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Department ofBotany

No. 330
June 2012

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The future of the Biological Conservation Newsletter is under consideration - continue as is, modify it in some way, or cease production. The main purpose of the monthly newsletter is twofold: (1) to highlight stories of conservation research coming out of the Smithsonian Institution; and (2) to provide a comprehensive list of current literature related to conservation biology. We would like to understand what you find most useful, and whether the newsletter should continue. Please complete a quick two-minute survey at <>. We also welcome comments about BCN sent directly to the editor at

In This Issue

Panda Habitat to be Lost, Shifted by Climate Change

Adapted from

Fewer than 1,600 giant pandas are left in the mountain forests of central China. Now a new study published in the International Journal of Ecology by scientists at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute at the National Zoological Park, predicts that 16,000 square kilometers of giant panda habitat will likely be lost by the year 2080 as climate change causes panda habitat systems to shift to higher elevations and latitudes.

In other words, less than half of the giant panda's already decreased habitat will be suitable to sustain them in 70 years. The research team used two different global climate models to make this prediction, taking into account remaining habitat, lost habitat, potential new habitat and current protected areas for giant pandas.

The study also found that habitat fragmentation will likely increase, leading to smaller areas that can support fewer pandas farther away from each other, increasing the risks of inbreeding and population collapse.

"Our research predicts that climate change will substantially decrease the amount of suitable giant panda habitat within the species' current distribution," said Melissa Songer, lead author of the paper and an SCBI wildlife ecologist. "But also we may see new areas becoming suitable for giant pandas," Songer adds. "The question remains as to whether giant pandas will have the capacity and opportunity to shift to new areas."

In addition to calling for the development of more protected areas that are aligned with climate predictions, the paper emphasizes the importance of creating corridors to reduce fragmentation. The study also has land-use implications, as agricultural land and land near human settlements are unsuitable for pandas.

Current Literature

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Aizen, M.A., Lozada, M., and Morales, C.L. 2011. Comparative nectar-foraging behaviors and efficiencies of an alien and a native bumble bee. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2901-2909.

Andonian, K., and Hierro, J.L. 2011. Species interactions contribute to the success of a global plant invader. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2957-2965.

Arias-González, J.E., Acosta-González, G., Membrillo, N., Garza-Pérez, J.R., and Castro-Pérez, J.M. 2012. Predicting spatially explicit coral reef fish abundance, richness and Shannon-Weaver index from habitat characteristics. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(1):115-130.

Aslan, C.E. 2011. Implications of newly-formed seed-dispersal mutualisms between birds and introduced plants in northern California, USA. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2829-2845.

Báez, J.C., Estrada, A., Torreblanca, D., and Real, R. 2012. Predicting the distribution of cryptic species: the case of the spur-thighed tortoise in Andalusia (southern Iberian Peninsula). Biodivers. Conserv. 21(1):65-78.

Baider, C., and Florens, F.B.V. 2011. Control of invasive alien weeds averts imminent plant extinction. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2641-2646.

Bain, M.B. 2011. The conservation status of large migratory cyprinids including Aspiorhynchus laticeps of Xinjiang China. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 27:80-85.

Barrington, D.S. 2011. Should hybrids be protected by listing; Betula × sandbergii and Botrychium minganense in Vermont. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 138(4):465-471.

Barto, E.K., Antunes, P.M., Stinson, K., Koch, A.M., Klironomos, J.N., and Cipollini, D. 2011. Differences in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities associated with sugar maple seedlings in and outside of invaded garlic mustard forest patches. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2755-2762.

Bässler, C., Müller, J., Svoboda, M., Lepšová, A., Hahn, C., Holzer, H., and Pouska, V. 2012. Diversity of wood-decaying fungi under different disturbance regimes - a case study from spruce mountain forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(1):33-49.

Bateman, B.L., Abell-Davis, S.E., and Johnson, C.N. 2011. Climate-driven variation in food availability between the core and range edge of the endangered northern bettong (Bettongia tropica). Aust. J. Zool. 59(3):177-185.

Beale, C.M., and Lennon, J.J. 2012. Incorporating uncertainty in predictive species distribution modelling. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 367(1586):247-258.

Becerra, P.I., and Bustamante, R.O. 2011. Effect of a native tree on seedling establishment of two exotic invasive species in a semiarid ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2763-2773.

Beckley, L.E., and Lombard, A.T. 2012. A systematic evaluation of the incremental protection of broad-scale habitats at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Mar. Freshwater Res. 63(1):17-22.

Beckmann, C., Crossland, M.R., and Shine, R. 2011. Responses of Australian wading birds to a novel toxic prey type, the invasive cane toad Rhinella marina. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2925-2934.

Beirão, M.V., Campos-Neto, F.C., Pimenta, I.A., and Freitas, A.V.L. 2012. Population biology and natural history of Parides burchellanus (Papilionidae: Papilioninae: Troidini), an endangered Brazilian butterfly. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 105(1):36-43.

Beneteau, C.L., Walter, R.P., Mandrak, N.E., and Heath, D.D. 2012. Range expansion by invasion: genetic characterization of invasion of the greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides) at the northern edge of its distribution. Biol. Invasions 14(1):191-201.

Bennett, J.R., Young, E.J., Giblin, D.E., Dunwiddie, P.W., and Arcese, P. 2011. Avian dispersal of exotic shrubs in an archipelago. Ecoscience 18(4):369-374.

Bernardo, C.S.S., Rubim, P., Bueno, R.S., Begotti, R.A., Meirelles, F., Donatti, C.I., Denzin, C., Steffler, C.E., Marques, R.M., Bovendorp, R.S., Gobbo, S.K., and Galetti, M. 2011. Density estimates of the Black-fronted Piping Guan in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Wilson J. Ornithol. 123(4):690-698.

Bhat, D.M., Hegde, G.T., Shetti, D.M., Patgar, S.G., Hegde, G.N., Furtado, R.M., Shastri, C.M., Bhat, P.R., and Ravindranath, N.H. 2011. Impact of disturbance on composition, structure, and floristics of tropical moist forests in Uttara Kannada District, Western Ghats, India . Ecotropica 17(2):1-14.

Bodey, T.W., Bearhop, S., and McDonald, R.A. 2011. Localised control of an introduced predator: creating problems for the future? Biol. Invasions 13(12):2817-2828.

Boley, R.M., and Heist, E.J. 2011. Larval surveys indicate low levels of endangered pallid sturgeon reproduction in the middle Mississippi River. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 140(6):1604-1612.

Boscolo, D., and Metzger, J.P. 2011. Isolation determines patterns of species presence in highly fragmented landscapes. Ecography 34(6):1018-1029.

Boubli, J.P., Couto-Santos, F.R., and Strier, K.B. 2011. Structure and floristic composition of one of the last forest fragments containing the critically endangered northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus, primates). Ecotropica 17(2):53-69.

Bray, A.M., Bauer, L.S., Poland, T.M., Haack, R.A., Cognato, A.I., and Smith, J.J. 2011. Genetic analysis of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) populations in Asia and North America. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2869-2887.

Britton, J.R., Copp, G.H., Brazier, M., and Davies, G.D. 2011. A modular assessment tool for managing introduced fishes according to risks of species and their populations, and impacts of management actions. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2847-2860.

Brullo, C., Minissale, P., Sciandrello, S., and Spampinato, G. 2011. Phytogeographic survey on the endemic vascular flora of the Hyblaean territory (SE Sicily, Italy). Acta Bot. Gallica 158(4):617-631.

Bryant, G.L., Dundas, S.J., and Fleming, P.A. 2012. Tree hollows are of conservation importance for a Near-Threatened python species. J. Zool. 286(1):81-92.

Butcher, P.A., Bradbury, D., and Krauss, S.L. 2011. Limited pollen-mediated dispersal and partial self-incompatibility in the rare ironstone endemic Tetratheca paynterae subsp. paynterae increase the risks associated with habitat loss. Conserv. Genet. 12(6):1603-1618.

Caffrey, J., Millane, M., Evers, S., and Moran, H. 2011. Management of Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) moss in Lough Corrib—a review. Biol. Environ. 111B(3):205-212.

Callmander, M.W., Munzinger, J., and Stone, B.C. 2011. Pandanus belepensis (Pandanaceae), a new species from the Belep Archipelago (New Caledonia). Phytotaxa 38:36-40.

Cannings, R.A. 2011. Efferia okanagana, a new species of robber fly (Diptera: Asilidae) from the grasslands of southern British Columbia, Canada, with notes on taxonomy, biology, distribution, and conservation status. Can. Entomol. 143(6):578-593.

Cantor, A., Hale, A., Aaron, J., Traw, M.B., and Kalisz, S. 2011. Low allelochemical concentrations detected in garlic mustard-invaded forest soils inhibit fungal growth and AMF spore germination. Biol. Invasions 13(12):3015-3025.

Catford, J.A., Vesk, P.A., Richardson, D.M., and Pyšek, P. 2012. Quantifying levels of biological invasion: towards the objective classification of invaded and invasible ecosystems. Global Change Biol. 18(1):44-62.

Choi, S.W., and Kim, S.S. 2012. The past and current status of endangered butterflies in Korea. Entomol. Sci. 15(1):1-12.

Chowdhury, S.U. 2012. Survey and conservation of the critically endangered spoon-billed sandpiper in Bangladesh. Ibis 154(1):210-211.

Chu-Agor, M.L., Muñoz-Carpena, R., Kiker, G.A., Aiello-Lammens, M.E., Akçakaya, H.R., Convertino, M., and Linkov, I. 2012. Simulating the fate of Florida Snowy Plovers with sea-level rise: exploring research and management priorities with a global uncertainty and sensitivity analysis perspective. Ecol. Model. 224(1):33-47.

Clark, M.R., Schlacher, T.A., Rowden, A.A., Stocks, K.I., and Consalvey, M. 2012. Science priorities for seamounts: research links to conservation and management. PLoS ONE 7(1):e29232.

Cockle, K.L., Martin, K., and Robledo, G. 2012. Linking fungi, trees, and hole-using birds in a Neotropical tree-cavity network: pathways of cavity production and implications for conservation. Forest Ecol. Manag. 264:210-219.

Combrink, X., Korrubel, J.L., Kyle, R., Taylor, R., and Ross, P. 2011. Evidence of a declining Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) population at Lake Sibaya, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 41(2):145-157.

Cripps, M.G., Bourdôt, G.W., Saville, D.J., Hinz, H.L., Fowler, S.V., and Edwards, G.R. 2011. Influence of insects and fungal pathogens on individual and population parameters of Cirsium arvense in its native and introduced ranges. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2739-2754.

Crossman, N.D., Bryan, B.A., and Summers, D.M. 2012. Identifying priority areas for reducing species vulnerability to climate change. Divers. Distrib. 18(1):60-72.

Crouzeilles, R., Lorini, M.L., and Grelle, C.E.V. 2011. Applying graph theory to design networks of protected areas: using inter-patch distance for regional conservation planning. Nat. Conservacao 9(2):219-224.

Cuassolo, F., Balseiro, E., and Modenutti, B. 2012. Alien vs. native plants in a Patagonian wetland: elemental ratios and ecosystem stoichiometric impacts. Biol. Invasions 14(1):179-189.

Daniels, R.J.R. 2011. Common biases that plague conservation assessments in the Western Ghats. Curr. Sci. 101(10):1271-1274.

Daniels, S.R. 2011. Genetic variation in the Critically Endangered velvet worm Opisthopatus roseus (Onychophora: Peripatopsidae). Afr. Zool. 46(2):419-424.

Davidson, I.C., and Simkanin, C. 2012. The biology of ballast water 25 years later. Biol. Invasions 14(1):9-13.

Davison, J.E., Coe, S., Finch, D., Rowland, E., Friggens, M., and Graumlich, L.J. 2012. Bringing indices of species vulnerability to climate change into geographic space: an assessment across the Coronado national forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(1):189-204.

de Souza, T.V., Lorini, M.L., Alves, M.A.S., Cordeiro, P., and Vale, M.M. 2011. Redistribution of threatened and endemic Atlantic forest birds under climate change. Nat. Conservacao 9(2):214-218.

Delaney, D.G., Griffen, B.D., and Leung, B. 2011. Does consumer injury modify invasion impact? Biol. Invasions 13(12):2935-2945.

Diniz, J.A.F., and Bini, L.M. 2011. Geographical patterns in biodiversity: towards an integration of concepts and methods from genes to species diversity. Nat. Conservacao 9(2):179-187.

Dissanayake, S.T.M., Önal, H., Westervelt, J.D., and Balbach, H.E. 2012. Incorporating species relocation in reserve design models: an example from Ft. Benning GA. Ecol. Model. 224(1):65-75.

Dobrovolski, R., Loyola, R.D., De Marco, P., and Diniz, J.A.F. 2011. Agricultural expansion can menace Brazilian protected areas during the 21st century. Nat. Conservacao 9(2):208-213.

Douda, K., Vrtílek, M., Slavík, O., and Reichard, M. 2012. The role of host specificity in explaining the invasion success of the freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana in Europe. Biol. Invasions 14(1):127-137.

Drees, C., Zumstein, P., Buck-Dobrick, T., Härdtle, W., Matern, A., Meyer, H., von Oheimb, G., and Assmann, T. 2011. Genetic erosion in habitat specialist shows need to protect large peat bogs. Conserv. Genet. 12(6):1651-1656.

Drinan, D.P., Kalinowski, S.T., Vu, N.V., Shepard, B.B., Muhlfeld, C.C., and Campbell, M.R. 2011. Genetic variation in westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi: implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 12(6):1513-1523.

Du, W., Huang, L.J., and Wang, X.F. 2012. Deceit pollination and the effect of deforestation on reproduction in dioecious Schisandra sphenanthera (Schisandraceae) in central China. J. Syst. Evol. 50(1):36-44.

Duggan, I.C., and Duggan, K.S. 2011. Are botanical gardens a risk for zooplankton invasions? Biol. Invasions 13(12):2997-3003.

Dunstan, P.K., Bax, N.J., Foster, S.D., Williams, A., and Althaus, F. 2012. Identifying hotspots for biodiversity management using rank abundance distributions. Divers. Distrib. 18(1):22-32.

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Ellis, C.J. 2011. Predicting the biodiversity response to climate change: challenges and advances. Syst. Biodivers. 9(4):307-317.

Erdman, C.S., Hendrixon, H.A., and Rudd, N.T. 2011. Larval sucker distribution and condition before and after large-scale restoration at the Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. West. N. Am. Naturalist 71(4):472-480.

Fernandes-Ferreira, H., Mendonça, S.V., Albano, C., Ferreira, F.S., and Alves, R.R.N. 2012. Hunting, use and conservation of birds in Northeast Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(1):221-244.

Fink, P., Kottsieper, A., Heynen, M., and Borcherding, J. 2012. Selective zooplanktivory of an invasive Ponto-Caspian mysid and possible consequences for the zooplankton community structure of invaded habitats. Aquat. Sci. 74(1):191-202.

Fisch, K.M., Henderson, J.M., Burton, R.S., and May, B. 2011. Population genetics and conservation implications for the endangered delta smelt in the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Conserv. Genet. 12(6):1421-1434.

Fitzgerald, D.B., Ordway, E., Honarvar, S., and Hearn, G.W. 2011. Challenges confronting sea turtle conservation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 10(2):177-180.

Flory, S.L., Long, F.R., and Clay, K. 2011. Invasive Microstegium populations consistently outperform native range populations across diverse environments. Ecology 92(12):2248-2257.

Forero-Medina, G., Cárdenas-Arevalo, G., and Castaño-Mora, O.V. 2011. Abundance, home range, and movement patterns of the endemic species Dahl's toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys dahli) in Cesar, Colombia. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 10(2):228-236.

Forzza, R.C., Baumgratz, J.F.A., Bicudo, C.E.M., Canhos, D.A.L., Carvalho, A.A., Coelho, M.A.N., Costa, A.F., Costa, D.P., Hopkins, M.G., Leitman, P.M., Lohmann, L.G., Lughadha, E.N., Maia, L.C., Martinelli, G., Menezes, M., Morim, M.P., Peixoto, A.L., Pirani, J.R., Prado, J., Queiroz, L.P., Souza, S., Souza, V.C., Stehmann, J.R., Sylvestre, L.S., Walter, B.M.T., and Zappi, D.C. 2012. New Brazilian floristic list highlights conservation challenges. BioScience 62(1):39-45.

Foster, H.R., and Keller, T.A. 2011. Flow in culverts as a potential mechanism of stream fragmentation for native and nonindigenous crayfish species. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 30(4):1129-1137.

Fox, H.E., Mascia, M.B., Basurto, X., Costa, A., Glew, L., Heinemann, D., Karrer, L.B., Lester, S.E., Lombana, A.V., Pomeroy, R.S., Recchia, C.A., Roberts, C.M., Sanchirico, J.N., Pet-Soede, L., and White, A.T. 2012. Reexamining the science of marine protected areas: linking knowledge to action. Conserv. Lett. 5(1):1-10.

Freitas, A.V.L., Kaminski, L.A., Iserhard, C.A., Barbosa, E.P., and Marini, O.J. 2011. The endangered butterfly Charonias theano (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae): current status, threats and its rediscovery in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Neotrop. Entomol. 40(6):669-676.

Frère, C.H., Seddon, J., Palmer, C., Porter, L., and Parra, G.J. 2011. Multiple lines of evidence for an Australasian geographic boundary in the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis): population or species divergence? Conserv. Genet. 12(6):1633-1638.

Furey, N.M., Mackie, I.J., and Racey, P.A. 2011. Reproductive phenology of bat assemblages in Vietnamese karst and its conservation implications. Acta Chiropterol. 13(2):341-354.

Gatti, A., Brito, D., and Mendes, S.L. 2011. How many lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) are needed in Atlantic Forest fragments to ensure long-term persistence? Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 46(2):77-84.

Gergs, R., Grey, J., and Rothhaupt, K.O. 2011. Temporal variation in zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) density structure the benthic food web and community composition on hard substrates in Lake Constance, Germany. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2727-2738.

Gioria, M., Dieterich, B., and Osborne, B. 2011. Battle of the giants: primary and secondary invasions by large herbaceous species. Biol. Environ. 111B(3):177-193.

Gockowski, J., and Sonwa, D. 2011. Cocoa intensification scenarios and their predicted impact on CO2 emissions, biodiversity conservation, and rural livelihoods in the Guinea rain forest of West Africa. Environ. Manage. 48(2):307-321.

González, M.E.G., Redondo, R.A., Saiz, E.A., Valcarce, R.G., García, S.A., and Jiménez, N.F. 2011. Conservation status and protection measures for Draba hispanica Boiss. subsp. lebrunii P. Monts., endemic to the Altocarrionés subsector (Castile and Leon, Spain). Acta Bot. Gallica 158(4):577-594.

Greene, B.T., and Blossey, B. 2012. Lost in the weeds: Ligustrum sinense reduces native plant growth and survival. Biol. Invasions 14(1):139-150.

Guerrero, A.M., and Tye, A. 2011. Native and introduced birds of Galapagos as dispersers of native and introduced plants. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 22(2):207-217.

Guisado, D.D., Cole, R.G., Davidson, R.J., Freeman, D.J., Kelly, S., Macdiarmid, A., Pande, A., Stewart, R., Struthers, C., Bell, J.J., and Gardner, J.P.A. 2012. Comparison of methodologies to quantify the effects of age and area of marine reserves on the density and size of targeted species. Aquat. Biol. 14(2):185-200.

Gursky, S., Salibay, C.C., and Cuevas, C.Z. 2011. Population survey of the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta) in Corella, Bohol. Folia Primatol. 82(3):189-196.

Gutierrez, A.P., and Ponti, L. 2011. Assessing the invasive potential of the Mediterranean fruit fly in California and Italy. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2661-2676.

Hacker, S.D., Zarnetske, P., Seabloom, E., Ruggiero, P., Mull, J., Gerrity, S., and Jones, C. 2012. Subtle differences in two non-native congeneric beach grasses significantly affect their colonization, spread, and impact. Oikos 121(1):138-148.

Halme, P., and Kotiaho, J.S. 2012. The importance of timing and number of surveys in fungal biodiversity research. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(1):205-219.

Harris, J.B.C., Reid, J.L., Scheffers, B.R., Wanger, T.C., Sodhi, N.S., Fordham, D.A., and Brook, B.W. 2012. Conserving imperiled species: a comparison of the IUCN Red List and U.S. Endangered Species Act. Conserv. Lett. 5(1):64-72.

Herr, C.A., Sykes, P.W., and Klicka, J. 2011. Phylogeography of a vanishing North American songbird: the Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Conserv. Genet. 12(6):1395-1410.

Holvorcem, C.G.D., Tambosi, L.R., Ribeiro, M.C., Costa, S., and Mesquita, C.A.B. 2011. Anchor areas to improve conservation and increase connectivity within the Brazilian "Mesopotamia of Biodiversity." Nat. Conservacao 9(2):225-231.

Horák, J., and Chobot, K. 2011. Phenology and notes on the behaviour of Cucujus cinnaberinus: points for understanding the conservation of the saproxylic beetle. North-West. J. Zool. 7(2):352-355.

James, A.I., Eldridge, D.J., Koen, T.B., and Moseby, K.E. 2011. Can the invasive European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) assume the soil engineering role of locally-extinct natives? Biol. Invasions 13(12):3027-3038.

Jansen, F., Ewald, J., and Zerbe, S. 2011. Ecological preferences of alien plant species in North-Eastern Germany. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2691-2701.

Jauni, M., and Hyvönen, T. 2012. Interactions between alien plant species traits and habitat characteristics in agricultural landscapes in Finland. Biol. Invasions 14(1):47-63.

Jedrzejewski, W., Abarca, M., Viloria, Á., Cerda, H., Lew, D., Takiff, H., Abadía, É., Velozo, P., and Schmidt, K. 2011. Jaguar conservation in Venezuela against the backdrop of current knowledge on its biology and evolution. Interciencia 36(12):954-966.

Jenkins, C.N., Pimm, S.L., and Alves, M.A.D. 2011. How conservation GIS leads to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nat. Conservacao 9(2):152-159.

Jiménez-Valverde, A., Peterson, A.T., Soberón, J., Overton, J.M., Aragón, P., and Lobo, J.M. 2011. Use of niche models in invasive species risk assessments. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2785-2797.

Johnson, L.E., Brawley, S.H., and Adey, W.H. 2012. Secondary spread of invasive species: historic patterns and underlying mechanisms of the continuing invasion of the European rockweed Fucus serratus in eastern North America. Biol. Invasions 14(1):79-97.

Jones, H.P., and Kress, S.W. 2012. A review of the world's active seabird restoration projects. J. Wildlife Manag. 76(1):2-9.

Kanagaraj, R., Wiegand, T., Kramer-Schadt, S., Anwar, M., and Goyal, S.P. 2011. Assessing habitat suitability for tiger in the fragmented Terai Arc Landscape of India and Nepal. Ecography 34(6):970-981.

Kennedy, V.S., Breitburg, D.L., Christman, M.C., Luckenbach, M.W., Paynter, K., Kramer, J., Sellner, K.G., Dew-Baxter, J., Keller, C., and Mann, R. 2011. Lessons learned from efforts to restore oyster populations in Maryland and Virginia, 1990 to 2007. J. Shellfish Res. 30(3):719-731.

Keßler, T., Cierjacks, A., Ernst, R., and Dziock, F. 2012. Direct and indirect effects of ski run management on alpine Orthoptera. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(1):281-296.

Khuroo, A.A., Reshi, Z.A., Malik, A.H., Weber, E., Rashid, I., and Dar, G.H. 2012. Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biol. Invasions 14(1):99-113.

King, C.M., and Powell, R.A. 2011. Managing an invasive predator pre-adapted to a pulsed resource: a model of stoat (Mustela erminea) irruptions in New Zealand beech forests. Biol. Invasions 13(12):3039-3055.

Kioko, J.M., and Seno, S.O. 2011. Elephant corridor use and threats in the eastern range of Amboseli elephants, Kenya. Pachyderm (49):70-78.

Kluger, E.C., Berlocher, S.H., Tooker, J.F., and Hanks, L.M. 2011. Consequences of habitat fragmentation for the prairie-endemic weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus. Environ. Entomol. 40(6):1388-1396.

Knowlton, J.L., and Graham, C.H. 2011. Species interactions are disrupted by habitat degradation in the highly threatened Tumbesian region of Ecuador. Ecol. Appl. 21(8):2974-2986.

Koblitz, R.V., Pereira, S.J., Ajuz, R.C.D., and Grelle, C.E.V. 2011. Landscape ecology and environmental impacts analysis. Nat. Conservacao 9(2):244-248.

Kocovsky, P.M., Tallman, J.A., Jude, D.J., Murphy, D.M., Brown, J.E., and Stepien, C.A. 2011. Expansion of tubenose gobies Proterorhinus semilunaris into western Lake Erie and potential effects on native species. Biol. Invasions 13(12):2775-2784.

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Ziaco, E., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, S., Di Filippo, A., Dennis, S., and Piovesan, G. 2012. Communicating old-growth forest through an educational trail. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(1):131-144.

Zippel, K., Johnson, K., Gagliardo, R., Gibson, R., McFadden, M., Browne, R., Martinez, C., and Townsend, E. 2011. The Amphibian Ark: a global community for ex situ conservation of amphibians. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 6(3):340-352.

Zumbado-Ulate, H., Bolaños, F., Willink, B., and Soley-Guardia, F. 2011. Population status and natural history notes on the critically endangered stream-dwelling frog Craugastor ranoides (Craugastoridae) in a Costa Rican tropical dry forest. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 6(3):455-464.

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