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Department ofBotany



No. 327
March 2012


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In This Issue


Invertebrates are Ignored, Overlooked by Conservationists, Policymakers and the Public


When it comes to conservation, the earth's invertebrates—insects, mollusks, worms, coral, arthropods and others—are getting a bad deal, say a team of scientists in a paper published in the journal Biological Conservation. Invertebrates make up more than 80 percent of all known species and provide humans with a myriad of valuable services—from crop pollination to their use as food—yet they are overlooked and underrepresented in conservation decisions and on priority lists of threatened and endangered species.

"Invertebrate conservation is hard to justify when many people see each insect as a potential pest or each spider as a potential health threat," write the paper's authors, who include entomologists Pedro Cardoso and Terry Erwin of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. In general the public is unaware of the critical role invertebrates play in the health of the ecosystem or the conservation threats that these creatures now face.

In addition, policymakers are often poorly informed about the details of invertebrate conservation. "Many assume that in protecting a single large animal, that animal will serve as an 'umbrella species' protecting all the other species—including invertebrates—in its habitat. This view is however largely unsupported and untested," the scientists say.

Remarkably, most of the world's invertebrates remain unknown and have never been studied or described by scientists. The vast majority ofspecies now going extinct due to human activities—about 3,000 a year—belong mainly to understudied groups of invertebrates, 'the little things that run the world,' the scientists write.  "Because most invertebrates are undescribed, their geographic distribution is unknown as is their abundance, ways of life and sensitivities to pollution and habitat change." Basic science for the study of invertebrates is scarce and underfunded.

To remedy the problem the scientists offer a number of suggestions, including: more invertebrates should be placed on red lists of endangered species and in environmental impact statements; a stronger link must be made in the public imagination between invertebrate conservation and human well-being; sampling and analytical methods for biodiversity assessment and monitoring should be improved; and long-term ecological studies should be initiated to monitor ecosystem change.


Current Literature


Abbas, H., and Qaiser, M. 2011. Ruellia linearibracteolata: conservation assessment and strategies to avoid extirpation. Pakistan J. Bot. 43(5):2351-2357.

Afonso, P., Fontes, J., and Santos, R.S. 2011. Small marine reserves can offer long term protection to an endangered fish. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2739-2744.

Alba, C., Bowers, M.D., Blumenthal, D., and Hufbauer, R. 2011. Evolution of growth but not structural or chemical defense in Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) following introduction to North America. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2379-2389.

Albrecht, M.A., Guerrant, E.O., Maschinski, J., and Kennedy, K.L. 2011. A long-term view of rare plant reintroduction. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2557-2558.

Almeida, S., Louzada, J., Sperber, C., and Barlow, J. 2011. Subtle land-use change and tropical biodiversity: dung beetle communities in cerrado grasslands and exotic pastures. Biotropica 43(6):704-710.

Arias-González, J.E., González-Gándara, C., Cabrera, J.L., and Christensen, V. 2011. Predicted impact of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans on the food web of a Caribbean coral reef. Environ. Res. 111(7):917-925.

Aronson, M.F.J., and Handel, S.N. 2011. Deer and invasive plant species suppress forest herbaceous communities and canopy tree regeneration. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):400-407.

Asmussen-Lange, C.B., Maunder, M., and Fay, M.F. 2011. Conservation genetics of the critically endangered Round Island bottle palm, Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (Arecaceae): can cultivated stocks supplement a residual wild population? Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 167(3):301-310.

Athrey, G., Lindsay, D.L., Lance, R.F., and Leberg, P.L. 2011. Crumbling diversity: comparison of historical archived and contemporary natural populations indicate reduced genetic diversity and increasing genetic differentiation in the golden-cheeked warbler. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1345-1355.

Atwood, J.P., and Meyerson, L.A. 2011. Island biogeography extends to small-scale habitats: low competitor density and richness on islands may drive trait variation in nonnative plants. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2035-2043.

Austin, C.C., Rittmeyer, E.N., Oliver, L.A., Andermann, J.O., Zug, G.R., Rodda, G.H., and Jackson, N.D. 2011. The bioinvasion of Guam: inferring geographic origin, pace, pattern and process of an invasive lizard (Carlia) in the Pacific using multi-locus genomic data. Biol. Invasions 13(9):1951-1967.

Austin, J.D., Gorman, T.A., Bishop, D., and Moler, P. 2011. Genetic evidence of contemporary hybridization in one of North America's rarest anurans, the Florida bog frog. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):553-561.

Baker, J.D., Becker, B.L., Wurth, T.A., Johanos, T.C., Littnan, C.L., and Henderson, J.R. 2011. Translocation as a tool for conservation of the Hawaiian monk seal. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2692-2701.

Banks, E.R., and Baker, W.L. 2011. Scale and pattern of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) invasion in Rocky Mountain National Park. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):377-390.

Bartula, M., Stojšić, V., Perić, R., and Kitnæs, K.S. 2011. Protection of Natura 2000 habitat types in the Ramsar site "Zasavica Special Nature Reserve" in Serbia. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):349-357.

Bernstein, N.P., and Christiansen, J.L. 2011. Response of a yellow mud turtle (Kinosternon flavescens Agassiz) community to habitat change: management implications for a nature preserve. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):414-419.

Bigsby, K.M., Tobin, P.C., and Sills, E.O. 2011. Anthropogenic drivers of gypsy moth spread. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2077-2090.

Bisson, I.A., Butler, L.K., Hayden, T.J., Kelley, P., Adelman, J.S., Romero, L.M., and Wikelski, M.C. 2011. Energetic response to human disturbance in an endangered songbird. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):484-491.

Blair, M.E., Sterling, E.J., and Hurley, M.M. 2011. Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review. Am. J. Primatol. 73(11):1093-1106.

Blanco, G., Lemus, J.A., and García-Montijano, M. 2011. When conservation management becomes contraindicated: impact of food supplementation on health of endangered wildlife. Ecol. Appl. 21(7):2469-2477.

Bonnaud, E., and Courchamp, F. 2011. Deciphering complex relationships between apparently unrelated species. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):468-470.

Booth, J.E., Gaston, K.J., Evans, K.L., and Armsworth, P.R. 2011. The value of species rarity in biodiversity recreation: a birdwatching example. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2728-2732.

Bowen, B. 2011. Natural areas protection at its best; protecting the Tennessee purple coneflower (Echinacea tennesseensis). Nat. Areas J. 31(4):326-330.

Boyd, R.S., Teem, A., and Wall, M.A. 2011. Floral biology of an Alabama population of the federally endangered plant, Xyris tennesseensis Kral (Xyridaceae). Castanea 76(3):255-265.

Brito, A., Clemente, S., and Herrera, R. 2011. On the occurrence of the African hind, Cephalopholis taeniops, in the Canary Islands (eastern subtropical Atlantic): introduction of large-sized demersal littoral fishes in ballast water of oil platforms? Biol. Invasions 13(10):2185-2189.

Brodier, S., Pisanu, B., Villers, A., Pettex, E., Lioret, M., Chapuis, J.L., and Bretagnolle, V. 2011. Responses of seabirds to the rabbit eradication on Ile Verte, sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Archipelago. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):459-465.

Brzyski, J.R., and Culley, T.M. 2011. Genetic variation and clonal structure of the rare, riparian shrub Spiraea virginiana (Rosaceae). Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1323-1332.

Burgmeier, N.G., Unger, S.D., Sutton, T.M., and Williams, R.N. 2011. Population status of the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Indiana. J. Herpetol. 45:195-201.

Cane, J.H., and Neff, J.L. 2011. Predicted fates of ground-nesting bees in soil heated by wildfire: thermal tolerances of life stages and a survey of nesting depths. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2631-2636.

Cardoso, P., Erwin, T.L., Borges, P.A.V., and New, T.R. 2011. The seven impediments in invertebrate conservation and how to overcome them. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2647-2655.

Castañeda-Rico, S., León-Paniagua, L., Ruedas, L.A., and Vázquez-Domínguez, E. 2011. High genetic diversity and extreme differentiation in the two remaining populations of Habromys simulatus. J. Mammal. 92(5):963-973.

Castro-Díez, P., Langendoen, T., Poorter, L., and Saldaña-López, A. 2011. Predicting Acacia invasive success in South Africa on the basis of functional traits, native climatic niche and human use. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2729-2743.

Catford, J.A., Vesk, P.A., White, M.D., and Wintle, B.A. 2011. Hotspots of plant invasion predicted by propagule pressure and ecosystem characteristics. Divers. Distrib. 17(6):1099-1110.

Cayuela, L., Ruiz-Arriaga, S., and Ozers, C.P. 2011. Honeybees increase fruit set in native plant species important for wildlife conservation. Environ. Manage. 48(5):910-919.

Cerezo, A., Conde, M.C., and Poggio, S.L. 2011. Pasture area and landscape heterogeneity are key determinants of bird diversity in intensively managed farmland. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2649-2667.

Chapuis, J.L., Pisanu, B., Brodier, S., Villers, A., Pettex, E., Lioret, M., and Bretagnolle, V. 2011. Eradication of invasive herbivores: usefulness and limits for biological conservation in a changing world. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):471-473.

Cicuzza, D., Kessler, M., Clough, Y., Pitopang, R., Leitner, D., and Tjitrosoedirdjo, S. 2011. Conservation value of cacao agroforestry systems for terrestrial herbaceous species in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biotropica 43(6):755-762.

Clark, V.R., Barker, N.P., and Mucina, L. 2011. The Great Escarpment of southern Africa: a new frontier for biodiversity exploration. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2543-2561.

Clements, G.R., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Brook, B.W., and Laurance, W.F. 2011. The SAFE index: using a threshold population target to measure relative species threat. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(9):521-525.

Cole, N.C., and Harris, S. 2011. Environmentally-induced shifts in behavior intensify indirect competition by an invasive gecko in Mauritius. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2063-2075.

Coleman, M.J., Sindel, B.M., van der Meulen, A.W., and Reeve, I.J. 2011. The risks associated with weed spread in Australia and implications for natural areas. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):368-376.

Collins, C., and Kays, R. 2011. Causes of mortality in North American populations of large and medium-sized mammals. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):474-483.

Combs, J.K., Reichard, S.H., Groom, M.J., Wilderman, D.L., and Camp, P.A. 2011. Invasive competitor and native seed predators contribute to rarity of the narrow endemic Astragalus sinuatus Piper. Ecol. Appl. 21(7):2498-2509.

Crossland, M., Brown, G., and Shine, R. 2011. The enduring toxicity of road-killed cane toads (Rhinella marina). Biol. Invasions 13(9):2135-2145.

D'Cruze, N., and Kumar, S. 2011. Effects of anthropogenic activities on lizard communities in northern Madagascar. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):542-552.

Darling, E.S., Green, S.J., O'Leary, J.K., and Côté, I.M. 2011. Indo-Pacific lionfish are larger and more abundant on invaded reefs: a comparison of Kenyan and Bahamian lionfish populations. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2045-2051.

Darling, J.A., and Mahon, A.R. 2011. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments. Environ. Res. 111(7):978-988.

David, A.S., and Menges, E.S. 2011. Microhabitat preference constrains invasive spread of non-native natal grass (Melinis repens). Biol. Invasions 13(10):2309-2322.

Davies, K.W., Boyd, C.S., Beck, J.L., Bates, J.D., Svejcar, T.J., and Gregg, M.A. 2011. Saving the sagebrush sea: an ecosystem conservation plan for big sagebrush plant communities. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2573-2584.

Davy, C.M., Edwards, T., Lathrop, A., Bratton, M., Hagan, M., Henen, B., Nagy, K.A., Stone, J., Hillard, L.S., and Murphy, R.W. 2011. Polyandry and multiple paternities in the threatened Agassiz's desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1313-1322.

Dellicour, S., Frantz, A.C., Colyn, M., Bertouille, S., Chaumont, F., and Flamand, M.C. 2011. Population structure and genetic diversity of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in forest fragments in north-western France. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1287-1297.

Doré, F., Grillet, P., Thirion, J.M., Besnard, A., and Cheylan, M. 2011. A long-term monitoring program of the ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus) population on Oleron Island. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie 66(3):205-214.

Dorji, S., Vernes, K., and Rajaratnam, R. 2011. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan. PLoS ONE 6(10):e26483.

Dugger, K.M., Anthony, R.G., and Andrews, L.S. 2011. Transient dynamics of invasive competition: Barred Owls, Spotted Owls, habitat, and the demons of competition present. Ecol. Appl. 21(7):2459-2468.

Dumont, C.P., Gaymer, C.F., and Thiel, M. 2011. Predation contributes to invasion resistance of benthic communities against the non-indigenous tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2023-2034.

Dupont, Y.L., Damgaard, C., and Simonsen, V. 2011. Quantitative historical change in bumblebee (Bombus spp.) assemblages of red clover fields. PLoS ONE 6(9):e25172.

Dzialak, M.R., Olson, C.V., Harju, S.M., Webb, S.L., Mudd, J.P., Winstead, J.B., and Hayden-Wing, L.D. 2011. Identifying and prioritizing greater sage-grouse nesting and brood-rearing habitat for conservation in human-modified landscapes. PLoS ONE 6(10):e26273.

Eisenhauer, N., Schlaghamerský, J., Reich, P.B., and Frelich, L.E. 2011. The wave towards a new steady state: effects of earthworm invasion on soil microbial functions. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2191-2196.

Emel, S.L., and Bonett, R.M. 2011. Considering alternative life history modes and genetic divergence in conservation: a case study of the Oklahoma salamander. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1243-1259.

Espartosa, K.D., Pinotti, B.T., and Pardini, R. 2011. Performance of camera trapping and track counts for surveying large mammals in rainforest remnants. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2815-2829.

Estes, L.D., Mwangi, A.G., Reillo, P.R., and Shugart, H.H. 2011. Predictive distribution modeling with enhanced remote sensing and multiple validation techniques to support mountain bongo antelope recovery. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):521-532.

Farmer, J.R., Chancellor, C., and Fischer, B.C. 2011. Space to romp and roam and how it may promote land conservation. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):340-348.

Feeley, K.J., and Silman, M.R. 2011. Keep collecting: accurate species distribution modelling requires more collections than previously thought. Divers. Distrib. 17(6):1132-1140.

Ficetola, G.F., Siesa, M.E., Manenti, R., Bottoni, L., De Bernardi, F., and Padoa-Schioppa, E. 2011. Early assessment of the impact of alien species: differential consequences of an invasive crayfish on adult and larval amphibians. Divers. Distrib. 17(6):1141-1151.

Figueroa, F., Sánchez-Cordero, V., Illoldi-Rangel, P., and Linaje, M. 2011. Evaluation of protected area effectiveness for preventing land use and land cover changes in Mexico. Is an index good enough? Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 82(3):951-963.

Finkbeiner, E.M., Wallace, B.P., Moore, J.E., Lewison, R.L., Crowder, L.B., and Read, A.J. 2011. Cumulative estimates of sea turtle bycatch and mortality in USA fisheries between 1990 and 2007. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2719-2727.

Foster, W.A., Snaddon, J.L., Turner, E.C., Fayle, T.M., Cockerill, T.D., Ellwood, M.D.F., Broad, G.R., Chung, A.Y.C., Eggleton, P., Khen, C.V., and Yusah, K.M. 2011. Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1582):3277-3291.

Fotiadis, G., Kyriazopoulos, A.P., and Fraggakis, I. 2011. The behaviour of Ailanthus altissima weed and its effects on natural ecosystems. J. Environ. Biol. 32(6):801-806.

Francis, R.A. 2011. The impacts of modern warfare on freshwater ecosystems. Environ. Manage. 48(5):985-999.

Gagnon, K., McKindsey, C.W., and Johnson, L.E. 2011. Dispersal potential of invasive algae: the determinants of buoyancy in Codium fragile ssp. fragile. Mar. Biol. 158(11):2449-2458.

Gauto, I., Spichiger, R.E., and Stauffer, F.W. 2011. Diversity, distribution and conservation status assessment of Paraguayan palms (Arecaceae). Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2705-2728.

Gherardi, F., Britton, J.R., Mavuti, K.M., Pacini, N., Grey, J., Tricarico, E., and Harper, D.M. 2011. A review of allodiversity in Lake Naivasha, Kenya: developing conservation actions to protect East African lakes from the negative impacts of alien species. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2585-2596.

Gibson, L., Lee, T.M., Koh, L.P., Brook, B.W., Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., Peres, C.A., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Laurance, W.F., Lovejoy, T.E., and Sodhi, N.S. 2011. Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature 478(7369):378-381.

Gil-Sánchez, J.M., and McCain, E.B. 2011. Former range and decline of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) reconstructed using verified records. J. Mammal. 92(5):1081-1090.

Gilbert, M.T.P. 2011. The mummy returns ... and sheds new light on old questions. Mol. Ecol. 20(20):4195-4198.

Giudice, G.E., Giacosa, J.P.R., Luna, M.L., Yañez, A., and de la Sota, E.R. 2011. Diversity of ferns and lycophytes from Reserva Natural Punta Lara, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59(3):1037-1046.

Godbout, L., Wood, C.C., Withler, R.E., Latham, S., Nelson, R.J., Wetzel, L., Barnett-Johnson, R., Grove, M.J., Schmitt, A.K., and McKeegan, K.D. 2011. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) return after an absence of nearly 90 years: a case of reversion to anadromy. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 68(9):1590-1602.

Godefroid, S. 2011. A long-term view of rare plant reintroduction - response. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2559-2559.

Gomez-Mestre, I., and Díaz-Paniagua, C. 2011. Invasive predatory crayfish do not trigger inducible defences in tadpoles. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1723):3364-3370.

Gonmadje, C.F., Doumenge, C., McKey, D., Tchouto, G.P.M., Sunderland, T.C.H., Balinga, M.P.B., and Sonke, B. 2011. Tree diversity and conservation value of Ngovayang's lowland forests, Cameroon. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2627-2648.

González-Porter, G.P., Hailer, F., Flores-Villela, O., García-Anleu, R., and Maldonado, J.E. 2011. Patterns of genetic diversity in the critically endangered Central American river turtle: human influence since the Mayan age? Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1229-1242.

Goodall, J., Witkowski, E.T.F., Morris, C.D., and Henderson, L. 2011. Are environmental factors important facilitators of pompom weed (Campuloclinium macrocephalum) invasion in South African rangelands? Biol. Invasions 13(10):2217-2231.

Gosse, J., Hermanutz, L., McLaren, B., Deering, P., and Knight, T. 2011. Degradation of boreal forests by non-native herbivores in Newfoundland's national parks: recommendations for ecosystem restoration. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):331-339.

Gray, M. 2011. Other nature: geodiversity and geosystem services. Environ. Conserv. 38(3):271-274.

Griffiths, A.M., Ellis, J.S., Clifton-Dey, D., Machado-Schiaffino, G., Bright, D., Garcia-Vazquez, E., and Stevens, J.R. 2011. Restoration versus recolonisation: the origin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar L.) currently in the River Thames. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2733-2738.

Hahn, I.J., Vergara, P.M., and Römer, U. 2011. Habitat selection and population trends in terrestrial bird species of Robinson Crusoe Island: habitat generalists versus forest specialists. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2797-2813.

Hansen, A.J., Phillips, L.B., Flather, C.H., and Robison-Cox, J. 2011. Carrying capacity for species richness as a context for conservation: a case study of North American breeding birds. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 20(6):817-831.

Harju, S.M., Dzialak, M.R., Osborn, R.G., Hayden-Wing, L.D., and Winstead, J.B. 2011. Conservation planning using resource selection models: altered selection in the presence of human activity changes spatial prediction of resource use. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):502-511.

Haught, S., and von Hippel, F.A. 2011. Invasive pike establishment in Cook Inlet Basin lakes, Alaska: diet, native fish abundance and lake environment. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2103-2114.

Hawkins, J., and Weintraub, M.N. 2011. The effect of trails on soil in the oak openings of northwest Ohio. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):391-399.

Hayward, M.W. 2011. Using the IUCN Red List to determine effective conservation strategies. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2563-2573.

Hekkala, E., Shirley, M.H., Amato, G., Austin, J.D., Charter, S., Thorbjarnarson, J., Vliet, K.A., Houck, M.L., Desalle, R., and Blum, M.J. 2011. An ancient icon reveals new mysteries: mummy DNA resurrects a cryptic species within the Nile crocodile. Mol. Ecol. 20(20):4199-4215.

Hekkala, E.R., Saumure, R.A., Jaeger, J.R., Herrmann, H.W., Sredl, M.J., Bradford, D.F., Drabeck, D., and Blum, M.J. 2011. Resurrecting an extinct species: archival DNA, taxonomy, and conservation of the Vegas Valley leopard frog. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1379-1385.

Hellmair, M., Goldsmith, G., and Kinziger, A.P. 2011. Preying on invasives: the exotic New Zealand mudsnail in the diet of the endangered tidewater goby. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2197-2201.

Hennige, S.J., McGinley, M.P., Grottoli, A.G., and Warner, M.E. 2011. Photoinhibition of Symbiodinium spp. within the reef corals Montastraea faveolata and Porites astreoides: implications for coral bleaching. Mar. Biol. 158(11):2515-2526.

Hewitt, N., Klenk, N., Smith, A.L., Bazely, D.R., Yan, N., Wood, S., MacLellan, J.I., Lipsig-Mumme, C., and Henriques, I. 2011. Taking stock of the assisted migration debate. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2560-2572.

Hierro, J.L., Lortie, C.J., Villarreal, D., Estanga-Mollica, M.E., and Callaway, R.M. 2011. Resistance to Centaurea solstitialis invasion from annual and perennial grasses in California and Argentina. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2249-2259.

Hill, J.K., Gray, M.A., Khen, C.V., Benedick, S., Tawatao, N., and Hamer, K.C. 2011. Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation: how consistent are patterns in species richness and nestedness? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1582):3265-3276.

Hixon, M.A. 2011. 60 years of coral reef fish ecology: past, present, future. Bull. Mar. Sci. 87(4):727-765.

Holzschuh, A., Dormann, C.F., Tscharntke, T., and Steffan-Dewenter, I. 2011. Expansion of mass-flowering crops leads to transient pollinator dilution and reduced wild plant pollination. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1723):3444-3451.

Horne, J.S., Strickler, K.M., and Alldredge, M. 2011. Quantifying the importance of patch-specific changes in habitat to metapopulation viability of an endangered songbird. Ecol. Appl. 21(7):2478-2486.

Howell, K.L., Holt, R., Endrino, I.P., and Stewart, H. 2011. When the species is also a habitat: comparing the predictively modelled distributions of Lophelia pertusa and the reef habitat it forms. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2656-2665.

Hu, X.M., Zeng, Q.W., Fu, L., and Xing, F.W. 2011. Manglietia kaifui (Magnoliaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. Pakistan J. Bot. 43(5):2269-2275.

Huang, H.W., and Yeh, Y.M. 2011. Impact of Taiwanese distant water longline fisheries on the Pacific seabirds: finding hotspots on the high seas. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):562-574.

Huff, D.D., Miller, L.M., Chizinski, C.J., and Vondracek, B. 2011. Mixed-source reintroductions lead to outbreeding depression in second-generation descendents of a native North American fish. Mol. Ecol. 20(20):4246-4258.

Hulme, P.E., and Weser, C. 2011. Mixed messages from multiple information sources on invasive species: a case of too much of a good thing? Divers. Distrib. 17(6):1152-1160.

Humber, J.M., and Hermanutz, L. 2011. Impacts of non-native plant and animal invaders on gap regeneration in a protected boreal forest. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2361-2377.

Hunter, D.A., Smith, M.J., Scroggie, M.P., and Gilligan, D. 2011. Experimental examination of the potential for three introduced fish species to prey on tadpoles of the endangered Booroolong Frog, Litoria booroolongensis. J. Herpetol. 45:181-185.

Ivanov, K., Lockhart, O.M., Keiper, J., and Walton, B.M. 2011. Status of the exotic ant Nylanderia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in northeastern Ohio. Biol. Invasions 13(9):1945-1950.

Januchowski-Hartley, S.R., Pearson, R.G., Puschendorf, R., and Rayner, T. 2011. Fresh waters and fish diversity: distribution, protection and disturbance in tropical Australia. PLoS ONE 6(10):e25846.

Jezorek, H., Stiling, P., and Carpenter, J. 2011. Ant predation on an invasive herbivore: can an extrafloral nectar-producing plant provide associational resistance to Opuntia individuals? Biol. Invasions 13(10):2261-2273.

Johnston, A.R., Morikawa, M.K., Ntie, S., and Anthony, N.M. 2011. Evaluating DNA barcoding criteria using African duiker antelope (Cephalophinae) as a test case. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1173-1182.

Kamp, J., Urazaliev, R., Donald, P.F., and Hölzel, N. 2011. Post-Soviet agricultural change predicts future declines after recent recovery in Eurasian steppe bird populations. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2607-2614.

Karaiskou, N., Lappa, M., Kalomoiris, S., Oikonomidis, G., Psaltopoulou, C., Abatzopoulos, T.J., Triantaphyllidis, C., and Triantafyllidis, A. 2011. Genetic monitoring and effects of stocking practices on small Cyprinus carpio populations. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1299-1311.

Khuroo, A.A., Weber, E., Malik, A.H., Reshi, Z.A., and Dar, G.H. 2011. Altitudinal distribution patterns of the native and alien woody flora in Kashmir Himalaya, India. Environ. Res. 111(7):967-977.

King, C.M., Innes, J.G., Gleeson, D., Fitzgerald, N., Winstanley, T., O'Brien, B., Bridgman, L., and Cox, N. 2011. Reinvasion by ship rats (Rattus rattus) of forest fragments after eradication. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2391-2408.

Kittinger, J.N., Pandolfi, J.M., Blodgett, J.H., Hunt, T.L., Jiang, H., Maly, K., McClenachan, L.E., Schultz, J.K., and Wilcox, B.A. 2011. Historical reconstruction reveals recovery in Hawaiian coral reefs. PLoS ONE 6(10):e25460.

Köster, N., Nieder, J., and Barthlott, W. 2011. Effect of host tree traits on epiphyte diversity in natural and anthropogenic habitats in Ecuador. Biotropica 43(6):685-694.

Knight, A.T., Grantham, H.S., Smith, R.J., McGregor, G.K., Possingham, H.P., and Cowling, R.M. 2011. Land managers' willingness-to-sell defines conservation opportunity for protected area expansion. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2623-2630.

Knight, A.T., Sarkar, S., Smith, R.J., Strange, N., and Wilson, K.A. 2011. Engage the hodgepodge: management factors are essential when prioritizing areas for restoration and conservation action. Divers. Distrib. 17(6):1234-1238.

Lachmuth, S., Durka, W., and Schurr, F.M. 2011. Differentiation of reproductive and competitive ability in the invaded range of Senecio inaequidens: the role of genetic Allee effects, adaptive and nonadaptive evolution. New Phytol. 192(2):529-541.

Lamarque, L.J., Delzon, S., and Lortie, C.J. 2011. Tree invasions: a comparative test of the dominant hypotheses and functional traits. Biol. Invasions 13(9):1969-1989.

Lau, D.C.C., Dumont, C.P., Lui, G.C.S., and Qiu, J.W. 2011. Effectiveness of a small marine reserve in southern China in protecting the harvested sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina: a mark-and-recapture study. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2674-2683.

Legge, S., Kennedy, M.S., Lloyd, R., Murphy, S.A., and Fisher, A. 2011. Rapid recovery of mammal fauna in the central Kimberley, northern Australia, following the removal of introduced herbivores. Austral Ecol. 36(7):791-799.

Lercari, D., and Bergamino, L. 2011. Impacts of two invasive mollusks, Rapana venosa (Gastropoda) and Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia), on the food web structure of the Río de la Plata estuary and nearshore oceanic ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2053-2061.

Lett, C.N., DeWald, L.E., and Horton, J. 2011. Mycorrhizae and soil phosphorus affect growth of Celastrus orbiculatus. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2339-2350.

Li, Z.Y., Dong, Q., Albright, T.P., and Guo, Q.F. 2011. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: the case of kudzu. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2167-2179.

Liao, Y.Y., Yang, X.Y., Motley, T.J., Chen, J.M., and Wang, Q.F. 2011. Phylogeographic analysis reveals two cryptic species of the endangered fern Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. (Parkeriaceae) in China. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1357-1365.

Lieb, D.A., Bouchard, R.W., Carline, R.F., Nuttall, T.R., Wallace, J.R., and Burkholder, C.L. 2011. Conservation and management of crayfishes: lessons from Pennsylvania. Fisheries 36(10):489-507.

Lisón, F., and Calvo, J.F. 2011. The significance of water infrastructures for the conservation of bats in a semiarid Mediterranean landscape. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):533-541.

Liu, S., Sheppard, A., Kriticos, D., and Cook, D. 2011. Incorporating uncertainty and social values in managing invasive alien species: a deliberative multi-criteria evaluation approach. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2323-2337.

Lloyd, M.W., Burnett, R.K., Engelhardt, K.A.M., and Neel, M.C. 2011. The structure of population genetic diversity in Vallisneria americana in the Chesapeake Bay: implications for restoration. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1269-1285.

Londoño-Murcia, M.C., and Sánchez-Cordero, V. 2011. Distribution and conservation of endangered species in Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 82(3):926-950.

Lotze, H.K., Coll, M., Magera, A.M., Ward-Paige, C., and Airoldi, L. 2011. Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26(11):595-605.

Louda, S.M., Rand, T.A., Kula, A.A.R., Arnett, A.E., West, N.M., and Tenhumberg, B. 2011. Priority resource access mediates competitive intensity between an invasive weevil and native floral herbivores. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2233-2248.

Lowe, K.A., Taylor, C.E., and Major, R.E. 2011. Do Common Mynas significantly compete with native birds in urban environments? J. Ornithol. 152(4):909-921.

Lozier, J.D., and Mills, N.J. 2011. Predicting the potential invasive range of light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using biologically informed and correlative species distribution models. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2409-2421.

MacDougall-Shackleton, E.A., Clinchy, M., Zanette, L., and Neff, B.D. 2011. Songbird genetic diversity is lower in anthropogenically versus naturally fragmented landscapes. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1195-1203.

MacRae, T.C., and Brown, C.R. 2011. Historical and contemporary occurrence of Cylindera (s. str.) celeripes (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) and implications for its conservation. Coleopts. Bull. 65(3):230-241.

Magnacca, K.N. 2011. Two new species of Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) from O'ahu, Hawai'i. Zootaxa 3065:60-65.

Marie, A.D., Bernatchez, L., and Garant, D. 2011. Empirical assessment of software efficiency and accuracy to detect introgression under variable stocking scenarios in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1215-1227.

Marini, L., Haack, R.A., Rabaglia, R.J., Toffolo, E.P., Battisti, A., and Faccoli, M. 2011. Exploring associations between international trade and environmental factors with establishment patterns of exotic Scolytinae. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2275-2288.

McGlynn, C.A. 2011. Response to Eichiner's Note to McGlynn's article "Native and invasive plant interactions in wetlands and the minimal role of invasiveness" in Biological Invasions (2009) 11:1929-1939. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2181-2183.

McIntyre, S., McGinness, H.M., Gaydon, D., and Arthur, A.D. 2011. Introducing irrigation efficiencies: prospects for flood-dependent biodiversity in a rice agro-ecosystem. Environ. Conserv. 38(3):353-365.

Mead, A., Carlton, J.T., Griffiths, C.L., and Rius, M. 2011. Revealing the scale of marine bioinvasions in developing regions: a South African re-assessment. Biol. Invasions 13(9):1991-2008.

Medina, F.M., Bonnaud, E., Vidal, E., Tershy, B.R., Zavaleta, E.S., Donlan, C.J., Keitt, B.S., Le Corre, M., Horwath, S.V., and Nogales, M. 2011. A global review of the impacts of invasive cats on island endangered vertebrates. Global Change Biol. 17(11):3503-3510.

Méndez, M., Tella, J.L., and Godoy, J.A. 2011. Restricted gene flow and genetic drift in recently fragmented populations of an endangered steppe bird. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2615-2622.

Molleman, L., Boeve, S., Wolf, J., Oostermeijer, G., Devy, S., and Ganesan, R. 2011. Commercial harvesting and regeneration of epiphytic macrolichen communities in the Western Ghats, India. Environ. Conserv. 38(3):334-341.

Moutou, K.A., Mamuris, Z., Firme, T., Kontou, M., Sarafidou, T., and Stoumboudi, M.T. 2011. Patterns of variability at the major histocompatibility class I and class II loci in populations of the endangered cyprinid Ladigesocypris ghigii. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1159-1171.

Murray, C.C., Pakhomov, E.A., and Therriault, T.W. 2011. Recreational boating: a large unregulated vector transporting marine invasive species. Divers. Distrib. 17(6):1161-1172.

Nascimento, A.T.A., Schmidlin, L.A.J., Valladares-Padua, C.B., Matushima, E.R., and Verdade, L.M. 2011. A comparison of the home range sizes of mainland and island populations of black-faced lion tamarins (Leontopithecus caissara) using different spatial analysis. Am. J. Primatol. 73(11):1114-1126.

Nordstrom, K.F., Jackson, N.L., Kraus, N.C., Kana, T.W., Bearce, R., Bocamazo, L.M., Young, D.R., and De Butts, H.A. 2011. Enhancing geomorphic and biologic functions and values on backshores and dunes of developed shores: a review of opportunities and constraints. Environ. Conserv. 38(3):288-302.

Nori, J., Urbina-Cardona, J.N., Loyola, R.D., Lescano, J.N., and Leynaud, G.C. 2011. Climate change and American bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America? PLoS ONE 6(10):e25718.

Norris, D., Rocha-Mendes, F., Ferraz, S.F.D., Villani, J.P., and Galetti, M. 2011. How to not inflate population estimates? Spatial density distribution of white-lipped peccaries in a continuous Atlantic forest. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):492-501.

Nuñez-Bustos, E., and Volkmann, L. 2011. Scarce butterflies associated with certain mountainous environments of central Argentina, with new records for the study area (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea). SHILAP-Rev. Lepidopt. 39(155):245-262.

Ochoa-Ochoa, L.M., Bezaury-Creel, J.E., Vázquez, L.B., and Flores-Villela, O. 2011. Choosing the survivors? A GIS-based triage support tool for micro-endemics: application to data for Mexican amphibians. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2710-2718.

Oldekop, J.A., Bebbington, A.J., Berdel, F., Truelove, N.K., Wiersberg, T., and Preziosi, R.F. 2011. Testing the accuracy of non-experts in biodiversity monitoring exercises using fern species richness in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2615-2626.

Olden, J.D., Vander Zanden, M.J., and Johnson, P.T.J. 2011. Assessing ecosystem vulnerability to invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus). Ecol. Appl. 21(7):2587-2599.

Osunkoya, O.O., Polo, C., and Andersen, A.N. 2011. Invasion impacts on biodiversity: responses of ant communities to infestation by cat's claw creeper vine, Macfadyena unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae) in subtropical Australia. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2289-2302.

Papanikolaou, A.D., Fyllas, N.M., Mazaris, A.D., Dimitrakopoulos, P.G., Kallimanis, A.S., and Pantis, J.D. 2011. Grazing effects on plant functional group diversity in Mediterranean shrublands. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2831-2843.

Pérez-Enriquez, R., Garcia-Rodriguez, F.J., Mendoza-Carrion, G., and Padilla, C. 2011. Geographical variation in the genetic diversity and composition of the endangered Queen Conch Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae) from Yucatán, México. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59(3):1115-1126.

Perrier, C., Guyomard, R., Bagliniere, J.L., and Evanno, G. 2011. Determinants of hierarchical genetic structure in Atlantic salmon populations: environmental factors vs. anthropogenic influences. Mol. Ecol. 20(20):4231-4245.

Perrings, C., Naeem, S., Ahrestani, F.S., Bunker, D.E., Burkill, P., Canziani, G., Elmqvist, T., Fuhrman, J.A., Jaksic, F.M., Kawabata, Z., Kinzig, A., Mace, G.M., Mooney, H., Prieur-Richard, A.H., Tschirhart, J., and Weisser, W. 2011. Ecosystem services, targets, and indicators for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9(9):512-520.

Peterson, A.M., and Stead, S.M. 2011. Rule breaking and livelihood options in marine protected areas. Environ. Conserv. 38(3):342-352.

Platts, P.J., Burgess, N.D., Gereau, R.E., Lovett, J.C., Marshall, A.R., McClean, C.J., Pellikka, P.K.E., Swetnam, R.D., and Marchant, R. 2011. Delimiting tropical mountain ecoregions for conservation. Environ. Conserv. 38(3):312-324.

Pliscoff, P., and Fuentes-Castillo, T. 2011. Representativeness of terrestrial ecosystems in Chile's protected area system. Environ. Conserv. 38(3):303-311.

Polfus, J.L., Hebblewhite, M., and Heinemeyer, K. 2011. Identifying indirect habitat loss and avoidance of human infrastructure by northern mountain woodland caribou. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2637-2646.

Porto, M., Correia, O., and Beja, P. 2011. Long-term consequences of mechanical fuel management for the conservation of Mediterranean forest herb communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2669-2691.

Price, J.N., Berney, P.J., Ryder, D., Whalley, R.D.B., and Gross, C.L. 2011. Disturbance governs dominance of an invasive forb in a temporary wetland. Oecologia 167(3):759-769.

Prober, S.M., and Wiehl, G. 2011. Resource heterogeneity and persistence of exotic annuals in long-ungrazed Mediterranean-climate woodlands. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2009-2022.

Proctor, S., McClean, C.J., and Hill, J.K. 2011. Protected areas of Borneo fail to protect forest landscapes with high habitat connectivity. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2693-2704.

Pruett, C.L., Johnson, J.A., Larsson, L.C., Wolfe, D.H., and Patten, M.A. 2011. Low effective population size and survivorship in a grassland grouse. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1205-1214.

Rakotonirina, L., Rajaonson, A., Ratolojanahary, T., Rafalimandimby, J., Fanomezantsoa, P., Ramahefasoa, B., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Ravaloharimanitra, M., Ratsimbazafy, J., Dolch, R., and King, T. 2011. New distributional records and conservation implications for the critically endangered greater bamboo lemur Prolemur simus. Folia Primatol. 82(2):118-129.

Reiner, R., and Craig, A. 2011. Conservation easements in California blue oak woodlands: testing the assumption of livestock grazing as a compatible use. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):408-413.

Reynolds, G., Payne, J., Sinun, W., Mosigil, G., and Walsh, R.P.D. 2011. Changes in forest land use and management in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 1990-2010, with a focus on the Danum Valley region. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1582):3168-3176.

Rivers, M.C., Brummitt, N.A., Lughadha, E.N., and Meagher, T.R. 2011. Genetic variation in Delonix s.l. (Leguminosae) in Madagascar revealed by AFLPs: fragmentation, conservation status and taxonomy. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1333-1344.

Rodríguez-Loinaz, G., Amezaga, I., and Onaindia, M. 2011. Efficacy of management policies on protection and recovery of natural ecosystems in the Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve. Nat. Areas J. 31(4):358-367.

Ross, K.A., Ehrenfeld, J.G., and Patel, M.V. 2011. The effects of nitrogen addition on the growth of two exotic and two native forest understory plants. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2203-2216.

Samnegård, U., Persson, A.S., and Smith, H.G. 2011. Gardens benefit bees and enhance pollination in intensively managed farmland. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2602-2606.

Schmalholz, M., Hylander, K., and Frego, K. 2011. Bryophyte species richness and composition in young forests regenerated after clear-cut logging versus after wildfire and spruce budworm outbreak. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2575-2596.

Shafer, A.B.A., White, K.S., Côté, S.D., and Coltman, D.W. 2011. Deciphering translocations from relicts in Baranof Island mountain goats: is an endemic genetic lineage at risk? Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1261-1268.

Siesa, M.E., Manenti, R., Padoa-Schioppa, E., De Bernardi, F., and Ficetola, G.F. 2011. Spatial autocorrelation and the analysis of invasion processes from distribution data: a study with the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2147-2160.

Smith, D.R., Jackson, N.L., Nordstrom, K.F., and Weber, R.G. 2011. Beach characteristics mitigate effects of onshore wind on horseshoe crab spawning: implications for matching with shorebird migration in Delaware Bay. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):575-584.

Smith, R.K., Ryan, E., Morley, E., and Hill, R.A. 2011. Resolving management conflicts: could agricultural land provide the answer for an endangered species in a habitat classified as a World Heritage Site? Environ. Conserv. 38(3):325-333.

Sodhi, N.S., Butler, R., Laurance, W.F., and Gibson, L. 2011. Conservation successes at micro-, meso- and macroscales. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26(11):585-594.

Spangenberg, J.H. 2011. Sustainability science: a review, an analysis and some empirical lessons. Environ. Conserv. 38(3):275-287.

Stevens, K., Campbell, L., Urquhart, G., Kramer, D., and Qi, J.G. 2011. Examining complexities of forest cover change during armed conflict on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2597-2613.

Stohlgren, T.J., Pyšek, P., Kartesz, J., Nishino, M., Pauchard, A., Winter, M., Pino, J., Richardson, D.M., Wilson, J.R.U., Murray, B.R., Phillips, M.L., Ming-yang, L., Celesti-Grapow, L., and Font, X. 2011. Widespread plant species: natives versus aliens in our changing world. Biol. Invasions 13(9):1931-1944.

Stokesbury, M.J.W., Neilson, J.D., Susko, E., and Cooke, S.J. 2011. Estimating mortality of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in an experimental recreational catch-and-release fishery. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2684-2691.

Strange, J.P., Koch, J.B., Gonzalez, V.H., Nemelka, L., and Griswold, T. 2011. Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2115-2133.

Strasser, C.A., Lewis, M.A., and DiBacco, C. 2011. A mechanistic model for understanding invasions: using the environment as a predictor of population success. Divers. Distrib. 17(6):1210-1224.

Sunderland-Groves, J.L., Slayback, D.A., Balinga, M.P.B., and Sunderland, T.C.H. 2011. Impacts of co-management on western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) habitat and conservation in Nialama Classified Forest, Republic of Guinea: a satellite perspective. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2745-2757.

Switalski, T.A., and Nelson, C.R. 2011. Efficacy of road removal for restoring wildlife habitat: black bear in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2666-2673.

Tamburi, N.E., and Martín, P.R. 2011. Effects of food availability on reproductive output, offspring quality and reproductive efficiency in the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2351-2360.

Theobald, D.M., Crooks, K.R., and Norman, J.B. 2011. Assessing effects of land use on landscape connectivity: loss and fragmentation of western U.S. forests. Ecol. Appl. 21(7):2445-2458.

Thomsen, M.S., Olden, J.D., Wernberg, T., Griffin, J.N., and Silliman, B.R. 2011. A broad framework to organize and compare ecological invasion impacts. Environ. Res. 111(7):899-908.

Tian, Y., Wu, J.G., Smith, A.T., Wang, T.M., Kou, X.J., and Ge, J.P. 2011. Population viability of the Siberian Tiger in a changing landscape: Going, going and gone? Ecol. Model. 222(17):3166-3180.

Towns, D.R. 2011. Invasive mammal eradications: the value of an ecosystem view. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):466-467.

Traill, L.W., Perhans, K., Lovelock, C.E., Prohaska, A., McFallan, S., Rhodes, J.R., and Wilson, K.A. 2011. Managing for change: wetland transitions under sea-level rise and outcomes for threatened species. Divers. Distrib. 17(6):1225-1233.

Uller, T., and Leimu, R. 2011. Founder events predict changes in genetic diversity during human-mediated range expansions. Global Change Biol. 17(11):3478-3485.

Valtueña, F.J., Preston, C.D., and Kadereit, J.W. 2011. Evolutionary significance of the invasion of introduced populations into the native range of Meconopsis cambrica. Mol. Ecol. 20(20):4318-4331.

van Strien, A.J., van Swaay, C.A.M., and Kéry, M. 2011. Metapopulation dynamics in the butterfly Hipparchia semele changed decades before occupancy declined in The Netherlands. Ecol. Appl. 21(7):2510-2520.

van Toor, M.L., Jaberg, C., and Safi, K. 2011. Integrating sex-specific habitat use for conservation using habitat suitability models. Anim. Conserv. 14(5):512-520.

Villaseñor, J.L., Calzada, J.I., and Dávila, P. 2011. Melampodium sinuatum (Asteraceae), an endangered endemic species to the southernmost tip of the Baja California Peninsula. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 82(3):1029-1031.

Villeger, S., Blanchet, S., Beauchard, O., Oberdorff, T., and Brosse, S. 2011. Homogenization patterns of the world's freshwater fish faunas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108(44):18003-18008.

Wallace, B.P., DiMatteo, A.D., Bolten, A.B., Chaloupka, M.Y., Hutchinson, B.J., Abreu-Grobois, F.A., Mortimer, J.A., Seminoff, J.A., Amorocho, D., Bjorndal, K.A., Bourjea, J., Bowen, B.W., Dueñas, R.B., Casale, P., Choudhury, B.C., Costa, A., Dutton, P.H., Fallabrino, A., Finkbeiner, E.M., Girard, A., Girondot, M., Hamann, M., Hurley, B.J., López-Mendilaharsu, M., Marcovaldi, M.A., Musick, J.A., Nel, R., Pilcher, N.J., Troëng, S., Witherington, B., and Mast, R.B. 2011. Global conservation priorities for marine turtles. PLoS ONE 6(9):e24510.

Walter, R.P., Hogan, J.D., Haffner, G.D., and Heath, D.D. 2011. Genetic structure and connectivity among lake populations of threatened Paratherina sailfin silversides from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1387-1393.

Wang, J., Eyre, T.J., Neldner, V.J., and Bean, T. 2011. Floristic composition and diversity changes over 60 years in eastern mulga communities of south central Queensland, Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2759-2778.

Watling, J.I., Hickman, C.R., and Orrock, J.L. 2011. Invasive shrub alters native forest amphibian communities. Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2597-2601.

Westergaard, K.B., Alsos, I.G., Engelskjon, T., Flatberg, K.I., and Brochmann, C. 2011. Trans-Atlantic genetic uniformity in the rare snowbed sedge Carex rufina. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1367-1371.

Wolf, V.C., Berger, U., Gassmann, A., and Müller, C. 2011. High chemical diversity of a plant species is accompanied by increased chemical defence in invasive populations. Biol. Invasions 13(9):2091-2102.

Woodcock, P., Edwards, D.P., Fayle, T.M., Newton, R.J., Khen, C.V., Bottrell, S.H., and Hamer, K.C. 2011. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 366(1582):3256-3264.

Wotton, D.M., and Kelly, D. 2011. Frugivore loss limits recruitment of large-seeded trees. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1723):3345-3354.

Yamazaki, Y., Yamano, A., and Oura, K. 2011. Recent microscale disturbance of gene flow in threatened fluvial lamprey, Lethenteron sp. N, living in a paddy water system. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1373-1377.

Yetman, C.A., and Ferguson, J.W.H. 2011. Conservation implications of spatial habitat use by adult giant bullfrogs (Pyxicephalus adspersus). J. Herpetol. 45:56-62.

Yorke, A.F., and Metaxas, A. 2011. Interactions between an invasive and a native bryozoan (Membranipora membranacea and Electra pilosa) species on kelp and Fucus substrates in Nova Scotia, Canada. Mar. Biol. 158(10):2299-2311.

Zeigler, S.L., Neel, M.C., Oliveira, L., Raboy, B.E., and Fagan, W.F. 2011. Conspecific and heterospecific attraction in assessments of functional connectivity. Biodivers. Conserv. 20:2779-2796.

Zimmermann, Y., Schorkopf, D.L.P., Moritz, R.F.A., Pemberton, R.W., Quezada-Euan, J.J.G., and Eltz, T. 2011. Population genetic structure of orchid bees (Euglossini) in anthropogenically altered landscapes. Conserv. Genet. 12(5):1183-1194.

Zschokke, S., Armbruster, G.F.J., Ursenbacher, S., and Baur, B. 2011. Genetic differences between the two remaining wild populations of the endangered Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicomis). Biol. Conserv. 144(11):2702-2709.

Žuljević, A., Thibaut, T., Despalatović, M., Cottalorda, J.M., Nikolić, V., Cvitković, I., and Antolić, B. 2011. Invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea makes a strong impact on the Mediterranean sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus. Biol. Invasions 13(10):2303-2308.


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