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Department ofBotany

No. 328
April 2012

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In This Issue

Caribbean Box Jellyfish Now Thriving in Florida

Adapted from

A box jellyfish from the Caribbean has recently become established in the red mangroves of Florida near Boca Raton, adding to a rising number of marine invasions observed along the world's coasts in recent years. Since 2009, when a single male specimen of Tripedalia cystophora was discovered in Florida's Lake Wyman and identified by Allen Collins, curator of Invertebrate Zoology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, and Evan Orellana of the Gumbo Limbo Nature Center in Boca Raton, this box jellyfish has appeared in Florida in much greater numbers.

Tripedalia cystophora

"Based on the numbers that have been reported, the population seems to be pretty healthy," Collins says. "I do not think this is something that people should to be overly alarmed about," he adds. "They are not large. Their bell is only about a centimeter. There aren't any reports of them causing bad stings in swimmers, but the venom has not been specifically studied."

With the gradual warming of the oceans a number of marine species from the Caribbean have been observed moving into areas of the southern and mid-Atlantic coasts of the United States. "We're seeing this happening everywhere all over the planet. Species ranges are changing because of human activities," Collins says. "In general, it's another symptom of a changing world."

Tripedalia cystophora has taken up residence in southern Florida's red mangroves, which is "a really good habitat for larval fishes," Collins explains. "So, they could be competing with larval fishes for food, or if the fish larvae are small enough, perhaps even eating them, but they specialize on copepods. This box jellyfish is probably here for good."

Current Literature

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Chappuis, E., Gacia, E., and Ballesteros, E. 2011. Changes in aquatic macrophyte flora over the last century in Catalan water bodies (NE Spain). Aquat. Bot. 95:268-277.

Chartier, L., Zimmermann, A., and Ladle, R.J. 2011. Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict in Assam, India: does a critical threshold exist? Oryx 45:528-533.

Chen, Y.Q., Li, Q., Chen, Y.L., Lu, Z.X., and Zhou, X.Y. 2011. Ant diversity and bio-indicators in land management of lac insect agroecosystem in Southwestern China. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):3017-3038.

Chen, Y.Y., Bao, Z.X., and Li, Z.Z. 2011. High allozymic diversity in natural populations of mycoheterotrophic orchid Gastrodia elata, an endangered medicinal plant in China. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39:526-535.

Cho, Y., Choi, D.S., Han, Y.G., and Nam, S.H. 2011. Conservation of Hipparchia autonoe (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), Natural Monument in South Korea. Entomol. Res. 41:269-274.

Choutt, J., Turlure, C., Baguette, M., and Schtickzelle, N. 2011. Parasitism cost of living in a high quality habitat in the bog fritillary butterfly. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):3117-3131.

Colpo, K.D., Chacur, M.M., Guimarães, F.J., and Negreiros-Fransozo, M.L. 2011. Subtropical Brazilian mangroves as a refuge of crab (Decapoda: Brachyura) diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):3239-3250.

Convey, P. 2011. Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity in a changing world. Polar Biol. 34:1629-1641.

Cook, C.N., and Hockings, M. 2011. Opportunities for improving the rigor of management effectiveness evaluations in protected areas. Conserv. Lett. 4:372-382.

Correa-Araneda, F., Urrutia, J., and Figueroa, R. 2011. Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 84(3):325-340.

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Courtney, R., Keith, A.M., and Harrington, T. 2011. Nematode assemblages in bauxite residue with different restoration histories. Restor. Ecol. 19:758-764.

Das, S., Dutta, S., Mangalam, M., Verma, R.K., Rath, S., Kumara, H.N., and Singh, M. 2011. Prioritizing remnant forests for the conservation of Mysore slender lorises (Loris lyddekerianus lyddekerianus) in Karnataka, India through estimation of population density. Int. J. Primatol. 32:1153-1160.

Davidson, J.B., and Wolf, P.G. 2011. Natural history of Maguire primrose, Primula cusickiana var. maguirei (Primulaceae). West. N. Am. Naturalist 71:327-337.

Davies, T.E., Wilson, S., Hazarika, N., Chakrabarty, J., Das, D., Hodgson, D.J., and Zimmermann, A. 2011. Effectiveness of intervention methods against crop-raiding elephants. Conserv. Lett. 4:346-354.

Davis, A.S., Ross-Davis, A.L., and Dumroese, R.K. 2011. Nursery culture impacts cold hardiness in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings. Restor. Ecol. 19:717-719.

De Angelo, C., Paviolo, A., Rode, D., Cullen, L., Sana, D., Abreu, K.C., da Silva, M.X., Bertrand, A.S., Haag, T., Lima, F., Rinaldi, A.R., Fernández, S., Ramírez, F., Velázquez, M., Corio, C., Hasson, E., and Di Bitetti, M.S. 2011. Participatory networks for large-scale monitoring of large carnivores: pumas and jaguars of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest. Oryx 45:534-545.

de Gasper, A.L., Sevegnani, L., Vibrans, A.C., Uhlmann, A., Lingner, D.V., Verdi, M., Dreveck, S., Stival-Santos, A., Brogni, E., Schmitt, R., and Klemz, G. 2011. Inventory of Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. in Santa Catarina. Acta Bot. Bras. 25(4):776-784.

de la Torre, J.A., and Medellín, R.A. 2011. Jaguars Panthera onca in the Greater Lacandona Ecosystem, Chiapas, Mexico: population estimates and future prospects. Oryx 45:546-553.

De Luca, E., Novelli, C., Barbato, F., Menegoni, P., Iannetta, M., and Nascetti, G. 2011. Coastal dune systems and disturbance factors: monitoring and analysis in central Italy. Environ. Monit. Assess. 183(1-4):437-450.

Dehnen-Schmutz, K. 2011. Determining non-invasiveness in ornamental plants to build green lists. J. Appl. Ecol. 48:1374-1380.

Delmas, C.E.L., Delzon, S., and Lortie, C.J. 2011. A meta-analysis of the ecological significance of density in tree invasions. Community Ecol. 12:171-178.

DeVanna, K.M., Armenio, P.M., Barrett, C.A., and Mayer, C.M. 2011. Invasive ecosystem engineers on soft sediment change the habitat preferences of native mayflies and their availability to predators. Freshwater Biol. 56(12):2448-2458.

Eberhardt, A.L., Burdick, D.M., and Dionne, M. 2011. The effects of road culverts on nekton in New England salt marshes: implications for tidal restoration. Restor. Ecol. 19:776-785.

Ellis, C.J., Yahr, R., and Coppins, B.J. 2011. Archaeobotanical evidence for a massive loss of epiphyte species richness during industrialization in southern England. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 278(1724):3482-3489.

Emry, D.J., Alexander, H.M., and Tourtellot, M.K. 2011. Modelling the local spread of invasive plants: importance of including spatial distribution and detectability in management plans. J. Appl. Ecol. 48:1391-1400.

Engelbrecht, I., and Prendini, L. 2011. Assessing the taxonomic resolution of southern African trapdoor spiders (Araneae: Ctenizidae; Cyrtaucheniidae; Idiopidae) and implications for their conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):3101-3116.

Essl, F., Nehring, S., Klingenstein, F., Milasowszky, N., Nowack, C., and Rabitsch, W. 2011. Review of risk assessment systems of IAS in Europe and introducing the German-Austrian Black List Information System (GABLIS). J. Nature Conserv. 19:339-350.

Eum, S.M., Gale, S., Yukawa, T., and Lee, N.S. 2011. Phylogenetic and conservation status of the endangered terrestrial orchid Nervilia nipponica (Orchidaceae) in Korea. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39:635-642.

Faeth, S.H., Bang, C., and Saari, S. 2011. Urban biodiversity: patterns and mechanisms. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1223:69-81.

Fattorini, S. 2011. Insect rarity, extinction and conservation in urban Rome (Italy): a 120-year-long study of tenebrionid beetles. Insect Conserv. Divers. 4:307-315.

Figel, J.J., Durán, E., and Bray, D.B. 2011. Conservation of the jaguar Panthera onca in a community-dominated landscape in montane forests in Oaxaca, Mexico. Oryx 45:554-560.

Fincke, O.M., and Tylczak, L.A. 2011. Effects of zebra mussel attachment on the foraging behaviour of a larval dragonfly, Macromia illinoiensis. Ecol. Entomol. 36:760-767.

Fitzsimons, J.A. 2011. Mislabeling marine protected areas and why it matters-a case study of Australia. Conserv. Lett. 4:340-345.

Frascaria-Lacoste, N., Henry, A., Gérard, P.R., Bertolino, P., Collin, E., and Fernández-Manjarrés, J. 2011. Should forest restoration with natural hybrids be allowed? Restor. Ecol. 19:701-704.

Galanes, I.T., and Thomlinson, J.R. 2011. Soil millipede diversity in tropical forest patches and its relation to landscape structure in northeastern Puerto Rico. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):2967-2980.

Garnett, S.T., Olsen, P., Butchart, S.H.M., and Hoffmann, A.A. 2011. Did hybridization save the Norfolk Island boobook owl Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata? Oryx 45:500-504.

Gertzen, E.L., and Leung, B. 2011. Predicting the spread of invasive species in an uncertain world: accommodating multiple vectors and gaps in temporal and spatial data for Bythotrephes longimanus. Biol. Invasions 13:2433-2444.

Githiru, M., Lens, L., Adriaensen, F., Mwang'ombe, J., and Matthysen, E. 2011. Using science to guide conservation: from landscape modelling to increased connectivity in the Taita Hills, SE Kenya. J. Nature Conserv. 19(5):263-268.

Godoy, O., Valladares, F., and Castro-Díez, P. 2011. Multispecies comparison reveals that invasive and native plants differ in their traits but not in their plasticity. Funct. Ecol. 25:1248-1259.

González-Zamora, A., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Chaves, O.M., Sánchez-López, S., Aureli, F., and Stoner, K.E. 2011. Influence of climatic variables, forest type, and condition on activity patterns of Geoffroyi's spider monkeys throughout Mesoamerica. Am. J. Primatol. 73:1189-1198.

Gore, M.L., Nelson, M.P., Vucetich, J.A., Smith, A.M., and Clark, M.A. 2011. Exploring the ethical basis for conservation policy: the case of inbred wolves on Isle Royale, USA. Conserv. Lett. 4:394-401.

Govindarajulu, P., Isaac, L.A., Engelstoft, C., and Ovaska, K. 2011. Relevance of life-history parameter estimation to conservation listing: case of the sharp-tailed snake (Contia tenuis). J. Herpetol. 45:300-307.

Grady, K.C., Ferrier, S.M., Kolb, T.E., Hart, S.C., Allan, G.J., and Whitham, T.G. 2011. Genetic variation in productivity of foundation riparian species at the edge of their distribution: implications for restoration and assisted migration in a warming climate. Global Change Biol. 17:3724-3735.

Graham-Rowe, D. 2011. Endangered and in demand. Nature 480(7378):S101-S103.

Greve, M., and Svenning, J.C. 2011. A paper park-as seen from the air. J. Nature Conserv. 19:368-369.

Groom, S.V.C., and Schwarz, M.P. 2011. Bees in the Southwest Pacific: origins, diversity and conservation. Apidologie 42:759-770.

Guo, W.H., Jeong, J., Kim, Z., Wang, R.Q., Kim, E., and Kim, S. 2011. Genetic diversity of Lilium tsingtauense in China and Korea revealed by ISSR markers and morphological characters. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39:352-360.

Hahn, P.G., Draney, M.L., and Dornbush, M.E. 2011. Exotic slugs pose a previously unrecognized threat to the herbaceous layer in a midwestern woodland. Restor. Ecol. 19:786-794.

Hanula, J.L., and Horn, S. 2011. Removing an invasive shrub (Chinese privet) increases native bee diversity and abundance in riparian forests of the southeastern United States. Insect Conserv. Divers. 4:275-283.

Hapner, J.A., Reinartz, J.A., Fredlund, G.G., Leithoff, K.G., Cutright, N.J., and Mueller, W.P. 2011. Avian succession in small created and restored wetlands. Wetlands 31:1089-1102.

Harrison, R.D. 2011. Emptying the forest: hunting and the extirpation of wildlife from tropical nature reserves. BioScience 61:919-924.

Hassall, C., Hollinshead, J., and Hull, A. 2011. Environmental correlates of plant and invertebrate species richness in ponds. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):3189-3222.

Hawksworth, D.L. 2011. Biodiversity and conservation of insects and other invertebrates. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):2863-2866.

Haxton, T. 2011. Depth selectivity and spatial distribution of juvenile lake sturgeon in a large, fragmented river. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27(s2):45-52.

Heideman, N.J.L., Mulcahy, D.G., Sites, J.W., Hendricks, M.G.J., and Daniels, S.R. 2011. Cryptic diversity and morphological convergence in threatened species of fossorial skinks in the genus Scelotes (Squamata: Scincidiae) from the Western Cape Coast of South Africa: implications for species boundaries, digit reduction and conservation. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 61:823-833.

Herrera, J.P., Wright, P.C., Lauterbur, E., Ratovonjanahary, L., and Taylor, L.L. 2011. The effects of habitat disturbance on lemurs at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 32:1091-1108.

Hessen, D.O., Bakkestuen, V., and Walseng, B. 2011. The ecological niches of Bythotrephes and Leptodora: lessons for predicting long-term effects of invasion. Biol. Invasions 13:2561-2572.

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Hoffmann, B.D. 2011. Eradication of populations of an invasive ant in northern Australia: successes, failures and lessons for management. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):3267-3278.

Hsieh, Y.L., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2011. Underestimated spider diversity in a temperate beech forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):2953-2965.

Huntington, B.E., Karnauskas, M., and Lirman, D. 2011. Corals fail to recover at a Caribbean marine reserve despite ten years of reserve designation. Coral Reefs 30(4):1077-1085.

Isacch, J.P., and Cardoni, D.A. 2011. Different grazing strategies are necessary to conserve endangered grassland birds in short and tall salty grasslands of the flooding pampas. Condor 113(4):724-734.

Janssen, P., Hébert, C., and Fortin, D. 2011. Biodiversity conservation in old-growth boreal forest: black spruce and balsam fir snags harbour distinct assemblages of saproxylic beetles. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):2917-2932.

Januschke, K., Brunzel, S., Haase, P., and Hering, D. 2011. Effects of stream restorations on riparian mesohabitats, vegetation and carabid beetles. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(13):3147-3164.

Jeffcoate, S., and Joy, J. 2011. Evidence-based national recovery plan for Leptidea sinapis (wood white butterfly) in southern Britain. J. Insect Conserv. 15(6):759-763.

Jepsen, E.P.B., Keane, J.J., and Ernest, H.B. 2011. Winter distribution and conservation status of the Sierra Nevada great gray owl. J. Wildlife Manag. 75:1678-1687.

Jepson, P., Ladle, R.J., and Sujatnika. 2011. Assessing market-based conservation governance approaches: a socio-economic profile of Indonesian markets for wild birds. Oryx 45:482-491.

Jiménez, M.A., Jaksic, F.M., Armesto, J.J., Gaxiola, A., Meserve, P.L., Kelt, D.A., and Gutiérrez, J.R. 2011. Extreme climatic events change the dynamics and invasibility of semi-arid annual plant communities. Ecol. Lett. 14:1227-1235.

Jokela, A., Arnott, S.E., and Beisner, B.E. 2011. Patterns of Bythotrephes longimanus distribution relative to native macroinvertebrates and zooplankton prey. Biol. Invasions 13:2573-2594.

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Zhang, L.B., and He, H. 2011. Polystichum fengshanense, sp. nov. (sect. Haplopolystichum, Dryopteridaceae) from karst caves in Guangxi, China based on morphological, palynological, and molecular evidence. Syst. Bot. 36:854-861.

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