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Department ofBotany



No. 335
November 2012


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In This Issue


Tropical Arks Reach Tipping Point


Adapted from Smithsonianscience.org

Almost half of the tropical forest reserves examined in a new study are ineffective, according to results published in the journal Nature by William Laurance, research associate at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute now at James Cook University in Australia and more than 200 co-authors.

"Biodiversity is declining rapidly at reserves including Kahuzi Biega in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Xishuangbanna in southern China, and Northern Sierra Madre in the Philippines, among others," Laurance says. "Reserves that are doing relatively well include Bwindi Impenetrable N.P. in Uganda, Santa Rosa in Costa Rica, and Los Amigos in Peru."

Even well-protected tropical reserves may not protect wildlife if the surrounding habitat is degraded. This howler monkey lives on Barro Colorado Island, a Smithsonian research station in the Panama Canal waterway

Laurance asked experts who study plant and animal life across the Americas, Africa and Asia-Pacific to rate the effectiveness of the reserves where they have worked over the last two to three decades. Smithsonian coauthors include STRI staff scientist Joe Wright, and John Kress, Mercedes Foster and Louise Emmons of the National Museum of Natural History. They rated reserve health based on changes in abundance of 31 different groups from trees to primates.

"Reserves are like arks for biodiversity," Laurance says. "But some are in danger of sinking."

Even well-protected reserves mirror changes in surrounding landscapes. On the Smithsonian's Barro Colorado Island research station in Panama researchers recorded slight increases in exotic animals and plants.

Reserves suffering the most were those were encroached upon by illegal colonists, hunters and loggers. The bottom line, researchers say, is that we need to do a better job of protecting protected areas.


Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation Graduate/Professional Training Courses


The newly renamed Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation, a partnership between George Mason University and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI), is proud to announce their Spring/Summer 2013 course schedule. The School is now offering more courses than ever before, in a wide range of topics, all focused on training in different aspects of biodiversity conservation, from effective conservation leadership, to technical tools in statistics and field sampling. All courses are currently either 1 or 2-week intensive residential courses and they will be held in a brand-new, sustainably-built Academic Center on the grounds of SCBI in Front Royal, Virginia. Most courses can be taken either for graduate credit or continuing education units. For more information, visit http://SMConservation.gmu.edu or e-mail SCBItraining@si.edu

Statistics for Ecology and Conservation Biology
March 4-15, 2013
Gain in-depth knowledge of analysis techniques for cutting-edge ecological research, employing R: classical regression models; mixed models; generalized linear models; generalized additive models; how to deal with the limitations of real datasets; and conservation-specific approaches.

Estimating Animal Abundance and Occupancy (new course!)
April 1-12, 2013
The course is designed to provide a strong theoretical and analytical background to both graduate students and professionals in distance sampling, mark-recapture, and occupancy modeling techniques, with a strong focus on the practical use of field data in the programs DISTANCE, MARK and PRESENCE.

Species Monitoring & Conservation: Terrestrial Mammals
April 29-May 10, 2013
This course teaches current techniques in assessment and monitoring of wild mammal populations, including bats. Participants learn principles of study design; current field assessment methods; data analysis techniques including MARK and DISTANCE software; application of monitoring data to decision-making and population management; and collection and preparation of museum voucher specimens.

Species Monitoring & Conservation: Reptiles (new course!)
May 13-24, 2013
This course will provide technical training in the essential aspects of reptile conservation. In addition to providing hands-on experience with current field monitoring techniques, participants will also learn to analyze mark-recapture, distance sampling and occupancy field data. The course will also include a review of reptile taxonomy and phylogeny, and the role of captive propagation in reptile conservation.

Non-Invasive Genetic Techniques in Wildlife Conservation
June 1-7, 2013
Learn how new developments in non-invasive genetics allow biologists and managers to answer questions in animal behavior, population biology and population management. Course participants will work through a directed research project, from study design through field data collection, sampling protocols, and DNA extraction and amplification, to analysis of microsatellite and sequence data.

Adaptive Management for Conservation Success
June 10-21, 2013
This course is taught in partnership with Foundations of Success (FOS). Working in teams on a real conservation project, participants practice conceptualizing projects, formulating objectives and providing evidence of conservation results. The course builds skills in designing and planning effective projects that provide clear evidence of conservation impact, and in use of Miradi adaptive management software.


Current Literature


Adarraga, I., and Martínez, J. 2012. First record of the invasive brackish water mytilid Limnoperna securis (Lamarck, 1819) in the Bay of Biscay. Aquat. Invasions 7(2):171-180.

Aguirre-Muñoz, A., Samaniego-Herrera, A., Luna-Mendoza, L., Ortiz-Alcaraz, A., and Méndez-Sánchez, F. 2012. The Island Conservation NGO: some important clarifications. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(8):2169-2172.

Akatov, V.V., Akatova, T.V., and Shadzhe, A.E. 2012. Species richness of tree and shrub layers in riparian forests of the Western Caucasus dominated by alien species. Russian J. Ecol. 43(4):294-301.

Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Mangel, J.C., Dutton, P.H., Seminoff, J.A., and Godley, B.J. 2012. Trading information for conservation: a novel use of radio broadcasting to reduce sea turtle bycatch. Oryx 46(3):332-339.

Alonso, Á., and Castro-Díez, P. 2012. The exotic aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca): state of the art of a worldwide invasion. Aquat. Sci. 74(3):375-383.

Amorim, B.S., and Alves, M. 2012. A new species of Eugenia (Myrteae, Myrtaceae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Syst. Bot. 37(3):694-698.

Amundsen, P.A., Salonen, E., Niva, T., Gjelland, K.Ø., Præbel, K., Sandlund, O.T., Knudsen, R., and Bøhn, T. 2012. Invader population speeds up life history during colonization. Biol. Invasions 14(7):1501-1513.

Andrew, I.G., Macfarlane, R.P., Johns, P.M., Hitchmough, R.A., and Stringer, I.A.N. 2012. The conservation status of New Zealand Diptera. New Zeal. Entomol. 35(2):99-102.

Anteneh, W., Getahun, A., Dejen, E., Sibbing, F.A., Nagelkerke, L.A.J., De Graaf, M., Wudneh, T., Vijverberg, J., and Palstra, A.P. 2012. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats. J. Fish Biol. 81(2):750-765.

Araújo, M.B., and Peterson, A.T. 2012. Uses and misuses of bioclimatic envelope modeling. Ecology 93(7):1527-1539.

Arosa, M.L., Ceia, R.S., Quintanilla, L.G., and Ramos, J.A. 2012. The tree fern Dicksonia antarctica invades two habitats of European conservation priority in São Miguel Island, Azores. Biol. Invasions 14(7):1317-1323.

Arribas, P., Abellán, P., Velasco, J., Bilton, D.T., Millán, A., and Sánchez-Fernández, D. 2012. Evaluating drivers of vulnerability to climate change: a guide for insect conservation strategies. Global Change Biol. 18(7):2135-2146.

Aryal, A., Brunton, D., Ji, W.H., Yadav, H.K., Adhikari, B., and Raubenheimer, D. 2012. Diet and habitat use of hispid hare Caprolagus hispidus in Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Mamm. Stud. 37(2):147-154.

Asif, J.H., and Krug, P.J. 2012. Lineage distribution and barriers to gene flow among populations of the globally invasive marine mussel Musculista senhousia. Biol. Invasions 14(7):1431-1444.

Balmford, A., Green, R., and Phalan, B. 2012. What conservationists need to know about farming. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 279(1739):2714-2724.

Balzan, M.V. 2012. Associations of dragonflies (Odonata) to habitat variables within the Maltese Islands: a spatio-temporal approach. J. Insect Sci. 12:87.

Barlow, J., Gardner, T.A., Lees, A.C., Parry, L., and Peres, C.A. 2012. How pristine are tropical forests? An ecological perspective on the pre-Columbian human footprint in Amazonia and implications for contemporary conservation. Biol. Conserv. 151(1):45-49.

Barros, F.S.M., de Siqueira, M.F., and da Costa, D.P. 2012. Modeling the potential geographic distribution of five species of Metzgeria Raddi in Brazil, aiming at their conservation. Bryologist 115(2):341-349.

Bassett, I., Paynter, Q., Hankin, R., and Beggs, J.R. 2012. Characterising alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides; Amaranthaceae) invasion at a northern New Zealand lake. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 36(2):216-222.

Bauer, A.M., Jackman, T.R., Sadlier, R.A., and Whitaker, A.H. 2012. Revision of the giant geckos of New Caledonia (Reptilia: Diplodactylidae: Rhacodactylus). Zootaxa 3404:1-52.

Bauer, J.T. 2012. Invasive species: "back-seat drivers" of ecosystem change? Biol. Invasions 14(7):1295-1304.

Bedford, F.E., Whittaker, R.J., and Kerr, J.T. 2012. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change. Botany 90(7):587-597.

Berg, Å., and Hiron, M. 2012. Occurrence of Corncrakes Crex crex in mosaic farmland landscapes in south-central Sweden - effects of habitat and landscape structure. Bird Conserv. Int. 22(2):234-245.

Bhardwaj, M., Uniyal, V.P., Sanyal, A.K., and Singh, A.P. 2012. Butterfly communities along an elevational gradient in the Tons valley, Western Himalayas: implications of rapid assessment for insect conservation. J. Asia Pac. Entomol. 15(2):207-217.

Bhattarai, B.P., and Kindlmann, P. 2012. Interactions between Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) and leopard (Panthera pardus): implications for their conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(8):2075-2094.

Bickford, D., Posa, M.R.C., Qie, L., Campos-Arceiz, A., and Kudavidanage, E.P. 2012. Science communication for biodiversity conservation. Biol. Conserv. 151(1):74-76.

Birdsall, J.L., McCaughey, W., and Runyon, J.B. 2012. Roads impact the distribution of noxious weeds more than restoration treatments in a lodgepole pine forest in Montana, USA. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):517-523.

Bisrat, S.A., White, M.A., Beard, K.H., and Cutler, D.R. 2012. Predicting the distribution potential of an invasive frog using remotely sensed data in Hawaii. Divers. Distrib. 18(7):648-660.

Blaum, N., Schwager, M., Wichmann, M.C., and Rossmanith, E. 2012. Climate induced changes in matrix suitability explain gene flow in a fragmented landscape - the effect of interannual rainfall variability. Ecography 35(7):650-660.

Boesing, A.L., and Dos Anjos, L. 2012. The Azure Jay may reproduce in plantations of Araucaria angustifolia in southern Brazil. Bird Conserv. Int. 22(2):205-212.

Bombi, P., D'Amen, M., Salvi, D., Bologna, M.A., Marcone, F., Maggio, C., and Canu, A. 2012. Amphibians conservation in Italy: the contribution of the WWF Oases network. Italian J. Zool. 79(2):287-295.

Bona, M., Novotný, M., Danko, S., and Burešová, A. 2012. Nest site fidelity in the Slovakian population of the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis. Amphibia-Reptilia 33(2):207-213.

Bonnici, L., Evans, J., Borg, J.A., and Schembri, P.J. 2012. Biological aspects and ecological effects of a bed of the invasive non-indigenous mussel Brachidontes pharaonis (Fischer P., 1870) in Malta. Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 13(1):153-161.

Bonte, D., Breyne, P., Brys, R., de la Peña, E., D'hondt, B., Ghyselen, C., Vandegehuchte, M.L., and Hoffmann, M. 2012. Landscape dynamics determine the small-scale genetic structure of an endangered dune slack plant species. J. Coastal Res. 28(4):780-786.

Bottollier-Curtet, M., Charcosset, J.Y., Poly, F., Planty-Tabacchi, A.M., and Tabacchi, E. 2012. Light interception principally drives the understory response to boxelder invasion in riparian forests. Biol. Invasions 14(7):1445-1458.

Bouget, C., Nusillard, B., Pineau, X., and Ricou, C. 2012. Effect of deadwood position on saproxylic beetles in temperate forests and conservation interest of oak snags. Insect Conserv. Divers. 5(4):264-278.

Bourke, J., Busse, K., and Böhme, W. 2012. Searching for a lost frog (Rhinoderma rufum): identification of the most promising areas for future surveys and possible reasons of its enigmatic decline. North-West. J. Zool. 8(1):99-106.

Braby, J., Braby, S.J., Braby, R.J., and Altwegg, R. 2012. Annual survival and breeding dispersal of a seabird adapted to a stable environment: implications for conservation. J. Ornithol. 153(3):809-816.

Bracebridge, C.E., Davenport, T.R., and Marsden, S.J. 2012. The impact of forest disturbance on the seasonal foraging ecology of a critically endangered African primate. Biotropica 44(4):560-568.

Brodie, J., and Giordano, A.J. 2012. Density of the Vulnerable Sunda clouded leopard Neofelis diardi in a protected area in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Oryx 46(3):427-430.

Brook, B.W., and Bradshaw, C.J.A. 2012. Strange bedfellows? Techno-fixes to solve the big conservation issues in southern Asia. Biol. Conserv. 151(1):7-10.

Brosi, B.J., and Biber, E.G.N. 2012. Citizen involvement in the US Endangered Species Act. Science 337(6096):802-803.

Brown, D.J., Schultz, A.D., Dixon, J.R., Dickerson, B.E., and Forstner, M.R.J. 2012. Decline of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) and Texas spiny softshells (Apalone spinifera emoryi) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 11(1):138-143.

Buckley, T.R., Palma, R.L., Johns, P.M., Gleeson, D.M., Heath, A.C.G., Hitchmough, R.A., and Stringer, I.A.N. 2012. The conservation status of small or less well known groups of New Zealand terrestrial invertebrates. New Zeal. Entomol. 35(2):137-143.

Butkus, R., Šidagytė, E., and Arbačiauskas, K. 2012. Two morphotypes of the New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (JE Gray, 1843) (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) invade Lithuanian lakes. Aquat. Invasions 7(2):211-218.

Calo, A., Brause, S., and Jones, S. 2012. Integrated treatment with a prescribed burn and post-emergent herbicide demonstrates initial success in managing cheatgrass in a northern Colorado natural area. Nat. Areas J. 32(3):300-304.

Cammaerts, R., Spikmans, F., van Kessel, N., Verreycken, H., Chérot, F., Demol, T., and Richez, S. 2012. Colonization of the Border Meuse area (The Netherlands and Belgium) by the non-native western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris (Heckel, 1837) (Teleostei, Gobiidae). Aquat. Invasions 7(2):251-258.

Caplat, P., Coutts, S., and Buckley, Y.M. 2012. Modeling population dynamics, landscape structure, and management decisions for controlling the spread of invasive plants. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1249:72-83.

Capotorti, G., Zavattero, L., Anzellotti, I., Burrascano, S., Frondoni, R., Marchetti, M., Marignani, M., Smiraglia, D., and Blasi, C. 2012. Do National Parks play an active role in conserving the natural capital of Italy? Plant Biosyst. 146(2):258-265.

Castellón, T.D., and Sieving, K.E. 2012. Can focal species planning for landscape connectivity meet the needs of South American temperate rainforest endemics? Nat. Areas J. 32(3):316-324.

Catford, J.A., Daehler, C.C., Murphy, H.T., Sheppard, A.W., Hardesty, B.D., Westcott, D.A., Rejmánek, M., Bellingham, P.J., Pergl, J., Horvitz, C.C., and Hulme, P.E. 2012. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis and plant invasions: implications for species richness and management. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 14(3):231-241.

Caughlin, T., Wheeler, J.H., Jankowski, J., and Lichstein, J.W. 2012. Urbanized landscapes favored by fig-eating birds increase invasive but not native juvenile strangler fig abundance. Ecology 93(7):1571-1580.

Chapman, J.I., Cantino, P.D., and McCarthy, B.C. 2012. Seed production in garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) prevented by some methods of manual removal. Nat. Areas J. 32(3):305-309.

Choi, H.J., Jang, H.D., Isagi, Y., and Oh, B.U. 2012. Distribution and conservation status of the Critically Endangered Scrophularia takesimensis, a plant endemic to Ulleung Island, Republic of Korea. Oryx 46(3):399-402.

Chowdhury, C., Majumder, N., Ray, R., and Jana, T.K. 2012. Inter-annual abundance variation in some genera of diatom and zooplankton in a mangrove ecosystem. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(8):2029-2043.

Cole, R.J., Litton, C.M., Koontz, M.J., and Loh, R.K. 2012. Vegetation recovery 16 years after feral pig removal from a wet Hawaiian forest. Biotropica 44(4):463-471.

Colla, S.R., Ascher, J.S., Arduser, M., Cane, J., Deyrup, M., Droege, S., Gibbs, J., Griswold, T., Hall, H.G., Henne, C., Neff, J., Jean, R.P., Rightmyer, M.G., Sheffield, C., Veit, M., and Wolf, A. 2012. Documenting persistence of most eastern North American bee species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) to 1990-2009. J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 85(1):14-22.

Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Choat, J.H., Polidoro, B.A., Clements, K.D., Abesamis, R., Craig, M.T., Lazuardi, M.E., McIlwain, J., Muljadi, A., Myers, R.F., Nañola, C.L., Pardede, S., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Sanciangco, J.C., Stockwell, B., Harwell, H., and Carpenter, K.E. 2012. The likelihood of extinction of iconic and dominant herbivores and detritivores of coral reefs: the parrotfishes and surgeonfishes. PLoS ONE 7(7):e39825.

Contador, T.A., Kennedy, J.H., and Rozzi, R. 2012. The conservation status of southern South American aquatic insects in the literature. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(8):2095-2107.

Cooper, C.B., Loyd, K.A.T., Murante, T., Savoca, M., and Dickinson, J. 2012. Natural history traits associated with detecting mortality within residential bird communities: can citizen science provide insights? Environ. Manage. 50(1):11-20.

Cooper, J.E., Wallquist, E., Holeck, K.T., Hoffman, C.E., Mills, E.L., and Mayer, C.M. 2012. Density and distribution of amphipods in Oneida Lake, New York, after the introduction of the exotic amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus. Northeastern Nat. 19(2):249-266.

Coppa, S., De Lucia, G.A., Massaro, G., and Magni, P. 2012. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy): constraint analysis for population conservation. Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 13(1):108-117.

Corbett, B.F., and Morrison, J.A. 2012. The allelopathic potentials of the non-native invasive plant Microstegium vimineum and the native Ageratina altissima: two dominant species of the eastern forest herb layer. Northeastern Nat. 19(2):297-312.

Corlett, R.T. 2012. Climate change in the tropics: the end of the world as we know it? Biol. Conserv. 151(1):22-25.

Costa, W.J.E.M., Amorim, P.F., and Mattos, J.L.O. 2012. Species delimitation in annual killifishes from the Brazilian Caatinga, the Hypsolebias flavicaudatus complex (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): implications for taxonomy and conservation. Syst. Biodivers. 10(1):71-91.

Costello, J.H., Bayha, K.M., Mianzan, H.W., Shiganova, T.A., and Purcell, J.E. 2012. Transitions of Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora: Lobata) from a native to an exotic species: a review. Hydrobiologia 690(1):21-46.

Creech, M.N., Kirkman, L.K., and Morris, L.A. 2012. Alteration and recovery of slash pile burn sites in the restoration of a fire-maintained ecosystem. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):505-516.

Cunha, A.H., Marbá, N.N., van Katwijk, M.M., Pickerell, C., Henriques, M., Bernard, G., Ferreira, M.A., Garcia, S., Garmendia, J.M., and Manent, P. 2012. Changing paradigms in seagrass restoration. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):427-430.

Currylow, A.F., MacGowan, B.J., and Williams, R.N. 2012. Short-term forest management effects on a long-lived ectotherm. PLoS ONE 7(7):e40473.

Dalgleish, H.J., and Swihart, R.K. 2012. American chestnut past and future: implications of restoration for resource pulses and consumer populations of eastern US forests. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):490-497.

de Aguiar, W.M., and Gaglianone, M.C. 2012. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 56(2):210-219.

de Pinho, J.B., and Marini, M.Â. 2012. Using birds to set conservation priorities for Pantanal wetland forests, Brazil. Bird Conserv. Int. 22(2):155-169.

de Winton, M.D., Clayton, J.S., and Edwards, T. 2012. Incorporating invasive weeds into a plant indicator method (LakeSPI) to assess lake ecological condition. Hydrobiologia 691(1):47-58.

Delfín-Alfonso, C.A., López-González, C.A., and Equihua, M. 2012. Potential distribution of American black bears in northwest Mexico and implications for their conservation. Ursus 23(1):65-77.

Di Marco, M., Cardillo, M., Possingham, H.P., Wilson, K.A., Blomberg, S.P., Boitani, L., and Rondinini, C. 2012. A novel approach for global mammal extinction risk reduction. Conserv. Lett. 5(2):134-141.

Dias, A.T.C., Bozelli, R.L., Darigo, R.M., Esteves, F.D., dos Santos, H.F., Figueiredo-Barros, M.P., Nunes, M.F.Q.S., Roland, F., Zamith, L.R., and Scarano, F.R. 2012. Rehabilitation of a bauxite tailing substrate in central Amazonia: the effect of litter and seed addition on flood-prone forest restoration. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):483-489.

Djossa, B.A., Zachée, P., and Sinsin, B.A. 2012. Activity patterns and habitat use of the Western Tree Hyrax (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) within forest patches and implications for conservation. Ecotropica 18(1):65-71.

Dolbeth, M., Cusson, M., Sousa, R., and Pardal, M.A. 2012. Secondary production as a tool for better understanding of aquatic ecosystems. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 69(7):1230-1253.

Domínguez, E., and Aravena, J.C. 2012. Floristic study of the Francisco Coloane Coastal Marine Protected Area, Region de Magallanes, Chile. Gayana Bot. 69(1):167-183.

Dong, Y.H., Wang, Q.F., and Gituru, R.W. 2012. Effect of habitat modification on the distribution of the endangered aquatic fern Ceratopteris pteridoides (Parkeriaceae) in China. Am. Fern J. 102(2):136-146.

Dornbos, D.L., and Pruim, R. 2012. Moist soils reduce the effectiveness of glyphosate on cut stumps of buckthorn. Nat. Areas J. 32(3):240-246.

Drenovsky, R.E., Grewell, B.J., D'Antonio, C.M., Funk, J.L., James, J.J., Molinari, N., Parker, I.M., and Richards, C.L. 2012. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion. Ann. Botany 110(1):141-153.

Economo, E.P., and Sarnat, E.M. 2012. Revisiting the ants of Melanesia and the taxon cycle: historical and human-mediated invasions of a tropical archipelago. Am. Nat. 180(1):E1-E16.

Edwards, D.P., Koh, L.P., and Laurance, W.F. 2012. Indonesia's REDD+ pact: saving imperilled forests or business as usual? Biol. Conserv. 151(1):41-44.

Edwards, D.P., and Laurance, S.G. 2012. Green labelling, sustainability and the expansion of tropical agriculture: critical issues for certification schemes. Biol. Conserv. 151(1):60-64.

Eisenhauer, N., Fisichelli, N.A., Frelich, L.E., and Reich, P.B. 2012. Interactive effects of global warming and 'global worming' on the initial establishment of native and exotic herbaceous plant species. Oikos 121(7):1121-1133.

Eldridge, J.D., Redente, E.F., and Paschke, M. 2012. The use of seedbed modifications and wood chips to accelerate restoration of well pad sites in western Colorado, USA. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):524-531.

Eliáš, P., Grulich, V., Dítě, D., and Senko, D. 2012. Distribution and ecology of Carex secalina in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 81(2):93-99.

Elle, E., Elwell, S.L., and Gielens, G.A. 2012. The use of pollination networks in conservation. Botany 90(7):525-534.

Elliott, E.C., and Cornell, S.J. 2012. Dispersal polymorphism and the speed of biological invasions. PLoS ONE 7(7):e40496.

Eriksen, R.L., Desronvil, T., Hierro, J.L., and Kesseli, R. 2012. Morphological differentiation in a common garden experiment among native and non-native specimens of the invasive weed yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). Biol. Invasions 14(7):1459-1467.

Ernst, A.G., Warren, D.R., and Baldigo, B.P. 2012. Natural-channel-design restorations that changed geomorphology have little effect on macroinvertebrate communities in headwater streams. Restor. Ecol. 20(4):532-540.

Erskine, P., Van der Ent, A., and Fletcher, A. 2012. Sustaining metal-loving plants in mining regions. Science 337(6099):1172-1173.

Espinosa, M.I., Bertin, A., Gómez, J., Mejia, F., Guerra, M., Baez, L., Gouin, N., and Patiño, E. 2012. A three-year mark-recapture study in a remnant population of Crocodylus acutus Cuvier in Portete Bay (Guajira, Colombia). Gayana 76(1):52-58.

Essl, F., Mang, T., and Moser, D. 2012. Ancient and recent alien species in temperate forests: steady state and time lags. Biol. Invasions 14(7):1331-1342.

Evans, J.A., Davis, A.S., Raghu, S., Ragavendran, A., Landis, D.A., and Schemske, D.W. 2012. The importance of space, time, and stochasticity to the demography and management of Alliaria petiolata. Ecol. Appl. 22(5):1497-1511.

Ewen, J.G., Armstrong, D.P., Empson, R., Jack, S., Makan, T., McInnes, K., Parker, K.A., Richardson, K., and Alley, M. 2012. Parasite management in translocations: lessons from a threatened New Zealand bird. Oryx 46(3):446-456.

Faria, N., Rabaça, J.E., and Morales, M.B. 2012. Linking plant composition and arthropod abundance to establish little bustard breeding requirements in pastureland dominated landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(8):2109-2125.

Faundez, P.V. 2012. Terrestrial mammals of the Atacama Region, Chile. Comments on its distribution and conservation status. Gayana 76(1):22-37.

Finkelstein, M.E., Doak, D.F., George, D., Burnett, J., Brandt, J., Church, M., Grantham, J., and Smith, D.R. 2012. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109(28):11449-11454.

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