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Department ofBotany

No. 333
September 2012

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In This Issue

Earthworms to Blame for Decline of Ovenbirds in Northern Midwest Forests

Adapted from

A recent decline in Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a ground-nesting migratory songbird, in forests in the northern Midwest United States is being linked by scientists to a seemingly unlikely culprit: earthworms.

A new survey conducted in Minnesota's Chippewa National Forest and Wisconsin's Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest by a research team led by Scott Loss of the University of Minnesota and the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center has revealed a direct link between the presence of invasive European earthworms (Lumbricus spp.) and reduced numbers of Ovenbirds in mixed sugar maple and basswood forests. The results are detailed in a paper published in the journal Landscape Ecology.

European earthworms are invading previously earthworm-free hardwood forests in North America the scientists say, and consuming the rich layer of leaf litter on the forest floor. In turn, herbaceous plants that thrive in thick leaf litter and provide cover for ground-nesting birds are thinning out, replaced by grasses and sedges. As a result, Ovenbird nests are more visible and vulnerable to predators and Ovenbirds searching for nesting sites reject these low-cover areas outright. Areas of reduced leaf litter also contain fewer bugs for the Ovenbirds to eat, requiring them to establish larger territories, resulting in fewer birds over a given area.

The worms invading northern Midwestern forests (as well as forests in the northeastern U.S. and Canada) have been in the United States since soon after the first European settlers arrived, Loss explains, brought over inadvertently in the ballast of ships, in the root balls of agricultural plants or on purpose for use in gardening. Only now is the leading edge of their continued invasion, caused mainly by logging activities and fishermen dumping their bait, reaching interior wilderness areas such as parts of the study site in the remote forests of Wisconsin and Minnesota.

"Everyone has probably heard at one time or another that earthworms have really positive effects in breaking down soil and making it more porous," Loss explains. "This is true in agricultural and garden settings but not in forests in the Midwest which have developed decomposition systems without earth worms." Because the forested areas of the Midwest United States were once covered in glaciers, there are no native earthworm species present in the soil, Loss explains. "These earthworm-free forests developed a slow fungus-based decomposition process characterized by a deep organic litter layer on the forest floor."

Earthworms feed on this layer of leaf litter and make it decompose much faster, Loss says. "As a result, we see the loss of sensitive forest-floor species such as trillium, Solomons seal, sarsaparilla and sugar maple seedlings and a shift in dominance to disturbance-adapted species like Pennsylvania sedge."

One result is reduced nest concealment for the Ovenbird and increased predation by squirrel and bird predators.

"Ovenbirds migrate to Central America and the Caribbean and back every year, a trip during which they can fly into buildings and towers or get nabbed by a cat as they rest on the ground, and they also face loss of habitat on their breeding and wintering grounds," Loss explains. "Now, here is yet another potential threat to their survival."

Amazon Was Not All Manufactured Landscape

Population estimates for the Amazon basin just before Europeans arrived range from 2 to 10 million people. The newly reported reconstruction of Amazonian prehistory by Smithsonian scientist Dolores R. Piperno and colleagues suggests that large areas of western Amazonia were sparsely inhabited. This clashes with the belief that most of Amazonia, including forests far removed from major rivers, was heavily occupied and modified. The team's research is published in Science.

"Drawing on questionable assumptions, some scholars argue that modern Amazonian biodiversity is more a result of widespread, intensive prehistoric human occupation of the forests than of natural evolutionary and ecological processes," said co-author Piperno, senior scientist at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. "Climatologists who accept the manufactured landscapes idea may incorporate wholesale prehistoric Amazonian deforestation, widespread fires and carbon emissions into their models of what caused past shifts in atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels. But we need much more evidence from Amazonia before anything like that can be assumed."

This report paints a very different picture of the past. First author Crystal McMichael of the Florida Institute of Technology collected 247 soil samples from 55 sites across the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon, including little-studied interfluvial forests, distant from major water courses. A lack of charcoal in the samples told the authors that fires, almost always caused by humans in the humid tropics, were few and of low intensity and did not result in much structural damage to the forests. Fragments of silica left behind when vegetation decays, called phytoliths, indicated that crop species and plants typical of human disturbance were scarce. Forms of intensive forest management such as groves of palm trees were not indicated by the phytolith records either.

Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon in 2011 was the lowest since annual record keeping began in the late 1980s and has fallen nearly 80 percent since 2004. Environmentalists fear that changes to the country's Forest Code, which mandates how much forest a landowner is required to maintain, could reverse progress in reducing deforestation, but the global consequences of such a policy remain unclear.

"Planners may assume that Amazonian forests were resilient in the face of heavy prehistoric human modification," said Piperno. "These views based on few empirical data are gaining currency in scholarly circles and the popular media. Hopefully, our data will help to place these questions into a more rigorous empirical context."

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Castellote, M., Clark, C.W., and Lammers, M.O. 2012. Acoustic and behavioural changes by fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in response to shipping and airgun noise. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):115-122.

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Cherubini, B. 2012. How to value the immaterial heritage of biodiversity and contribute to the conservation of threatened flora: a challenge for the protected areas of Reunion Island and other French overseas departments. Rev. Ecol.-Terre Vie Supplement 11:113-123.

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Chown, S.L. 2012. Trait-based approaches to conservation physiology: forecasting environmental change risks from the bottom up. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 367(1596):1615-1627.

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Compton, T.J., de Winton, M., Leathwick, J.R., and Wadhwa, S. 2012. Predicting spread of invasive macrophytes in New Zealand lakes using indirect measures of human accessibility. Freshwater Biol. 57(5):938-948.

Cooke, S.J., Hinch, S.G., Donaldson, M.R., Clark, T.D., Eliason, E.J., Crossin, G.T., Raby, G.D., Jeffries, K.M., Lapointe, M., Miller, K., Patterson, D.A., and Farrell, A.P. 2012. Conservation physiology in practice: how physiological knowledge has improved our ability to sustainably manage Pacific salmon during up-river migration. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 367(1596):1757-1769.

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Costion, C.M., Liston, J., Kitalong, A.H., Iida, A., and Lowe, A.J. 2012. Using the ancient past for establishing current threat in poorly inventoried regions. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):153-162.

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Cruz-Sáenz, D., and Lazcano, D. 2012. Biological and ecological aspects of Xantusia sanchezi, an endangered lizard in an oak forest in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 83(1):129-132.

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Davis, A.L.V., Scholtz, C.H., and Swemmer, A.M. 2012. Effects of land usage on dung beetle assemblage structure: Kruger National Park versus adjacent farmland in South Africa. J. Insect Conserv. 16(3):399-411.

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de Lucas, M., Ferrer, M., Bechard, M.J., and Muñoz, A.R. 2012. Griffon vulture mortality at wind farms in southern Spain: distribution of fatalities and active mitigation measures. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):184-189.

de Queiroz, T.F., Baughman, C., Baughman, O., Gara, M., and Williams, N. 2012. Species distribution modeling for conservation of rare, edaphic endemic plants in White River Valley, Nevada. Nat. Areas J. 32(2):149-158.

DeHaan, P.W., Scheerer, P.D., Rhew, R., and Ardren, W.R. 2012. Analyses of genetic variation in populations of Oregon chub, a threatened floodplain minnow in a highly altered environment. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 141(2):533-549.

Delibes, M., Calzada, J., Clavero, M., Fernández, N., Gutiérrez-Expósito, C., Revilla, E., and Román, J. 2012. The Near Threatened Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in Morocco: no sign of recovery. Oryx 46(2):249-252.

Dellasala, D.A., Fitzgerald, J.M., Jonsson, B.G., McNeely, J.A., Dovie, B.D., Dieterich, M., Majluf, P., Nemtzov, S.C., Nevin, O.T., Parsons, E.C.M., and Watson, J.E.M. 2012. Priority actions for sustainable forest management in the International Year of Forests. Conserv. Biol. 26(3):572-575.

Drayton, B., and Primack, R.B. 2012. Success rates for reintroductions of eight perennial plant species after 15 years. Restor. Ecol. 20(3):299-303.

Dudgeon, C.L., Blower, D.C., Broderick, D., Giles, J.L., Holmes, B.J., Kashiwagi, T., Krueuck, N.C., Morgan, J.A.T., Tillett, B.J., and Ovenden, J.R. 2012. A review of the application of molecular genetics for fisheries management and conservation of sharks and rays. J. Fish Biol. 80(5):1789-1843.

Duffy, D.C., and Capece, P. 2012. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 7. The domestic cat (Felis catus). Pacific Sci. 66(2):173-212.

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Pande, A., and Gardner, J.P.A. 2012. The Kapiti Marine Reserve (New Zealand): spatial and temporal comparisons of multi-species responses after 8 years of protection. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 46(1):71-89.

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Pernetta, A.P. 2012. Effective and sustainable farming of green pythons requires a sound chain of custody and conservation taxation of end consumers. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):1.

Phillips, R.B., Cooke, B.D., Carrión, V., and Snell, H.L. 2012. Eradication of rock pigeons, Columba livia, from the Galápagos Islands. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):264-269.

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Potter, K.M., Jetton, R.M., Dvorak, W.S., Hipkins, V.D., Rhea, R., and Whittier, W.A. 2012. Widespread inbreeding and unexpected geographic patterns of genetic variation in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an imperiled North American conifer. Conserv. Genet. 13(2):475-498.

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Quinteros-Casaverde, N., Flores-Negrón, C.F., and Williams, D.A. 2012. Low genetic diversity and fragmentation effects in a wind-pollinated tree, Polylepis multijuga Plige (Rosaceae) in the high Andes. Conserv. Genet. 13(2):593-603.

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Rajković, M., Petrović, A., Maguire, I., Simić, V., Simić, S., and Paunović, M. 2012. Discovery of a new population of the species complex of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes/italicus (Decapoda, Astacidae) in Montenegro, range extension, endangerment, and conservation. Crustaceana 85(3):333-347.

Rangel, T.F. 2012. Amazonian extinction debts. Science 337(6091):162-163.

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Reyers, B., Polasky, S., Tallis, H., Mooney, H.A., and Larigauderie, A. 2012. Finding common ground for biodiversity and ecosystem services. BioScience 62(5):503-507.

Ribas, C.R., Solar, R.R.C., Campos, R.B.F., Schmidt, F.A., Valentim, C.L., and Schoereder, J.H. 2012. Can ants be used as indicators of environmental impacts caused by arsenic? J. Insect Conserv. 16(3):413-421.

Richards, W.H., Koeck, R., Gersonde, R., Kuschnig, G., Fleck, W., and Hochbichler, E. 2012. Landscape-scale forest management in the municipal watersheds of Vienna, Austria, and Seattle, USA: commonalities despite disparate ecology and history. Nat. Areas J. 32(2):199-207.

Ríos-Uzeda, B., and Mourão, G. 2012. Densities of the Vulnerable marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus in Bolivia's northern savannahs. Oryx 46(2):260-265.

Ritchie, E.G., Elmhagen, B., Glen, A.S., Letnic, M., Ludwig, G., and McDonald, R.A. 2012. Ecosystem restoration with teeth: what role for predators? Trends Ecol. Evol. 27(5):265-271.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D. 2012. Perception, use and valuation of protected areas by local populations in an economic crisis context. Environ. Conserv. 39(2):162-171.

Román-Dañobeytia, F.J., Levy-Tacher, S.I., Aronson, J., Rodrigues, R.R., and Castellanos-Albores, J. 2012. Testing the performance of fourteen native tropical tree species in two abandoned pastures of the Lacandon rainforest region of Chiapas, Mexico. Restor. Ecol. 20(3):378-386.

Rös, M., Escobar, F., and Halffter, G. 2012. How dung beetles respond to a human-modified variegated landscape in Mexican cloud forest: a study of biodiversity integrating ecological and biogeographical perspectives. Divers. Distrib. 18(4):377-389.

Rosas-Ribeiro, P.F., Rosas, F.C.W., and Zuanon, J. 2012. Conflict between fishermen and giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis in western Brazilian Amazon. Biotropica 44(3):437-444.

Rosin, Z.M., Myczko, L., Skórka, P., Lenda, M., Moroń, D., Sparks, T.H., and Tryjanowski, P. 2012. Butterfly responses to environmental factors in fragmented calcareous grasslands. J. Insect Conserv. 16(3):321-329.

Rowat, D., and Brooks, K.S. 2012. A review of the biology, fisheries and conservation of the whale shark Rhincodon typus. J. Fish Biol. 80(5):1019-1056.

Roy, A., and Srivastava, V.K. 2012. Geospatial approach to identification of potential hotspots of land-use and land-cover change for biodiversity conservation. Curr. Sci. 102(8):1174-1180.

Ruedi, M., Biswas, J., and Csorba, G. 2012. Bats from the wet: two new species of Tube-nosed bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Meghalaya, India. Rev. Suisse Zool. 119(1):111-135.

Ruhí, A., Sebastian, O.S., Feo, C., Franch, M., Gascón, S., Richter-Boix, A., Boix, D., and Llorente, G. 2012. Man-made Mediterranean temporary ponds as a tool for amphibian conservation. Ann. Limnol. 48(1):81-93.

Ruiz-Campos, G., Contreras-Balderas, S., Andreu-Soler, A., Varela-Romero, A., and Campos, E. 2012. An annotated distributional checklist of exotic freshwater fishes from the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 83(1):216-234.

Ruokonen, T.J., Karjalainen, J., Kiljunen, M., Pursiainen, M., and Hämäläinen, H. 2012. Do introduced crayfish affect benthic fish in stony littoral habitats of large boreal lakes? Biol. Invasions 14(4):813-825.

Ruxton, G.D., and Schaefer, H.M. 2012. The conservation physiology of seed dispersal. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 367(1596):1708-1718.

Rytwinski, T., and Fahrig, L. 2012. Do species life history traits explain population responses to roads? A meta-analysis. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):87-98.

Saad, L., Parmentier, I., Colinet, G., Malaisse, F., Faucon, M.P., Meerts, P., and Mahy, G. 2012. Investigating the vegetation-soil relationships on the copper-cobalt rock outcrops of Katanga (D. R. Congo), an essential step in a biodiversity conservation plan. Restor. Ecol. 20(3):405-415.

Sackett, L.C., Cross, T.B., Jones, R.T., Johnson, W.C., Ballare, K., Ray, C., Collinge, S.K., and Martin, A.P. 2012. Connectivity of prairie dog colonies in an altered landscape: inferences from analysis of microsatellite DNA variation. Conserv. Genet. 13(2):407-418.

Sadlier, R.A., Whitaker, T., Wood, P.L., and Bauer, A.M. 2012. A new species of scincid lizard in the genus Caledoniscincus (Reptilia: Scincidae) from northwest New Caledonia. Zootaxa 3229:47-57.

Sainsbury, A.W., and Vaughan-Higgins, R.J. 2012. Analyzing disease risks associated with translocations. Conserv. Biol. 26(3):442-452.

Santo, F.D.D., Da Silva-Castro, M.M., and Rapini, A. 2012. Handroanthus grandiflorus (Bignoniaceae), a new species from the semiarid region of Brazil. Phytotaxa 48:1-6.

Sarkar, U.K., Pathak, A.K., Sinha, R.K., Sivakumar, K., Pandian, A.K., Pandey, A., Dubey, V.K., and Lakra, W.S. 2012. Freshwater fish biodiversity in the River Ganga (India): changing pattern, threats and conservation perspectives. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 22(1):251-272.

Sass, G.Z., Wheatley, M., Aldred, D.A., Gould, A.J., and Creed, I.F. 2012. Defining protected area boundaries based on vascular-plant species richness using hydrological information derived from archived satellite imagery. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):143-152.

Sato, S., Chiba, T., and Hasegawa, H. 2012. Long-term fluctuations in mollusk populations before and after the appearance of the alien predator Euspira fortunei on the Tona coast, Miyagi Prefecture, northern Japan. Fish. Sci. 78(3):589-595.

Scabin, A.B., Costa, F.R.C., and Schöngart, J. 2012. The spatial distribution of illegal logging in the Anavilhanas archipelago (Central Amazonia) and logging impacts on species. Environ. Conserv. 39(2):111-121.

Schlacher, T.A., and Thompson, L. 2012. Beach recreation impacts benthic invertebrates on ocean-exposed sandy shores. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):123-132.

Schneider, A.A., and Boldrini, I.I. 2012. Hysterionica matzenbacherii, a new species of Astereae (Asteraceae) from Brazil. Phytotaxa 49:50-54.

Schramm, J.W., and Ehrenfeld, J.G. 2012. Patterns of patch colonization and expansion in the non-native annual grass Microstegium vimineum (Poaceae). Rhodora 114(957):1-20.

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Seebacher, F., and Franklin, C.E. 2012. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 367(1596):1607-1614.

Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., and Bruno, J.F. 2012. Temperature-driven coral decline: the role of marine protected areas. Global Change Biol. 18(5):1561-1570.

Selmants, P.C., Zavaleta, E.S., Pasari, J.R., and Hernandez, D.L. 2012. Realistic plant species losses reduce invasion resistance in a California serpentine grassland. J. Ecology 100(3):723-731.

Shah, M.A., Reshi, Z.A., and Lavoie, C. 2012. Predicting plant invasiveness from native range size: clues from the Kashmir Himalaya. J. Plant Ecol.-UK 5(2):167-173.

Sharma, N., Madhusudan, M.D., Sarkar, P., Bawri, M., and Sinha, A. 2012. Trends in extinction and persistence of diurnal primates in the fragmented lowland rainforests of the Upper Brahmaputra Valley, north-eastern India. Oryx 46(2):308-311.

Sharma, S.K., Bhowmik, S.S.D., Kumaria, S., Tandon, P., and Rao, S.R. 2012. Low genetic diversity as revealed by SPAR methods possibly leads to extinction of two critically-endangered and endemic species of Mantisia. Biol. Plantarum 56(2):292-300.

Sharp, N.J., Newman, M.F., Santika, Y., Gufrin, and Poulsen, A.D. 2012. The enigmatic ginger Alpinia melichroa rediscovered in southeast Sulawesi. Nord. J. Bot. 30(2):163-167.

Shuey, J.A., Metzler, E.H., and Tungesvick, K. 2012. Moth communities correspond with plant communities in midwestern (Indiana, USA) sand prairies and oak barrens and their degradation endpoints. Am. Midl. Nat. 167(2):273-284.

Sielezniew, M., Rutkowski, R., Ponikwicka-Tyszko, D., Ratkiewicz, M., Dziekańska, I., and Švitra, G. 2012. Differences in genetic variability between two ecotypes of the endangered myrmecophilous butterfly Phengaris (=Maculinea) alcon - the setting of conservation priorities. Insect Conserv. Divers. 5(3):223-236.

Simberloff, D., Souza, L., Nuñez, M.A., Barrios-Garcia, M.N., and Bunn, W. 2012. The natives are restless, but not often and mostly when disturbed. Ecology 93(3):598-607.

Simmons, M.E., Wu, X.Y.B., and Whisenant, S.G. 2012. Responses of pioneer and later-successional plant assemblages to created microtopographic variation and soil treatments in riparian forest restoration. Restor. Ecol. 20(3):369-377.

Smith, L.M., and Reynolds, H.L. 2012. Positive plant-soil feedback may drive dominance of a woodland invader, Euonymus fortunei. Plant Ecol. 213(5):853-860.

Snow, N., Rabenantoandro, J., Randriatafika, F., Rabehevitra, D., Razafimamonjy, N.D., and Cable, S. 2012. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia (Myrtaceae)-III: seven new species of high conservation concern from the eastern littoral forests. Phytotaxa 48:39-60.

Soares, P.O., Crespi, A.L., Rodrigues, M.C., and Arnaldo, P.S. 2012. The habitat vegetational structure and the success of the blue alcon, Maculinea alcon (Denis & Schiffermuller). Plant Biosyst. 146(1):1-6.

Soga, M., and Koike, S. 2012. Life-history traits affect vulnerability of butterflies to habitat fragmentation in urban remnant forests. Ecoscience 19(1):11-20.

Sommerville, K., Pulkownik, A., and Burchett, M. 2012. Reproductive biology of a threatened Australian saltmarsh plant - Wilsonia backhousei. Aquat. Bot. 99:1-10.

Soriano, P., Estrelles, E., Bianchelli, M., Galiè, M., and Biondi, E. 2012. Conservation aspects for chasmophytic species: phenological behavior and seed strategies of the Central Apennine threatened endemism Moehringia papulosa Bertol. Plant Biosyst. 146(1):143-152.

Sousa, R., Varandas, S., Cortes, R., Teixeira, A., Lopes-Lima, M., Machado, J., and Guilhermino, L. 2012. Massive die-offs of freshwater bivalves as resource pulses. Ann. Limnol. 48(1):105-112.

Srivastava, P., Kumar, A., Behera, S.K., Sharma, Y.K., and Singh, N. 2012. Soil carbon sequestration: an innovative strategy for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(5):1343-1358.

St John, F.A.V., Edwards-Jones, G., and Jones, J.P.G. 2012. Opinions of the public, conservationists and magistrates on sentencing wildlife trade crimes in the UK. Environ. Conserv. 39(2):154-161.

Strain, D. 2012. Researchers set course to blockade ballast invaders. Science 336(6082):664-665.

Stronen, A.V., Forbes, G.J., Paquet, P.C., Goulet, G., Sallows, T., and Musiani, M. 2012. Dispersal in a plain landscape: short-distance genetic differentiation in southwestern Manitoba wolves, Canada. Conserv. Genet. 13(2):359-371.

Suárez, N.M., Betancor, E., Fregel, R., Rodríguez, F., and Pestano, J. 2012. Genetic signature of a severe forest fire on the endangered Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla teydea polatzeki). Conserv. Genet. 13(2):499-507.

Sundberg, S. 2012. Quick target vegetation recovery after restorative shrub removal and mowing in a calcareous fen. Restor. Ecol. 20(3):331-338.

Suni, S.S., and Brosi, B.J. 2012. Population genetics of orchid bees in a fragmented tropical landscape. Conserv. Genet. 13(2):323-332.

Sydeman, W.J., Thompson, S.A., and Kitaysky, A. 2012. Seabirds and climate change: roadmap for the future. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 454:107-117.

Szostek, K.L., and Becker, P.H. 2012. Terns in trouble: demographic consequences of low breeding success and recruitment on a common tern population in the German Wadden Sea. J. Ornithol. 153(2):313-326.

Taft, H.R., and Roff, D.A. 2012. Do bottlenecks increase additive genetic variance? Conserv. Genet. 13(2):333-342.

Taillon, J., Festa-Bianchet, M., and Côté, S.D. 2012. Shifting targets in the tundra: protection of migratory caribou calving grounds must account for spatial changes over time. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):163-173.

Taylor, M.L., Bunbury, N., Chong-Seng, L., Doak, N., Kundu, S., Griffiths, R.A., and Groombridge, J.J. 2012. Evidence for evolutionary distinctiveness of a newly discovered population of sooglossid frogs on Praslin Island, Seychelles. Conserv. Genet. 13(2):557-566.

Taylor, S.A., and Friesen, V.L. 2012. Use of molecular genetics for understanding seabird evolution, ecology and conservation. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 451:285-304.

Tecco, P.A., Ferreras, A.E., Gurvich, D.E., and Funes, G. 2012. Similarities in recruitment but differences in persistence in two related native and invasive trees: relevance of regenerative and vegetative attributes. Aust. J. Bot. 60(4):368-377.

Tepedino, V.J., Bowlin, W.R., and Griswold, T.L. 2012. Pollinators complicate conservation of an endemic plant: Physaria obcordata (Cruciferae) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Nat. Areas J. 32(2):140-148.

Terraube, J., Mougeot, F., Cornulier, T., Verma, A., Gavrilov, A., and Arroyo, B. 2012. Broad wintering range and intercontinental migratory divide within a core population of the near-threatened pallid harrier. Divers. Distrib. 18(4):401-409.

Thompson, C.J., Cannon, R.M., and Burgman, M.A. 2012. Surveillance for threatened and invasive species when uncertainty is severe. Divers. Distrib. 18(4):410-416.

Tovar, C., Duivenvoorden, J.F., Sánchez-Vega, I., and Seijmonsbergen, A.C. 2012. Recent changes in patch characteristics and plant communities in the jalca grasslands of the Peruvian Andes. Biotropica 44(3):321-330.

Turgeon, J., Duchesne, P., Colbeck, G.J., Postma, L.D., and Hammill, M.O. 2012. Spatiotemporal segregation among summer stocks of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) despite nuclear gene flow: implication for the endangered belugas in eastern Hudson Bay (Canada). Conserv. Genet. 13(2):419-433.

Vackar, D., ten Brink, B., Loh, J., Baillie, J.E.M., and Reyers, B. 2012. Review of multispecies indices for monitoring human impacts on biodiversity. Ecol. Indic. 17:58-67.

Valle, S., Boitani, L., and Maclean, I.M.D. 2012. Seasonal changes in abundances of waterbirds at Sabaki River Mouth (Malindi, Kenya), a key stopover site on the West Asian-East African Flyway. Ostrich 83(1):19-26.

van de Vliet, M.S., Beebee, T.J.C., and Diekmann, O.E. 2012. Genetic evidence for a distinct Pelodytes lineage in southwest Portugal: implications for the use of pre-developed microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 13(2):605-611.

van Vliet, N., Nebesse, C., Gambalemoke, S., Akaibe, D., and Nasi, R. 2012. The bushmeat market in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo: implications for conservation and food security. Oryx 46(2):196-203.

van Zuidam, J.P., Raaphorst, E.P., and Peeters, E. 2012. The role of propagule banks from drainage ditches dominated by free-floating or submerged plants in vegetation restoration. Restor. Ecol. 20(3):416-425.

Vanhaecke, D., de Leaniz, C.G., Gajardo, G., Young, K., Sanzana, J., Orellana, G., Fowler, D., Howes, P., Monzon-Arguello, C., and Consuegra, S. 2012. DNA barcoding and microsatellites help species delimitation and hybrid identification in endangered galaxiid fishes. PLoS ONE 7(3):e32939.

Vaughn, C.C. 2012. Life history traits and abundance can predict local colonisation and extinction rates of freshwater mussels. Freshwater Biol. 57(5):982-992.

Veitch, L., Dulvy, N.K., Koldewey, H., Lieberman, S., Pauly, D., Roberts, C.M., Rogers, A.D., and Baillie, J.E.M. 2012. Avoiding empty ocean commitments at Rio+20. Science 336(6087):1383-1385.

Vonshak, M., Dayan, T., and Hefetz, A. 2012. Interspecific displacement mechanisms by the invasive little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata. Biol. Invasions 14(4):851-861.

Wagenius, S., Dykstra, A.B., Ridley, C.E., and Shaw, R.G. 2012. Seedling recruitment in the long-lived perennial, Echinacea angustifolia: a 10-year experiment. Restor. Ecol. 20(3):352-359.

Wallisdevries, M.F., Van Swaay, C.A.M., and Plate, C.L. 2012. Changes in nectar supply: a possible cause of widespread butterfly decline. Curr. Zool. 58(3):384-U165.

Wallner, A.M., Molano-Flores, B., and Dietrich, C.H. 2012. The influence of fire on Illinois hill prairie Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera) diversity and integrity. J. Insect Conserv. 16(3):433-445.

Wang, X.Y., Shen, D.W., Jiao, J., Xu, N.N., Yu, S., Zhou, X.F., Shi, M.M., and Chen, X.Y. 2012. Genotypic diversity enhances invasive ability of Spartina alterniflora. Mol. Ecol. 21(10):2542-2551.

Ward-Paige, C.A., Keith, D.M., Worm, B., and Lotze, H.K. 2012. Recovery potential and conservation options for elasmobranchs. J. Fish Biol. 80(5):1844-1869.

Warren, R.J., Bahn, V., and Bradford, M.A. 2012. The interaction between propagule pressure, habitat suitability and density-dependent reproduction in species invasion. Oikos 121(6):874-881.

Wearn, O.R., Reuman, D.C., and Ewers, R.M. 2012. Extinction debt and windows of conservation opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 337(6091):228-232.

Weishampel, J.F., Hightower, J.N., Chase, A.F., and Chase, D.Z. 2012. Use of airborne LiDAR to delineate canopy degradation and encroachment along the Guatemala-Belize border. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 5(1):12-24.

Wen, F., Liang, G.Y., and Wei, Y.G. 2012. Petrocodon lancifolius (Gesneriaceae), a new species endemic to a central subtropical zone of Guizhou Province, China. Phytotaxa 49:45-49.

Weyer, J., Weinberger, J., and Hochkirch, A. 2012. Mobility and microhabitat utilization in a flightless wetland grasshopper, Chorthippus montanus (Charpentier, 1825). J. Insect Conserv. 16(3):379-390.

White, W.T., Blaber, S.J.M., and Craig, J.F. 2012. The current status of elasmobranchs: biology, fisheries and conservation. J. Fish Biol. 80(5):897-900.

Wieringa, J.J., and Mackinder, B.A. 2012. Novitates Gabonensis 79: Hymenostegia elegans and H. robusta spp. nov. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) from Gabon. Nord. J. Bot. 30(2):144-152.

Williams, J.R., Driscoll, D.A., and Bull, C.M. 2012. Roadside connectivity does not increase reptile abundance or richness in a fragmented mallee landscape. Austral Ecol. 37(3):383-391.

Willis, K.J., Jeffers, E.S., Tovar, C., Long, P.R., Caithness, N., Smit, M.G.D., Hagemann, R., Collin-Hansen, C., and Weissenberger, J. 2012. Determining the ecological value of landscapes beyond protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):3-12.

Wintle, B.A., Walshe, T.V., Parris, K.M., and McCarthy, M.A. 2012. Designing occupancy surveys and interpreting non-detection when observations are imperfect. Divers. Distrib. 18(4):417-424.

Wise, R.M., Reyers, B., Guo, C., Midgley, G.F., and De Lange, W. 2012. Costs of expanding the network of protected areas as a response to climate change in the Cape Floristic Region. Conserv. Biol. 26(3):397-407.

Woods, E.C., Hastings, A.P., Turley, N.E., Heard, S.B., and Agrawal, A.A. 2012. Adaptive geographical clines in the growth and defense of a native plant. Ecol. Monogr. 82(2):149-168.

Wright, H.L., Collar, N.J., Lake, I.R., Norin, N., Vann, R., Ko, S., Phearun, S., and Dolman, P.M. 2012. First census of the white-shouldered ibis Pseudibis davisoni reveals roost-site mismatch with Cambodia's protected areas. Oryx 46(2):236-239.

Yasué, M., Nellas, A., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2012. Seahorses helped drive creation of marine protected areas, so what did these protected areas do for the seahorses? Environ. Conserv. 39(2):183-193.

Yemshanov, D., Koch, F.H., Ducey, M., and Koehler, K. 2012. Trade-associated pathways of alien forest insect entries in Canada. Biol. Invasions 14(4):797-812.

Yokomizo, H., Possingham, H.P., Hulme, P.E., Grice, A.C., and Buckley, Y.M. 2012. Cost-benefit analysis for intentional plant introductions under uncertainty. Biol. Invasions 14(4):839-849.

Yom-Tov, Y., Hatzofe, O., and Geffen, E. 2012. Israel's breeding avifauna: a century of dramatic change. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):13-21.

Young, L.M., Kelly, D., and Nelson, X.J. 2012. Alpine flora may depend on declining frugivorous parrot for seed dispersal. Biol. Conserv. 147(1):133-142.

Zhang, B., Edwards, O.R., Kang, L., and Fuller, S.J. 2012. Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia) in China: native range expansion or recent introduction? Mol. Ecol. 21(9):2130-2144.

Zhang, L.B., and He, H. 2012. Polystichum perpusillum (sect. Haplopolystichum, Dryopteridaceae), a new fern species from Guizhou, China. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 49(1-2):67-74.

Zhang, Y.H., Huang, G.M., Wang, W.Q., Chen, L.Z., and Lin, G.H. 2012. Interactions between mangroves and exotic Spartina in an anthropogenically disturbed estuary in southern China. Ecology 93(3):588-597.

Zommers, Z., and MacDonald, D.W. 2012. Protected areas as frontiers for human migration. Conserv. Biol. 26(3):547-556.

Zou, F.S., Chen, G.Z., Yang, Q.F., and Li, Y.D. 2012. Bird species richness along an elevational gradient in a forest at Jianfengling, Hainan Island, China. Zool. Stud. 51(3):362-371.

Zurita, G.A., and Bellocq, M.I. 2012. Bird assemblages in anthropogenic habitats: identifying a suitability gradient for native species in the Atlantic forest. Biotropica 44(3):412-419.

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