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Department ofBotany

No. 335
November 2012

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In This Issue

Tropical Arks Reach Tipping Point

Adapted from

Almost half of the tropical forest reserves examined in a new study are ineffective, according to results published in the journal Nature by William Laurance, research associate at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute now at James Cook University in Australia and more than 200 co-authors.

"Biodiversity is declining rapidly at reserves including Kahuzi Biega in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Xishuangbanna in southern China, and Northern Sierra Madre in the Philippines, among others," Laurance says. "Reserves that are doing relatively well include Bwindi Impenetrable N.P. in Uganda, Santa Rosa in Costa Rica, and Los Amigos in Peru."

Even well-protected tropical reserves may not protect wildlife if the surrounding habitat is degraded. This howler monkey lives on Barro Colorado Island, a Smithsonian research station in the Panama Canal waterway

Laurance asked experts who study plant and animal life across the Americas, Africa and Asia-Pacific to rate the effectiveness of the reserves where they have worked over the last two to three decades. Smithsonian coauthors include STRI staff scientist Joe Wright, and John Kress, Mercedes Foster and Louise Emmons of the National Museum of Natural History. They rated reserve health based on changes in abundance of 31 different groups from trees to primates.

"Reserves are like arks for biodiversity," Laurance says. "But some are in danger of sinking."

Even well-protected reserves mirror changes in surrounding landscapes. On the Smithsonian's Barro Colorado Island research station in Panama researchers recorded slight increases in exotic animals and plants.

Reserves suffering the most were those were encroached upon by illegal colonists, hunters and loggers. The bottom line, researchers say, is that we need to do a better job of protecting protected areas.

Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation Graduate/Professional Training Courses

The newly renamed Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation, a partnership between George Mason University and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI), is proud to announce their Spring/Summer 2013 course schedule. The School is now offering more courses than ever before, in a wide range of topics, all focused on training in different aspects of biodiversity conservation, from effective conservation leadership, to technical tools in statistics and field sampling. All courses are currently either 1 or 2-week intensive residential courses and they will be held in a brand-new, sustainably-built Academic Center on the grounds of SCBI in Front Royal, Virginia. Most courses can be taken either for graduate credit or continuing education units. For more information, visit or e-mail

Statistics for Ecology and Conservation Biology
March 4-15, 2013
Gain in-depth knowledge of analysis techniques for cutting-edge ecological research, employing R: classical regression models; mixed models; generalized linear models; generalized additive models; how to deal with the limitations of real datasets; and conservation-specific approaches.

Estimating Animal Abundance and Occupancy (new course!)
April 1-12, 2013
The course is designed to provide a strong theoretical and analytical background to both graduate students and professionals in distance sampling, mark-recapture, and occupancy modeling techniques, with a strong focus on the practical use of field data in the programs DISTANCE, MARK and PRESENCE.

Species Monitoring & Conservation: Terrestrial Mammals
April 29-May 10, 2013
This course teaches current techniques in assessment and monitoring of wild mammal populations, including bats. Participants learn principles of study design; current field assessment methods; data analysis techniques including MARK and DISTANCE software; application of monitoring data to decision-making and population management; and collection and preparation of museum voucher specimens.

Species Monitoring & Conservation: Reptiles (new course!)
May 13-24, 2013
This course will provide technical training in the essential aspects of reptile conservation. In addition to providing hands-on experience with current field monitoring techniques, participants will also learn to analyze mark-recapture, distance sampling and occupancy field data. The course will also include a review of reptile taxonomy and phylogeny, and the role of captive propagation in reptile conservation.

Non-Invasive Genetic Techniques in Wildlife Conservation
June 1-7, 2013
Learn how new developments in non-invasive genetics allow biologists and managers to answer questions in animal behavior, population biology and population management. Course participants will work through a directed research project, from study design through field data collection, sampling protocols, and DNA extraction and amplification, to analysis of microsatellite and sequence data.

Adaptive Management for Conservation Success
June 10-21, 2013
This course is taught in partnership with Foundations of Success (FOS). Working in teams on a real conservation project, participants practice conceptualizing projects, formulating objectives and providing evidence of conservation results. The course builds skills in designing and planning effective projects that provide clear evidence of conservation impact, and in use of Miradi adaptive management software.

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Caplat, P., Coutts, S., and Buckley, Y.M. 2012. Modeling population dynamics, landscape structure, and management decisions for controlling the spread of invasive plants. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1249:72-83.

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Castellón, T.D., and Sieving, K.E. 2012. Can focal species planning for landscape connectivity meet the needs of South American temperate rainforest endemics? Nat. Areas J. 32(3):316-324.

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Caughlin, T., Wheeler, J.H., Jankowski, J., and Lichstein, J.W. 2012. Urbanized landscapes favored by fig-eating birds increase invasive but not native juvenile strangler fig abundance. Ecology 93(7):1571-1580.

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Choi, H.J., Jang, H.D., Isagi, Y., and Oh, B.U. 2012. Distribution and conservation status of the Critically Endangered Scrophularia takesimensis, a plant endemic to Ulleung Island, Republic of Korea. Oryx 46(3):399-402.

Chowdhury, C., Majumder, N., Ray, R., and Jana, T.K. 2012. Inter-annual abundance variation in some genera of diatom and zooplankton in a mangrove ecosystem. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(8):2029-2043.

Cole, R.J., Litton, C.M., Koontz, M.J., and Loh, R.K. 2012. Vegetation recovery 16 years after feral pig removal from a wet Hawaiian forest. Biotropica 44(4):463-471.

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Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B.A., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., Nañola, C.L., Pardede, S., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Sanciangco, J.C., Stockwell, B., Harwell, H., and Carpenter, K.E. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant herbivores and detritivores of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE 7(7):e39825.

Contador, T.A., Kennedy, J.H., and Rozzi, R. 2012. The conservation status of southern South American aquatic insects in the literature. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(8):2095-2107.

Cooper, C.B., Loyd, K.A.T., Murante, T., Savoca, M., and Dickinson, J. 2012. Natural history traits associated with detecting mortality within residential bird communities: can citizen science provide insights? Environ. Manage. 50(1):11-20.

Cooper, J.E., Wallquist, E., Holeck, K.T., Hoffman, C.E., Mills, E.L., and Mayer, C.M. 2012. Density and distribution of amphipods in Oneida Lake, New York, after the introduction of the exotic amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus. Northeastern Nat. 19(2):249-266.

Coppa, S., De Lucia, G.A., Massaro, G., and Magni, P. 2012. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy): constraint analysis for population conservation. Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 13(1):108-117.

Corbett, B.F., and Morrison, J.A. 2012. The allelopathic potentials of the non-native invasive plant Microstegium vimineum and the native Ageratina altissima: two dominant species of the eastern forest herb layer. Northeastern Nat. 19(2):297-312.

Corlett, R.T. 2012. Climate change in the tropics: the end of the world as we know it? Biol. Conserv. 151(1):22-25.

Costa, W.J.E.M., Amorim, P.F., and Mattos, J.L.O. 2012. Species delimitation in annual killifishes from the Brazilian Caatinga, the Hypsolebias flavicaudatus complex (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): implications for taxonomy and conservation. Syst. Biodivers. 10(1):71-91.

Costello, J.H., Bayha, K.M., Mianzan, H.W., Shiganova, T.A., and Purcell, J.E. 2012. Transitions of Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora: Lobata) from a native to an exotic species: a review. Hydrobiologia 690(1):21-46.

Creech, M.N., Kirkman, L.K., and Morris, L.A. 2012. Alteration and recovery of slash pile burn sites in the restoration of a fire-maintained ecosystem. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):505-516.

Cunha, A.H., Marbá, N.N., van Katwijk, M.M., Pickerell, C., Henriques, M., Bernard, G., Ferreira, M.A., Garcia, S., Garmendia, J.M., and Manent, P. 2012. Changing paradigms in seagrass restoration. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):427-430.

Currylow, A.F., MacGowan, B.J., and Williams, R.N. 2012. Short-term forest management effects on a long-lived ectotherm. PLoS ONE 7(7):e40473.

Dalgleish, H.J., and Swihart, R.K. 2012. American chestnut past and future: implications of restoration for resource pulses and consumer populations of eastern US forests. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):490-497.

de Aguiar, W.M., and Gaglianone, M.C. 2012. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 56(2):210-219.

de Pinho, J.B., and Marini, M.Â. 2012. Using birds to set conservation priorities for Pantanal wetland forests, Brazil. Bird Conserv. Int. 22(2):155-169.

de Winton, M.D., Clayton, J.S., and Edwards, T. 2012. Incorporating invasive weeds into a plant indicator method (LakeSPI) to assess lake ecological condition. Hydrobiologia 691(1):47-58.

Delfín-Alfonso, C.A., López-González, C.A., and Equihua, M. 2012. Potential distribution of American black bears in northwest Mexico and implications for their conservation. Ursus 23(1):65-77.

Di Marco, M., Cardillo, M., Possingham, H.P., Wilson, K.A., Blomberg, S.P., Boitani, L., and Rondinini, C. 2012. A novel approach for global mammal extinction risk reduction. Conserv. Lett. 5(2):134-141.

Dias, A.T.C., Bozelli, R.L., Darigo, R.M., Esteves, F.D., dos Santos, H.F., Figueiredo-Barros, M.P., Nunes, M.F.Q.S., Roland, F., Zamith, L.R., and Scarano, F.R. 2012. Rehabilitation of a bauxite tailing substrate in central Amazonia: the effect of litter and seed addition on flood-prone forest restoration. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):483-489.

Djossa, B.A., Zachée, P., and Sinsin, B.A. 2012. Activity patterns and habitat use of the Western Tree Hyrax (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) within forest patches and implications for conservation. Ecotropica 18(1):65-71.

Dolbeth, M., Cusson, M., Sousa, R., and Pardal, M.A. 2012. Secondary production as a tool for better understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 69(7):1230-1253.

Domínguez, E., and Aravena, J.C. 2012. Floristic study of the Francisco Coloane Coastal Marine Protected Area, Region de Magallanes, Chile. Gayana Bot. 69(1):167-183.

Dong, Y.H., Wang, Q.F., and Gituru, R.W. 2012. Effect of habitat modification on the distribution of the endangered aquatic fern Ceratopteris pteridoides (Parkeriaceae) in China. Am. Fern J. 102(2):136-146.

Dornbos, D.L., and Pruim, R. 2012. Moist soils reduce the effectiveness of glyphosate on cut stumps of buckthorn. Nat. Areas J. 32(3):240-246.

Drenovsky, R.E., Grewell, B.J., D'Antonio, C.M., Funk, J.L., James, J.J., Molinari, N., Parker, I.M., and Richards, C.L. 2012. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion. Ann. Botany 110(1):141-153.

Economo, E.P., and Sarnat, E.M. 2012. Revisiting the ants of Melanesia and the taxon cycle: historical and human-mediated invasions of a tropical archipelago. Am. Nat. 180(1):E1-E16.

Edwards, D.P., Koh, L.P., and Laurance, W.F. 2012. Indonesia's REDD+ pact: saving imperilled forests or business as usual? Biol. Conserv. 151(1):41-44.

Edwards, D.P., and Laurance, S.G. 2012. Green labelling, sustainability and the expansion of tropical agriculture: critical issues for certification schemes. Biol. Conserv. 151(1):60-64.

Eisenhauer, N., Fisichelli, N.A., Frelich, L.E., and Reich, P.B. 2012. Interactive effects of global warming and 'global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species. Oikos 121(7):1121-1133.

Eldridge, J.D., Redente, E.F., and Paschke, M. 2012. The use of seedbed modifications and wood chips to accelerate restoration of well pad sites in western Colorado, USA. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):524-531.

Eliáš, P., Grulich, V., Dítě, D., and Senko, D. 2012. Distribution and ecology of Carex secalina in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 81(2):93-99.

Elle, E., Elwell, S.L., and Gielens, G.A. 2012. The use of pollination networks in conservation. Botany 90(7):525-534.

Elliott, E.C., and Cornell, S.J. 2012. Dispersal polymorphism and the speed of biological invasions. PLoS ONE 7(7):e40496.

Eriksen, R.L., Desronvil, T., Hierro, J.L., and Kesseli, R. 2012. Morphological differentiation in a common garden experiment among native and non-native specimens of the invasive weed yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). Biol. Invasions 14(7):1459-1467.

Ernst, A.G., Warren, D.R., and Baldigo, B.P. 2012. Natural-channel-design restorations that changed geomorphology have little effect on macroinvertebrate communities in headwater streams. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):532-540.

Erskine, P., Van der Ent, A., and Fletcher, A. 2012. Sustaining metal-loving plants in mining regions. Science 337(6099):1172-1173.

Espinosa, M.I., Bertin, A., Gómez, J., Mejia, F., Guerra, M., Baez, L., Gouin, N., and Patiño, E. 2012. A three-year mark-recapture study in a remnant population of Crocodylus acutus Cuvier in Portete Bay (Guajira, Colombia). Gayana 76(1):52-58.

Essl, F., Mang, T., and Moser, D. 2012. Ancient and recent alien species in temperate forests: steady state and time lags. Biol. Invasions 14(7):1331-1342.

Evans, J.A., Davis, A.S., Raghu, S., Ragavendran, A., Landis, D.A., and Schemske, D.W. 2012. The importance of space, time, and stochasticity to the demography and management of Alliaria petiolata. Ecol. Appl. 22(5):1497-1511.

Ewen, J.G., Armstrong, D.P., Empson, R., Jack, S., Makan, T., McInnes, K., Parker, K.A., Richardson, K., and Alley, M. 2012. Parasite management in translocations: lessons from a threatened New Zealand bird. Oryx 46(3):446-456.

Faria, N., Rabaça, J.E., and Morales, M.B. 2012. Linking plant composition and arthropod abundance to establish little bustard breeding requirements in pastureland dominated landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(8):2109-2125.

Faundez, P.V. 2012. Terrestrial mammals of the Atacama Region, Chile. Comments on its distribution and conservation status. Gayana 76(1):22-37.

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Fletcher, R.J., Orrock, J.L., and Robertson, B.A. 2012. How the type of anthropogenic change alters the consequences of ecological traps. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 279(1738):2546-2552.

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