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Department ofBotany

No. 323
November 2011

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In This Issue

Cuban and American Crocs Are Hybridizing

A new study confirms that American crocodiles are hybridizing with wild populations of critically endangered Cuban crocodiles, which may cause a population decline of this species found only in the Cuban Archipelago. Cuban crocodiles and American crocodiles have been confirmed to interbreed in captivity and were suspected to hybridize in the wild. This is the first genetic study that confirms wild hybridization. The study, which appears in the Journal of Experimental Zoology, is led by Yoamel Milián-García from University of Havana, and includes Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute co-authors Miryam Venegas-Anaya, Andrew Crawford, Oris I. Sanjur and Eldredge Bermingham.

Known for their leaping ability and aggressive disposition, the population of Cuban crocs is estimated at a minimum of 3,000 individuals. The species was extensively hunted from the middle of the 19th century through the 1960s, resulting in drastic population declines. The scientists collected and analyzed DNA from 89 wild-caught Cuban and American crocodiles and two samples from crocodiles in zoos. The found an unsuspected result: American crocodiles in Cuba are more closely related to Cuban crocodiles than other American crocodile populations found along mainland Central America.

The authors say that hybridization may be one of the most important threats to Cuban crocodiles, along with illegal hunting and habitat modification. Hybridization can result in both replacement and genetic mixing, and one lineage may cause the extinction of another. Based on evidence of hybridization between the two species, the authors strongly urge that efforts to avoid anthropogenic causes of hybridization be taken into account for future management plans of Cuban crocodiles.

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Crouch, N.R., and Smith, G.F. 2011. Informing and influencing the interface between biodiversity science and biodiversity policy in South Africa. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 166(3):301-309.

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D'Aniello, B., Stanislao, I., Bonelli, S., and Balletto, E. 2011. Haying and grazing effects on the butterfly communities of two Mediterranean-area grasslands. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1731-1744.

Dávila, P., Benítez, H., Barrios, Y., Cruz-Angón, A., and Álvarez-Girard, N. 2011. Definition and insertion of the GSPC in the political context of Mexico. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 166(3):326-330.

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Fontaine, R., Gimenez, O., and Bried, J. 2011. The impact of introduced predators, light-induced mortality of fledglings and poaching on the dynamics of the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) population from the Azores, northeastern subtropical Atlantic. Biol. Conserv. 144(7):1998-2011.

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Frost, J.S., and Powell, L.A. 2011. Cedar infestation impacts avian communities along the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska. Restor. Ecol. 19(4):529-536.

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Jay, C.V., Marcot, B.G., and Douglas, D.C. 2011. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century. Polar Biol. 34(7):1065-1084.

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Johnston, D.B. 2011. Movement of weed seeds in reclamation areas. Restor. Ecol. 19(4):446-449.

Junge, R.E., Barrett, M.A., and Yoder, A.D. 2011. Effects of anthropogenic disturbance on indri (Indri indri) health in Madagascar. Am. J. Primatol. 73(7):632-642.

Junker, R.R., Daehler, C.C., Dötterl, S., Keller, A., and Blüthgen, N. 2011. Hawaiian ant-flower networks: nectar-thieving ants prefer undefended native over introduced plants with floral defenses. Ecol. Monogr. 81(2):295-311.

Jüriado, I., Liira, J., Csencsics, D., Widmer, I., Adolf, C., Kohv, K., and Scheidegger, C. 2011. Dispersal ecology of the endangered woodland lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in managed hemiboreal forest landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1803-1819.

Kaleme, P.K., Bates, J.M., Belesi, H.K., Bowie, R.C.K., Gambalemoke, M., Kerbis-Peterhans, J., Michaux, J., Mwanga, J.M., Ndara, B.R., Taylor, P.J., and van Vuuren, B.J. 2011. Origin and putative colonization routes for invasive rodent taxa in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Afr. Zool. 46(1):133-145.

Kang, X.S., Pan, B.R., Duan, S.M., Shi, W., and Zhang, Y.Z. 2011. Is ex situ conservation suitable for Calligonum L.? A research program in Turpan Eremophyte Botanical Garden. Nat. Conservacao 9(1):47-53.

Katdare, S., Srivathsa, A., Joshi, A., Panke, P., Pande, R., Khandal, D., and Everard, M. 2011. Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) populations and human influences on habitat on the River Chambal, India. Aquat. Conserv. 21(4):364-371.

Kirk, H., Paul, J., Straka, J., and Freeland, J.R. 2011. Long-distance dispersal and high genetic diversity are implicated in the invasive spread of the common reed, Phragmites australis (Poaceae), in northeastern North America. Am. J. Bot. 98(7):1180-1190.

Koch, A.M., Antunes, P.M., Barto, E.K., Cipollini, D., Mummey, D.L., and Klironomos, J.N. 2011. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal and garlic mustard introductions on native AM fungal diversity. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1627-1639.

Krewenka, K.M., Holzschuh, A., Tscharntke, T., and Dormann, C.F. 2011. Landscape elements as potential barriers and corridors for bees, wasps and parasitoids. Biol. Conserv. 144(6):1816-1825.

Kreyling, J., Bittner, T., Jaeschke, A., Jentsch, A., Steinbauer, M.J., Thiel, D., and Beierkuhnlein, C. 2011. Assisted colonization: a question of focal units and recipient localities. Restor. Ecol. 19(4):433-440.

Ku, Y.B., Oh, H.K., Chun, Y.J., and Cho, K.H. 2011. High genetic differentiation in endangered Sedum ussuriense and implications for its conservation in Korea. J. Plant Biol. 54(4):262-268.

Kumar, R., Shahabuddin, G., and Kumar, A. 2011. How good are managed forests at conserving native woodpecker communities? A study in sub-Himalayan dipterocarp forests of northwest India. Biol. Conserv. 144(6):1876-1884.

Landeiro, V.L., and Magnusson, W.E. 2011. The geometry of spatial analyses: implications for conservation biologists. Nat. Conservacao 9(1):7-19.

Lasky, J.R., Jetz, W., and Keitt, T.H. 2011. Conservation biogeography of the US-Mexico border: a transcontinental risk assessment of barriers to animal dispersal. Divers. Distrib. 17(4):673-687.

Lauterbach, D., Ristow, M., and Gemeinholzer, B. 2011. Genetic population structure, fitness variation and the importance of population history in remnant populations of the endangered plant Silene chlorantha (Willd.) Ehrh. (Caryophyllaceae). Plant Biol. 13(4):667-677.

Lehtinen, R.M., Glaw, F., and Vences, M. 2011. Two new plant-breeding frog species (Anura: Mantellidae, Guibemantis) from southeastern Madagascar. Herp. J. 21(2):95-112.

Lerman, S.B., and Warren, P.S. 2011. The conservation value of residential yards: linking birds and people. Ecol. Appl. 21(4):1327-1339.

Ligon, R.A., Siefferman, L., and Hill, G.E. 2011. Invasive fire ants reduce reproductive success and alter the reproductive strategies of a native vertebrate insectivore. PLoS ONE 6(7):e22578.

Lillo, F., Faraone, F.P., and Lo Valvo, M. 2011. Can the introduction of Xenopus laevis affect native amphibian populations? Reduction of reproductive occurrence in presence of the invasive species. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1533-1541.

Little, D.P., Thomas, P., Nguyen, H.T., and Phan, L.K. 2011. Before it had a name: diagnostic characteristics, geographic distribution, and the conservation of Cupressus tonkinensis (Cupressaceae). Brittonia 63(2):171-196.

Livi, C.M., Jordán, F., Lecca, P., and Okey, T.A. 2011. Identifying key species in ecosystems with stochastic sensitivity analysis. Ecol. Model. 222(14):2542-2551.

Lopez-Pujol, J., Zhang, F.M., Sun, H.Q., Ying, T.S., and Ge, S. 2011. Centres of plant endemism in China: places for survival or for speciation? J. Biogeogr. 38(7):1267-1280.

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Luehring, M.A., Wagner, C.M., and Li, W.M. 2011. The efficacy of two synthesized sea lamprey sex pheromone components as a trap lure when placed in direct competition with natural male odors. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1589-1597.

Ma, Z.J., Gan, X.J., Cai, Y.T., Chen, J.K., and Li, B. 2011. Effects of exotic Spartina alterniflora on the habitat patch associations of breeding saltmarsh birds at Chongming Dongtan in the Yangtze River estuary, China. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1673-1686.

Maclean, I.M.D., and Wilson, R.J. 2011. Recent ecological responses to climate change support predictions of high extinction risk. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(30):12337-12342.

Marks, J.C., Williamson, C., and Hendrickson, D.A. 2011. Coupling stable isotope studies with food web manipulations to predict the effects of exotic fish: lessons from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. Aquat. Conserv. 21(4):317-323.

Maschinski, J., Ross, M.S., Liu, H., O'Brien, J., von Wettberg, E.J., and Haskins, K.E. 2011. Sinking ships: conservation options for endemic taxa threatened by sea level rise. Climatic Change 107(1-2):147-167.

Masocha, M., Skidmore, A.K., Poshiwa, X., and Prins, H.H.T. 2011. Frequent burning promotes invasions of alien plants into a mesic African savanna. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1641-1648.

Mawdsley, J. 2011. Design of conservation strategies for climate adaptation. WIREs Clim. Change 2(4):498-515.

May-Collado, L.J., and Agnarsson, I. 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of conservation priorities for aquatic mammals and their terrestrial relatives, with a comparison of methods. PLoS ONE 6(7):e22562.

McIntyre, S. 2011. Ecological and anthropomorphic factors permitting low-risk assisted colonization in temperate grassy woodlands. Biol. Conserv. 144(6):1781-1789.

McNeely, J.A. 2011. What more can plant scientists do to help save the green stuff? Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 166(3):233-239.

Meador, A.J.S., Parysow, P.F., and Moore, M.M. 2011. A new method for delineating tree patches and assessing spatial reference conditions of ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona. Restor. Ecol. 19(4):490-499.

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Moora, M., Berger, S., Davison, J., Öpik, M., Bommarco, R., Bruelheide, H., Kühn, I., Kunin, W.E., Metsis, M., Rortais, A., Vanatoa, A., Vanatoa, E., Stout, J.C., Truusa, M., Westphal, C., Zobel, M., and Walther, G.R. 2011. Alien plants associate with widespread generalist arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal taxa: evidence from a continental-scale study using massively parallel 454 sequencing. J. Biogeogr. 38(7):1305-1317.

Moorhouse, T.P., and Macdonald, D.W. 2011. The effect of removal by trapping on body condition in populations of signal crayfish. Biol. Conserv. 144(6):1826-1831.

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Muko, S., and Iwasa, Y. 2011. Long-term effect of coral transplantation: restoration goals and the choice of species. J. Theor. Biol. 280(1):127-138.

Muñoz, M.C., and Ackerman, J.D. 2011. Spatial distribution and performance of native and invasive Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) species in Puerto Rico: the anatomy of an invasion. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1543-1558.

Nabout, J.C., Oliveira, G., Magalhães, M.R., Terribile, L.C., and de Almeida, F.A.S. 2011. Global climate change and the production of "Pequi" fruits (Caryocar brasiliense) in the Brazilian cerrado. Nat. Conservacao 9(1):55-59.

Nance, H.A., Klimley, P., Galván-Magaña, F., Martínez-Ortíz, J., and Marko, P.B. 2011. Demographic processes underlying subtle patterns of population structure in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. PLoS ONE 6(7):e21459.

Navarrete, J.L., Ramírez, M.I., and Pérez-Salicrup, D.R. 2011. Logging within protected areas: spatial evaluation of the monarch butterfly biosphere reserve, Mexico. Forest Ecol. Manag. 262(4):646-654.

Neustupa, J., Černá, K., and Št’astný, J. 2011. The effects of aperiodic desiccation on the diversity of benthic desmid assemblages in a lowland peat bog. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1695-1711.

Newmark, W.D., and Stanley, T.R. 2011. Habitat fragmentation reduces nest survival in an Afrotropical bird community in a biodiversity hotspot. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(28):11488-11493.

Newson, S.E., Johnston, A., Parrott, D., and Leech, D.I. 2011. Evaluating the population-level impact of an invasive species, Ring-necked Parakeet Psittacula krameri, on native avifauna. Ibis 153(3):509-516.

Newton, A.C., Echeverria, C., Cantarello, E., and Bolados, G. 2011. Projecting impacts of human disturbances to inform conservation planning and management in a dryland forest landscape. Biol. Conserv. 144(7):1949-1960.

Nhancale, B.A., and Smith, R.J. 2011. The influence of planning unit characteristics on the efficiency and spatial pattern of systematic conservation planning assessments. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1821-1835.

O'Brien, J.M., Thorne, J.H., Rosenzweig, M.L., and Shapiro, A.M. 2011. Once-yearly sampling for the detection of trends in biodiversity: the case of Willow Slough, California. Biol. Conserv. 144(7):2012-2019.

Olds, A.A., Smith, M.K.S., Weyl, O.L.F., and Russell, I.A. 2011. Invasive alien freshwater fishes in the Wilderness Lakes System, a wetland of international importance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Afr. Zool. 46(1):179-184.

Olea, P.P., and Mateo-Tomás, P. 2011. Spatially explicit estimation of occupancy, detection probability and survey effort needed to inform conservation planning. Divers. Distrib. 17(4):714-724.

Osawa, T., Mitsuhashi, H., Niwa, H., and Ushimaru, A. 2011. The role of river confluences and meanderings in preserving local hot spots for threatened plant species in riparian ecosystems. Aquat. Conserv. 21(4):358-363.

Palazy, L., Bonenfant, C., Gaillard, J.M., and Courchamp, F. 2011. Cat dilemma: too protected to escape trophy hunting? PLoS ONE 6(7):e22424.

Panigada, S., Lauriano, G., Burt, L., Pierantonio, N., and Donovan, G. 2011. Monitoring winter and summer abundance of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through aerial surveys. PLoS ONE 6(7):e22878.

Parsons, M.C., Jones, T.A., and Monaco, T.A. 2011. Genetic variation for adaptive traits in bottlebrush squirreltail in the northern Intermountain West, United States. Restor. Ecol. 19(4):460-469.

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Peñas, J., Benito, B., Lorite, J., Ballesteros, M., Cañadas, E.M., and Martinez-Ortega, M. 2011. Habitat fragmentation in arid zones: a case study of Linaria nigricans under land use changes (SE Spain). Environ. Manage. 48(1):168-176.

Peterson, J.T., Wisniewski, J.M., Shea, C.P., and Jackson, C.R. 2011. Estimation of mussel population response to hydrologic alteration in a southeastern U.S. stream. Environ. Manage. 48(1):109-122.

Pinya, S., and Carretero, M.A. 2011. The Balearic herpetofauna: a species update and a review on the evidence. Acta Herpetol. 6(1):59-80.

Popescu, V.D., and Hunter, M.L. 2011. Clear-cutting affects habitat connectivity for a forest amphibian by decreasing permeability to juvenile movements. Ecol. Appl. 21(4):1283-1295.

Prager, K.C., Woodroffe, R., Cameron, A., and Haydon, D.T. 2011. Vaccination strategies to conserve the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Biol. Conserv. 144(7):1940-1948.

Pyšek, P., Jarošík, V., Chytrý, M., Danihelka, J., Kühn, I., Pergl, J., Tichý, L., Biesmeijer, J.C., Ellis, W.N., Kunin, W.E., and Settele, J. 2011. Successful invaders co-opt pollinators of native flora and accumulate insect pollinators with increasing residence time. Ecol. Monogr. 81(2):277-293.

Radford, E.A. 2011. How to embed an international policy into the political context of the UK and Europe with reference to the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 166(3):261-266.

Rai, P.K., and Lalramnghinglova, H. 2011. Threatened and less known ethnomedicinal plants of an Indo-Burma hotspot region: conservation implications. Environ. Monit. Assess. 178(1-4):53-62.

Ramaswami, G., and Sukumar, R. 2011. Woody plant seedling distribution under invasive Lantana camara thickets in a dry-forest plot in Mudumalai, southern India. J. Trop. Ecol. 27:365-373.

Rao, L.E., Steers, R.J., and Allen, E.B. 2011. Effects of natural and anthropogenic gradients on native and exotic winter annuals in a southern California Desert. Plant Ecol. 212(7):1079-1089.

Rayn, D., and Sutherland, W.J. 2011. Impact of nature reserve establishment on deforestation: a test. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1625-1633.

Reed, J.M., Elphick, C.S., Ieno, E.N., and Zuur, A.F. 2011. Long-term population trends of endangered Hawaiian waterbirds. Pop. Ecol. 53(3):473-481.

Reusser, D.A., and Lee, H. 2011. Evolution of natural history information in the 21st century - developing an integrated framework for biological and geographical data. J. Biogeogr. 38(7):1225-1239.

Riojas-López, M.E., Mellink, E., Raoul, F., Luévano, J., Vaniscotte, A., and Giraudoux, P. 2011. Landscape partitioning by nocturnal rodent assemblages in the Llanos de Ojuelos, in Mexico's Central High Plateau. Divers. Distrib. 17(4):739-747.

Roberts, L.J., Taylor, J., and de Leaniz, C.G. 2011. Environmental enrichment reduces maladaptive risk-taking behavior in salmon reared for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 144(7):1972-1979.

Robillard, M.M., Casselman, J.M., McLaughlin, R.L., and Mackereth, R.W. 2011. Alternative growth histories in populations of Lake Superior brook trout: critical support for partial migration. Biol. Conserv. 144(7):1931-1939.

Robinson, A., Burgman, M.A., and Cannon, R. 2011. Allocating surveillance resources to reduce ecological invasions: maximizing detections and information about the threat. Ecol. Appl. 21(4):1410-1417.

Rodríguez-Zaragoza, F.A., Cupul-Magaña, A.L., Galván-Villa, C.M., Ríos-Jara, E., Ortiz, M., Robles-Jarero, E.G., López-Uriarte, E., and Arias-González, J.E. 2011. Additive partitioning of reef fish diversity variation: a promising marine biodiversity management tool. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1655-1675.

Russell, I.A. 2011. Conservation status and distribution of freshwater fishes in South African national parks. Afr. Zool. 46(1):117-132.

Sabagh, L.T., Dias, R.J.P., Branco, C.W.C., and Rocha, C.F.D. 2011. News records of phoresy and hyperphoresy among treefrogs, ostracods, and ciliates in bromeliad of Atlantic forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1837-1841.

Samaritani, E., Siegenthaler, A., Yli-Petäys, M., Buttler, A., Christin, P.A., and Mitchell, E.A.D. 2011. Seasonal net ecosystem carbon exchange of a regenerating cutaway bog: how long does it take to restore the C-sequestration function? Restor. Ecol. 19(4):480-489.

Savage, A.E., Sredl, M.J., and Zamudio, K.R. 2011. Disease dynamics vary spatially and temporally in a North American amphibian. Biol. Conserv. 144(6):1910-1915.

Scheffers, B.R., Yong, D.L., Harris, J.B.C., Giam, X.L., and Sodhi, N.S. 2011. The world's rediscovered species: back from the brink? PLoS ONE 6(7):e22531.

Schmeller, D.S., Dolek, M., Geyer, A., Settele, J., and Brandl, R. 2011. The effect of conservation efforts on morphological asymmetry in a butterfly population. J. Nature Conserv. 19(3):161-165.

Schneider, L., Ferrara, C.R., Vogt, R.C., and Burger, J. 2011. History of turtle exploitation and management techniques to conserve turtles in the Rio Negro Basin of the Brazilian Amazon. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 10(1):149-157.

Schoeman, C.S., and Samways, M.J. 2011. Synergisms between alien trees and the Argentine ant on indigenous ant species in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Afr. Entomol. 19(1):96-105.

Schooley, R.L., and Branch, L.C. 2011. Habitat quality of source patches and connectivity in fragmented landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1611-1623.

Schoville, S.D., Tustall, T.S., Vredenburg, V.T., Backlin, A.R., Gallegos, E., Wood, D.A., and Fisher, R.N. 2011. Conservation genetics of evolutionary lineages of the endangered mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa (Amphibia: Ranidae), in southern California. Biol. Conserv. 144(7):2031-2040.

Schroth, G., Faria, D., Araujo, M., Bede, L., Van Bael, S.A., Cassano, C.R., Oliveira, L.C., and Delabie, J.H.C. 2011. Conservation in tropical landscape mosaics: the case of the cacao landscape of southern Bahia, Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1635-1654.

Scott, G.J. 2011. Plants, people, and the conservation of biodiversity of potatoes in Peru. Nat. Conservacao 9(1):21-38.

Severns, P.M., Liston, A., and Wilson, M.V. 2011. Implications of nonadventitious rhizome spread on reproduction, inbreeding, and conservation for a rare grassland legume. J. Heredity 102(4):371-379.

Short, F.T., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S.R., Carpenter, K.E., Bandeira, S., Bujang, J.S., Calumpong, H.P., Carruthers, T.J.B., Coles, R.G., Dennison, W.C., Erftemeijer, P.L.A., Fortes, M.D., Freeman, A.S., Jagtap, T.G., Kamal, A.M., Kendrick, G.A., Kenworthy, W.J., La Nafie, Y.A., Nasution, I.M., Orth, R.J., Prathep, A., Sanciangco, J.C., van Tussenbroek, B., Vergara, S.G., Waycott, M., and Zieman, J.C. 2011. Extinction risk assessment of the world's seagrass species. Biol. Conserv. 144(7):1961-1971.

Silva, M.S., Martins, R.P., and Ferreira, R.L. 2011. Cave lithology determining the structure of the invertebrate communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1713-1729.

Smallwood, P., Shank, C., Dehgan, A., and Zahler, P. 2011. Wildlife conservation .... in Afghanistan? BioScience 61(7):506-511.

Sousa, W.T.Z. 2011. Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae), a recent invader threatening Brazil's freshwater environments: a review of the extent of the problem. Hydrobiologia 669(1):1-20.

Stephens, J.D., Santos, S.R., and Folkerts, D.R. 2011. Genetic differentiation, structure, and a transition zone among populations of the pitcher plant moth Exyra semicrocea: implications for conservation. PLoS ONE 6(7):e22658.

Stevenson, P.R. 2011. The abundance of large ateline monkeys is positively associated with the diversity of plants regenerating in Neotropical forests. Biotropica 43(4):512-519.

Strongin, K., Taylor, C.M., Roberts, M.E., Neill, W.H., and Gelwick, F. 2011. Food habits and dietary overap of two silversides in the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway: the invasive Menidia audens versus the native Labidesthes sicculus. Am. Midl. Nat. 166(1):224-233.

Thorn, M., Green, M., Bateman, P.W., Waite, S., and Scott, D.M. 2011. Brown hyaenas on roads: estimating carnivore occupancy and abundance using spatially auto-correlated sign survey replicates. Biol. Conserv. 144(6):1799-1807.

Thum, R.A., Zuellig, M.P., Johnson, R.L., Moody, M.L., and Vossbrinck, C. 2011. Molecular markers reconstruct the invasion history of variable leaf watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum) and distinguish it from closely related species. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1687-1709.

Toivonen, J.M., Kessler, M., Ruokolainen, K., and Hertel, D. 2011. Accessibility predicts structural variation of Andean Polylepis forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1789-1802.

Tomas, F., Box, A., and Terrados, J. 2011. Effects of invasive seaweeds on feeding preference and performance of a keystone Mediterranean herbivore. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1559-1570.

Torres-Leguizamón, M., Dupas, S., Dardon, D., Gómez, Y., Niño, L., Carnero, A., Padilla, A., Merlin, I., Fossoud, A., Zeddam, J.L., Lery, X., Capdevielle-Dulac, C., Dangles, O., and Silvain, J.F. 2011. Inferring native range and invasion scenarios with mitochondrial DNA: the case of T. solanivora successive north-south step-wise introductions across Central and South America. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1505-1519.

Trumpickas, J., Mandrak, N.E., and Ricciardi, A. 2011. Nearshore fish assemblages associated with introduced predatory fishes in lakes. Aquat. Conserv. 21(4):338-347.

Uhlmann, S.S., and Jeschke, J.M. 2011. Comparing factors associated with total and dead sooty shearwater bycatch in New Zealand trawl fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 144(6):1859-1865.

van Kleunen, M., Schlaepfer, D.R., Glaettli, M., and Fischer, M. 2011. Preadapted for invasiveness: do species traits or their plastic response to shading differ between invasive and non-invasive plant species in their native range? J. Biogeogr. 38(7):1294-1304.

VanderWerf, E.A., Mosher, S.M., Burt, M.D., and Taylor, P.E. 2011. Current distribution and abundance of O'ahu 'Elepaio (Chasiempis ibidis) in the Wai'anae Mountains. Pacific Sci. 65(3):311-319.

Vicente, M.J., Segura, F., Aguado, M., Migliaro, D., Franco, J.A., and Martínez-Sánchez, J.J. 2011. Genetic diversity of Astragalus nitidiflorus, a critically endangered endemic of SE Spain, and implications for its conservation. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 39(3):175-182.

Vilà, M., Espinar, J.L., Hejda, M., Hulme, P.E., Jarošík, V., Maron, J.L., Pergl, J., Schaffner, U., Sun, Y., and Pyšek, P. 2011. Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecol. Lett. 14(7):702-708.

Vila-Nova, D.A., Bender, M.G., Carvalho, A., Ferreira, C.E.L., and Floeter, S.R. 2011. The use of non-reef habitats by Brazilian reef fish species: considerations for the design of marine protected areas. Nat. Conservacao 9(1):79-86.

Vincent, A.C.J., Foster, S.J., and Koldewey, H.J. 2011. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae. J. Fish Biol. 78(6):1681-1724.

Voigt, F.A., Farwig, N., and Johnson, S.D. 2011. Interactions between the invasive tree Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) and native frugivores in South Africa. J. Trop. Ecol. 27:355-363.

Wayne, R., and Hedrick, P. 2011. Genetics and wolf conservation in the American West: lessons and challenges. Heredity 107(1):16-19.

Webb, R.H., and Salazar-Ceseña, J.M. 2011. Agave turneri (Agavaceae), a new species from northeastern Baja California, Mexico. Brittonia 63(2):203-210.

Weidman, T., and Litvaitis, J.A. 2011. Can supplemental food increase winter survival of a threatened cottontail rabbit? Biol. Conserv. 144(7):2054-2058.

Weir, C.R., Van Waerebeek, K., Jefferson, T.A., and Collins, T. 2011. West Africa's Atlantic humpback dolphin (Sousa teuszii): endemic, enigmatic and soon Endangered? Afr. Zool. 46(1):1-17.

White, P.J.T., McGill, B.J., and Lechowicz, M.J. 2011. Human-disturbance and caterpillars in managed forest fragments. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1745-1762.

Whoriskey, S., Arauz, R., and Baum, J.K. 2011. Potential impacts of emerging mahi-mahi fisheries on sea turtle and elasmobranch bycatch species. Biol. Conserv. 144(6):1841-1849.

Williams, N.M. 2011. Restoration of nontarget species: bee communities and pollination function in riparian forests. Restor. Ecol. 19(4):450-459.

Willson, J.D., Dorcas, M.E., and Snow, R.W. 2011. Identifying plausible scenarios for the establishment of invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus) in Southern Florida. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1493-1504.

Wingate, D.B. 2011. The successful elimination of Cane toads, Bufo marinus, from an island with breeding habitat off Bermuda. Biol. Invasions 13(7):1487-1492.

Winter, S., Penker, M., and Kriechbaum, M. 2011. Integrating farmers' knowledge on toxic plants and grassland management: a case study on Colchicum autumnale in Austria. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(8):1763-1787.

Witt, M.J., Bonguno, E.A., Broderick, A.C., Coyne, M.S., Formia, A., Gibudi, A., Mounguengui, G.A.M., Moussounda, C., NSafou, M., Nougessono, S., Parnell, R.J., Sounguet, G.P., Verhage, S., and Godley, B.J. 2011. Tracking leatherback turtles from the world's largest rookery: assessing threats across the South Atlantic. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1716):2338-2347.

Woodall, L.C., Koldewey, H.J., and Shaw, P.W. 2011. Historical and contemporary population genetic connectivity of the European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus and implications for management. J. Fish Biol. 78(6):1738-1756.

Worm, B., and Tittensor, D.P. 2011. Range contraction in large pelagic predators. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(29):11942-11947.

Worthington, T., Kemp, P., and Osborne, P.E. 2011. Factors affecting the population viability of the burbot, Lota lota. Fish. Manag. Ecol. 18(4):322-332.

Yang, F.C., Zhang, C.L., Wu, G., Liang, S.Y., and Zhang, X.C. 2011. Endangered pteridophytes and their distribution in Hainan Island, China. Am. Fern J. 101(2):105-116.

Yang, W.Z., Liu, C., Jiang, J.P., Li, C., and Xie, F. 2011. Age structure of females in a breeding population of Echinotriton chinhaiensis (Caudata: Salamandridae) and its conservation implication. Asian Herpetol. Res. 2(2):91-96.

Zanette, L.R.S., and Martins, R.P. 2011. Behavioral ecology and conservation: a weak connection? Nat. Conservacao 9(1):125-127.

Zettler, L.W., and Piskin, K.A. 2011. Mycorrhizal fungi from protocorms, seedlings and mature plants of the eastern prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindley: a comprehensive list to augment conservation. Am. Midl. Nat. 166(1):29-39.

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