Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Department ofBotany



No. 325
January 2012


[PDF Print Version]



In This Issue


Super Tough Seed Coat Keeps Michaux's Sumac on Critically Endangered List


Adapted from Smithsonianscience.org

It is one of the rarest shrubs in the southeastern United States but for scientists trying to save it, the critically endangered Michaux's sumac (Rhus michauxii) is not cooperating. So far botanists have exposed the hard-, thick-coated seeds of this native North American plant to boiling water, dry heat up to 284 degrees Fahrenheit and flames from a propane blowtorch to try to coax them into germination. Nothing has worked. "Complete understanding of the germination requirements of endangered plants is an absolute requirement to effectively manage populations," Smithsonian research associate Jay Bolin and botanists Marcus Jones and Lytton Musselman write in a recent paper on this plant in Native Plants Journal. So far, however, Michaux's sumac has not given up its secrets.

Because Michaux's sumac grows only in areas with few trees where the vegetation has been disturbed, it has long been assumed that its seeds germinate naturally following exposure to the high-temperatures of a brush or forest fire. Decline of this plant has been attributed to the prevention and suppression of brush and forest fires by humans. In Virginia it grows in only two places: on the grounds of the Virginia Army National Guard Maneuver Training Center in Fort Picket and a mowed railway right-of-way in an undisclosed location.

In a recent series of germination experiments, the scientists exposed different sets of Michaux's sumac seeds to dry heat temperatures of 140, 176, 212, 248 and 284 F, some sets for 5 minutes and other sets for 10 minutes. (The temperatures were determined based on maximum wildfire surface temperatures and burn times recorded in southeastern U.S. forests.) The researchers found that temperatures above 212 F killed the seeds. Lower temperatures had virtually no impact on breaking the seed's dormancy.

The highest germination rates—30 percent—occurred after sulfuric acid was poured on Michaux's sumac seeds and allowed to scarify the seed coats. This finding, from an experiment done in 1996, has led the researchers to their next experiment using birds. "We are going to feed the seeds to quail and wild turkey to determine if that breaks the seed dormancy," says Bolin, a research associate with the Department of Botany at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and an assistant professor at Catawba College in Salisbury, North Carolina. Seed passage through the digestive tracts of frugivorous birds (and exposure to the acid in the bird's stomachs) may break the physical dormancy of these seeds and help disperse them as well.


Current Literature


Ahumada, J.A., Silva, C.E.F., Gajapersad, K., Hallam, C., Hurtado, J., Martin, E., McWilliam, A., Mugerwa, B., O'Brien, T., Rovero, F., Sheil, D., Spironello, W.R., Winarni, N., and Andelman, S.J. 2011. Community structure and diversity of tropical forest mammals: data from a global camera trap network. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2703-2711.

Albariño, R.J., and Buria, L.M. 2011. Altered mayfly distribution due to strong interactions with alien rainbow trout in Andean streams of Patagonia. Limnologica 41(3):220-227.

Allen, B.L., Engeman, R.M., and Allen, L.R. 2011. Wild dogma: an examination of recent "evidence" for dingo regulation of invasive mesopredator release in Australia. Curr. Zool. 57(5):568-583.

Anastácio, P.M., Leite, E.P., Ferreira, M., Vicente, L., and Correia, A.M. 2011. Ontogenic shifts in predatory roles involving two invasive species. Limnologica 41(3):228-234.

Armstrong, D.P., and Wittmer, H.U. 2011. Incorporating Allee effects into reintroduction strategies. Ecol. Res. 26(4):687-695.

Axmacher, J.C., Liu, Y.H., Wang, C.L., Li, L.T., and Yu, Z.R. 2011. Spatial alpha-diversity patterns of diverse insect taxa in Northern China: lessons for biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2362-2368.

Barnes, D.K.A., Collins, M.A., Brickle, P., Fretwell, P., Griffiths, H.J., Herbert, D., Hogg, O.T., and Sands, C.J. 2011. The need to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity at the high latitude site, South Georgia. Antarct. Sci. 23(4):323-331.

Barnes, N., Bamber, R.N., Bennell, G., Cornelius, N., Glassom, D., Henderson, S.C.D., Jiddawi, N., Lee, C.N.W., Macia, A., Msangameno, D.J., Paula, J., Yahya, S., and Ferrero, T.J. 2011. Assessment of regional and local biodiversity in tropical and subtropical coastal habitats in the East African Marine Ecoregion. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2075-2109.

Bauer, E.M., and Bergmeier, E. 2011. The mountain woodlands of western Crete - plant communities, forest goods, grazing impact and conservation. Phytocoenologia 41(2):73-105.

Beaton, L.L., Van Zandt, P.A., Esselman, E.J., and Knight, T.M. 2011. Comparison of the herbivore defense and competitive ability of ancestral and modern genotypes of an invasive plant, Lespedeza cuneata. Oikos 120(9):1413-1419.

Bennett, V.J., Fernández-Juricic, E., Zollner, P.A., Beard, M.J., Westphal, L., and Fisher, C.L.L. 2011. Modelling the responses of wildlife to human disturbance: an evaluation of alternative management scenarios for black-crowned night-herons. Ecol. Model. 222(15):2770-2779.

Biggins, D.E., Godbey, J.L., Horton, B.M., and Livieri, T.M. 2011. Movements and survival of black-footed ferrets associated with an experimental translocation in South Dakota. J. Mammal. 92(4):742-750.

Biggins, D.E., Livieri, T.M., and Breck, S.W. 2011. Interface between black-footed ferret research and operational conservation. J. Mammal. 92(4):699-704.

Blackburn, T.M., Prowse, T.A.A., Lockwood, J.L., and Cassey, P. 2011. Passerine introductions to New Zealand support a positive effect of propagule pressure on establishment success. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2189-2199.

Blight, O., Fadda, S., Orgeas, J., Ponel, P., Buisson, E., and Dutoit, T. 2011. Using stone cover patches and grazing exclusion to restore ground-active beetle communities in a degraded pseudo-steppe. J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):561-572.

Boitani, L., Maiorano, L., Baisero, D., Falcucci, A., Visconti, P., and Rondinini, C. 2011. What spatial data do we need to develop global mammal conservation strategies? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2623-2632.

Bolin, J.F., Jones, M.E., and Musselman, L.J. 2011. Germination of the federally endangered Michaux's sumac (Rhus michauxii). Native Plants J. 12(2):119-122.

Bonardi, A., Manenti, R., Corbetta, A., Ferri, V., Fiacchini, D., Giovine, G., Macchi, S., Romanazzi, E., Soccini, C., Bottoni, L., Padoa-Schioppa, E., and Ficetola, G.F. 2011. Usefulness of volunteer data to measure the large scale decline of "common" toad populations. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2328-2334.

Bordenave, B.G., De Granville, J.J., and Steyn, K. 2011. Quantitative botanical diversity descriptors to set conservation priorities in Bakhuis Mountains rainforest, Suriname. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 167(1):94-130.

Boughey, K.L., Lake, I.R., Haysom, K.A., and Dolman, P.M. 2011. Effects of landscape-scale broadleaved woodland configuration and extent on roost location for six bat species across the UK. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2300-2310.

Braby, M.F., and Nielsen, J. 2011. Review of the conservation status of the Atlas Moth, Attacus wardi Rothschild, 1910 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) from Australia. J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):603-608.

Brenneis, V.E.F., Sih, A., and de Rivera, C.E. 2011. Integration of an invasive consumer into an estuarine food web: direct and indirect effects of the New Zealand mud snail. Oecologia 167(1):169-179.

Britton, J.R., Pegg, J., and Gozlan, R.E. 2011. Quantifying imperfect detection in an invasive pest fish and the implications for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2177-2181.

Buler, J.J., and Moore, F.R. 2011. Migrant-habitat relationships during stopover along an ecological barrier: extrinsic constraints and conservation implications. J. Ornithol. 152:101-112.

Bunnefeld, N., Hoshino, E., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2011. Management strategy evaluation: a powerful tool for conservation? Trends Ecol. Evol. 26(9):441-447.

Burke, R.J., Fitzsimmons, J.M., and Kerr, J.T. 2011. A mobility index for Canadian butterfly species based on naturalists' knowledge. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2273-2295.

Burton, A.C., Sam, M.K., Kpelle, D.G., Balangtaa, C., Buedi, E.B., and Brashares, J.S. 2011. Evaluating persistence and its predictors in a West African carnivore community. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2344-2353.

Cain, C.M., Livieri, T.M., and Swanson, B.J. 2011. Genetic evaluation of a reintroduced population of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes). J. Mammal. 92(4):751-759.

Carruthers, E.H., and Neis, B. 2011. Bycatch mitigation in context: using qualitative interview data to improve assessment and mitigation in a data-rich fishery. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2289-2299.

Carruthers, J., Robin, L., Hattingh, J.P., Kull, C.A., Rangan, H., and van Wilgen, B.W. 2011. A native at home and abroad: the history, politics, ethics and aesthetics of acacias. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):810-821.

Castello, L., Stewart, D.J., and Arantes, C.C. 2011. Modeling population dynamics and conservation of arapaima in the Amazon. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 21(3):623-640.

Castilho, C.S., Marins-Sa, L.G., Benedet, R.C., and Freitas, T.O. 2011. Landscape genetics of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in southern Brazil. Mamm. Biol. 76(4):476-483.

Castro-Díez, P., Godoy, O., Saldaña, A., and Richardson, D.M. 2011. Predicting invasiveness of Australian acacias on the basis of their native climatic affinities, life history traits and human use. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):934-945.

Chagas, R.R.D., and Ferrari, S.F. 2011. Population parameters of the endangered titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999, in the fragmented landscape of southern Sergipe, Brazil. Braz. J. Biol. 71(3):569-575.

Chan, K.M.A., Hoshizaki, L., and Klinkenberg, B. 2011. Ecosystem services in conservation planning: targeted benefits vs. co-benefits or costs? PLoS ONE 6(9):e24378.

Charlton-Robb, K., Gershwin, L.A., Thompson, R., Austin, J., Owen, K., and McKechnie, S. 2011. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters. PLoS ONE 6(9):e24047.

Chase, M.J., and Griffin, C.R. 2011. Elephants of south-east Angola in war and peace: their decline, re-colonization and recent status. Afr. J. Ecol. 49(3):353-361.

Cockle, K.L., Martin, K., and Wesołowski, T. 2011. Woodpeckers, decay, and the future of cavity-nesting vertebrate communities worldwide. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(7):377-382.

Collen, B., McRae, L., Deinet, S., De Palma, A., Carranza, T., Cooper, N., Loh, J., and Baillie, J.E.M. 2011. Predicting how populations decline to extinction. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1577):2577-2586.

Collen, B., Turvey, S.T., Waterman, C., Meredith, H.M.R., Kuhn, T.S., Baillie, J.E.M., and Isaac, N.J.B. 2011. Investing in evolutionary history: implementing a phylogenetic approach for mammal conservation. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2611-2622.

Collinge, S.K., Ray, C., and Gerhardt, F. 2011. Long-term dynamics of biotic and abiotic resistance to exotic species invasion in restored vernal pool plant communities. Ecol. Appl. 21(6):2105-2118.

Collyer, M.L., Heilveil, J.S., and Stockwell, C.A. 2011. Contemporary evolutionary divergence for a protected species following assisted colonization. PLoS ONE 6(8):e22310.

Crooks, K.R., Burdett, C.L., Theobald, D.M., Rondinini, C., and Boitani, L. 2011. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2642-2651.

Cruz-Sánchez, M.A., Asís, J.D., Gayubo, S.F., Tormos, J., and González, J.A. 2011. The effects of wildfire on Spheciformes wasp community structure: the importance of local habitat conditions. J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):487-503.

Datiko, D., and Bekele, A. 2011. Population status and human impact on the endangered Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Nechisar Plains, Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia. Afr. J. Ecol. 49(3):311-319.

de Grammont, P.C., Bocco, G., Córdova, A., and WinklerPrins, A. 2011. Biodiversity conservation. A research field for an integrated geography. Interciencia 36(8):630-636.

de Oliveira, P.R.R., Alberts, C.C., and Francisco, M.R. 2011. Impact of road clearings on the movements of three understory insectivorous bird species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biotropica 43(5):628-632.

del Castillo, R.F., Trujillo-Argueta, S., Sánchez-Vargas, N., and Newton, A.C. 2011. Genetic factors associated with population size may increase extinction risks and decrease colonization potential in a keystone tropical pine. Evol. Appl. 4(4):574-588.

Dessein, S., Vanthournout, S., and Niyongabo, F. 2011. Geophila erythrocarpa (Rubiaceae), a new species from D.R. Congo and Zambia. Blumea 56(2):149-152.

Díaz-Pérez, C.N., Puerto-Hurtado, M.A., and Fernández-Alonso, J.L. 2011. Habitat evaluation, population and conservation status of the "Barrigon" (Cavanillesia chicamochae, Malvaceae - Bombacoideae). Caldasia 33(1):105-119.

dos Anjos, L., Collins, C.D., Holt, R.D., Volpato, G.H., Mendonça, L.B., Lopes, E.V., Boçon, R., Bisheimer, M.V., Serafini, P.P., and Carvalho, J. 2011. Bird species abundance-occupancy patterns and sensitivity to forest fragmentation: implications for conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2213-2222.

Dover, J.W., Rescia, A., Fungariño, S., Fairburn, J., Carey, P., Lunt, P., Arnot, C., Dennis, R.L.H., and Dover, C.J. 2011. Land-use, environment, and their impact on butterfly populations in a mountainous pastoral landscape: species richness and family-level abundance. J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):523-538.

Duffy, K.J., Fay, M.F., Smith, R.J., and Stout, J.C. 2011. Population genetics and conservation of the small white orchid, Pseudorchis albida, in Ireland. Biol. Environ. 111B(2):73-81.

Dukes, J.S., Chiariello, N.R., Loarie, S.R., and Field, C.B. 2011. Strong response of an invasive plant species (Centaurea solstitialis L.) to global environmental changes. Ecol. Appl. 21(6):1887-1894.

Eads, D.A., Millspaugh, J.J., Biggins, D.E., Livieri, T.M., and Jachowski, D.S. 2011. Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota. J. Mammal. 92(4):760-770.

Echternacht, L., Trovó, M., and Sano, P.T. 2011. Two new species of Actinocephalus (Eriocaulaceae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 27:26-36.

Eisemberg, C.C., Rose, M., Yaru, B., and Georges, A. 2011. Demonstrating decline of an iconic species under sustained indigenous harvest - the pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta) in Papua New Guinea. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2282-2288.

Eklund, J., Arponen, A., Visconti, P., and Cabeza, M. 2011. Governance factors in the identification of global conservation priorities for mammals. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2661-2669.

Engeman, R., Jacobson, E., Avery, M.L., and Meshaka, W.E. 2011. The aggressive invasion of exotic reptiles in Florida with a focus on prominent species: a review. Curr. Zool. 57(5):599-612.

Espinosa, F., Rivera-Ingraham, G., and García-Gómez, J.C. 2011. Influence of of habitat structure and nature of substratum on limpet recruitment: conservation implications for endangered species. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 94(2):164-171.

Fan, P.F., Fei, H.L., Scott, M.B., Zhang, W., and Ma, C.Y. 2011. Habitat and food choice of the critically endangered cao vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) in China: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2247-2254.

Fang, S.G. 2011. Does population increase alone ensure the long-term survival of endangered species. Chinese Sci. Bull. 56(24):2521-2522.

Faulks, L.K., Gilligan, D.M., and Beheregaray, L.B. 2011. The role of anthropogenic vs. natural in-stream structures in determining connectivity and genetic diversity in an endangered freshwater fish, Macquarie perch (Macquaria australasica). Evol. Appl. 4(4):589-601.

Feng, Y.L., Li, Y.P., Wang, R.F., Callaway, R.M., Valiente-Banuet, A., and Inderjit. 2011. A quicker return energy-use strategy by populations of a subtropical invader in the non-native range: a potential mechanism for the evolution of increased competitive ability. J. Ecology 99(5):1116-1123.

Fragoso, F.P., and Varanda, E.M. 2011. Flower-visiting insects of five tree species in a restored area of semideciduous seasonal forest. Neotrop. Entomol. 40(4):431-435.

Fritz, L.L., Heinrichs, E.A., Machado, V., Andreis, T.F., Pandolfo, M., de Salles, S.M., de Oliveira, J.V., and Fiuza, L.M. 2011. Diversity and abundance of arthropods in subtropical rice growing areas in the Brazilian south. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2211-2224.

Fuentes-Montemayor, E., Goulson, D., and Park, K.J. 2011. Pipistrelle bats and their prey do not benefit from four widely applied agri-environment management prescriptions. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2233-2246.

Gaglioti, A.L., Romaniuc, S., and Monro, A.K. 2011. Pilea brasiliensis: a new species of Pilea (Urticaceae) from Central Brazil. Phytotaxa 26:17-20.

Gaira, K.S., Dhar, U., and Belwal, O.K. 2011. Potential of herbarium records to sequence phenological pattern: a case study of Aconitum heterophyllum in the Himalaya. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2201-2210.

Gallagher, R.V., Leishman, M.R., Miller, J.T., Hui, C., Richardson, D.M., Suda, J., and Trávníček, P. 2011. Invasiveness in introduced Australian acacias: the role of species traits and geneome size. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):884-897.

Gargano, M.L., Saitta, A., Zervakis, G.I., and Venturella, G. 2011. Building the jigsaw puzzle of the critically endangered Pleurotus nebrodensis: historical collection sites and an emended description. Mycotaxon 115:107-114.

Gedan, K.B., Altieri, A.H., and Bertness, M.D. 2011. Uncertain future of New England salt marshes. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 434:229-237.

Gibson, M.R., Richardson, D.M., Marchante, E., Marchante, H., Rodger, J.G., Stone, G.N., Byrne, M., Fuentes-Ramírez, A., George, N., Harris, C., Johnson, S.D., Le Roux, J.J., Miller, J.T., Murphy, D.J., Pauw, A., Prescott, M.N., Wandrag, E.M., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2011. Reproductive biology of Australian acacias: important mediator of invasiveness? Divers. Distrib. 17(5):911-933.

Go, R., Eng, K.H., Mustafa, M., Abdullah, J.O., Naruddin, A.A., Lee, N.S., Lee, C.S., Eum, S.M., Park, K.W., and Choi, K. 2011. An assessment of orchids' diversity in Penang Hill, Penang, Malaysia after 115 years. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2263-2272.

Griffen, B.D., Altman, I., Hurley, J., and Mosblack, H. 2011. Reduced fecundity by one invader in the presence of another: a potential mechanism leading to species replacement. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 406(1-2):6-13.

Grove, S.J., and Forster, L. 2011. A decade of change in the saproxylic beetle fauna of eucalypt logs in the Warra long-term log-decay experiment, Tasmania. 1. Description of the fauna and seasonality patterns. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2149-2165.

Grove, S.J., and Forster, L. 2011. A decade of change in the saproxylic beetle fauna of eucalypt logs in the Warra long-term log-decay experiment, Tasmania. 2. Log-size effects, succession, and the functional significance of rare species. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2167-2188.

Gumm, J.M., Snekser, J.L., Leese, J.M., Little, K.P., Leiser, J.K., Imhoff, V.E., Westrick, B., and Itzkowitz, M. 2011. Management of interactions between endangered species using habitat restoration. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2171-2176.

Hardy, C.M., Adams, M., Jerry, D.R., Court, L.N., Morgan, M.J., and Hartley, D.M. 2011. DNA barcoding to support conservation: species identification, genetic structure and biogeography of fishes in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia. Mar. Freshwater Res. 62(8):887-901.

Haslem, A., and Bennett, A.F. 2011. Countryside vegetation provides supplementary habitat at the landscape scale for woodland birds in farm mosaics. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2225-2242.

Hershler, R., Liu, H.P., and Landye, J.J. 2011. New species and records of springsnails (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae: Tryonia) from the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico and United States), an imperiled biodiversity hotspot. Zootaxa 3001:1-32.

Hobday, A.J. 2011. Sliding baselines and shuffling species: implications of climate change for marine conservation. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 32(3):392-403.

Hoffmann, M., Belant, J.L., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Lamoreux, J., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Schipper, J., and Stuart, S.N. 2011. The changing fates of the world's mammals. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2598-2610.

Holt, C.A., Fuller, R.J., and Dolman, P.M. 2011. Breeding and post-breeding responses of woodland birds to modification of habitat structure by deer. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2151-2162.

Hopkins, R.L., and Whiles, M.R. 2011. The importance of land use/land cover data in fish and mussel conservation planning. Ann. Limnol. 47(3):199-209.

Horsák, M., Škodová, J., and Cernohorsky, N.H. 2011. Ecological and historical determinants of Western Carpathian populations of Pupilla alpicola (Charpentier, 1837) in relation to its present range and conservation. J. Molluscan Stud. 77:248-254.

Htun, N.Z., Mizoue, N., and Yoshida, S. 2011. Tree species composition and diversity at different levels of disturbance in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. Biotropica 43(5):597-603.

Huang, D.C., Haack, R.A., and Zhang, R.Z. 2011. Does global warming increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis. PLoS ONE 6(9):e24733.

Hui, C., Richardson, D.M., Robertson, M.P., Wilson, J.R.U., and Yates, C.J. 2011. Macroecology meets invasion ecology: linking the native distributions of Australian acacias to invasiveness. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):872-883.

Janzen, D.H., and Hallwachs, W. 2011. Joining inventory by parataxonomists with DNA barcoding of a large complex tropical conserved wildland in northwestern Costa Rica. PLoS ONE 6(8):e18123.

Jersáková, J., Malinová, T., Jeřábková, K., and Dötterl, S. 2011. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Pseudorchis albida (L.) Á. & D. Löve. J. Ecology 99(5):1282-1298.

Jiang, L., Brady, L., and Tan, J.Q. 2011. Species diversity, invasion, and alternative community states in sequentially assembled communities. Am. Nat. 178(3):411-418.

Jones-Farrand, D.T., Fearer, T.M., Thogmartin, W.E., Thompson, F.R., Nelson, M.D., and Tirpak, J.M. 2011. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction. Ecol. Appl. 21(6):2269-2282.

Kahraman, A., Došan, M., and Celep, F. 2011. Salvia siirtica sp. nov. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 29(4):397-401.

Kappes, H., Sundermann, A., and Haase, P. 2011. Distant land use affects terrestrial and aquatic habitats of high naturalness. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2297-2309.

Kattwinkel, M., Biedermann, R., and Kleyer, M. 2011. Temporary conservation for urban biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2335-2343.

Kellner, J.R., Asner, G.P., Kinney, K.M., Loarie, S.R., Knapp, D.E., Kennedy-Bowdoin, T., Questad, E.J., Cordell, S., and Thaxton, J.M. 2011. Remote analysis of biological invasion and the impact of enemy release. Ecol. Appl. 21(6):2094-2104.

Kleijn, D., Rundlöf, M., Scheper, J., Smith, H.G., and Tscharntke, T. 2011. Does conservation on farmland contribute to halting the biodiversity decline? Trends Ecol. Evol. 26(9):474-481.

Koper, N., and Nudds, T.D. 2011. Progress in research on grassland bird conservation and ecology. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 6(1):6.

Koyuncu, M., and Eker, I. 2011. Allium arsuzense sp. nov. and A. roseum subsp. gulekense subsp. nov. from Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 29(4):391-396.

Kull, C.A., Shackleton, C.M., Cunningham, P.J., Ducatillon, C., Dufour-Dror, J.M., Esler, K.J., Friday, J.B., Gouveia, A.C., Griffin, A.R., Marchante, E., Midgley, S.J., Pauchard, A., Rangan, H., Richardson, D.M., Rinaudo, T., Tassin, J., Urgenson, L.S., von Maltitz, G.P., Zenni, R.D., and Zylstra, M.J. 2011. Adoption, use and perception of Australian acacias around the world. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):822-836.

Kumara, H.N., Pritham, N.S., Santhoshi, K., Raj, V.V.M., and Sinha, A. 2011. Decline of suitable habitats and conservation of the endangered lion-tailed macaque: land-cover change at a proposed protected area in Sirsi-Honnavara, Western Ghats, India. Curr. Sci. 101(3):434-439.

Kutnar, L., Matijašič, D., and Pisek, R. 2011. Conservation status and potential threats to Natura 2000 forest habitats in Slovenia. Sumar. List 135(5-6):215-231.

Lander, T.A., Bebber, D.P., Choy, C.T.L., Harris, S.A., and Boshier, D.H. 2011. The Circe principle explains how resource-rich land can waylay pollinators in fragmented landscapes. Curr. Biol. 21(15):1302-1307.

Lange, M., Weisser, W.W., Gossner, M.M., Kowalski, E., Türke, M., Joner, F., and Fonseca, C.R. 2011. The impact of forest management on litter-dwelling invertebrates: a subtropical-temperate contrast. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2133-2147.

Le Maitre, D.C., Gaertner, M., Marchante, E., Ens, E.J., Holmes, P.M., Pauchard, A., O'Farrell, P.J., Rogers, A.M., Blanchard, R., Blignaut, J., and Richardson, D.M. 2011. Impacts of invasive Australian acacias: implications for management and restoration. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):1015-1029.

Le Péchon, T., Baider, C., Gigord, L.D.B., Haevermans, A., and Dubuisson, J.Y. 2011. Dombeya sevathianii (Malvaceae): a new critically endangered species endemic to Mauritius (Indian Ocean). Phytotaxa 24:1-10.

Le Roux, J.J., Brown, G.K., Byrne, M., Ndlovu, J., Richardson, D.M., Thompson, G.D., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2011. Phylogeographic consequences of different introduction histories of invasive Australian Acacia species and Paraserianthes lophantha (Fabaceae) in South Africa. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):861-871.

Lee, S.D., Ellwood, E.R., Park, S.Y., and Primack, R.B. 2011. Late-arriving barn swallows linked to population declines. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2182-2187.

Lennox, G.D., and Armsworth, P.R. 2011. Suitability of short or long conservation contracts under ecological and socio-economic uncertainty. Ecol. Model. 222(15):2856-2866.

Letnic, M., Crowther, M.S., Dickman, C.R., and Ritchie, E.G. 2011. Demonising the dingo: how much wild dogma is enough? Curr. Zool. 57(5):668-670.

Lorenti, M., Gambi, M.C., Guglielmo, R., Patti, F.P., Scipione, M.B., Zupo, V., and Buia, M.C. 2011. Soft-bottom macrofaunal assemblages in the Gulf of Salerno, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, an area affected by the invasion of the seaweed Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 32(3):320-334.

Losada-Prado, S., and Molina-Martínez, Y.C. 2011. Tropical dry forest's birds in Tolima Department (Colombia): community analysis. Caldasia 33(1):271-294.

Louette, G., Adriaens, D., Adriaens, P., Anselin, A., Devos, K., Sannen, K., Van Landuyt, W., Paelinckx, D., and Hoffmann, M. 2011. Bridging the gap between the Natura 2000 regional conservation status and local conservation objectives. J. Nature Conserv. 19(4):224-235.

Maiorano, L., Falcucci, A., Zimmermann, N.E., Psomas, A., Pottier, J., Baisero, D., Rondinini, C., Guisan, A., and Boitani, L. 2011. The future of terrestrial mammals in the Mediterranean basin under climate change. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2681-2692.

Maréchal, L., Semple, S., Majolo, B., Qarro, M., Heistermann, M., and MacLarnon, A. 2011. Impacts of tourism on anxiety and physiological stress levels in wild male Barbary macaques. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2188-2193.

Marín, S.L., Nahuelhual, L., Echeverría, C., and Grant, W.E. 2011. Projecting landscape changes in southern Chile: simulation of human and natural processes driving land transformation. Ecol. Model. 222(15):2841-2855.

Martínez-Peralta, C., and Mandujano, M.C. 2011. Reproductive ecology of the endangered living rock cactus, Ariocarpus fissuratus (Cactaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 138(2):145-155.

McGeoch, M.A., Sithole, H., Samways, M.J., Simaika, J.P., Pryke, J.S., Picker, M., Uys, C., Armstrong, A.J., Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S., Engelbrecht, I.A., Braschler, B., and Hamer, M. 2011. Conservation and monitoring of invertebrates in terrestrial protected areas. Koedoe 53(2):1000.

Meijaard, E., and Sheil, D. 2011. A modest proposal for wealthy countries to reforest their land for the common good. Biotropica 43(5):524-528.

Meijer, S.S., Whittaker, R.J., and Borges, P.A.V. 2011. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores): unmanaged plantations favour endemic beetles. J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):505-522.

Miller, J.T., Murphy, D.J., Brown, G.K., Richardson, D.M., and González-Orozco, C.E. 2011. The evolution and phylogenetic placement of invasive Australian Acacia species. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):848-860.

Mohd-Azlan, J., and Lawes, M.J. 2011. The effect of the surrounding landscape matrix on mangrove bird community assembly in north Australia. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2134-2141.

Moore, J.L., Runge, M.C., Webber, B.L., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2011. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):1047-1059.

Mora, C., and Sale, P.F. 2011. Ongoing global biodiversity loss and the need to move beyond protected areas: a review of the technical and practical shortcomings of protected areas on land and sea. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 434:251-266.

Morris, T.L., Esler, K.J., Barger, N.N., Jacobs, S.M., and Cramer, M.D. 2011. Ecophysiological traits associated with the competitive ability of invasive Australian acacias. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):898-910.

Moser, B., Fridley, J.D., Askew, A.P., and Grime, J.P. 2011. Simulated migration in a long-term climate change experiment: invasions impeded by dispersal limitation, not biotic resistance. J. Ecology 99(5):1229-1236.

Murphy, R.W., Berry, K.H., Edwards, T., Leviton, A.E., Lathrop, A., and Riedle, J.D. 2011. The dazed and confused identity of Agassiz's land tortoise, Gopherus agassizii (Testudines, Testudinidae) with the description of a new species, and its consequences for conservation. ZooKeys 113:39-71.

Nelson, A., and Chomitz, K.M. 2011. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods. PLoS ONE 6(8):e22722.

Nelson, D.W.M., Crossland, M.R., and Shine, R. 2011. Behavioural responses of native predators to an invasive toxic prey species. Austral Ecol. 36(6):605-611.

Nicolè, F., Dahlgren, J.P., Vivat, A., Till-Bottraud, I., and Ehrlén, J. 2011. Interdependent effects of habitat quality and climate on population growth of an endangered plant. J. Ecology 99(5):1211-1218.

Nur, N., Jahncke, J., Herzog, M.P., Howar, J., Hyrenbach, K.D., Zamon, J.E., Ainley, D.G., Wiens, J.A., Morgan, K., Ballance, L.T., and Stralberg, D. 2011. Where the wild things are: predicting hotspots of seabird aggregations in the California Current System. Ecol. Appl. 21(6):2241-2257.

O'Donoghue, B., O'Donoghue, T.A., and King, F. 2011. The hen harrier in Ireland: conservation issues for the 21st century. Biol. Environ. 111B(2):83-93.

Oppel, S., Raine, A.F., Borg, J.J., Raine, H., Bonnaud, E., Bourgeois, K., and Breton, A.R. 2011. Is the Yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan threatened by low adult survival probabilities? Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2255-2263.

Ozer, F., Gellerman, H., and Ashley, M.V. 2011. Genetic impacts of Anacapa deer mice reintroductions following rat eradication. Mol. Ecol. 20(17):3525-3539.

Palacio-López, K., and Gianoli, E. 2011. Invasive plants do not display greater phenotypic plasticity than their native or non-invasive counterparts: a meta-analysis. Oikos 120(9):1393-1401.

Pandit, M.K., Pocock, M.J.O., and Kunin, W.E. 2011. Ploidy influences rarity and invasiveness in plants. J. Ecology 99(5):1108-1115.

Parra, L.R., and Giulietti, A.M. 2011. Two new species of Comanthera (Eriocaulaceae) from Bahia, Brazil. Phytotaxa 27:1-7.

Parra-Tabla, V., Vargas, C.F., Naval, C., Calvo, L.M., and Ollerton, J. 2011. Population status and reproductive success of an endangered epiphytic orchid in a fragmented landscape. Biotropica 43(5):640-647.

Pérez-Quintero, J.C. 2011. Freshwater mollusc biodiversity and conservation in two stressed Mediterranean basins. Limnologica 41(3):201-212.

Phalan, B., Onial, M., Balmford, A., and Green, R.E. 2011. Reconciling food production and biodiversity conservation: land sharing and land sparing compared. Science 333(6047):1289-1291.

Phoonjampa, R., Koenig, A., Brockelman, W.Y., Borries, C., Gale, G.A., Carroll, J.P., and Savini, T. 2011. Pileated gibbon density in relation to habitat characteristics and post-logging forest recovery. Biotropica 43(5):619-627.

Piccolo, J.J. 2011. Challenges in the conservation, rehabilitation and recovery of native stream salmonid populations: beyond the 2010 Luarca symposium. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 20(3):346-351.

Poessel, S.A., Breck, S.W., Biggins, D.E., Livieri, T.M., Crooks, K.R., and Angeloni, L. 2011. Landscape features influence postrelease predation on endangered black-footed ferrets. J. Mammal. 92(4):732-741.

Pouteau, R., Meyer, J.Y., and Stoll, B. 2011. A SVM-based model for predicting distribution of the invasive tree Miconia calvescens in tropical rainforests. Ecol. Model. 222(15):2631-2641.

Pucko, C., Beckage, B., Perkins, T., and Keeton, W.S. 2011. Species shifts in response to climate change: individual or shared responses? J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 138(2):156-176.

Pyle, P., Welch, A.J., and Fleischer, R.C. 2011. A new species of shearwater (Puffinus) recorded from Midway Atoll, northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Condor 113(3):518-527.

Pyrcz, T.W., Viloria, A.L., Lamas, G., and Boyer, P. 2011. The butterflies fauna of subfamily Satyrinae of the Ampay massif (Peru): diversity, endemism and conservation (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). SHILAP-Rev. Lepidopt. 39(154):205-232.

Rákosy, L., and Schmitt, T. 2011. Are butterflies and moths suitable ecological indicator systems for restoration measures of semi-natural calcareous grassland habitats? Ecol. Indic. 11(5):1040-1045.

Ramirez-Llodra, E., Tyler, P.A., Baker, M.C., Bergstad, O.A., Clark, M.R., Escobar, E., Levin, L.A., Menot, L., Rowden, A.A., Smith, C.R., and Van Dover, C.L. 2011. Man and the last great wilderness: human impact on the deep sea. PLoS ONE 6(8):e22588.

Raunio, J., Heino, J., and Paasivirta, L. 2011. Non-biting midges in biodiversity conservation and environmental assessment: findings from boreal freshwater ecosystems. Ecol. Indic. 11(5):1057-1064.

Razafimandimbison, S.G., Kainulainen, K., Wong, K.M., Beaver, K., and Bremer, B. 2011. Molecular support for a basal grade of morphologically distinct, monotypic genera in the species-rich Vanguerieae alliance (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae): its systematic and conservation implications. Taxon 60(4):941-952.

Rebelo, T.G., Freitag, S., Cheney, C., and McGeoch, M.A. 2011. Prioritising species of special concern for monitoring in Table Mountain National Park: the challenge of a species-rich, threatened ecosystem. Koedoe 53(2):1019.

Redford, K.H., Ray, J.C., and Boitani, L. 2011. Mapping and navigating mammalian conservation: from analysis to action. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2712-2721.

Richardson, D.M., Carruthers, J., Hui, C., Impson, F.A.C., Miller, J.T., Robertson, M.P., Rouget, M., Le Roux, J.J., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2011. Human-mediated introductions of Australian acacias - a global experiment in biogeography. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):771-787.

Richardson, D.M., and Rejmánek, M. 2011. Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species - a global review. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):788-809.

Richerzhagen, C. 2011. Effective governance of access and benefit-sharing under the Convention on Biological Diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2243-2261.

Rix, M.G., and Harvey, M.S. 2011. Australian assassins, part I: a review of the assassin spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia. ZooKeys 123:1-100.

Rodrigues, A.S.L., Grenyer, R., Baillie, J.E.M., Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., Gittlemann, J.L., Hoffmann, M., Safi, K., Schipper, J., Stuart, S.N., and Brooks, T. 2011. Complete, accurate, mammalian phylogenies aid conservation planning, but not much. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2652-2660.

Rodríguez, A., Monro, A.K., Chacón, O., Solano, D., Santamaría, D., Zamora, N., González, F., and Correa, M. 2011. Regional and global conservation assessments for 200 vascular plant species from Costa Rica and Panama. Phytotaxa 21:1-216.

Rodríguez-Echeverría, S., Le Roux, J.J., Crisóstomo, J.A., and Ndlovu, J. 2011. Jack-of-all-trades and master of many? How does associated rhizobial diversity influence the colonization success of Australian Acacia species? Divers. Distrib. 17(5):946-957.

Rogell, B., Berglund, A., Laurila, A., and Höglund, J. 2011. Population divergence of life history traits in the endangered green toad: implications for a support release programme. J. Zool. 285(1):46-55.

Rondinini, C., Boitani, L., Rodrigues, A.S.L., Brooks, T.M., Pressey, R.L., Visconti, P., Baillie, J.E.M., Baisero, D., Cabeza, M., Crooks, K.R., Di Marco, M., Redford, K.H., Andelman, S.A., Hoffmann, M., Maiorano, L., Stuart, S.N., and Wilson, K.A. 2011. Reconciling global mammal prioritization schemes into a strategy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2722-2728.

Rondinini, C., Di Marco, M., Chiozza, F., Santulli, G., Baisero, D., Visconti, P., Hoffmann, M., Schipper, J., Stuart, S.N., Tognelli, M.F., Amori, G., Falcucci, A., Maiorano, L., and Boitani, L. 2011. Global habitat suitability models of terrestrial mammals. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2633-2641.

Rondinini, C., Rodrigues, A.S.L., and Boitani, L. 2011. The key elements of a comprehensive global mammal conservation strategy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2591-2597.

Rosset, V., and Oertli, B. 2011. Freshwater biodiversity under climate warming pressure: identifying the winners and losers in temperate standing waterbodies. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2311-2319.

Ryan, P.G., and Ronconi, R.A. 2011. Continued increase in numbers of spectacled petrels Procellaria conspicillata. Antarct. Sci. 23(4):332-336.

Saikkonen, A., Kekäläinen, J., and Piironen, J. 2011. Rapid growth of Atlantic salmon juveniles in captivity may indicate poor performance in nature. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2320-2327.

Sanger, J.C., Davidson, N.J., O'Grady, A.P., and Close, D.C. 2011. Are the patterns of regeneration in the endangered Eucalyptus gunnii ssp. divaricata shifting in response to climate? Austral Ecol. 36(6):612-620.

Schindler, S., Curado, N., Nikolov, S.C., Nikolov, C., Kret, E., Cárcamo, B., Catsadorakis, G., Poirazidis, K., Wrbka, T., and Kati, V. 2011. From research to implementation: nature conservation in the Eastern Rhodopes mountains (Greece and Bulgaria), European Green Belt. J. Nature Conserv. 19(4):193-201.

Schneider, A.A., Heiden, G., and Boldrini, I.I. 2011. Baccharis scopulorum, a new species of section Caulopterae (Asteraceae: Astereae) from rocky cliffs of southern Brazil. Phytotaxa 15:9-14.

Schumann, K., Wittig, R., Thiombiano, A., Becker, U., and Hahn, K. 2011. Impact of land-use type and harvesting on population structure of a non-timber forest product-providing tree in a semi-arid savanna, West Africa. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2369-2376.

Sebastián-González, E., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Botella, F., Figuerola, J., Hiraldo, F., and Wintle, B.A. 2011. Linking cost efficiency evaluation with population viability analysis to prioritize wetland bird conservation actions. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2354-2361.

Sheehy, J., Taylor, C.M., and Norris, D.R. 2011. The importance of stopover habitat for developing effective conservation strategies for migratory animals. J. Ornithol. 152:161-168.

Shine, R., and Doody, J.S. 2011. Invasive species control: understanding conflicts between researchers and the general community. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(7):400-406.

Siler, C.D., Jones, R.M., Welton, L.J., and Brown, R.M. 2011. Redescription of tetradactyl Philippine slender skinks (Genus Brachymeles). Herpetologica 67(3):300-317.

Sodhi, N.S., Butler, R., and Raven, P.H. 2011. Bottom-up conservation. Biotropica 43(5):521-523.

Sorte, C.J.B., and Stachowicz, J.J. 2011. Patterns and processes of compositional change in a California epibenthic community. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 435:63-74.

Sousa, R., Ilarri, M., Souza, A.T., Antunes, C., and Guilhermino, L. 2011. Rapid decline of the greater European peaclam at the periphery of its distribution. Ann. Limnol. 47(3):211-219.

Souza, L., Weltzin, J.F., and Sanders, N.J. 2011. Differential effects of two dominant plant species on community structure and invasibility in an old-field ecosystem. J. Plant Ecol.-UK 4(3):123-131.

Stehmann, J.R., and Greppi, J.A. 2011. Two new species of Calibrachoa (Solanaceae) from subtropical South America. Phytotaxa 25:31-38.

Taboada, A., Kotze, D.J., Salgado, J.M., and Tárrega, R. 2011. The value of semi-natural grasslands for the conservation of carabid beetles in long-term managed forested landscapes. J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):573-590.

Tamutis, V., Tamute, B., and Ferenca, R. 2011. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera). ZooKeys 121:1-494.

Terraube, J., and Arroyo, B. 2011. Factors influencing diet variation in a generalist predator across its range distribution. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2111-2131.

Thompson, G.D., Robertson, M.P., Webber, B.L., Richardson, D.M., Le Roux, J.J., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2011. Predicting the subspecific identity of invasive species using distribution models: Acacia saligna as an example. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):1001-1014.

Thornton, D.H., Branch, L.C., and Sunquist, M.E. 2011. The relative influence of habitat loss and fragmentation: do tropical mammals meet the temperate paradigm? Ecol. Appl. 21(6):2324-2333.

Tista, M., and Fiedler, K. 2011. How to evaluate and reduce sampling effort for ants. J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):547-559.

Torres, A., Palacin, C., Seoane, J., and Alonso, J.C. 2011. Assessing the effects of a highway on a threatened species using Before-During-After and Before-During-After-Control-Impact designs. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2223-2232.

Trovó, M., Echternacht, L., and Sano, P.T. 2011. Paepalanthus hirtellus, a new species of Paepalanthus subsection Actinocephaloides (Eriocaulaceae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 15:26-32.

Ulyshen, M.D., Pucci, T.M., and Hanula, J.L. 2011. The importance of forest type, tree species and wood posture to saproxylic wasp (Hymenoptera) communities in the southeastern United States. J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):539-546.

van Halder, I., Barbaro, L., and Jactel, H. 2011. Conserving butterflies in fragmented plantation forests: are edge and interior habitats equally important? J. Insect Conserv. 15(4):591-601.

Van Lanen, N.J., Franklin, A.B., Huyvaert, K.P., Reiser, R.F., and Carlson, P.C. 2011. Who hits and hoots at whom? Potential for interference competition between barred and northern spotted owls. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2194-2201.

van Langevelde, F., Ettema, J.A., Donners, M., WallisDeVries, M.F., and Groenendijk, D. 2011. Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2274-2281.

van Wilgen, B.W., Dyer, C., Hoffmann, J.H., Ivey, P., Le Maitre, D.C., Moore, J.L., Richardson, D.M., Rouget, M., Wannenburgh, A., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2011. National-scale strategic approaches for managing introduced plants: insights from Australian acacias in South Africa. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):1060-1075.

Vargas, R., Reif, A., and Faúndez, M.J. 2011. The forests of Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile: an endemism hotspot in danger. Bosque 32(2):155-164.

Veiga, P., Rubal, M., Arenas, F., Incera, M., Olabarria, C., and Sousa-Pinto, I. 2011. Does Carcinus maenas facilitate the invasion of Xenostrobus securis? J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 406(1-2):14-20.

Veldtman, R., Lado, T.F., Botes, A., Procheş, Ş., Timm, A.E., Geertsema, H., and Chown, S.L. 2011. Creating novel food webs on introduced Australian acacias: indirect effects of galling biological control agents. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):958-967.

Velho, N., Srinivasan, U., Prashanth, N.S., and Laurance, W.F. 2011. Human disease hinders anti-poaching efforts in Indian nature reserves. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2382-2385.

Villemant, C., Barbet-Massin, M., Perrard, A., Muller, F., Gargominy, O., Jiguet, F., and Rome, Q. 2011. Predicting the invasion risk by the alien bee-hawking yellow-legged hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax across Europe and other continents with niche models. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2142-2150.

Vincent, S., Nemoz, M., and Aulagnier, S. 2011. Activity and foraging habitats of Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae) in southern France: implications for its conservation. Hystrix 22(1):57-72.

Visconti, P., Pressey, R.L., Giorgini, D., Maiorano, L., Bakkenes, M., Boitani, L., Alkemade, R., Falcucci, A., Chiozza, F., and Rondinini, C. 2011. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2693-2702.

Wang, Z.H., Yao, H., Ding, Y.Z., John, T., and Wang, X.M. 2011. Testing reintroduction as a conservation strategy for the critically endangered Chinese alligator: movements and home range of released captive individuals. Chinese Sci. Bull. 56(24):2586-2593.

Warden, M.L. 2011. Modeling loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) interactions with US Mid-Atlantic bottom trawl gear for fish and scallops, 2005-2008. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2202-2212.

Webb, W.C., Marzluff, J.M., and Hepinstall-Cymerman, J. 2011. Linking resource use with demography in a synanthropic population of common ravens. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2264-2273.

Weis, J.S. 2011. Invasion and predation in aquatic ecosystems. Curr. Zool. 57(5):613-624.

White, J.W., Botsford, L.W., Baskett, M.L., Barnett, L.A.K., Barr, R.J., and Hastings, A. 2011. Linking models with monitoring data for assessing performance of no-take marine reserves. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(7):390-399.

Wiley, D.N., Thompson, M., Pace, R.M., and Levenson, J. 2011. Modeling speed restrictions to mitigate lethal collisions between ships and whales in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, USA. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2377-2381.

Wilson, H.B., Joseph, L.N., Moore, A.L., and Possingham, H.P. 2011. When should we save the most endangered species? Ecol. Lett. 14(9):886-890.

Wilson, J.R.U., Gairifo, C., Gibson, M.R., Arianoutsou, M., Bakar, B.B., Baret, S., Celesti-Grapow, L., DiTomaso, J.M., Dufour-Dror, J.M., Kueffer, C., Kull, C.A., Hoffmann, J.H., Impson, F.A.C., Loope, L.L., Marchante, E., Marchante, H., Moore, J.L., Murphy, D.J., Tassin, J., Witt, A., Zenni, R.D., and Richardson, D.M. 2011. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):1030-1046.

Wilson, K.A., Evans, M.C., Di Marco, M., Green, D.C., Boitani, L., Possingham, H.P., Chiozza, F., and Rondinini, C. 2011. Prioritizing conservation investments for mammal species globally. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1578):2670-2680.

Wingfield, M.J., Roux, J., and Wingfield, B.D. 2011. Insect pests and pathogens of Australian acacias grown as non-natives - an experiment in biogeography with far-reaching consequences. Divers. Distrib. 17(5):968-977.

Witmer, G.W., and Fuller, P.L. 2011. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories. Curr. Zool. 57(5):559-567.

Wu, L.W., Lees, D.C., Yen, S.H., Lu, C.C., and Hsu, Y.F. 2011. The complete mitochondrial genome of the near-threatened swallowtail, Agehana maraho (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): evaluating sequence variability and suitable markers for conservation genetic studies. Entomol. News 121(3):267-280.

Wu, R.D., Zhang, S., Yu, D.W., Zhao, P., Li, X.H., Wang, L.Z., Yu, Q., Ma, J., Chen, A., and Long, Y.C. 2011. Effectiveness of China's nature reserves in representing ecological diversity. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(7):383-389.

Xiang, Z.F., Yu, Y., Yang, M., Yang, J.Y., Niao, M.Y., and Li, M. 2011. Does flagship species tourism benefit conservation? A case study of the golden snub-nosed monkey in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. Chinese Sci. Bull. 56(24):2553-2558.

Xiao, J., Xu, W.H., Kang, D.W., and Li, J.Q. 2011. Nature reserve group planning for conservation of giant pandas in North Minshan, China. J. Nature Conserv. 19(4):209-214.

Zedrosser, A., Steyaert, S.M.J.G., Gossow, H., and Swenson, J.E. 2011. Brown bear conservation and the ghost of persecution past. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2163-2170.

Zhao, J.Z., Li, Y., Wang, D.Y., and Xu, D. 2011. Tourism-induced deforestation outside Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, northeast China. Ann. Forest Sci. 68(5):935-941.


**To read and print the pdf of the newsletter,
you must download Adobe Acrobat (free)**
Get Acrobat Reader here.

[ TOP ]