, A.E., Grau, H.R., and Aide, T.M. 2011. Implications of rural-urban migration for conservation of the Atlantic forest and urban growth in Misiones, Argentina (1970-2030). Ambio 40(3):298-309.

Jackson, C.R., and Robertson, M.P. 2011. Predicting the potential distribution of an endangered cryptic subterranean mammal from few occurrence records. J. Nature Conserv. 19(2):87-94.

Januchowski-Hartley, S.R., Visconti, P., and Pressey, R.L. 2011. A systematic approach for prioritizing multiple management actions for invasive species. Biol. Invasions 13(5):1241-1253.

Jarrad, F.C., Barrett, S., Murray, J., Stoklosa, R., Whittle, P., and Mengersen, K. 2011. Ecological aspects of biosecurity surveillance design for the detection of multiple invasive animal species. Biol. Invasions 13(4):803-818.

Johnson, J.R., Thomson, R.C., Micheletti, S.J., and Shaffer, H.B. 2011. The origin of tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) populations in California, Oregon, and Nevada: introductions or relicts? Conserv. Genet. 12(2):355-370.

Jones, C., Pech, R., Forrester, G., King, C.M., and Murphy, E.C. 2011. Functional responses of an invasive top predator Mustela erminea to invasive meso-predators Rattus rattus and Mus musculus, in New Zealand forests. Wildlife Res. 38(2):131-140.

Joppa, L.N., and Pfaff, A. 2011. Global protected area impacts. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1712):1633-1638.

Joseph, J., and Shaw, P.W. 2011. Multiple paternity in egg clutches of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Conserv. Genet. 12(2):601-605.

Karl, S.A., Castro, A.L.F., Lopez, J.A., Charvet, P., and Burgess, G.H. 2011. Phylogeography and conservation of the bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) inferred from mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. Conserv. Genet. 12(2):371-382.

Keith, D.A., Martin, T.G., McDonald-Madden, E., and Walters, C. 2011. Uncertainty and adaptive management for biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 144(4):1175-1178.

Keller, R.P., Kocev, D., and Džeroski, S. 2011. Trait-based risk assessment for invasive species: high performance across diverse taxonomic groups, geographic ranges and machine learning/statistical tools. Divers. Distrib. 17(3):451-461.

Kelly, L.T., Nimmo, D.G., Spence-Bailey, L.M., Haslem, A., Watson, S.J., Clarke, M.F., and Bennett, A.F. 2011. Influence of fire history on small mammal distributions: insights from a 100-year post-fire chronosequence. Divers. Distrib. 17(3):462-473.

Kennedy, V.S. 2011. The invasive dark falsemussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae): a literature review. Aquat. Ecol. 45(2):163-183.

Kenward, R.E., Whittingham, M.J., Arampatzis, S., Manos, B.D., Hahn, T., Terry, A., Simoncini, R., Alcorn, J., Bastian, O., Donlan, M., Elowe, K., Franzén, F., Karacsonyi, Z., Larsson, M., Manou, D., Navodaru, I., Papadopoulou, O., Papathanasiou, J., von Raggamby, A., Sharp, R.J.A., Söderqvist, T., Soutukorva, Å., Vavrova, L., Aebischer, N.J., Leader-Williams, N., and Rutz, C. 2011. Identifying governance strategies that effectively support ecosystem services, resource sustainability, and biodiversity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(13):5308-5312.

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Reyes-García, V., Pascual, U., Vadez, V., Huanca, T., and TAPS Bolivian Study Team. 2011. The role of ethnobotanical skills and agricultural labor in forest clearance: evidence from the Bolivian Amazon. Ambio 40(3):310-321.

Ricciardi, A., Palmer, M.E., and Yan, N.D. 2011. Should biological invasions be managed as natural disasters? BioScience 61(4):312-317.

Richter-Boix, A., Quintela, M., Segelbacher, G., and Laurila, A. 2011. Genetic analysis of differentiation among breeding ponds reveals a candidate gene for local adaptation in Rana arvalis. Mol. Ecol. 20(8):1582-1600.

Rickart, E.A., Balete, D.S., Rowe, R.J., and Heaney, L.R. 2011. Mammals of the northern Philippines: tolerance for habitat disturbance and resistance to invasive species in an endemic insular fauna. Divers. Distrib. 17(3):530-541.

Rivera-Hernández, J.E., and Samain, M.S. 2011. Where has Aristolochia tricaudata (Aristolochiaceae) gone? New record of a critically endangered species in Oaxaca, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 82(1):281-285.

Rodrigues, A.S.L. 2011. Improving coarse species distribution data for conservation planning in biodiversity-rich, data-poor, regions: no easy shortcuts. Anim. Conserv. 14(2):108-110.

Rodriguez, D., Forstner, M.R.J., Moler, P.E., Wasilewski, J.A., Cherkiss, M.S., and Densmore, L. 2011. Effect of human-mediated migration and hybridization on the recovery of the American crocodile in Florida (USA). Conserv. Genet. 12(2):449-459.

Ross, N.J. 2011. Modern tree species composition reflects ancient Maya "forest gardens" in northwest Belize. Ecol. Appl. 21(1):75-84.

Rouco, C., Villafuerte, R., Castro, F., and Ferreras, P. 2011. Effect of artificial warren size on a restocked European wild rabbit population. Anim. Conserv. 14(2):117-123.

Roy, B.A., Coulson, T., Blaser, W., Policha, T., Stewart, J.L., Blaisdell, G.K., and Güsewell, S. 2011. Population regulation by enemies of the grass Brachypodium sylvaticum: demography in native and invaded ranges. Ecology 92(3):665-675.

Rudolphi, J., and Gustafsson, L. 2011. Forests regenerating after clear-cutting function as habitat for bryophyte and lichen species of conservation concern. PLoS ONE 6(4):e18639.

Rumpff, L., Duncan, D.H., Vesk, P.A., Keith, D.A., and Wintle, B.A. 2011. State-and-transition modelling for Adaptive Management of native woodlands. Biol. Conserv. 144(4):1224-1236.

Runge, M.C., Converse, S.J., and Lyons, J.E. 2011. Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program. Biol. Conserv. 144(4):1214-1223.

Ryland, J.S., Bishop, J.D.D., De Blauwe, H., El Nagar, A., Minchin, D., Wood, C.A., and Yunnie, A.L.E. 2011. Alien species of Bugula (Bryozoa) along the Atlantic coasts of Europe. Aquat. Invasions 6(1):17-31.

Sáfián, S., Csontos, G., and Winkler, D. 2011. Butterfly community recovery in degraded rainforest habitats in the Upper Guinean Forest Zone (Kakum forest, Ghana). J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):351-359.

Saino, N., Ambrosini, R., Rubolini, D., von Hardenberg, J., Provenzale, A., Hüppop, K., Huppop, O., Lehikoinen, A., Lehikoinen, E., Rainio, K., Romano, M., and Sokolov, L. 2011. Climate warming, ecological mismatch at arrival and population decline in migratory birds. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1707):835-842.

Sanchez-Camara, J., Martin-Smith, K., Booth, D.J., Fritschi, J., and Turon, X. 2011. Demographics and vulnerability of a unique Australian fish, the weedy seadragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 422:253-264.

Sandbrook, C., Scales, I.R., Vira, B., and Adams, W.M. 2011. Value plurality among conservation professionals. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):285-294.

Schaefer, H., Hardy, O.J., Silva, L., Barraclough, T.G., and Savolainen, V. 2011. Testing Darwin's naturalization hypothesis in the Azores. Ecol. Lett. 14(4):389-396.

Schmera, D., and Baur, B. 2011. Testing a typology system of running waters for conservation planning in Hungary. Hydrobiologia 665(1):183-194.

Schmidt, J.P., and Drake, J.M. 2011. Why are some plant genera more invasive than others? PLoS ONE 6(4):e18654.

Schmidt, K., Ratkiewicz, M., and Konopinski, M.K. 2011. The importance of genetic variability and population differentiation in the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx for conservation, in the context of habitat and climate change. Mammal Rev. 41(2):112-124.

Seddon, P., Mallon, D., and Knight, M. 2011. Biodiversity conservation in the Arabian Peninsula. Zool. Middle East Sup-3:5.

Seddon, P.J., Price, M.S., Launay, F., Maunder, M., Soorae, P., Molur, S., Armstrong, D., Jordan, M., Dalrymple, S., and Genovesi, P. 2011. Frankenstein ecosystems and 21st century conservation agendas: reply to Oliveira-Santos and Fernandez. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):212-213.

Seoane, J., Carrascal, L.M., and Palomino, D. 2011. Assessing the ecological basis of conservation priority lists for bird species in an island scenario. J. Nature Conserv. 19(2):103-115.

Setoguchi, H., Mitsui, Y., Ikeda, H., Nomura, N., and Tamura, A. 2011. Genetic structure of the critically endangered plant Tricyrtis ishiiana (Convallariaceae) in relict populations of Japan. Conserv. Genet. 12(2):491-501.

Sgró, C.M., Lowe, A.J., and Hoffmann, A.A. 2011. Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. Evol. Appl. 4(2):326-337.

Shao, W., and Lu, S.G. 2011. Himalayopteris, a new fern genus from India and the adjacent Himalayas (Polypodiaceae, Polypodioideae). Novon 21(1):90-93.

Shapcott, A., and Powell, M. 2011. Demographic structure, genetic diversity and habitat distribution of the endangered, Australian rainforest tree Macadamia jansenii help facilitate an introduction program. Aust. J. Bot. 59(3):215-225.

Shen, X.Y., Peng, S.L., Chen, B.M., Pang, J.X., Chen, L.Y., Xu, H.M., and Hou, Y.P. 2011. Do higher resource capture ability and utilization efficiency facilitate the successful invasion of native plants? Biol. Invasions 13(4):869-881.

Shepherd, T., Gardner, C., Green, B.S., and Richardson, A. 2011. Estimating survival of the tayatea Astacopsis gouldi (Crustacea, Decapoda,Parastacidae), an iconic, threatened freshwater invertebrate. J. Shellfish Res. 30(1):139-145.

Shiels, A.B., and Drake, D.R. 2011. Are introduced rats (Rattus rattus) both seed predators and dispersers in Hawaii? Biol. Invasions 13(4):883-894.

Shobrak, M. 2011. Bird flyways and stopover conservation sites in the Arabian Peninsula. Zool. Middle East Sup-3:27-30.

Shreeve, T.G., and Dennis, R.L.H. 2011. Landscape scale conservation: resources, behaviour, the matrix and opportunities. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):179-188.

Simberloff, D. 2011. How common are invasion-induced ecosystem impacts? Biol. Invasions 13(5):1255-1268.

Simberloff, D., Genovesi, P., Pyšek, P., and Campbell, K. 2011. Recognizing conservation success. Science 332(6028):419.

Singh, M., Erinjery, J.J., Kavana, T.S., and Roy, K. 2011. Drastic population decline and conservation prospects of roadside dark-bellied bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata radiata) of southern India. Primates 52(2):149-154.

Sitzia, T., and Trentanovi, G. 2011. Maggengo meadow patches enclosed by forests in the Italian Alps: evidence of landscape legacy on plant diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(5):945-961.

Smee, M., Smyth, W., Tunmore, M., Ffrench-Constant, R., and Hodgson, D. 2011. Butterflies on the brink: habitat requirements for declining populations of the marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) in SW England. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):153-163.

Sousa, R., Morais, P., Dias, E., and Antunes, C. 2011. Biological invasions and ecosystem functioning: time to merge. Biol. Invasions 13(5):1055-1058.

Sousa, R., Pilotto, F., and Aldridge, D.C. 2011. Fouling of European freshwater bivalves (Unionidae) by the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Freshwater Biol. 56(5):867-876.

Sparrius, L.B., and Kooijman, A.M. 2011. Invasiveness of Campylopus introflexus in drift sands depends on nitrogen deposition and soil organic matter. Appl. Veg. Sci. 14(2):221-229.

Speek, T.A.A., Lotz, L.A.P., Ozinga, W.A., Tamis, W.L.M., Schaminée, J.H.J., and van der Putten, W.H. 2011. Factors relating to regional and local success of exotic plant species in their new range. Divers. Distrib. 17(3):542-551.

Spence, L.A., Ross, J.V., Wiser, S.K., Allen, R.B., and Coomes, D.A. 2011. Disturbance affects short-term facilitation, but not long-term saturation, of exotic plant invasion in New Zealand forest. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1711):1457-1466.

Spiering, P.A., Gunther, M.S., Somers, M.J., Wildt, D.E., Walters, M., Wilson, A.S., and Maldonado, J.E. 2011. Inbreeding, heterozygosity and fitness in a reintroduced population of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Conserv. Genet. 12(2):401-412.

Starling-Windhof, A., Massaro, M., and Briskie, J.V. 2011. Differential effects of exotic predator-control on nest success of native and introduced birds in New Zealand. Biol. Invasions 13(4):1021-1028.

Stefanescu, C., Torre, I., Jubany, J., and Páramo, F. 2011. Recent trends in butterfly populations from north-east Spain and Andorra in the light of habitat and climate change. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):83-93.

Stewart, K., Sims, M., Meylan, A., Witherington, B., Brost, B., and Crowder, L.B. 2011. Leatherback nests increasing significantly in Florida, USA; trends assessed over 30 years using multilevel modeling. Ecol. Appl. 21(1):263-273.

Strayer, D.L., Cid, N., and Malcom, H.M. 2011. Long-term changes in a population of an invasive bivalve and its effects. Oecologia 165(4):1063-1072.

Strecker, A.L., Beisner, B.E., Arnott, S.E., Paterson, A.M., Winter, J.G., Johannsson, O.E., and Yan, N.D. 2011. Direct and indirect effects of an invasive planktonic predator on pelagic food webs. Limnol. Oceanogr. 56(1):179-192.

Su, Z.M., Zhang, R.Z., and Qiu, J.X. 2011. Decline in the diversity of willow trunk-dwelling weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) as a result of urban expansion in Beijing, China. J. Insect Conserv. 15(3):367-377.

Suryanarayanan, T.S., Murali, T.S., Thirunavukkarasu, N., Rajulu, M.B.G., Venkatesan, G., and Sukumar, R. 2011. Endophytic fungal communities in woody perennials of three tropical forest types of the Western Ghats, southern India. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(5):913-928.

Swei, A., Ostfeld, R.S., Lane, R.S., and Briggs, C.J. 2011. Effects of an invasive forest pathogen on abundance of ticks and their vertebrate hosts in a California Lyme disease focus. Oecologia 166(1):91-100.

Swengel, A.B., and Swengel, S.R. 2011. High and dry or sunk and dunked: lessons for tallgrass prairies from quaking bogs. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):165-178.

Swengel, S.R., Schlicht, D., Olsen, F., and Swengel, A.B. 2011. Declines of prairie butterflies in the midwestern USA. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):327-339.

Swenson, J.E., Taberlet, P., and Bellemain, E. 2011. Genetics and conservation of European brown bears Ursus arctos. Mammal Rev. 41(2):87-98.

Szlavecz, K., McCormick, M., Xia, L.J., Saunders, J., Morcol, T., Whigham, D., Filley, T., and Csuzdi, C. 2011. Ecosystem effects of non-native earthworms in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests. Biol. Invasions 13(5):1165-1182.

Tanaka, N., Demise, T., Ishii, M., Shoji, Y., and Nakaoka, M. 2011. Genetic structure and gene flow of eelgrass Zostera marina populations in Tokyo Bay, Japan: implications for their restoration. Mar. Biol. 158(4):871-882.

Taubmann, J., Theissinger, K., Feldheim, K.A., Laube, I., Graf, W., Haase, P., Johannesen, J., and Pauls, S.U. 2011. Modelling range shifts and assessing genetic diversity distribution of the montane aquatic mayfly Ameletus inopinatus in Europe under climate change scenarios. Conserv. Genet. 12(2):503-515.

Taylor, L., and Roberts, D.L. 2011. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Epipogium aphyllum Sw. J. Ecology 99(3):878-890.

Taylor, M.F.J., Sattler, P.S., Evans, M., Fuller, R.A., Watson, J.E.M., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. What works for threatened species recovery? An empirical evaluation for Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(4):767-777.

Tell, G., Izaguirre, I., and Allende, L. 2011. Diversity and geographic distribution of Chlorococcales (Chlorophyceae) in contrasting lakes along a latitudinal transect in Argentinean Patagonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(4):703-727.

Thomas, C.D., Hill, J.K., Anderson, B.J., Bailey, S., Beale, C.M., Bradbury, R.B., Bulman, C.R., Crick, H.Q.P., Eigenbrod, F., Griffiths, H.M., Kunin, W.E., Oliver, T.H., Walmsley, C.A., Watts, K., Worsfold, N.T., and Yardley, T. 2011. A framework for assessing threats and benefits to species responding to climate change. Method. Ecol. Evol. 2(2):125-142.

Thomas, J.A., Simcox, D.J., and Hovestadt, T. 2011. Evidence based conservation of butterflies. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):241-258.

Thomassen, H.A., Fuller, T., Buermann, W., Mila, B., Kieswetter, C.M., Jarrin, P., Cameron, S.E., Mason, E., Schweizer, R., Schlunegger, J., Chan, J., Wang, O., Peralvo, M., Schneider, C.J., Graham, C.H., Pollinger, J.P., Saatchi, S., Wayne, R.K., and Smith, T.B. 2011. Mapping evolutionary process: a multi-taxa approach to conservation prioritization. Evol. Appl. 4(2):397-413.

Thorpe, A.S., and Stanley, A.G. 2011. Determining appropriate goals for restoration of imperilled communities and species. J. Appl. Ecol. 48(2):275-279.

Tikkamäki, T., and Komonen, A. 2011. Estimating population characteristics of two saproxylic beetles: a mark-recapture approach. J. Insect Conserv. 15(3):401-408.

Timsina, B., Shrestha, B.B., Rokaya, M.B., and Münzbergová, Z. 2011. Impact of Parthenium hysterophorus L. invasion on plant species composition and soil properties of grassland communities in Nepal. Flora 206(3):233-240.

Tokarska, M., Pertoldi, C., Kowalczyk, R., and Perzanowski, K. 2011. Genetic status of the European bison Bison bonasus after extinction in the wild and subsequent recovery. Mammal Rev. 41(2):151-162.

Tomas, F., Cebrian, E., and Ballesteros, E. 2011. Differential herbivory of invasive algae by native fish in the Mediterranean Sea. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 92(1):27-34.

Tracy, L.N., and Jamieson, I.G. 2011. Historic DNA reveals contemporary population structure results from anthropogenic effects, not pre-fragmentation patterns. Conserv. Genet. 12(2):517-526.

Tsaliki, M., and Diekmann, M. 2011. Population size, pollination and reproductive success in two endangered Genista species. Flora 206(3):246-250.

Tschöpe, O., Wallschläger, D., Burkart, M., and Tielbörger, K. 2011. Managing open habitats by wild ungulate browsing and grazing: a case-study in North-Eastern Germany. Appl. Veg. Sci. 14(2):200-209.

Ujvari, B., Shine, R., and Madsen, T. 2011. Detecting the impact of invasive species on native fauna: cane toads (Bufo marinus), frillneck lizards (Chlamydosaurus kingii) and the importance of spatial replication. Austral Ecol. 36(2):126-130.

Valera-Leal, J., Acevedo, A., Pérez-Sánchez, A., Vega, J., and Manzanilla, J. 2011. Historic record of Gastrotheca ovifera (Anura: Hemiphractidae): decline evidence in Venezuelan coastal cloud forests. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59(1):329-345.

Van Damme, K., and Banfield, L. 2011. Past and present human impacts on the biodiversity of Socotra Island (Yemen): implications for future conservation. Zool. Middle East Sup-3:31-88.

van der Merwe, H., and van Rooyen, M.W. 2011. Species-area relationships in the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld, Succulent Karoo, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(6):1183-1201.

van Wilgen, B.W., and Biggs, H.C. 2011. A critical assessment of adaptive ecosystem management in a large savanna protected area in South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 144(4):1179-1187.

Vanden Borre, J., Paelinckx, D., Mücher, C.A., Kooistra, L., Haest, B., De Blust, G., and Schmidt, A.M. 2011. Integrating remote sensing in Natura 2000 habitat monitoring: prospects on the way forward. J. Nature Conserv. 19(2):116-125.

Vanparys, V., Cawoy, V., Mahaux, O., and Jacquemart, A.L. 2011. Comparative study of the reproductive ecology of two co-occurring related plant species: the invasive Senecio inaequidens and the native Jacobaea vulgaris. Plant Ecol. Evol. 144(1):3-11.

Velo-Antón, G., Wink, M., Schneeweiß, N., and Fritz, U. 2011. Native or not? Tracing the origin of wild-caught and captive freshwater turtles in a threatened and widely distributed species (Emys orbicularis). Conserv. Genet. 12(2):583-588.

Vera, M., Sourinejad, I., Bouza, C., Vilas, R., Pino-Querido, A., Kalbassi, M.R., and Martínez, P. 2011. Phylogeography, genetic structure, and conservation of the endangered Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius (Kessler, 1877), from Iran. Hydrobiologia 664(1):51-67.

Vera, P., Sasa, M., Encabo, S.I., Barba, E., Belda, E.J., and Monros, J.S. 2011. Land use and biodiversity congruences at local scale: applications to conservation strategies. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(6):1287-1317.

Vermeulen, J.J., and Lamb, A. 2011. Endangered even before formally described: Bulbophyllum kubahense n.sp., a beautiful and assumedly narrowly endemic orchid from Borneo. Plant Syst. Evol. 292(1-2):51-53.

Verovnik, R., Govedic, M., and Šalamun, A. 2011. Is the Natura 2000 network sufficient for conservation of butterfly diversity? A case study in Slovenia. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):345-350.

Vicente, J., Randin, C.F., Gonçalves, J., Metzger, M.J., Lomba, Â., Honrado, J., and Guisan, A. 2011. Where will conflicts between alien and rare species occur after climate and land-use change? A test with a novel combined modelling approach. Biol. Invasions 13(5):1209-1227.

Vina, A., Chen, X.D., McConnell, W.J., Liu, W., Xu, W.H., Ouyang, Z.Y., Zhang, H.M., and Liu, J.G. 2011. Effects of natural disasters on conservation policies: the case of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China. Ambio 40(3):274-284.

Vink, C.J., Derraik, J.G.B., Phillips, C.B., and Sirvid, P.J. 2011. The invasive Australian redback spider, Latrodectus hasseltii Thorell 1870 (Araneae: Theridiidae): current and potential distributions, and likely impacts. Biol. Invasions 13(4):1003-1019.

Wang, H.H., Grant, W.E., Swannack, T.M., Gan, J.B., Rogers, W.E., Koralewski, T.E., Miller, J.H., and Taylor, J.W. 2011. Predicted range expansion of Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) in forestlands of the southern United States. Divers. Distrib. 17(3):552-565.

Wang, J.H., Wei, Q.W., and Zou, Y.C. 2011. Conservation strategies for the Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis: an overview on 30 years of practices and future needs. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27(2):176-180.

Ward, E.J., Semmens, B.X., Holmes, E.E., and Balcomb, K.C. 2011. Effects of multiple levels of social organization on survival and abundance. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):350-355.

Wärner, C., Welk, E., Durka, W., Wittig, B., and Diekmann, M. 2011. Biological Flora of Central Europe: Euphorbia palustris L. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 13(1):55-69.

Warren, M.S., and Bourn, N.A.D. 2011. Ten challenges for 2010 and beyond to conserve Lepidoptera in Europe. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):321-326.

Warriner, M.D. 2011. Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of remnant grasslands in Arkansas. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 84(1):43-50.

Watling, J.I., Hickman, C.R., and Orrock, J.L. 2011. Predators and invasive plants affect performance of amphibian larvae. Oikos 120(5):735-739.

Watson, J.E.M., Evans, M.C., Carwardine, J., Fuller, R.A., Joseph, L.N., Segan, D.B., Taylor, M.F.J., Fensham, R.J., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. The capacity of Australia's protected-area system to represent threatened species. Conserv. Biol. 25(2):324-332.

Watts, C., Stringer, I., Thornburrow, D., and MacKenzie, D. 2011. Are footprint tracking tunnels suitable for monitoring giant weta (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae)? Abundance, distribution and movement in relation to tracking rates. J. Insect Conserv. 15(3):433-443.

Weese, D.J., Schwartz, A.K., Bentzen, P., Hendry, A.P., and Kinnison, M.T. 2011. Eco-evolutionary effects on population recovery following catastrophic disturbance. Evol. Appl. 4(2):354-366.

Westley, P.A.H. 2011. What invasive species reveal about the rate and form of contemporary phenotypic change in nature. Am. Nat. 177(4):496-509.

Westley, P.A.H., and Fleming, I.A. 2011. Landscape factors that shape a slow and persistent aquatic invasion: brown trout in Newfoundland 1883-2010. Divers. Distrib. 17(3):566-579.

White, E., and Vivian-Smith, G. 2011. Contagious dispersal of seeds of synchronously fruiting species beneath invasive and native fleshy-fruited trees. Austral Ecol. 36(2):195-202.

White, L.F., and Orr, L.C. 2011. Native clams facilitate invasive species in an eelgrass bed. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 424:87-95.

Wikramanayake, E., Dinerstein, E., Seidensticker, J., Lumpkin, S., Pandav, B., Shrestha, M., Mishra, H., Ballou, J., Johnsingh, A.J.T., Chestin, I., Sunarto, S., Thinley, P., Thapa, K., Jiang, G.S., Elagupillay, S., Kafley, H., Pradhan, N.M.B., Jigme, K., Teak, S., Cutter, P., Aziz, M.A., and Than, U. 2011. A landscape-based conservation strategy to double the wild tiger population. Conserv. Lett. 4(3):219-227.

Williams, M.R. 2011. Habitat resources, remnant vegetation condition and area determine distribution patterns and abundance of butterflies and day-flying moths in a fragmented urban landscape, south-west Western Australia. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):37-54.

Williams, R., Gero, S., Bejder, L., Calambokidis, J., Kraus, S.D., Lusseau, D., Read, A.J., and Robbins, J. 2011. Underestimating the damage: interpreting cetacean carcass recoveries in the context of the Deepwater Horizon/BP incident. Conserv. Lett. 4(3):228-233.

Wilson, R.J., and Maclean, I.M.D. 2011. Recent evidence for the climate change threat to Lepidoptera and other insects. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):259-268.

Wintzer, A.P., Meek, M.H., Moyle, P.B., and May, B. 2011. Ecological insights into the polyp stage of non-native hydrozoans in the San Francisco Estuary. Aquat. Ecol. 45(2):151-161.

Woinarski, J.C.Z., Legge, S., Fitzsimons, J.A., Traill, B.J., Burbidge, A.A., Fisher, A., Firth, R.S.C., Gordon, I.J., Griffiths, A.D., Johnson, C.N., McKenzie, N.L., Palmer, C., Radford, I., Rankmore, B., Ritchie, E.G., Ward, S., and Ziembicki, M. 2011. The disappearing mammal fauna of northern Australia: context, cause, and response. Conserv. Lett. 4(3):192-201.

Wong, T.W. 2011. The Singapore Hornbill Project: A great but simple idea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Sup-24:3-4.

Wynhoff, I., van Gestel, R., van Swaay, C., and van Langevelde, F. 2011. Not only the butterflies: managing ants on road verges to benefit Phengaris (Maculinea) butterflies. J. Insect Conserv. 15(1-2):189-206.

Zachos, F.E., and Hackländer, K. 2011. Genetics and conservation of large mammals in Europe: a themed issue of Mammal Review. Mammal Rev. 41(2):85-86.

Zachos, F.E., and Hartl, G.B. 2011. Phylogeography, population genetics and conservation of the European red deer Cervus elaphus. Mammal Rev. 41(2):138-150.

Zafar-ul Islam, M., Ismail, K., and Boug, A. 2011. Restoration of the endangered Arabian Oryx Oryx leucoryx, Pallas 1766 in Saudi Arabia: lessons learnt from the twenty years of re-introduction in arid fenced and unfenced protected areas. Zool. Middle East Sup-3:125-140.

Zhang, H., Wei, Q.W., Du, H., and Li, L.X. 2011. Present status and risk for extinction of the Dabry's sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) in the Yangtze River watershed: a concern for intensified rehabilitation needs. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27(2):181-185.

Zhu, L.F., Zhang, S.N., Gu, X.D., and Wei, F.W. 2011. Significant genetic boundaries and spatial dynamics of giant pandas occupying fragmented habitat across southwest China. Mol. Ecol. 20(6):1122-1132.

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