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Department ofBotany

No. 329
May 2012

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In This Issue

Cold Spells Spell Trouble for Warm-Weather Invasives

Adapted from

Aided by a recent increase in ocean surface water temperatures, new marine invaders from the Caribbean have been observed spreading northward along the southern and mid-Atlantic coasts of the United States. This northern migration of marine species - called the "Caribbean Creep" - is occurring because many of these non-native species can tolerate a broad range of temperatures.

But what happens to these fair-weather travelers during a severe cold snap, such as the one that occurred in January 2010 across much of the southeastern and eastern United States? To investigate, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center scientist João Canning-Clode and colleagues tested the cold-water tolerances of invasive green porcelain crabs (Petrolisthes armatus) in their laboratory. Crabs were collected in Georgia and brought to the lab where they were subjected to one of three temperature treatments. The first was a control treatment of constant moderate winter temperature. The second was treatment in which the temperature was dropped to mimic the cold snap of January 2010, and the third treatment consisted of the extreme cold temperatures of a severe winter.

The scientists found that most of the crabs in the control treatment survived (83 percent), but many of the crabs in the second cold treatment (61 percent) and all of the crabs in the third extreme cold treatment (100 percent) died. Crabs that survived cold treatment number two were sluggish, possibly making them more susceptible to predation and impacting their ability to feed, the scientists determined.

The scientists determined that prolonged exposure to cold temperatures also may compromise the green porcelain crab's ability to overcome cumulative cold events, such as the two other record cold snaps that occurred in February and March of 2010.

The loss of more than 60 percent of their population during each cold period might explain the recent dramatic decline of the green porcelain crab in Georgia in 2010, suggesting that extreme cold spells may limit or prevent the northward spread of this invasive species.

Several climate models used to predict how species will react to climate change in the next 100 years have projected a continued decline of global biodiversity and increased spread of introduced species. Many of these models focus on temperature increases, but few have evaluated the impact of severe weather like cold snaps Canning-Clode and his colleagues write in a paper on their study recently published at PLoS ONE.

For Canning-Clode, "the core message of this paper is that yes, climate change is happening, but cold is also part of this change. We believe these periodic cold events will limit the range expansion of Petrolisthes armatus as well as other Caribbean creep species."

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Johnson, H.E., Mills, L.S., Wehausen, J.D., Stephenson, T.R., and Luikart, G. 2011. Translating effects of inbreeding depression on component vital rates to overall population growth in endangered bighorn sheep. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1240-1249.

Jordan, R.C., Gray, S.A., Howe, D.V., Brooks, W.R., and Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2011. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1148-1154.

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Kaługa, I., Sparks, T.H., and Tryjanowski, P. 2011. Reducing death by electrocution of the white stork Ciconia ciconia. Conserv. Lett. 4:483-487.

Kamins, A.O., Restif, O., Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y., Suu-Ire, R., Hayman, D.T.S., Cunningham, A.A., Wood, J.L.N., and Rowcliffe, J.M. 2011. Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3000-3008.

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Keller, R.P., and Perrings, C. 2011. International policy options for reducing the environmental impacts of invasive species. BioScience 61(12):1005-1012.

Kemp, A., Kemp, M., and Thong-Aree, S. 2011. Use of lookout watches over forest to estimate detection, dispersion and density of hornbills, Great Argus and diurnal raptors at Bala forest, Thailand, compared with results from in-forest line transects and spot maps. Bird Conserv. Int. 21(4):394-410.

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Knoot, T.G., and Best, L.B. 2011. A multiscale approach to understanding snake use of conservation buffer strips in an agricultural landscape. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 6(2):191-201.

Koch, A.J., Drever, M.C., and Martin, K. 2011. The efficacy of common species as indicators: avian responses to disturbance in British Columbia, Canada. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(14):3555-3575.

Kogura, Y., Seeb, J.E., Azuma, N., Kudo, H., Abe, S., and Kaeriyama, M. 2011. The genetic population structure of lacustrine sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in Japan as the endangered species. Environ. Biol. Fish. 92:539-550.

Kumschick, S., and Nentwig, W. 2011. Response to Strubbe et al. (2011): Impact scoring of invasive birds is justified. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2747.

Lapiedra, O., Ponjoan, A., Gamero, A., Bota, G., and Mañosa, S. 2011. Brood ranging behaviour and breeding success of the threatened little bustard in an intensified cereal farmland area. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2882-2890.

Laroche, V., Pellerin, S., and Brouillet, L. 2012. White Fringed Orchid as indicator of Sphagnum bog integrity. Ecol. Indic. 14:50-55.

Larson, D.L., Bright, J.B., Drobney, P., Larson, J.L., Palaia, N., Rabie, P.A., Vacek, S., and Wells, D. 2011. Effects of planting method and seed mix richness on the early stages of tallgrass prairie restoration. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3127-3139.

Lauber, T.B., Stedman, R.C., Decker, D.J., and Knuth, B.A. 2011. Linking knowledge to action in collaborative conservation. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1186-1194.

Linnell, J.D.C. 2011. Can we separate the sinners from the scapegoats? Anim. Conserv. 14(6):602-603.

López-Medellín, X., Navarro-Sigüenza, A.G., and Bocco, G. 2011. Human population, economic activities, and wild bird conservation in Mexico: factors influencing their relationships at two different geopolitical scales. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 82(4):1267-1278.

Lovich, J.E., and Ennen, J.R. 2011. Wildlife conservation and solar energy development in the desert southwest, United States. BioScience 61(12):982-992.

Lovich, J.E., Ennen, J.R., Madrak, S., Meyer, K., Loughran, C., Bjurlin, C., Arundel, T., Turner, W., Jones, C., and Groenendaal, G.M. 2011. Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) population in southern California with comparisons to natural populations. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 6(2):161-174.

Luiz, O.J., and Edwards, A.J. 2011. Extinction of a shark population in the Archipelago of Saint Paul's Rocks (equatorial Atlantic) inferred from the historical record. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2873-2881.

Lyons, J.A., and Natusch, D.J.D. 2011. Wildlife laundering through breeding farms: illegal harvest, population declines and a means of regulating the trade of green pythons (Morelia viridis) from Indonesia. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3073-3081.

Macdonald, D.W., Johnson, P.J., Albrechtsen, L., Dutton, A., Seymour, S., Dupain, J., Hall, A., and Fa, J.E. 2011. Association of body mass with price of bushmeat in Nigeria and Cameroon. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1220-1228.

Magurran, A.E., Khachonpisitsak, S., and Ahmad, A.B. 2011. Biological diversity of fish communities: pattern and process. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1393-1412.

Majić, A., de Bodonia, A.M.T., Huber, Ð., and Bunnefeld, N. 2011. Dynamics of public attitudes toward bears and the role of bear hunting in Croatia. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3018-3027.

Malo, J.E., Acebes, P., and Traba, J. 2011. Measuring ungulate tolerance to human with flight distance: a reliable visitor management tool? Biodivers. Conserv. 20(14):3477-3488.

Matheson, F.E., Lundquist, C.J., Gemmill, C.E.C., and Pilditch, C.A. 2011. New Zealand seagrass - more threatened than IUCN review indicates. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2749-2750.

Mattisson, J., Odden, J., Nilsen, E.B., Linnell, J.D.C., Persson, J., and Andren, H. 2011. Factors affecting Eurasian lynx kill rates on semi-domestic reindeer in northern Scandinavia: can ecological research contribute to the development of a fair compensation system? Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3009-3017.

McCay, B.J., and Jones, P.J.S. 2011. Marine protected areas and the governance of marine ecosystems and fisheries. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1130-1133.

McLaughlin, D.W. 2011. Land, food, and biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1117-1120.

Menegon, M., Davenport, T.R.B., and Howell, K.M. 2011. Description of a new and critically endangered species of Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae) from the Southern Highlands of Tanzania, with an overview of the country's tree viper fauna. Zootaxa 3120:43-54.

Mills, M., Jupiter, S.D., Pressey, R.L., Ban, N.C., and Comley, J. 2011. Incorporating effectiveness of community-based management in a national marine gap analysis for Fiji. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1155-1164.

Møller, A.P., and Mousseau, T.A. 2011. Conservation consequences of Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2787-2798.

Monzón, J., Moyer-Horner, L., and Palamar, M.B. 2011. Climate change and species range dynamics in protected areas. BioScience 61(10):752-761.

Morrison, S.A., Sillett, T.S., Ghalambor, C.K., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Graber, D.M., Bakker, V.J., Bowman, R., Collins, C.T., Collins, P.W., Delaney, K.S., Doak, D.F., Koenig, W.D., Laughrin, L., Lieberman, A.A., Marzluff, J.M., Reynolds, M.D., Scott, J.M., Stallcup, J.A., Vickers, W., and Boyce, W.M. 2011. Proactive conservation management of an island-endemic bird species in the face of global change. BioScience 61(12):1013-1021.

Moseby, K.E., Read, J.L., Paton, D.C., Copley, P., Hill, B.M., and Crisp, H.A. 2011. Predation determines the outcome of 10 reintroduction attempts in arid South Australia. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2863-2872.

Motard, E., Muratet, A., Clair-Maczulajtys, D., and Machon, N. 2011. Does the invasive species Ailanthus altissima threaten floristic diversity of temperate peri-urban forests? C.R. Biologies 334:872-879.

Nacoulma, B.M.I., Schumann, K., Traoré, S., Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Hahn, K., Wittig, R., and Thiombiano, A. 2011. Impacts of land-use on West African savanna vegetation: a comparison between protected and communal area in Burkina Faso. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(14):3341-3362.

Naidoo, R., Weaver, L.C., De Longcamp, M., and Du Plessis, P. 2011. Namibia's community-based natural resource management programme: an unrecognized payments for ecosystem services scheme. Environ. Conserv. 38(4):445-453.

Narloch, U., Pascual, U., and Drucker, A.G. 2011. Cost-effectiveness targeting under multiple conservation goals and equity considerations in the Andes. Environ. Conserv. 38(4):417-425.

Nepstad, D.C., McGrath, D.G., and Soares, B. 2011. Systemic conservation, REDD, and the future of the Amazon Basin. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1113-1116.

Nuñeza, O.M., Fabricante, K.M.B., Alicante, A.A., Sucaldito, M.P., and Ponce, A.G. 2012. The herpetofauna of Mounts Sambilikan, Ararat and Berseba of the Diwata Range, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. Asia Life Sci. 21(1):203-216.

O'Brien, P. 2011. Reaching the US public through their patriotism, pastors, and pockets. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1108-1111.

Ohsawa, M., and Shimokawa, T. 2011. Extending the rotation period in larch plantations increases canopy heterogeneity and promotes species richness and abundance of native beetles: implications for the conservation of biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3106-3116.

Ojeda, I., and Santos-Guerra, A. 2011. The intersection of conservation and horticulture: bird-pollinated Lotus species from the Canary Islands (Leguminosae). Biodivers. Conserv. 20(14):3501-3516.

Oliveira, J.R.P.M., Pôrto, K.C., and Silva, M.P.P. 2011. Richness preservation in a fragmented landscape: a study of epiphytic bryophytes in an Atlantic forest remnant in Northeast Brazil. J. Bryol. 33(4):279-290.

Orloff, S.G. 2011. Movement patterns and migration distances in an upland population of California tiger salmander (Ambystoma californiense). Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 6(2):266-276.

Österling, M.E. 2011. Test and application of a non-destructive photo-method investigating the parasitic stage of the threatened mussel Margaritifera margaritifera on its host fish Salmo trutta. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2984-2990.

Painter, R.L.E., Duran, A., and Miro, E. 2011. Indigenous alliances for conservation in Bolivia. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1084-1086.

Patten, M.A., and Smith-Patten, B.D. 2011. Predictors of occupancy trend across spatial scale. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1203-1211.

Pawliczek, J., and Sullivan, S. 2011. Conservation and concealment in, USA: an analysis of neoliberal performance in the species offsetting industry. Environ. Conserv. 38(4):435-444.

Pawson, S.M., Brockerhoff, E.G., Watt, M.S., and Didham, R.K. 2011. Maximising biodiversity in plantation forests: insights from long-term changes in clearfell-sensitive beetles in a Pinus radiata plantation. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2842-2850.

Peay, S., and Füreder, L. 2011. Two indigenous European crayfish under threat - how can we retain them in aquatic ecosystems for the future? Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst. 401:33.

Peres, C.A. 2011. Conservation in sustainable-use tropical forest reserves. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1124-1129.

Pino-Del-Carpio, A., Villarroya, A., Ariño, A.H., Puig, J., and Miranda, R. 2011. Communication gaps in knowledge of freshwater fish biodiversity: implications for the management and conservation of Mexican biosphere reserves. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1563-1591.

Pio, D.V., Broennimann, O., Barraclough, T.G., Reeves, G., Rebelo, A.G., Thuiller, W., Guisan, A., and Salamin, N. 2011. Spatial predictions of phylogenetic diversity in conservation decision making. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1229-1239.

Piovia-Scott, J., Pope, K.L., Lawler, S.P., Cole, E.M., and Foley, J.E. 2011. Factors related to the distribution and prevalence of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Rana cascadae and other amphibians in the Klamath Mountains. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2913-2921.

Pizzatto, L., and Shine, R. 2011. Ecological impacts of invading species: do parasites of the cane toad imperil Australian frogs? Austral Ecol. 36(8):954-963.

Poulet, N., Beaulaton, L., and Dembski, S. 2011. Time trends in fish populations in metropolitan France: insights from national monitoring data. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1436-1452.

Price, S.J., and Dorcas, M.E. 2011. The Carolina Herp Atlas: an online, citizen-science approach to document amphibian and reptile occurrences. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 6(2):287-296.

Pritchard, L. 2011. Cultivating a constituency for conservation. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1103-1107.

Provan, J., and Maggs, C.A. 2012. Unique genetic variation at a species' rear edge is under threat from global climate change. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 279:39-47.

Puyravaud, J.P., Mohandass, D., and Davidar, P. 2012. Impact of human-related disturbance on Eriochrysis rangacharii Fischer, a rare keystone endemic grass (Nilgiris, southern India): a preliminary assessment. Trop. Ecol. 53:25-32.

Quétier, F., and Lavorel, S. 2011. Assessing ecological equivalence in biodiversity offset schemes: key issues and solutions. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2991-2999.

Quintero, J.D., and Mathur, A. 2011. Biodiversity offsets and infrastructure. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1121-1123.

Railsback, S.F., and Harvey, B.C. 2011. Importance of fish behaviour in modelling conservation problems: food limitation as an example. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1648-1662.

Rakotoarivelo, F., Andilyat, M., Faliniaina, L., and Pailler, T. 2011. Jumellea pailleri (Orchidaceae), a new endemic species from Comoro Archipelago. Plant Ecol. Evol. 144:363-366.

Razgour, O., Hanmer, J., and Jones, G. 2011. Using multi-scale modelling to predict habitat suitability for species of conservation concern: the grey long-eared bat as a case study. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2922-2930.

Redford, K.H., and Fleishman, E. 2011. The futures of conservation. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1072-1074.

Reif, J., Marhoul, P., Čížek, O., and Konvićka, M. 2011. Abandoned military training sites are an overlooked refuge for at-risk open habitat bird species. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(14):3645-3662.

Reynolds, J.D. 2011. A review of ecological interactions between crayfish and fish, indigenous and introduced. Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst. 401:10.

Reynolds, R.G., Gerber, G.P., and Fitzpatrick, B.M. 2011. Unexpected shallow genetic divergence in Turks Island boas (Epicrates c. chrysogaster) reveals single evolutionarily significant unit for conservation. Herpetologica 67:477-486.

Rice, J.C. 2011. Achieving coherent policies for conservation and sustainable use of marine ecosystems. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1065-1068.

Richter, S.C., Jackson, J.A., Hinderliter, M., Epperson, D., Theodorakis, C.W., and Adams, S.M. 2011. Conservation genetics of the largest cluster of federally threatened Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) colonies with implications for species management. Herpetologica 67:406-419.

Robards, M.D., and Reeves, R.R. 2011. The global extent and character of marine mammal consumption by humans: 1970-2009. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2770-2786.

Robson, B., Glass, T., Glass, N., Glass, J., Green, J., Repetto, C., Rodgers, G., Ronconi, R.A., Ryan, P.G., Swain, G., and Cuthbert, R.J. 2011. Revised population estimate and trends for the Endangered Northern Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes moseleyi at Tristan da Cunha. Bird Conserv. Int. 21(4):454-459.

Roche, N., Langton, S., Aughney, T., Russ, J.M., Marnell, F., Lynn, D., and Catto, C. 2011. A car-based monitoring method reveals new information on bat populations and distributions in Ireland. Anim. Conserv. 14(6):642-651.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., Bomhard, B., Butchart, S.H.M., and Foster, M.N. 2011. Progress towards international targets for protected area coverage in mountains: a multi-scale assessment. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2978-2983.

Rogers, C.M. 2011. Use of fecundity measured directly throughout the breeding season to test a source-sink demographic model. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1212-1219.

Rosas, F., Quesada, M., Lobo, J.A., and Sork, V.L. 2011. Effects of habitat fragmentation on pollen flow and genetic diversity of the endangered tropical tree Swietenia humilis (Meliaceae). Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3082-3088.

Roux, M.J., Tallman, R.F., and Lewis, C.W. 2011. Small-scale Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fisheries in Canada's Nunavut: management challenges and options. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1625-1647.

Rudd, M.A. 2011. Scientists' opinions on the global status and management of biological diversity. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1165-1175.

Salas, R.M., and Cabral, E.L. 2011. Staelia culcita (Rubiaceae), a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Plant Ecol. Evol. 144:372-376.

Sayer, C.D., Copp, G.H., Emson, D., Godard, M.J., Zieba, G., and Wesley, K.J. 2011. Towards the conservation of crucian carp Carassius carassius: understanding the extent and causes of decline within part of its native English range. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1608-1624.

Schleyer, C., and Plieninger, T. 2011. Obstacles and options for the design and implementation of payment schemes for ecosystem services provided through farm trees in Saxony, Germany. Environ. Conserv. 38(4):454-463.

Schloss, C.A., Lawler, J.J., Larson, E.R., Papendick, H.L., Case, M.J., Evans, D.M., Delap, J.H., Langdon, J.G.R., Hall, S.A., and McRae, B.H. 2011. Systematic conservation planning in the face of climate change: bet-hedging on the Columbia Plateau. PLoS ONE 6(12):e28788.

Schmidt, P.M., McCleery, R.A., Lopez, R.R., Silvy, N.J., Schmidt, J.A., and Perry, N.D. 2011. Influence of patch, habitat, and landscape characteristics on patterns of Lower Keys marsh rabbit occurrence following Hurricane Wilma. Landscape Ecol. 26:1419-1431.

Schultheiß, R., Ndeo, O.W., Malikwisha, M., Marek, C., Bößneck, U., and Albrecht, C. 2011. Freshwater molluscs of the Eastern Congo: notes on taxonomy, biogeography and conservation. Afr. Invertebr. 52(2):265-284.

Schultz, P.W. 2011. Conservation means behavior. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1080-1083.

Scullion, J., Thomas, C.W., Vogt, K.A., Pérez-Maqueo, O., and Logsdon, M.G. 2011. Evaluating the environmental impact of payments for ecosystem services in Coatepec (Mexico) using remote sensing and on-site interviews. Environ. Conserv. 38(4):426-434.

Şekercioğlu, C.H., Anderson, S., Akçay, E., Bilgin, R., Can, Ö.E., Semiz, G., Tavşanoğlu, C., Yokeş, M.B., Soyumert, A., İpekdal, K., Sağlam, İ.K., Yücel, M., and Dalfes, H.N. 2011. Turkey's globally important biodiversity in crisis. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2752-2769.

Selge, S., Fischer, A., and van der Wal, R. 2011. Public and professional views on invasive non-native species - a qualitative social scientific investigation. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3089-3097.

Short, F.T. 2011. IUCN red listing dilemma. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2751.

Siqueiros-Delgado, M.E., Oviedo-Prieto, R., Cerros-Tlatilpa, R., del Risco-Villalobos, R., and Ventosa-Rodríguez, I. 2011. Rediscovery of Bouteloua vaneedenii (Gramineae: Chloridoideae): endemic species from the West Indies. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 82(4):1328-1332.

Skelton, P.H., and Swartz, E.R. 2011. Walking the tightrope: trends in African freshwater systematic ichthyology. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1413-1435.

Sommerville, M.M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Jones, J.P.G. 2011. The challenge of monitoring biodiversity in payment for environmental service interventions. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2832-2841.

Stewart-Koster, B., Olden, J.D., Kennard, M.J., Pusey, B.J., Boone, E.L., Douglas, M., and Jackson, S. 2011. Fish response to the temporal hierarchy of the natural flow regime in the Daly River, northern Australia. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1525-1544.

Strange, N., Thorsen, B.J., Bladt, J., Wilson, K.A., and Rahbek, C. 2011. Conservation policies and planning under climate change. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2968-2977.

Strubbe, D., Chiron, F., and Shwartz, A. 2011. Reply to Kumschick and Nentwig (2010,2011): Promoting a robust cost-benefit approach for conducting impact risk assessments of invasive species. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2748.

Sundar, K.S.G. 2011. Agricultural intensification, rainfall patterns, and large waterbird breeding success in the extensively cultivated landscape of Uttar Pradesh, India. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3055-3063.

Taylor, R.B., Morrison, M.A., and Shears, N.T. 2011. Establishing baselines for recovery in a marine reserve (Poor Knights Islands, New Zealand) using local ecological knowledge. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3038-3046.

Turner, P.A.M., Kirkpatrick, J.B., and Pharo, E.J. 2011. Dependence of bryophyte species on young, mature and old growth wet eucalypt forest. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):2951-2957.

Uezu, A., and Metzger, J.P. 2011. Vanishing bird species in the Atlantic Forest: relative importance of landscape configuration, forest structure and species characteristics. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(14):3627-3643.

Ulber, L., Klimek, S., Steinmann, H.H., Isselstein, J., and Groth, M. 2011. Implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of a payment scheme for environmental services from agricultural land. Environ. Conserv. 38(4):464-472.

Valdivia, C.E., Bahamondez, A., and Simonetti, J.A. 2011. Negative effects of forest fragmentation and proximity to edges on pollination and herbivory of Bomarea salsilla (Alstroemeriaceae). Plant Ecol. Evol. 144:281-287.

Velásquez, J., López-Angarita, J., and Sánchez, J.A. 2011. Evaluation of the FORAM index in a case of conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(14):3591-3603.

Vynne, C., Keim, J.L., Machado, R.B., Marinho, J., Silveira, L., Groom, M.J., and Wasser, S.K. 2011. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the Brazilian cerrado. PLoS ONE 6(12):e28939.

Walker, K.J., and Pinches, C.E. 2011. Reduced grazing and the decline of Pulsatilla vulgaris Mill. (Ranunculaceae) in England, UK. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3098-3105.

Warren-Rhodes, K., Schwarz, A.M., Boyle, L.N., Albert, J., Agalo, S.S., Warren, R., Bana, A., Paul, C., Kodosiku, R., Bosma, W., Yee, D., Ronnback, P., Crona, B., and Duke, N. 2011. Mangrove ecosystem services and the potential for carbon revenue programmes in Solomon Islands. Environ. Conserv. 38(4):485-496.

Waterhouse, J. 2011. Finding balance between human need and global stewardship. Conserv. Biol. 25(6):1087-1090.

Wege, J.A. 2011. A taxonomic revision of the Stylidium despectum group (Stylidiaceae) from southern Australia. Aust. Syst. Bot. 24(6):375-404.

Wieringa, J.J., and Sosef, M.S.M. 2011. The applicability of Relative Floristic Resemblance to evaluate the conservation value of protected areas. Plant Ecol. Evol. 144:242-248.

Wilsey, B.J., Daneshgar, P.P., and Polley, H.W. 2011. Biodiversity, phenology and temporal niche differences between native- and novel exotic-dominated grasslands. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 13:265-276.

Wood, E.M., Pidgeon, A.M., Gratton, C., and Wilder, T.T. 2011. Effects of oak barrens habitat management for Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides samuelis) on the avian community. Biol. Conserv. 144(12):3117-3126.

Wrage, N., Strodthoff, J., Cuchillo, H.M., Isselstein, J., and Kayser, M. 2011. Phytodiversity of temperate permanent grasslands: ecosystem services for agriculture and livestock management for diversity conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 20(14):3317-3339.

Zengeya, T.A., Booth, A.J., Bastos, A.D.S., and Chimimba, C.T. 2011. Trophic interrelationships between the exotic Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and indigenous tilapiine cichlids in a subtropical African river system (Limpopo River, South Africa). Environ. Biol. Fish. 92:479-489.

Zhang, W., and Pagiola, S. 2011. Assessing the potential for synergies in the implementation of payments for environmental services programmes: an empirical analysis of Costa Rica. Environ. Conserv. 38(4):406-416.

Zhao, Y.H., Gozlan, R.E., and Zhang, C.G. 2011. Out of sight out of mind: current knowledge of Chinese cave fishes. J. Fish Biol. 79(6):1545-1562.

Zlobin, Y.A. 2011. Rare plant species: floristic, phytocoenotic and population approach. Zh. Obshch. Biol. 72(6):422-435.

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