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Department ofBotany

No. 325
January 2012

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In This Issue

Super Tough Seed Coat Keeps Michaux's Sumac on Critically Endangered List

Adapted from

It is one of the rarest shrubs in the southeastern United States but for scientists trying to save it, the critically endangered Michaux's sumac (Rhus michauxii) is not cooperating. So far botanists have exposed the hard-, thick-coated seeds of this native North American plant to boiling water, dry heat up to 284 degrees Fahrenheit and flames from a propane blowtorch to try to coax them into germination. Nothing has worked. "Complete understanding of the germination requirements of endangered plants is an absolute requirement to effectively manage populations," Smithsonian research associate Jay Bolin and botanists Marcus Jones and Lytton Musselman write in a recent paper on this plant in Native Plants Journal. So far, however, Michaux's sumac has not given up its secrets.

Because Michaux's sumac grows only in areas with few trees where the vegetation has been disturbed, it has long been assumed that its seeds germinate naturally following exposure to the high-temperatures of a brush or forest fire. Decline of this plant has been attributed to the prevention and suppression of brush and forest fires by humans. In Virginia it grows in only two places: on the grounds of the Virginia Army National Guard Maneuver Training Center in Fort Picket and a mowed railway right-of-way in an undisclosed location.

In a recent series of germination experiments, the scientists exposed different sets of Michaux's sumac seeds to dry heat temperatures of 140, 176, 212, 248 and 284 F, some sets for 5 minutes and other sets for 10 minutes. (The temperatures were determined based on maximum wildfire surface temperatures and burn times recorded in southeastern U.S. forests.) The researchers found that temperatures above 212 F killed the seeds. Lower temperatures had virtually no impact on breaking the seed's dormancy.

The highest germination rates—30 percent—occurred after sulfuric acid was poured on Michaux's sumac seeds and allowed to scarify the seed coats. This finding, from an experiment done in 1996, has led the researchers to their next experiment using birds. "We are going to feed the seeds to quail and wild turkey to determine if that breaks the seed dormancy," says Bolin, a research associate with the Department of Botany at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and an assistant professor at Catawba College in Salisbury, North Carolina. Seed passage through the digestive tracts of frugivorous birds (and exposure to the acid in the bird's stomachs) may break the physical dormancy of these seeds and help disperse them as well.

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Huang, D.C., Haack, R.A., and Zhang, R.Z. 2011. Does global warming increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis. PLoS ONE 6(9):e24733.

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Janzen, D.H., and Hallwachs, W. 2011. Joining inventory by parataxonomists with DNA barcoding of a large complex tropical conserved wildland in northwestern Costa Rica. PLoS ONE 6(8):e18123.

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Jiang, L., Brady, L., and Tan, J.Q. 2011. Species diversity, invasion, and alternative community states in sequentially assembled communities. Am. Nat. 178(3):411-418.

Jones-Farrand, D.T., Fearer, T.M., Thogmartin, W.E., Thompson, F.R., Nelson, M.D., and Tirpak, J.M. 2011. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction. Ecol. Appl. 21(6):2269-2282.

Kahraman, A., Došan, M., and Celep, F. 2011. Salvia siirtica sp. nov. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 29(4):397-401.

Kappes, H., Sundermann, A., and Haase, P. 2011. Distant land use affects terrestrial and aquatic habitats of high naturalness. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(10):2297-2309.

Kattwinkel, M., Biedermann, R., and Kleyer, M. 2011. Temporary conservation for urban biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 144(9):2335-2343.

Kellner, J.R., Asner, G.P., Kinney, K.M., Loarie, S.R., Knapp, D.E., Kennedy-Bowdoin, T., Questad, E.J., Cordell, S., and Thaxton, J.M. 2011. Remote analysis of biological invasion and the impact of enemy release. Ecol. Appl. 21(6):2094-2104.

Kleijn, D., Rundlöf, M., Scheper, J., Smith, H.G., and Tscharntke, T. 2011. Does conservation on farmland contribute to halting the biodiversity decline? Trends Ecol. Evol. 26(9):474-481.

Koper, N., and Nudds, T.D. 2011. Progress in research on grassland bird conservation and ecology. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 6(1):6.

Koyuncu, M., and Eker, I. 2011. Allium arsuzense sp. nov. and A. roseum subsp. gulekense subsp. nov. from Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 29(4):391-396.

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Kumara, H.N., Pritham, N.S., Santhoshi, K., Raj, V.V.M., and Sinha, A. 2011. Decline of suitable habitats and conservation of the endangered lion-tailed macaque: land-cover change at a proposed protected area in Sirsi-Honnavara, Western Ghats, India. Curr. Sci. 101(3):434-439.

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Piccolo, J.J. 2011. Challenges in the conservation, rehabilitation and recovery of native stream salmonid populations: beyond the 2010 Luarca symposium. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 20(3):346-351.

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