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Department ofBotany

No. 331
July 2012

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The future of the Biological Conservation Newsletter is under consideration - continue as is, modify it in some way, or cease production. The main purpose of the monthly newsletter is twofold: (1) to highlight stories of conservation research coming out of the Smithsonian Institution; and (2) to provide a comprehensive list of current literature related to conservation biology. We would like to understand what you find most useful, and whether the newsletter should continue. Please complete a quick two-minute survey at <>. We also welcome comments about BCN sent directly to the editor at

In This Issue

Fungi-Filled Forests are Critical if Endangered Orchids are to Thrive

Adapted from

When it comes to conserving the world's orchids, not all forests are equal. In a paper published in the journal Molecular Ecology, Smithsonian ecologists reveal that an orchid's fate hinges on two factors: a forest's age and its fungi.

Roughly 10 percent of all plant species are orchids, making them the largest plant family on Earth. But habitat loss has rendered many threatened or endangered. This is partly due to their intimate relationship with the soil. Orchids depend entirely on microscopic fungi in the early stages of their lives. Without the nutrients orchids obtain by digesting these host fungi, their seeds often will not germinate and orchid seedlings will not grow. While researchers have known about the orchid-fungus relationship for years, very little is known about what the fungi need to survive.

Biologists based at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland, launched the first study to find out what helps the fungi flourish and what that means for orchids. Led by Melissa McCormick, the researchers looked at three orchid species, all endangered in one or more U.S. states. After planting orchid seeds in dozens of experimental plots, they also added particular host fungi needed by each orchid to half of the plots. Then they followed the fate of the orchids and fungi in six study sites: three in younger forests (50 to 70 years old) and three in older forests (120 to 150 years old).

After four years they discovered orchid seeds germinated only where the fungi they needed were abundant—not merely present. In the case of one species, Liparis liliifolia (lily-leaved twayblade), seeds germinated only in plots where the team had added fungi. This suggests that this particular orchid could survive in many places, but the fungi they need do not exist in most areas of the forest.

Meanwhile, the fungi displayed a strong preference for older forests. Soil samples taken from older forest plots had host fungi that were five to 12 times more abundant compared to younger forests, even where the research team had not added them. They were more diverse as well. More mature plots averaged 3.6 different Tulasnella fungi species per soil sample (a group of fungi beneficial to these orchids), while the younger ones averaged only 1.3. Host fungi were also more abundant in plots where rotting wood was added. These host fungi, which are primarily decomposers, may grow better in places where decomposing wood or leaves are plentiful.

All this implies that to save endangered orchids, planting new forests may not be enough. If the forests are not old enough or do not have enough of the right fungi, lost orchids may take decades to return, if they return at all.

"This study, for the first time, ties orchid performance firmly to the abundance of their fungi," McCormick says. "It reveals the way to determine what conditions host fungi need, so we can support recovery of the fungi needed by threatened and endangered orchids."

Current Literature

Aavik, T., Edwards, P.J., Holderegger, R., Graf, R., and Billeter, R. 2012. Genetic consequences of using seed mixtures in restoration: a case study of a wetland plant Lychnis flos-cuculi. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):195-204.

Abeli, T., Barni, E., Siniscalco, C., Amosso, C., and Rossi, G. 2012. A cost-effective model for preliminary site evaluation for the reintroduction of a threatened quillwort. Aquat. Conserv. 22(1):66-73.

Aguiar, F.C., Fernandes, M.R., and Ferreira, M.T. 2011. Riparian vegetation metrics as tools for guiding ecological restoration in riverscapes. Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst. 402:21.

Aizen, M.A., Sabatino, M., and Tylianakis, J.M. 2012. Specialization and rarity predict nonrandom loss of interactions from mutualist networks. Science 335(6075):1486-1489.

Akasaka, T., Akasaka, M., and Nakamura, F. 2012. Scale-independent significance of river and riparian zones on three sympatric Myotis species in an agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):15-23.

Albins, M.A., and Lyons, P.J. 2012. Invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans blow directed jets of water at prey fish. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 448:1-5.

Albrecht, C., Hauffe, T., Schreiber, K., and Wilke, T. 2012. Mollusc biodiversity in a European ancient lake system: lakes Prespa and Mikri Prespa in the Balkans. Hydrobiologia 682(1):47-59.

Alderman, R., Gales, R., Tuck, G.N., and Lebreton, J.D. 2011. Global population status of shy albatross and an assessment of colony-specific trends and drivers. Wildlife Res. 38(8):672-686.

Alexander, L., and Hess, G.R. 2012. Land trust evaluation of progress toward conservation goals. Conserv. Biol. 26(1):7-12.

Ali, H., Qaiser, M., and Marwat, K.B. 2012. Contribution to the red list of Pakistan: a case study of Delphinium nordhagenii (Ranunculaceae). Pakistan J. Bot. 44(1):27-31.

Allen, B.L., and Fleming, P.J.S. 2012. Reintroducing the dingo: the risk of dingo predation to threatened vertebrates of western New South Wales. Wildlife Res. 39(1):35-50.

Altrichter, M., Taber, A., Beck, H., Reyna-Hurtado, R., Lizarraga, L., Keuroghlian, A., and Sanderson, E.W. 2012. Range-wide declines of a key Neotropical ecosystem architect, the Near Threatened white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari. Oryx 46(1):87-98.

Alvarez-Romero, J.G., Pressey, R.L., Ban, N.C., Vance-Borland, K., Willer, C., Klein, C.J., and Gaines, S.D. 2011. Integrated land-sea conservation planning: the missing links. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 42:381-409.

Alves, J.A., Sutherland, W.J., and Gill, J.A. 2012. Will improving wastewater treatment impact shorebirds? Effects of sewage discharges on estuarine invertebrates and birds. Anim. Conserv. 15(1):44-52.

Amar, A., Court, I.R., Davison, M., Downing, S., Grimshaw, T., Pickford, T., and Raw, D. 2012. Linking nest histories, remotely sensed land use data and wildlife crime records to explore the impact of grouse moor management on peregrine falcon populations. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):86-94.

Amici, V., Rocchini, D., Geri, F., Bacaro, G., Marcantonio, M., and Chiarucci, A. 2012. Effects of an afforestation process on plant species richness: a retrogressive analysis. Ecol. Complex. 9:55-62.

Andersen, S., Teilmann, J., Dietz, R., Schmidt, N.M., and Miller, L.A. 2012. Behavioural responses of harbour seals to human-induced disturbances. Aquat. Conserv. 22(1):113-121.

Araújo, F.R., and Lopes, M.A. 2012. Diversity of use and local knowledge of palms (Arecaceae) in eastern Amazonia. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(2):487-501.

Archie, E.A., and Chiyo, P.I. 2012. Elephant behaviour and conservation: social relationships, the effects of poaching, and genetic tools for management. Mol. Ecol. 21(3):765-778.

Armstrong, A.H., Shugart, H.H., and Fatoyinbo, T.E. 2011. Characterization of community composition and forest structure in a Madagascar lowland rainforest. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 4(4):428-444.

Arzamendia, V., and Giraudo, A.R. 2012. A panbiogeographical model to prioritize areas for conservation along large rivers. Divers. Distrib. 18(2):168-179.

Avila-Flores, R., Ceballos, G., de Villa-Meza, A., List, R., Marcé, E., Pacheco, J., Sánchez-Azofeifa, G.A., and Boutin, S. 2012. Factors associated with long-term changes in distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs in northwestern Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):54-61.

Baasch, A., Kirmer, A., and Tischew, S. 2012. Nine years of vegetation development in a postmining site: effects of spontaneous and assisted site recovery. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(1):251-260.

Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A.W., de la Torre, J., and Scott, B. 2011. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool. ZooKeys 150:117-126.

Baker, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Leader-Williams, N. 2012. Park gazettement and integrated conservation and development as factors in community conflict at Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. Conserv. Biol. 26(1):160-170.

Baskaran, N., Anbarasan, U., and Agoramoorthy, G. 2012. India's biodiversity hotspot under anthropogenic pressure: a case study of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. J. Nature Conserv. 20(1):56-61.

Bazelet, C.S., and Samways, M.J. 2012. Grasshopper and butterfly local congruency in grassland remnants. J. Insect Conserv. 16(1):71-85.

Béchet, A., Rendón-Martos, M., Rendón, M.Á., Amat, J.A., Johnson, A.R., and Gauthier-Clerc, M. 2012. Global economy interacts with climate change to jeopardize species conservation: the case of the greater flamingo in the Mediterranean and West Africa. Environ. Conserv. 39(1):1-3.

Ben Slimen, H., Gedeon, C.I., Hoffmann, I.E., and Suchentrunk, F. 2012. Dwindling genetic diversity in European ground squirrels? Mamm. Biol. 77(1):13-21.

Berger-Tal, O., Bar-David, S., and Saltz, D. 2012. Effectiveness of multiple release sites in reintroduction of Persian fallow deer. Conserv. Biol. 26(1):107-115.

Bergeron, J.A.C., Spence, J.R., and Volney, W.J.A. 2011. Landscape patterns of species-level association between ground-beetles and overstory trees in boreal forests of western Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae). ZooKeys 147:577-599.

Berndt, A.M., and Hölzel, N. 2012. Energy crops as a new bird habitat: utilization of oilseed rape fields by the rare Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica). Biodivers. Conserv. 21(2):527-541.

Bhupathy, S., Srinivas, G., Sathishkumar, N., Murugesan, M., Babu, S., Suganthasakthivel, R., and Sivakumar, P. 2012. Diversity and conservation of selected biota of the Megamalai landscape, Western Ghats, India. Curr. Sci. 102(4):590-595.

Biricik, M., and Karakas, R. 2012. Birds of Hasankeyf (south-eastern Anatolia, Turkey) under the threat of a big dam project. Nat. Areas J. 32(1):96-105.

Blowes, S.A., and Connolly, S.R. 2012. Risk spreading, connectivity, and optimal reserve spacing. Ecol. Appl. 22(1):311-321.

Blumenthal, D.M., Norton, A.P., Cox, S.E., Hardy, E.M., Liston, G.E., Kennaway, L., Booth, D.T., and Derner, J.D. 2012. Linaria dalmatica invades south-facing slopes and less grazed areas in grazing-tolerant mixed-grass prairie. Biol. Invasions 14(2):395-404.

Bockino, N.K., and Tinker, D.B. 2012. Interactions of white pine blister rust and mountain pine beetle in whitebark pine ecosystems in the southern Greater Yellowstone area. Nat. Areas J. 32(1):31-40.

Bokolial, D., Syiemlieh, S.M., and Rao, C.S. 2012. Conservation of pitcher plant. Curr. Sci. 102(3):381-382.

Boyero, L., Pearson, R.G., Dudgeon, D., Ferreira, V., Graça, M.A.S., Gessner, M.O., Boulton, A.J., Chauvet, E., Yule, C.M., Albariño, R.J., Ramírez, A., Helson, J.E., Callisto, M., Arunachalam, M., Chará, J., Figueroa, R., Mathooko, J.M., Gonçalves, J.F., Moretti, M.S., Chará-Serna, A.M., Davies, J.N., Encalada, A., Lamothe, S., Buria, L.M., Castela, J., Cornejo, A., Li, A.O.Y., M'Erimba, C., Villanueva, V.D., Zúñiga, M.D., Swan, C.M., and Barmuta, L.A. 2012. Global patterns of stream detritivore distribution: implications for biodiversity loss in changing climates. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 21(2):134-141.

Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2012. Little left to lose: deforestation and forest degradation in Australia since European colonization. J. Plant Ecol.-UK 5(1):109-120.

Branch, T.A., Austin, J.D., Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., Gordon, I.J., Gompper, M.E., Katzner, T.E., and Pettorelli, N. 2012. Fisheries conservation and management: finding consensus in the midst of competing paradigms. Anim. Conserv. 15(1):1-3.

Breteler, F.J. 2011. Novitates Gabonenses 78. Two new species from Gabon in the Bridelieae (Phyllanthaceae, formerly Euphorbiaceae) with keys for Gabonese species within genera Bridelia and Cleistanthus. Adansonia 33(2):233-242.

Briggs, J.C. 2012. Marine species invasions in estuaries and harbors. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 449:297-302.

Brito, D., Moreira, D.O., Coutinho, B.R., and Oprea, M. 2012. Ill nature: disease hotspots as threats to biodiversity. J. Nature Conserv. 20(2):72-75.

Broggi, M.F. 2012. The Balkan Terrapin Mauremys rivulata (Valenciennes, 1833), in the Aegean islands. Threats, conservation aspects and the situation on the island of Kea (Cyclades) as a case study (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Herpetozoa 24(3-4):149-163.

Brost, B.M., and Beier, P. 2012. Use of land facets to design linkages for climate change. Ecol. Appl. 22(1):87-103.

Brown, C.J., Fulton, E.A., Possingham, H.P., and Richardson, A.J. 2012. How long can fisheries management delay action in response to ecosystem and climate change? Ecol. Appl. 22(1):298-310.

Bucharová, A., Brabec, J., and Münzbergová, Z. 2012. Effect of land use and climate change on the future fate of populations of an endemic species in central Europe. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):39-47.

Burgi, M.V., Marino, A., Rodríguez, M.V., Pazos, G., and Baldi, R. 2012. Response of guanacos Lama guanicoe to changes in land management in Peninsula Valdes, Argentine Patagonia: conservation implications. Oryx 46(1):99-105.

Burnside, R.J., Carter, I., Dawes, A., Waters, D., Lock, L., Goriup, P., and Székely, T. 2012. The UK great bustard Otis tarda reintroduction trial: a 5-year progress report. Oryx 46(1):112-121.

Burrows, C.J. 2011. Genus Pimelea (Thymelaeaceae) in New Zealand 5. The taxonomic treatment of five endemic species with both adaxial and abaxial leaf hair. New Zeal. J. Bot. 49(3):367-412.

Buse, J. 2012. "Ghosts of the past": flightless saproxylic weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are relict species in ancient woodlands. J. Insect Conserv. 16(1):93-102.

Caballero, S., Islas-Villanueva, V., Tezanos-Pinto, G., Duchene, S., Delgado-Estrella, A., Sanchez-Okrucky, R., and Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. 2012. Phylogeography, genetic diversity and population structure of common bottlenose dolphins in the Wider Caribbean inferred from analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and microsatellite loci: conservation and management implications. Anim. Conserv. 15(1):95-112.

Cabrera-Toledo, D., González-Astorga, J., and Flores-Vázquez, J.C. 2012. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in two Mexican cycad species Dioon caputoi and Dioon merolae (Zamiaceae, Cycadales): implications for conservation. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 40:43-48.

Callmander, M.W., Lescot, M., and Wahlert, G. 2011. Humbertioturraea labatii Lescot & Callm. (Meliaceae), a new endemic species from Madagascar. Adansonia 33(2):243-247.

Callmander, M.W., and Lowry, P.P. 2011. Two new species from the Mount Panié massif (New Caledonia): Meryta rivularis Lowry (Araliaceae) and Pandanus taluucensis Callm. (Pandanaceae). Candollea 66(2):263-272.

Callmander, M.W., and Phillipson, P.B. 2011. Four new species in the endemic genus Rhodocolea Baill. (Bignoniaceae) from Madagascar. Adansonia 33(2):311-321.

Callmander, M.W., Phillipson, P.B., and Gautier, L. 2011. Notes on the flora of Madagascar, 14-21. Candollea 66(2):397-423.

Canuria, E.D.P., Redondo, R.A., de Gopegui, A.R., and González, M.E.G. 2011. The genus Fritillaria L. (Liliaceae) in Cantabrian Cordillera (Spain). Candollea 66(2):383-395.

Caro, T., Darwin, J., Forrester, T., Ledoux-Bloom, C., and Wells, C. 2012. Conservation in the Anthropocene. Conserv. Biol. 26(1):185-188.

Carpenter, D., Sherlock, E., Jones, D.T., Chiminoides, J., Writer, T., Neilson, R., Boag, B., Keith, A.M., and Eggleton, P. 2012. Mapping of earthworm distribution for the British Isles and Eire highlights the under-recording of an ecologically important group. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(2):475-485.

Carpenter, S.R., Stanley, E.H., and Vander Zanden, M.J. 2011. State of the world's freshwater ecosystems: physical, chemical, and biological changes. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 42:75-99.

Carrete, M., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Benítez, J.R., Lobón, M., Montoya, F., and Donázar, J.A. 2012. Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):102-108.

Carroll, C., McRae, B.H., and Brookes, A. 2012. Use of linkage mapping and centrality analysis across habitat gradients to conserve connectivity of gray wolf populations in western North America. Conserv. Biol. 26(1):78-87.

Casas, F., Mougeot, F., Sánchez-Barbudo, I., Dávila, J.A., and Viñuela, J. 2012. Fitness consequences of anthropogenic hybridization in wild red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, Phasianidae) populations. Biol. Invasions 14(2):295-305.

Cerdá, X., Angulo, E., Caut, S., and Courchamp, F. 2012. Ant community structure on a small Pacific island: only one native species living with the invaders. Biol. Invasions 14(2):323-339.

Chapple, D.G., Simmonds, S.M., and Wong, B.B.M. 2012. Can behavioral and personality traits influence the success of unintentional species introductions? Trends Ecol. Evol. 27(1):57-64.

Chavez-Ramirez, F., and Wehtje, W. 2012. Potential impact of climate change scenarios on whooping crane life history. Wetlands 32(1):11-20.

Cheek, M. 2011. Nepenthes robcantleyi sp. nov. (Nepenthaceae) from Mindanao, Philippines. Nord. J. Bot. 29(6):677-681.

Chessman, B.C. 2011. Declines of freshwater turtles associated with climatic drying in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin. Wildlife Res. 38(8):664-671.

Chiarucci, A., Bacaro, G., Filibeck, G., Landi, S., Maccherini, S., and Scoppola, A. 2012. Scale dependence of plant species richness in a network of protected areas. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(2):503-516.

Chown, S.L. 2012. Antarctic marine biodiversity and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. PLoS Biol. 10(1):e1001232.

Clements, C., Bonito, V., Grober-Dunsmore, R., and Sobey, M. 2012. Effects of small, Fijian community-based marine protected areas on exploited reef fishes. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 449:233-243.

Cohen, J.S., Maerz, J.C., and Blossey, B. 2012. Traits, not origin, explain impacts of plants on larval amphibians. Ecol. Appl. 22(1):218-228.

Cole, L.J., Brocklehurst, S., McCracken, D.I., Harrison, W., and Robertson, D. 2012. Riparian field margins: their potential to enhance biodiversity in intensively managed Grasslands. Insect Conserv. Divers. 5(1):86-94.

Collier, B.A., Groce, J.E., Morrison, M.L., Newnam, J.C., Campomizzi, A.J., Farrell, S.L., Mathewson, H.A., Snelgrove, R.T., Carroll, R.J., and Wilkins, R.N. 2012. Predicting patch occupancy in fragmented landscapes at the rangewide scale for an endangered species: an example of an American warbler. Divers. Distrib. 18(2):158-167.

Cundill, G., Cumming, G.S., Biggs, D., and Fabricius, C. 2012. Soft systems thinking and social learning for adaptive management. Conserv. Biol. 26(1):13-20.

Curran, P., Smedley, D., Thompson, P., and Knight, A.T. 2012. Mapping restoration opportunity for collaborating with land managers in a carbon credit-funded restoration program in the Makana Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Restor. Ecol. 20(1):56-64.

Cuthbert, R. 2012. Heavy reliance on surrogate species and historical data may confound estimates of the sustainability of hunting in Papua New Guinea - reply. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):3.

da Mota, A.C., and de Oliveira, R.P. 2012. Ichnanthus longhi-wagnerii (Panicoideae): new grass from the Atlantic moist forest of Bahia, Brazil. Syst. Bot. 37(1):117-121.

da Silva, A.C.C.D., dos Santos, E.A.P., Oliveira, F.L.D., Weber, M.I., Batista, J.A.F., Serafini, T.Z., and de Castilhos, J.C. 2011. Satellite-tracking reveals multiple foraging strategies and threats for olive ridley turtles in Brazil. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 443:237-247.

Da Silva, J.M., Donaldson, J.S., Reeves, G., and Hedderson, T.A. 2012. Population genetics and conservation of critically small cycad populations: a case study of the Albany Cycad, Encephalartos latifrons (Lehmann). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 105(2):293-308.

Dahl, E.L., Bevanger, K., Nygård, T., Røskaft, E., and Stokke, B.G. 2012. Reduced breeding success in white-tailed eagles at Smøla windfarm, western Norway, is caused by mortality and displacement. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):79-85.

Dauble, A.D., Heppell, S.A., and Johansson, M.L. 2012. Settlement patterns of young-of-the-year rockfish among six Oregon estuaries experiencing different levels of human development. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 448:143-154.

Davidson, A.D., Boyer, A.G., Kim, H., Pompa-Mansilla, S., Hamilton, M.J., Costa, D.P., Ceballos, G., and Brown, J.H. 2012. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109(9):3395-3400.

de Abreua, R.C.R., and Durigan, G. 2011. Changes in the plant community of a Brazilian grassland savannah after 22 years of invasion by Pinus elliottii Engelm. Plant Ecol. Divers. 4(2-3):269-278.

de Carvalho, M.L.S., Dórea, M.C., Pimenta, K.M., and de Oliveira, R.P. 2012. Piresia palmula: a new species of herbaceous bamboo (Poaceae, Olyreae) endemic to the Atlantic rainforest, southern Bahia, Brazil. Syst. Bot. 37(1):134-138.

Deem, S.L., Cruz, M.B., Higashiguchi, J.M., and Parker, P.G. 2012. Diseases of poultry and endemic birds in Galapagos: implications for the reintroduction of native species. Anim. Conserv. 15(1):73-82.

DeFalco, L.A., Esque, T.C., Nicklas, M.B., and Kane, J.M. 2012. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go? Restor. Ecol. 20(1):85-94.

Didham, R.K., Kapos, V., and Ewers, R.M. 2012. Rethinking the conceptual foundations of habitat fragmentation research. Oikos 121(2):161-170.

Ding, Y., Zang, R.G., Liu, S.R., He, F.L., and Letcher, S.G. 2012. Recovery of woody plant diversity in tropical rain forests in southern China after logging and shifting cultivation. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):225-233.

Dolný, A., and Harabiš, F. 2012. Underground mining can contribute to freshwater biodiversity conservation: allogenic succession forms suitable habitats for dragonflies. Biol. Conserv. 145(1):109-117.

Dorcas, M.E., Willson, J.D., Reed, R.N., Snow, R.W., Rochford, M.R., Miller, M.A., Meshaka, W.E., Andreadis, P.T., Mazzotti, F.J., Romagosa, C.M., and Hart, K.M. 2012. Severe mammal declines coincide with proliferation of invasive Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109(7):2418-2422.

Duran, A., Dogan, B., Hamzaoğlu, E., and Aksoy, A. 2011. Scorzonera coriacea A. Duran & Aksoy (Asteraceae, Cichorieae), a new species from South Anatolia, Turkey. Candollea 66(2):353-359.

Duran, A., Öztürk, M., and Ay, H. 2011. Bilacunaria anatolica sp. nov. (Apiaceae) from southwest Anatolia, Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 29(6):652-659.

Dvorak, M., Fessl, B., Nemeth, E., Kleindorfer, S., and Tebbich, S. 2012. Distribution and abundance of Darwin's finches and other land birds on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos: evidence for declining populations. Oryx 46(1):78-86.

Ellison, W.T., Southall, B.L., Clark, C.W., and Frankel, A.S. 2012. A new context-based approach to assess marine mammal behavioral responses to anthropogenic sounds. Conserv. Biol. 26(1):21-28.

Elwen, S.H., Findlay, K.P., Kiszka, J., and Weir, C.R. 2011. Cetacean research in the southern African subregion: a review of previous studies and current knowledge. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 33(3):469-493.

Elwen, S.H., Thornton, M., Kirkman, S.P., Pistorius, P.A., and Weir, C.R. 2011. The first African Marine Mammal Colloquium, South Africa, May 2010. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 33(3):349-351.

Ennos, R.A., Whitlock, R., Fay, M.F., Jones, B., Neaves, L.E., Payne, R., Taylor, I., De Vere, N., and Hollingsworth, P.M. 2012. Process-based species action plans: an approach to conserve contemporary evolutionary processes that sustain diversity in taxonomically complex groups. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 168(2):194-203.

Escoriza, D., and Boix, D. 2012. Assessing the potential impact of an invasive species on a Mediterranean amphibian assemblage: a morphological and ecological approach. Hydrobiologia 680(1):233-245.

Fabinyi, M. 2012. Historical, cultural and social perspectives on luxury seafood consumption in China. Environ. Conserv. 39(1):83-92.

Festa-Bianchet, M. 2012. Rarity, willingness to pay and conservation. Anim. Conserv. 15(1):12-13.

Fiedler, A.K., and Landis, D.A. 2012. Biotic and abiotic conditions in Michigan prairie fen invaded by glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus). Nat. Areas J. 32(1):41-53.

Firmat, C., Schliewen, U.K., Losseau, M., and Alibert, P. 2012. Body shape differentiation at global and local geographic scales in the invasive cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 105(2):369-381.

Fisher, D.O., and Blomberg, S.P. 2012. Inferring extinction of mammals from sighting records, threats, and biological traits. Conserv. Biol. 26(1):57-67.

Fisher, J. 2012. No pay, no care? A case study exploring motivations for participation in payments for ecosystem services in Uganda. Oryx 46(1):45-54.

Fisher, J.T., Witkowski, E.T.F., Erasmus, B.F.N., Van Aardt, J., Asner, G.P., Wessels, K.J., and Mathieu, R. 2012. Human-modified landscapes: patterns of fine-scale woody vegetation structure in communal savannah rangelands. Environ. Conserv. 39(1):72-82.

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MacKenzie, R.A., and Bruland, G.L. 2012. Nekton communities in Hawaiian coastal wetlands: the distribution and abundance of introduced fish species. Estuaries Coasts 35(1):212-226.

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