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Department ofBotany

No. 321
September 2011

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In This Issue

Alarming Number of Suburban Catbirds Fall Prey to Domestic Cats

Adapted from

There comes a time in life for every bird to spread its wings and leave the nest, but for gray catbirds, that might be the beginning of the end. Smithsonian scientists report fledgling catbirds in suburban habitats are at their most vulnerable stage of life, with almost 80 percent killed by predators before they reach adulthood. Almost half of the deaths were connected to domestic cats.

Urban areas cover more than 100 million acres within the continental the United States and are spreading, with an increase of 48 percent from 1982 to 2003. Although urbanization affects wildlife, ecologists know relatively little about its effect on the productivity and survival of breeding birds. To learn more, a team of scientists at the Smithsonian's Migratory Bird Center studied the gray catbird (Dumatella carolinensis) in three suburban Maryland areas.

The team found that factors such as brood size, sex or hatching date played no significant role in a fledgling's survival. The main determining factor was predation, which accounted for 79 percent of juvenile catbird deaths within the team's three suburban study sites. Nearly half (47 percent) of the deaths were attributed to domestic cats in two study sites. The deaths were either witnessed by the scientists or determined to be cat-related by the condition of the fledgling's remains, such as a decapitated bird with the body left uneaten - defining characters of a cat kill.

"The predation by cats on fledgling catbirds made these suburban areas ecological traps for nesting birds," said Peter Marra, Smithsonian research scientist. "The habitats looked suitable for breeding birds with lots of shrubs for nesting and areas for feeding, but the presence of cats, a relatively recent phenomenon, isn't a cue birds use when deciding where to nest."

Technology made tracking the fledgling catbirds possible. The team fitted 69 fledglings with small radio-transmitters. Scientists tracked each individual and recorded its location every other day until they died or left the study area. The vast majority of young catbird deaths occurred in the first week after a bird fledged from the nest. This was not surprising to the team, given that fledglings beg loudly for food and are not yet alert to predators - making fledglings in suburban environments particularly prone to visual predators such as domestic cats. Domestic cats in suburban areas that are allowed outside spend the majority of time in their own or adjacent yards, so they are likely able to intensely monitor, locate and hunt inexperienced juvenile birds. Rats and crows were also found to be significant suburban threats to fledgling catbirds.

"Cats are natural predators of not just birds but also mammals - killing is what they are meant to do and it's not their fault," said Marra. "Removing both pet and feral cats from outdoor environments is a simple solution to a major problem impacting our native wildlife."

The scientists' findings were published in the Journal of Ornithology.

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Kollmann, J., Brink-Jensen, K., Frandsen, S.I., and Hansen, M.K. 2011. Uprooting and burial of invasive alien plants: a new tool in coastal restoration? Restor. Ecol. 19(3):371-378.

Kong, D.J., Yang, X.J., Liu, Q., Zhong, X.Y., and Yang, J.X. 2011. Winter habitat selection by the Vulnerable black-necked crane Grus nigricollis in Yunnan, China: implications for determining effective conservation actions. Oryx 45(2):258-264.

Konvicka, M., and Kadlec, T. 2011. How to increase the value of urban areas for butterfly conservation? A lesson from Prague nature reserves and parks. Eur. J. Entomol. 108(2):219-229.

Kraaij, T. 2011. The flora of the Bontebok National Park in regional perspective. S. Afr. J. Bot. 77(2):455-473.

Kremen, C., Ullmann, K.S., and Thorp, R.W. 2011. Evaluating the quality of citizen-scientist data on pollinator communities. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):607-617.

Kuemmerle, T., Radeloff, V.C., Perzanowski, K., Kozlo, P., Sipko, T., Khoyetskyy, P., Bashta, A.T., Chikurova, E., Parnikoza, I., Baskin, L., Angelstam, P., and Waller, D.M. 2011. Predicting potential European bison habitat across its former range. Ecol. Appl. 21(3):830-843.

Kvist, L., Ponnikas, S., Belda, E.J., Encabo, I., Martínez, E., Onrubia, A., Hernández, J.M., Vera, P., Neto, J.M., and Monrós, J.S. 2011. Endangered subspecies of the Reed Bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus witherbyi and E. s. lusitanica) in Iberian Peninsula have different genetic structures. J. Ornithol. 152(3):681-693.

Lagrue, C., Kaldonski, N., Motreuil, S., Lefèvre, T., Blatter, O., Giraud, P., and Bollache, L. 2011. Interspecific differences in drift behaviour between the native Gammarus pulex and the exotic Gammarus roeseli and possible implications for the invader's success. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1409-1421.

Lankau, R.A. 2011. Conflicts in maintaining biodiversity at multiple scales. Mol. Ecol. 20(10):2035-2037.

Lebreton, J.D. 2011. The impact of global change on terrestrial vertebrates. C.R. Biologies 334(5-6):360-369.

Lewison, R.L., Soykan, C.U., Cox, T., Peckham, H., Pilcher, N., LeBoeuf, N., McDonald, S., Moore, J., Safina, C., and Crowder, L.B. 2011. Ingredients for addressing the challenges of fisheries bycatch. Bull. Mar. Sci. 87(2):235-250.

Litt, A.R., and Steidl, R.J. 2011. Interactive effects of fire and nonnative plants on small mammals in grasslands. Wildlife Monogr. 176:1-31.

Lockwood, B.L., and Somero, G.N. 2011. Invasive and native blue mussels (genus Mytilus) on the California coast: the role of physiology in a biological invasion. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 400(1-2):167-174.

López, G., López-Parra, M., Fernández, L., and Simón, M.Á. 2011. Feline leukaemia virus outbreak in the Iberian lynx in 2007: analysing partial data may lead to misconceptions. Anim. Conserv. 14(3):246-248.

Lorenzo, C., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., and Vázquez, J. 2011. Conservation status of the threatened, insular San Jose brush rabbit (Sylvilagus mansuetus). West. N. Am. Naturalist 71(1):10-16.

Lucifora, L.O., García, V.B., and Worm, B. 2011. Global diversity hotspots and conservation priorities for sharks. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19356.

Maddern, M.G., Gill, H.S., and Morgan, D.L. 2011. Biology and invasive potential of the introduced swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae) in Western Australia. Aquat. Conserv. 21(3):282-291.

Mallari, N.A.D., Collar, N.J., Lee, D.C., McGowan, P.J.K., Wilkinson, R., and Marsden, S.J. 2011. Population densities of understorey birds across a habitat gradient in Palawan, Philippines: implications for conservation. Oryx 45(2):234-242.

Martinell, M.C., López-Pujol, J., Blanché, C., Molero, J., and Sàez, L. 2011. Conservation assessment of Aquilegia paui (Ranunculaceae): a case study of an extremely narrow endemic. Oryx 45(2):187-190.

Martino, A., Syväranta, J., Crivelli, A., Cereghino, R., and Santoul, F. 2011. Is European catfish a threat to eels in southern France? Aquat. Conserv. 21(3):276-281.

Maxwell, S.M., Breed, G.A., Nickel, B.A., Makanga-Bahouna, J., Pemo-Makaya, E., Parnell, R.J., Formia, A., Ngouessono, S., Godley, B.J., Costa, D.P., Witt, M.J., and Coyne, M.S. 2011. Using satellite tracking to optimize protection of long-lived marine species: olive ridley sea turtle conservation in central Africa. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19905.

McDonald-Madden, E., Chadès, I., McCarthy, M.A., Linkie, M., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. Allocating conservation resources between areas where persistence of a species is uncertain. Ecol. Appl. 21(3):844-858.

McMahon, S.M., Harrison, S.P., Armbruster, W.S., Bartlein, P.J., Beale, C.M., Edwards, M.E., Kattge, J., Midgley, G., Morin, X., and Prentice, I.C. 2011. Improving assessment and modelling of climate change impacts on global terrestrial biodiversity. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26(5):249-259.

Miller, J.S., and Morgan, H.A.P. 2011. Assessing the effectiveness of Madagascar's changing protected areas system: a case study of threatened Boraginales. Oryx 45(2):201-209.

Mineau, M.M., Baxter, C.V., and Marcarelli, A.M. 2011. A non-native riparian tree (Elaeagnus angustifolia) changes nutrient dynamics in streams. Ecosystems 14(3):353-365.

Miyake, M., and Miyashita, T. 2011. Identification of alien predators that should not be removed for controlling invasive crayfish threatening endangered odonates. Aquat. Conserv. 21(3):292-298.

Mockrin, M.H., Rockwell, R.F., Redford, K.H., and Keuler, N.S. 2011. Effects of landscape features on the distribution and sustainability of ungulate hunting in northern Congo. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):514-525.

Moon, K., and Cocklin, C. 2011. A landholder-based approach to the design of private-land conservation programs. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):493-503.

Morales, J.M. 2011. The metapopulation that was not? Anim. Conserv. 14(3):227-228.

Nascimbene, J., Spitale, D., Thus, H., and Cantonati, M. 2011. Congruencies between photoautotrophic groups in springs of the Italian Alps: implications for conservation strategies. J. Limnol. 70:3-8.

Nascimento, A.T.A., and Schmidlin, L.A.J. 2011. Habitat selection by, and carrying capacity for, the Critically Endangered black-faced lion tamarin Leontopithecus caissara (Primates: Callitrichidae). Oryx 45(2):288-295.

Nemésio, A. 2011. Euglossa marianae sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Apidae): a new orchid bee from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and the possible first documented local extinction of a forest-dependent orchid bee. Zootaxa 2892:59-68.

Orlofske, J.M., Ohnesorg, W.J., and Debinski, D.M. 2011. A comparison of the arthropod communities in remnant, restored, and reconstructed Iowa tallgrass prairies. Nat. Areas J. 31(2):148-155.

Osland, M.J., González, E., and Richardson, C.J. 2011. Restoring diversity after cattail expansion: disturbance, resilience, and seasonality in a tropical dry wetland. Ecol. Appl. 21(3):715-728.

Palomares, F., López-Bao, J.V., and Rodríguez, A. 2011. Feline leukaemia virus outbreak in the endangered Iberian lynx and the role of feeding stations: a cautionary tale. Anim. Conserv. 14(3):242-245.

Pauly, D. 2011. Toward a conservation ethic for the sea: steps in a personal and intellectual odyssey. Bull. Mar. Sci. 87(2):165-175.

Peacock, E., Derocher, A.E., Thiemann, G.W., and Stirling, I. 2011. Conservation and management of Canada's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in a changing Arctic. Can. J. Zool. 89(5):371-385.

Peeler, E.J., Oidtmann, B.C., Midtlyng, P.J., Miossec, L., and Gozlan, R.E. 2011. Non-native aquatic animals introductions have driven disease emergence in Europe. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1291-1303.

Penteriani, V., Ferrer, M., and Delgado, M.M. 2011. Floater strategies and dynamics in birds, and their importance in conservation biology: towards an understanding of nonbreeders in avian populations. Anim. Conserv. 14(3):233-241.

Perdereau, E., Dedeine, F., Christidès, J.P., Dupont, S., and Bagnères, A.G. 2011. Competition between invasive and indigenous species: an insular case study of subterranean termites. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1457-1470.

Pérez-Santigosa, N., Florencio, M., Hidalgo-Vila, J., and Díaz-Paniagua, C. 2011. Does the exotic invader turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans, compete for food with coexisting native turtles? Amphibia-Reptilia 32(2):167-175.

Petrolia, D.R., and Interis, M.G. 2011. What environmental economists think every conservation biologist should know: reply to Gowdy et al. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):628-630.

Pettengill, J.B., and Neel, M.C. 2011. A sequential approach using genetic and morphological analyses to test species status: the case of United States federally endangered Agalinis acuta (Orobanchaceae). Am. J. Bot. 98(5):859-871.

Pierce, J.E., Larsen, R.T., Flinders, J.T., and Whiting, J.C. 2011. Fragmentation of sagebrush communities: does an increase in habitat edge impact pygmy rabbits? Anim. Conserv. 14(3):314-321.

Pietri, C., Alves, P.C., and Melo-Ferreira, J. 2011. Hares in Corsica: high prevalence of Lepus corsicanus and hybridization with introduced L. europaeus and L. granatensis. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 57(2):313-321.

Pinsky, M.L., Jensen, O.P., Ricard, D., and Palumbi, S.R. 2011. Unexpected patterns of fisheries collapse in the world's oceans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(20):8317-8322.

Pintor, L.M., and Sih, A. 2011. Scale dependent effects of native prey diversity, prey biomass and natural disturbance on the invasion success of an exotic predator. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1357-1366.

Polak, T., and Saltz, D. 2011. Reintroduction as an ecosystem restoration technique. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):424-425.

Polo-Cavia, N., López, P., and Martín, J. 2011. Aggressive interactions during feeding between native and invasive freshwater turtles. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1387-1396.

Pott, V.J., Pott, A., Lima, L.C.P., Moreira, S.N., and Oliveira, A.K.M. 2011. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin. Braz. J. Biol. 71(1):255-263.

Powles, H. 2011. Assessing risk of extinction of marine rishes in Canada—the COSEWIC experience. Fisheries 36(5):231-246.

Price, S.J., Cecala, K.K., Browne, R.A., and Dorcas, M.E. 2011. Effects of urbanization on occupancy of stream salamanders. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):547-555.

Queirolo, D., Moreira, J.R., Soler, L., Emmons, L.H., Rodrigues, F.H.G., Pautasso, A.A., Cartes, J.L., and Salvatori, V. 2011. Historical and current range of the Near Threatened maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus in South America. Oryx 45(2):296-303.

Ramasubbu, R., Sreekala, A.K., Pandurangan, A.G., and Kulloli, S.K. 2011. Reproductive ecology of Impatiens platyadena Fischer, a critically endangered balsam of Western Ghats. Curr. Sci. 100(10):1550-1554.

Rayfield, B., Fortin, M.J., and Fall, A. 2011. Connectivity for conservation: a framework to classify network measures. Ecology 92(4):847-858.

Reed, S.E., and Merenlender, A.M. 2011. Effects of management of domestic dogs and recreation on carnivores in protected areas in northern California. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):504-513.

Renison, D., Hensen, I., and Suarez, R. 2011. Landscape structural complexity of high-mountain Polylepis australis forests: a new aspect of restoration goals. Restor. Ecol. 19(3):390-398.

Rigg, R., Findo, S., Wechselberger, M., Gorman, M.L., Sillero-Zubiri, C., and Macdonald, D.W. 2011. Mitigating carnivore-livestock conflict in Europe: lessons from Slovakia. Oryx 45(2):272-280.

Rodrigues, R.R., Gandolfi, S., Nave, A.G., Aronson, J., Barreto, T.E., Vidal, C.Y., and Brancalion, P.H.S. 2011. Large-scale ecological restoration of high-diversity tropical forests in SE Brazil. Forest Ecol. Manag. 261(10):1605-1613.

Rodríguez, A., Alcaide, M., Negro, J.J., and Pilard, P. 2011. Using major histocompatibility complex markers to assign the geographic origin of migratory birds: examples from the threatened lesser kestrel. Anim. Conserv. 14(3):306-313.

Rudd, M.A., Beazley, K.F., Cooke, S.J., Fleishman, E., Lane, D.E., Mascia, M.B., Roth, R., Tabor, G., Bakker, J.A., Bellefontaine, T., Berteaux, D., Cantin, B., Chaulk, K.G., Cunningham, K., Dobell, R., Fast, E., Ferrara, N., Findlay, C.S., Hallstrom, L.K., Hammond, T., Hermanutz, L., Hutchings, J.A., Lindsay, K.E., Marta, T.J., Nguyen, V.M., Northey, G., Prior, K., Ramirez-Sanchez, S., Rice, J., Sleep, D.J.H., Szabo, N.D., Trottier, G., Toussaint, J.P., and Veilleux, J.P. 2011. Generation of priority research questions to inform conservation policy and management at a national level. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):476-484.

Ruehmann, M.B., Desmond, M.J., and Gould, W.R. 2011. Effects of smooth brome on Brewer's Sparrow nest survival in sagebrush steppe. Condor 113(2):419-428.

Sachanowicz, K., Wower, A., and Buszko, J. 2011. Past and present distribution of the cryptic species Leptidea sinapis and L. reali (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in Poland and its implications for the conservation of these butterflies. Eur. J. Entomol. 108(2):235-242.

Salomon, A.K., Gaichas, S.K., Jensen, O.P., Agostini, V.N., Sloan, N.A., Rice, J., McClanahan, T.R., Ruckelshaus, M.H., Levin, P.S., Dulvy, N.K., and Babcock, E.A. 2011. Bridging the divide between fisheries and marine conservation science. Bull. Mar. Sci. 87(2):251-274.

Samways, M.J., Sharratt, N.J., and Simaika, J.P. 2011. Effect of alien riparian vegetation and its removal on a highly endemic river macroinvertebrate community. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1305-1324.

Sanderson, E.W., and Huron, A. 2011. Conservation in the city. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):421-423.

Sansevero, J.B.B., Prieto, P.V., de Moraes, L.F.D., and Rodrigues, P.J.F.P. 2011. Natural regeneration in plantations of native trees in lowland Brazilian Atlantic forest: community structure, diversity, and dispersal syndromes. Restor. Ecol. 19(3):379-389.

Savage, A.M., Johnson, S.D., Whitney, K.D., and Rudgers, J.A. 2011. Do invasive ants respond more strongly to carbohydrate availability than co-occurring non-invasive ants? A test along an active Anoplolepis gracilipes invasion front. Austral Ecol. 36(3):310-319.

Schaffner, U., Ridenour, W.M., Wolf, V.C., Bassett, T., Müller, C., Müller-Scharer, H., Sutherland, S., Lortie, C.J., and Callaway, R.M. 2011. Plant invasions, generalist herbivores, and novel defense weapons. Ecology 92(4):829-835.

Schetter, T.A., and Root, K.V. 2011. Assessing an imperiled oak savanna landscape in northwestern Ohio using Landsat data. Nat. Areas J. 31(2):118-130.

Schlaepfer, M.A., Sax, D.F., and Olden, J.D. 2011. The potential conservation value of non-native species. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):428-437.

Scholz, A.J., Steinback, C., Kruse, S.A., Mertens, M., and Silverman, H. 2011. Incorporation of spatial and economic analyses of human-use data in the design of marine protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):485-492.

Schuetz, J. 2011. Reproductive declines in an endangered seabird: cause for concern or signs of conservation success? PLoS ONE 6(5):e19489.

Schwalb, A.N., Poos, M.S., and Ackerman, J.D. 2011. Movement of logperch-the obligate host fish for endangered snuffbox mussels: implications for mussel dispersal. Aquat. Sci. 73(2):223-231.

Simões, A.R., Silva, H., and Silveira, P. 2011. The Convolvulaceae of Timor with special reference to East Timor. Blumea 56(1):49-72.

Skarpaas, O., and Stabbetorp, O.E. 2011. Population viability analysis with species occurrence data from museum collections. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):577-586.

Skov, C., Aarestrup, K., Sivebæk, F., Pedersen, S., Vrålstad, T., and Berg, S. 2011. Non-indigenous signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus are now common in Danish streams: preliminary status for national distribution and protective actions. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1269-1274.

Sol, D., Griffin, A.S., Bartomeus, I., and Boyce, H. 2011. Exploring or avoiding novel food resources? The novelty conflict in an invasive bird. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19535.

Sorice, M.G., Haider, W., Conner, J.R., and Ditton, R.B. 2011. Incentive structure of and private landowner participation in an endangered species conservation program. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):587-596.

Spaulding, H.L., and Rieske, L.K. 2011. A glimpse at future forests: predicting the effects of Phytophthora ramorum on oak forests of southern Appalachia. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1367-1375.

Stevens, J.M., and Fehmi, J.S. 2011. Early establishment of a native grass reduces the competitive effect of a non-native grass. Restor. Ecol. 19(3):399-406.

Stevens, K., Dehgan, A., Karlstetter, M., Rawan, F., Tawhid, M.I., Ostrowski, S., Ali, J.M., and Ali, R. 2011. Large mammals surviving conflict in the eastern forests of Afghanistan. Oryx 45(2):265-271.

Stiels, D., Schidelko, K., Engler, J.O., van den Elzen, R., and Rödder, D. 2011. Predicting the potential distribution of the invasive Common Waxbill Estrilda astrild (Passeriformes: Estrildidae). J. Ornithol. 152(3):769-780.

Stirling, I., McDonald, T.L., Richardson, E.S., Regehr, E.V., and Amstrup, S.C. 2011. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971-2006. Ecol. Appl. 21(3):859-876.

Stuble, K.L., Kirkman, L.K., Carroll, C.R., and Sanders, N.J. 2011. Relative effects of disturbance on red imported fire ants and native ant species in a longleaf pine ecosystem. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):618-622.

Sutter, R.D., Govus, T.E., Smyth, R.L., Nordman, C., Pyne, M., and Hogan, T. 2011. Monitoring change in a central US calcareous glade: resampling transects established in 1993. Nat. Areas J. 31(2):163-172.

Sutter, R.D., Govus, T.E., Smyth, R.L., Nordman, C., Pyne, M., and Hogan, T. 2011. Resampling issues associated with calcareous glade monitoring transects established in 1993. Nat. Areas J. 31(2):173-176.

Tang, Z.Y., Fang, J.Y., Sun, J.Y., and Gaston, K.J. 2011. Effectiveness of protected areas in maintaining plant production. PLoS ONE 6(4):e19116.

Tepe, T.L., and Meretsky, V.J. 2011. Forward-looking forest restoration under climate change - are U.S. nurseries ready? Restor. Ecol. 19(3):295-298.

Thierry, M., Becker, N., Hajri, A., Reynaud, B., Lett, J.M., and Delatte, H. 2011. Symbiont diversity and non-random hybridization among indigenous (Ms) and invasive (B) biotypes of Bemisia tabaci. Mol. Ecol. 20(10):2172-2187.

Thomas, C.D. 2011. Translocation of species, climate change, and the end of trying to recreate past ecological communities. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26(5):216-221.

Thompson, J.D., Mathevet, R., Delanoë, O., Gil-Fourrier, C., Bonnin, M., and Cheylan, M. 2011. Ecological solidarity as a conceptual tool for rethinking ecological and social interdependence in conservation policy for protected areas and their surrounding landscape. C.R. Biologies 334(5-6):412-419.

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Olden, J.D., Griffin, J.N., and Silliman, B.R. 2011. A framework to study the context-dependent impacts of marine invasions. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 400(1-2):322-327.

Thornton, D., Branch, L., and Sunquist, M. 2011. Passive sampling effects and landscape location alter associations between species traits and response to fragmentation. Ecol. Appl. 21(3):817-829.

Thorpe, A.S., and Callaway, R.M. 2011. Biogeographic differences in the effects of Centaurea stoebe on the soil nitrogen cycle: novel weapons and soil microbes. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1435-1445.

Trindade-Filho, J., and Loyola, R.D. 2011. Performance and consistency of indicator groups in two biodiversity hotspots. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19746.

Tyler, E.H.M., Manica, A., Jiddawi, N., and Speight, M.R. 2011. A role for partially protected areas on coral reefs: maintaining fish diversity? Aquat. Conserv. 21(3):231-238.

Urquiza-Haas, T., Peres, C.A., and Dolman, P.M. 2011. Large vertebrate responses to forest cover and hunting pressure in communal landholdings and protected areas of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Anim. Conserv. 14(3):271-282.

van Oort, H., McLellan, B.N., and Serrouya, R. 2011. Fragmentation, dispersal and metapopulation function in remnant populations of endangered mountain caribou. Anim. Conserv. 14(3):215-224.

van Oort, H., McLellan, B.N., and Serrouya, R. 2011. Metapopulation or predictable pattern of extinction? Anim. Conserv. 14(3):231-232.

Vieira, L., Louzada, J., Vaz-de-Mello, F.Z., Lopes, P.P., and Silva, F.A.B. 2011. New records, threatens and conservation status for Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello, Louzada & Gavino (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): an endangered dung beetle species from Brazilian Atlantic forest ecosystems. Neotrop. Entomol. 40(2):282-284.

Vo, A.T.E., Bank, M.S., Shine, J.P., and Edwards, S.V. 2011. Temporal increase in organic mercury in an endangered pelagic seabird assessed by century-old museum specimens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(18):7466-7471.

Ward, J., and Williams, S. 2011. Controlling an invasive shrub, Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC), using directed heating with propane torches. Nat. Areas J. 31(2):156-162.

Webber, C.E., Sereivathana, T., Maltby, M.P., and Lee, P.C. 2011. Elephant crop-raiding and human-elephant conflict in Cambodia: crop selection and seasonal timings of raids. Oryx 45(2):243-251.

Wheeler, G.S., Taylor, G.S., Gaskin, J.F., and Purcell, M.F. 2011. Ecology and management of sheoak (Casuarina spp.), an invader of coastal Florida, USA. J. Coastal Res. 27(3):485-492.

White, J.D., Gutzwiller, K.J., Barrow, W.C., Johnson-Randall, L., Zygo, L., and Swint, P. 2011. Understanding interaction effects of climate change and fire management on bird distributions through combined process and habitat models. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):536-546.

Wiesenborn, W.D. 2011. Biomasses of arthropod taxa differentially increase on nitrogen-fertilized willows and cottonwoods. Restor. Ecol. 19(3):323-332.

Williams, R., Hedley, S.L., Branch, T.A., Bravington, M.V., Zerbini, A.N., and Findlay, K.P. 2011. Chilean blue whales as a case study to illustrate methods to estimate abundance and evaluate conservation status of rare species. Conserv. Biol. 25(3):526-535.

Woodroffe, R. 2011. Demography of a recovering African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) population. J. Mammal. 92(2):305-315.

Yu, M.J., Xu, X.H., and Ding, P. 2011. Economic loss versus ecological gain: the outbreaks of invaded pinewood nematode in China. Biol. Invasions 13(6):1283-1290.

Zafir, A.W.A., Payne, J., Mohamed, A., Lau, C.F., Sharma, D.S.K., Alfred, R., Williams, A.C., Nathan, S., Ramono, W.S., and Clements, G.R. 2011. Now or never: what will it take to save the Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis from extinction? Oryx 45(2):225-233.

Zerebecki, R.A., and Sorte, C.J.B. 2011. Temperature tolerance and stress proteins as mechanisms of invasive species success. PLoS ONE 6(4):e14806.

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