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Department ofBotany

No. 336
December 2012

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In This Issue

Bill Size in Birds Varies According to Climate

Adapted from

Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute scientists and partners have determined there is more to the shape and length of bird bills than just how they "get the worm." According to their research published in two papers this year, bill size is not only influenced by available food, but another basic need: water.

In the first study, published PLoS ONE, the researchers compared two subspecies of song sparrows living in different habitats and found that bill size varies according to climate. Sparrows living in hotter, drier conditions had larger bills, which gave them more surface area to lose heat, thus saving water. The study explains how bird bills act like "radiators," keeping sparrows cool so that they do not get dehydrated. "Our mothers were right when they told us that water is the best thing for you," said Russell Greenberg, head of SCBI's Migratory Bird Center and lead author of the study. "We always think about food and fixate on food. But whenever we go out running, we can leave the candy bar behind, but we've got to have water. We think about birds as little feeding machines, but they have to deal with climate and water, too."

The study's authors used the thermal data room at the Smithsonian's National Zoo to take photographs at different temperatures of song sparrows caught in the wild. The images indicated that sparrows from hot, dry environments with less water available lost 33 percent more heat from their bills than other sparrows. In turn, this heat loss allowed them to save about 7.7 percent of their water needs. Scientists believe these heat and water benefits could give song sparrows in hot environments more energy to spend elsewhere. Instead, birds could take an extra hour for breeding, gathering food, defending territory or singing.

In the second study, published in Evolution, the researchers focused on how bill size changes according to climate differences within California specifically. The scientists measured song sparrow bills from three locations: the coast and islands, the interior and the eastern desert. They found that sparrows from the warmer interior had larger bills than those from the cooler coastline. As expected, the bills become smaller again when temperatures are extremely hot (higher than body temperature), according to the study. Their research builds on the results of the PLoS ONE paper and encourages further study on bird bill heat loss.

This research highlights the importance of heat loss for bird conservation efforts, especially in light of climate change, Greenberg said. While song sparrows are listed as a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the study found that climate could directly affect bird life. As global temperatures rise, birds will have a harder time adapting to conditions.

"Climate is a big factor directly shaping animals," Greenberg said. "Song sparrows don't have air-conditioning and even going in the shade isn't going to help. They're out there with whatever their legs, bill and feathers can do to keep them warm or cool. Whatever they can do to save water, they have to do it and this is going to be even more essential in the face of global warming."

Current Literature

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Cameron, K.H., and Leather, S.R. 2012. Heathland management effects on carabid beetle communities: the relationship between bare ground patch size and carabid biodiversity. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):523-535.

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Carrié, R.J.G., George, D.R., and Wäckers, F.L. 2012. Selection of floral resources to optimise conservation of agriculturally-functional insect groups. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):635-640.

Carroll, C., Rohlf, D.J., Noon, B.R., and Reed, J.M. 2012. Scientific integrity in recovery planning and risk assessment: comment on Wilhere. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):743-745.

Catlin, J., Jones, R., and Jones, T. 2012. Models of wildlife tourism: Duffus and Dearden revisited. Biol. Conserv. 152:296.

Caudron, A., Champigneulle, A., Vigier, L., Hamelet, V., and Guyomard, R. 2012. Early effects of the strategies of creating a genetic refuge and direct translocation for conserving and restoring populations of native brown trout. Freshwater Biol. 57(8):1702-1715.

Caudron, A., Vigier, L., and Champigneulle, A. 2012. Developing collaborative research to improve effectiveness in biodiversity conservation practice. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(4):753-757.

Champagnon, J., Elmberg, J., Guillemain, M., Gauthier-Clerc, M., and Lebreton, J.D. 2012. Conspecifics can be aliens too: a review of effects of restocking practices in vertebrates. J. Nature Conserv. 20(4):231-241.

Champluvier, D., and Darbyshire, I. 2012. Schaueriopsis: a new genus of Acanthaceae (Acanthoideae: Barlerieae) from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Plant Ecol. Evol. 145(2):279-284.

Chan, K.M.A., Guerry, A.D., Balvanera, P., Klain, S., Satterfield, T., Basurto, X., Bostrom, A., Chuenpagdee, R., Gould, R., Halpern, B.S., Hannahs, N., Levine, J., Norton, B., Ruckelshaus, M., Russell, R., Tam, J., and Woodside, U. 2012. Where are Cultural and Social in ecosystem services? A framework for constructive engagement. BioScience 62(8):744-756.

Chapman, J.I., and McEwan, R.W. 2012. Tree regeneration ecology of an old-growth central Appalachian forest: diversity, temporal dynamics, and disturbance response. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 139(2):194-205.

Chapman, J.I., Perry, K.L., and McEwan, R.W. 2012. Changing flora of an old-growth mesophytic forest: previously undetected taxa and first appearance of non-native invasive species. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 139(2):206-210.

Chauvenet, A.L.M., Ewen, J.G., Armstrong, D.P., Coulson, T., Blackburn, T.M., Adams, L., Walker, L.K., and Pettorelli, N. 2012. Does supplemental feeding affect the viability of translocated populations? The example of the hihi. Anim. Conserv. 15(4):337-350.

Chong, K.Y., Teo, S.Y., Kurukulasuriya, B., Chung, Y.F., Rajathurai, S., Lim, H.C., and Tan, H.T.W. 2012. Decadal changes in urban bird abundance in Singapore. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 25:189-196.

Chybicki, I.J., Oleksa, A., and Kowalkowska, K. 2012. Variable rates of random genetic drift in protected populations of English yew: implications for gene pool conservation. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):899-911.

Civantos, E., Thuiller, W., Maiorano, L., Guisan, A., and Araújo, M.B. 2012. Potential impacts of climate change on ecosystem services in Europe: the case of pest control by vertebrates. BioScience 62(7):658-666.

Čížková, D., Javůrková, V., Champagnon, J., and Kreisinger, J. 2012. Duck's not dead: does restocking with captive bred individuals affect the genetic integrity of wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population? Biol. Conserv. 152:231-240.

Cleland, E.E., Allen, J.M., Crimmins, T.M., Dunne, J.A., Pau, S., Travers, S.E., Zavaleta, E.S., and Wolkovich, E.M. 2012. Phenological tracking enables positive species responses to climate change. Ecology 93(8):1765-1771.

Cobbold, S.M., and Supp, S.R. 2012. Patch shape alters spider community structure: links between microhabitat choice and sensitivity to increased edge habitat. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):581-589.

Connors, B.M., Braun, D.C., Peterman, R.M., Cooper, A.B., Reynolds, J.D., Dill, L.M., Ruggerone, G.T., and Krkošek, M. 2012. Migration links ocean-scale competition and local ocean conditions with exposure to farmed salmon to shape wild salmon dynamics. Conserv. Lett. 5(4):304-312.

da Silva, D.K.A., Pereira, C.M.R., de Souza, R.G., da Silva, G.A., Oehl, F., and Maia, L.C. 2012. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in restinga and dunes areas in Brazilian Northeast. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(9):2361-2373.

Dallimer, M., Parnell, M., Bicknell, J.E., and Melo, M. 2012. The importance of novel and agricultural habitats for the avifauna of an oceanic island. J. Nature Conserv. 20(4):191-199.

Dallimer, M., Rouquette, J.R., Skinner, A.M.J., Armsworth, P.R., Maltby, L.M., Warren, P.H., and Gaston, K.J. 2012. Contrasting patterns in species richness of birds, butterflies and plants along riparian corridors in an urban landscape. Divers. Distrib. 18(8):742-753.

Dans, S.L., Degrati, M., Pedraza, S.N., and Crespo, E.A. 2012. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):708-716.

Darvill, B., Lepais, O., Woodall, L.C., and Goulson, D. 2012. Triploid bumblebees indicate a direct cost of inbreeding in fragmented populations. Mol. Ecol. 21(16):3988-3995.

Däumer, C., Greve, C., Hutterer, R., Misof, B., and Haase, M. 2012. Phylogeography of an invasive land snail: natural range expansion versus anthropogenic dispersal in Theba pisana pisana. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1665-1682.

Davies, T.D., and Baum, J.K. 2012. Extinction risk and overfishing: reconciling conservation and fisheries perspectives on the status of marine fishes. Sci. Rep. 2:561.

de Mestral, L.G., Herbinger, C.M., and O'Reilly, P.T. 2012. Mating structure of an endangered population of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) as determined using sibship reconstruction and a novel method of sex inference. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 69(8):1352-1361.

De Steven, D., and Gramling, J.M. 2012. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the southeastern United States. Wetlands 32(4):593-604.

Delefosse, M., Banta, G.T., Canal-Vergés, P., Penha-Lopes, G., Quintana, C.O., Valdemarsen, T., and Kristensen, E. 2012. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 461:83-94.

Deuffic, P., and Lyser, S. 2012. Biodiversity or bioenergy: is deadwood conservation an environmental issue for French forest owners? Can. J. Forest Res. 42(8):1491-1502.

Dickinson, J.L., Shirk, J., Bonter, D., Bonney, R., Crain, R.L., Martin, J., Phillips, T., and Purcell, K. 2012. The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement. Front. Ecol. Environ. 10(6):291-297.

Dieterich, J.W., and Fulford, R.S. 2012. Habitat suitability modeling to evaluate conservation and enhancement efforts for Gulf-strain striped bass in Mississippi coastal rivers. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 141(3):731-746.

Diniz, J.A.F., Melo, D.B., de Oliveira, G., Collevatti, R.G., Soares, T.N., Nabout, J.C., Lima, J.D., Dobrovolski, R., Chaves, L.J., Naves, R.V., Loyola, R.D., and Telles, M.P.D. 2012. Planning for optimal conservation of geographical genetic variability within species. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):1085-1093.

Domíguez-Vega, H., Monroy-Vilchis, O., Balderas-Valdivia, C.J., Gienger, C.M., and Ariano-Sánchez, D. 2012. Predicting the potential distribution of the beaded lizard and identification of priority areas for conservation. J. Nature Conserv. 20(4):247-253.

Dowling, T.E., Saltzgiver, M.J., and Marsh, P.C. 2012. Genetic structure within and among populations of the endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) as determined by analysis of microsatellites. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):1073-1083.

Droissart, V., Sonké, B., Lowry, P.P., Pollard, B.J., and Stévart, T. 2012. Taxonomic and chorological notes on some Orchidaceae endemic to Atlantic Central Africa. Adansonia 34(1):23-35.

Dybdahl, M.F., and Drown, D.M. 2012. Response to comments on "The absence of genotypic diversity in a successful parthenogenetic invader" by Mark Dybdahl and Devin Drown [Biological Invasions 13 (2011), 1663-1672]. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1647-1649.

Ebrahimi, M., and Bull, C.M. 2012. Lycosid spiders are friends and enemies of the endangered pygmy bluetongue lizard (Tiliqua adelaidensis). Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 136:45-49.

Eckberg, J.O., Tenhumberg, B., and Louda, S.M. 2012. Insect herbivory and propagule pressure influence Cirsium vulgare invasiveness across the landscape. Ecology 93(8):1787-1794.

Edwards, D.P., Backhouse, A.R., Wheeler, C., Khen, C.V., and Hamer, K.C. 2012. Impacts of logging and rehabilitation on invertebrate communities in tropical rainforests of northern Borneo. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):591-599.

Erb, M. 2012. The dissonance of conservation: environmentalities and the environmentalisms of the poor in eastern Indonesia. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 25:11-23.

Erb, P.L., McShea, W.J., and Guralnick, R.P. 2012. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42574.

Estrada, A., and Arroyo, B. 2012. Occurrence vs abundance models: differences between species with varying aggregation patterns. Biol. Conserv. 152:37-45.

Estrada, A., Raboy, B.E., and Oliveira, L.C. 2012. Agroecosystems and primate conservation in the tropics: a review. Am. J. Primatol. 74(8):696-711.

Evangelista, P.H., Norman, J., Swartzinki, P., and Young, N.E. 2012. Assessing habitat quality of the mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. Curr. Zool. 58(4):525-535.

Faria, N., Rabaça, J.E., and Morales, M.B. 2012. The importance of grazing regime in the provision of breeding habitat for grassland birds: the case of the endangered little bustard (Tetrax tetrax). J. Nature Conserv. 20(4):211-218.

Fei, S.L., Liang, L., Paillet, F.L., Steiner, K.C., Fang, J.Y., Shen, Z.H., Wang, Z.H., and Hebard, F.V. 2012. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration. Divers. Distrib. 18(8):754-768.

Fire, S.E., Pruden, J., Couture, D., Wang, Z.H., Bottein, M.Y.D., Haynes, B.L., Knott, T., Bouchard, D., Lichtenwalner, A., and Wippelhauser, G. 2012. Saxitoxin exposure in an endangered fish: association of a shortnose sturgeon mortality event with a harmful algal bloom. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 460:145-153.

Friess, D.A., Phelps, J., Leong, R.C., Lee, W.K., Wee, A.K.S., Sivasothi, N., Oh, R.R.Y., and Webb, E.L. 2012. Mandai mangrove, Singapore: lessons for the conservation of Southeast Asia's mangroves. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 25:55-65.

Gadsden, H., Ballesteros-Barrera, C., de la Garza, O.H., Castañeda, G., García-De la Peña, C., and Lemos-Espinal, J.A. 2012. Effects of land-cover transformation and climate change on the distribution of two endemic lizards, Crotaphytus antiquus and Sceloporus cyanostictus, of northern Mexico. J. Arid Environ. 83:1-9.

Gao, J., He, T.H., and Li, Q.M. 2012. Traditional home-garden conserving genetic diversity: a case study of Acacia pennata in southwest China. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):891-898.

Garnett, S.T. 2012. Unexpected outcomes of invasive predator control. Anim. Conserv. 15(4):329-330.

Garzón-Machado, V., del-Arco-Aguilar, M.J., and Pérez-de-Paz, P.L. 2012. Threat or threatened species? A paradox in conservation biology. J. Nature Conserv. 20(4):228-230.

Gervasi, V., Ciucci, P., Boulanger, J., Randi, E., and Boitani, L. 2012. A multiple data source approach to improve abundance estimates of small populations: the brown bear in the Apennines, Italy. Biol. Conserv. 152:10-20.

Gestoso, I., Olabarria, C., and Arenas, F. 2012. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis along the Galician Rias Baixas (NW of Spain): status of invasion. Cah. Biol. Mar. 53(3):391-396.

Giam, X., and Wilcove, D.S. 2012. The geography of conservation ecology research in Southeast Asia: current biases and future opportunities. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 25:29-36.

Gibbs, H.L., and Chiucchi, J.E. 2012. Inbreeding, body condition, and heterozygosity-fitness correlations in isolated populations of the endangered eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus c. catenatus). Conserv. Genet. 13(4):1133-1143.

Gillespie, G.R., Ahmad, E., Elahan, B., Evans, A., Ancrenaz, M., Goossens, B., and Scroggie, M.P. 2012. Conservation of amphibians in Borneo: relative value of secondary tropical forest and non-forest habitats. Biol. Conserv. 152:136-144.

Gillette, D.P., Fortner, A.M., Franssen, N.R., Cartwright, S., Tobler, C.M., Wesner, J.S., Reneau, P.C., Reneau, F.H., Schlupp, I., Marsh-Matthews, E.C., Matthews, W.J., Broughton, R.E., and Lee, C.W. 2012. Patterns of change over time in darter (Teleostei: Percidae) assemblages of the Arkansas River basin, northeastern Oklahoma, USA. Ecography 35(9):855-864.

Gilroy, J.J., Virzi, T., Boulton, R.L., and Lockwood, J.L. 2012. Too few data and not enough time: approaches to detecting Allee effects in threatened species. Conserv. Lett. 5(4):313-322.

Godinho, R., Abáigar, T., Lopes, S., Essalhi, A., Ouragh, L., Cano, M., and Ferrand, N. 2012. Conservation genetics of the endangered Dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas spp.) in Northwestern Africa. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):1003-1015.

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Gómez, S., Orians, C.M., and Preisser, E.L. 2012. Exotic herbivores on a shared native host: tissue quality after individual, simultaneous, and sequential attack. Oecologia 169(4):1015-1024.

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Palomares, F., Godoy, J.A., López-Bao, J.V., Rodríguez, A., Roques, S., Casas-Marce, M., Revilla, E., and Delibes, M. 2012. Possible extinction vortex for a population of Iberian lynx on the verge of extirpation. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):689-697.

Parravicini, V., Rovere, A., Vassallo, P., Micheli, F., Montefalcone, M., Morri, C., Paoli, C., Albertelli, G., Fabiano, M., and Bianchi, C.N. 2012. Understanding relationships between conflicting human uses and coastal ecosystems status: a geospatial modeling approach. Ecol. Indic. 19:253-263.

Pascal, M. 2012. Biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems - science and management. Cah. Biol. Mar. 53(3):319-325.

Passmore, H.A., Bruna, E.M., Heredia, S.M., and Vasconcelos, H.L. 2012. Resilient networks of ant-plant mutualists in Amazonian forest fragments. PLoS ONE 7(8):e40803.

Pebsworth, P.A., MacIntosh, A.J.J., Morgan, H.R., and Huffman, M.A. 2012. Factors influencing the ranging behavior of chacma baboons (Papio hamadryas ursinus) living in a human-modified habitat. Int. J. Primatol. 33(4):872-887.

Perkins, L.B., and Nowak, R.S. 2012. Soil conditioning and plant-soil feedbacks affect competitive relationships between native and invasive grasses. Plant Ecol. 213(8):1337-1344.

Pettorelli, N., Chauvenet, A.L.M., Duffy, J.P., Cornforth, W.A., Meillere, A., and Baillie, J.E.M. 2012. Tracking the effect of climate change on ecosystem functioning using protected areas: Africa as a case study. Ecol. Indic. 20:269-276.

Phalan, B., Balmford, A., and Green, R.E. 2012. Agriculture as a key element for conservation: reasons for caution. Conserv. Lett. 5(4):323-324.

Phosri, C., Põlme, S., Taylor, A.F.S., Kõljalg, U., Suwannasai, N., and Tedersoo, L. 2012. Diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a dry deciduous dipterocarp forest in Thailand. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(9):2287-2298.

Piepenbring, M., Hofmann, T.A., Unterseher, M., and Kost, G. 2012. Species richness of plants and fungi in western Panama: towards a fungal inventory in the tropics. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(9):2181-2193.

Plieninger, T., Schleyer, C., Schaich, H., Ohnesorge, B., Gerdes, H., Hernández-Morcillo, M., and Bieling, C. 2012. Mainstreaming ecosystem services through reformed European agricultural policies. Conserv. Lett. 5(4):281-288.

Pollnac, F., Seipel, T., Repath, C., and Rew, L.J. 2012. Plant invasion at landscape and local scales along roadways in the mountainous region of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1753-1763.

Postel, L. 2012. Mesozooplankton diversity, reproduction modes, and potential invasibility in the Baltic Sea. Cah. Biol. Mar. 53(3):327-336.

Potter, S., Eldridge, M.D.B., Cooper, S.J.B., Paplinska, J.Z., and Taggart, D.A. 2012. Habitat connectivity, more than species' biology, influences genetic differentiation in a habitat specialist, the short-eared rock-wallaby (Petrogale brachyotis). Conserv. Genet. 13(4):937-952.

Preston, K.L., Redak, R.A., Allen, M.F., and Rotenberry, J.T. 2012. Changing distribution patterns of an endangered butterfly: linking local extinction patterns and variable habitat relationships. Biol. Conserv. 152:280-290.

Putz, F.E., Zuidema, P.A., Synnott, T., Peña-Claros, M., Pinard, M.A., Sheil, D., Vanclay, J.K., Sist, P., Gourlet-Fleury, S., Griscom, B., Palmer, J., and Zagt, R. 2012. Sustaining conservation values in selectively logged tropical forests: the attained and the attainable. Conserv. Lett. 5(4):296-303.

Pynee, K., Grangaud, E., and Rouhan, G. 2012. A new native and critically endangered fern for Mauritius: Elaphoglossum coursii Tardieu (Dryopteridaceae). Adansonia 34(1):7-11.

Qie, L., Howard, S.D., Lim, S.L.H., and Sodhi, N.S. 2012. Assisted dispersal of tropical dung beetles. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 25:155-160.

Quéméré, E., Amelot, X., Pierson, J., Crouau-Roy, B., and Chikhi, L. 2012. Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109(32):13028-13033.

Rákosy, L., Pecsenye, K., Mihali, C., Tóth, A., and Varga, Z. 2012. Taxonomic review of Euphydryas maturna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) with description of a new subspecies from Dobrogea (Romania) and notes on conservation biology. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 58(2):145-161.

Raşit Bilgin, İ. 2012. The conservation genetics of three cave-dwelling bat species in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Turk. J. Zool. 36(3):275-282.

Rebelo, H., Froufe, E., Ferrand, N., and Jones, G. 2012. Integrating molecular ecology and predictive modelling: implications for the conservation of the barbastelle bat (Barbastella barbastellus) in Portugal. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 58(4):721-732.

Refsnider, J.M., and Janzen, F.J. 2012. Behavioural plasticity may compensate for climate change in a long-lived reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination. Biol. Conserv. 152:90-95.

Régnière, J., St-Amant, R., and Duval, P. 2012. Predicting insect distributions under climate change from physiological responses: spruce budworm as an example. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1571-1586.

Reichard, M., Vrtílek, M., Douda, K., and Smith, C. 2012. An invasive species reverses the roles in a host-parasite relationship between bitterling fish and unionid mussels. Biol. Lett. 8(4):601-604.

Restrepo, A., Colinvaux, P., Bush, M., Correa-Metrio, A., Conroy, J., Gardener, M.R., Jaramillo, P., Steinitz-Kannan, M., and Overpeck, J. 2012. Impacts of climate variability and human colonization on the vegetation of the Galápagos Islands. Ecology 93(8):1853-1866.

Reynolds, R.G., Niemiller, M.L., and Fitzpatrick, B.M. 2012. Genetic analysis of an endemic archipelagic lizard reveals sympatric cryptic lineages and taxonomic discordance. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):953-963.

Robinet, C., Imbert, C.E., Rousselet, J., Sauvard, D., Garcia, J., Goussard, F., and Roques, A. 2012. Human-mediated long-distance jumps of the pine processionary moth in Europe. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1557-1569.

Rodríguez, A., Calzada, J., Revilla, E., López-Bao, J.V., and Palomares, F. 2012. Bringing science back to the conservation of the Iberian lynx. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):737-739.

Rodriguez, D., Forstner, M.R.J., McBride, D.L., Densmore, L.D., and Dixon, J.R. 2012. Low genetic diversity and evidence of population structure among subspecies of Nerodia harteri, a threatened water snake endemic to Texas. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):977-986.

Rogalski, M.A., and Skelly, D.K. 2012. Positive effects of nonnative invasive Phragmites australis on larval bullfrogs. PLoS ONE 7(8):e44420.

Sahanatien, V., and Derocher, A.E. 2012. Monitoring sea ice habitat fragmentation for polar bear conservation. Anim. Conserv. 15(4):397-406.

Salmona, J., Salamolard, M., Fouillot, D., Ghestemme, T., Larose, J., Centon, J.F., Sousa, V., Dawson, D.A., Thebaud, C., and Chikhi, L. 2012. Signature of a pre-human population decline in the critically endangered Reunion Island endemic forest bird Coracina newtoni. PLoS ONE 7(8):e43524.

Sánchez-Blanco, J., Sánchez-Blanco, C., Sousa, S.M., and Espinosa-García, F.J. 2012. Assessing introduced Leguminosae in Mexico to identify potentially high-impact invasive species. Acta Bot. Mex. 100:41-77.

Sánchez-Cuervo, A.M., Aide, T.M., Clark, M.L., and Etter, A. 2012. Land cover change in Colombia: surprising forest recovery trends between 2001 and 2010. PLoS ONE 7(8):e43943.

Sanjayan, M., Samberg, L.H., Boucher, T., and Newby, J. 2012. Intact faunal assemblages in the Modern Era. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):724-730.

Santos, X., Bros, V., and Ros, E. 2012. Contrasting responses of two xerophilous land snails to fire and natural reforestation. Contrib. Zool. 81(3):167-180.

Schaffers, A.P., Raemakers, I.P., and Sýkora, K.V. 2012. Successful overwintering of arthropods in roadside verges. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):511-522.

Schapaugh, A.W., and Tyre, A.J. 2012. Bayesian networks and the quest for reserve adequacy. Biol. Conserv. 152:178-186.

Scheffers, B.R., Whiting, A.V., and Paszkowski, C.A. 2012. The roles of spatial configuration and scale in explaining animal distributions in disturbed landscapes: a case study using pond-breeding anurans. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 25:101-110.

Schmera, D., Baur, B., and Erős, T. 2012. Does functional redundancy of communities provide insurance against human disturbances? An analysis using regional-scale stream invertebrate data. Hydrobiologia 693(1):183-194.

Schmidt, I.B., and Ticktin, T. 2012. When lessons from population models and local ecological knowledge coincide - effects of flower stalk harvesting in the Brazilian savanna. Biol. Conserv. 152:187-195.

Schneider, H.E., and Allen, E.B. 2012. Effects of elevated nitrogen and exotic plant invasion on soil seed bank composition in Joshua Tree National Park. Plant Ecol. 213(8):1277-1287.

Schwartz, M.W., Hellmann, J.J., McLachlan, J.M., Sax, D.F., Borevitz, J.O., Brennan, J., Camacho, A.E., Ceballos, G., Clark, J.R., Doremus, H., Early, R., Etterson, J.R., Fielder, D., Gill, J.L., Gonzalez, P., Green, N., Hannah, L., Jamieson, D.W., Javeline, D., Minteer, B.A., Odenbaugh, J., Polasky, S., Richardson, D.M., Root, T.L., Safford, H.D., Sala, O., Schneider, S.H., Thompson, A.R., Williams, J.W., Vellend, M., Vitt, P., and Zellmer, S. 2012. Managed relocation: integrating the scientific, regulatory, and ethical challenges. BioScience 62(8):732-743.

Searcy, K.B. 2012. Changes in the flora of the Mount Holyoke Range, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts over the past 150 Years (1860-2010). Rhodora 114(958):113-132.

Seiferling, I.S., Proulx, R., Peres-Neto, P.R., Fahrig, L., and Messier, C. 2012. Measuring protected-area isolation and correlations of isolation with land-use intensity and protection status. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):610-618.

Setaro, S.D., Garnica, S., Herrera, P.I., Suárez, J.P., and Göker, M. 2012. A clustering optimization strategy to estimate species richness of Sebacinales in the tropical Andes based on molecular sequences from distinct DNA regions. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(9):2269-2285.

Sheppard, C.S., Alexander, J.M., and Billeter, R. 2012. The invasion of plant communities following extreme weather events under ambient and elevated temperature. Plant Ecol. 213(8):1289-1301.

Sheppard, K.T., Olynyk, A.J., Davoren, G.K., and Hann, B.J. 2012. Summer diet analysis of the invasive rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba. J. Great Lakes Res. 38:66-71.

Simões, P.I., Lima, A.P., and Farias, I.P. 2012. Restricted natural hybridization between two species of litter frogs on a threatened landscape in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):1145-1159.

Simón, M.A., Gil-Sánchez, J.M., Ruiz, G., Garrote, G., McCain, E.B., Fernández, L., López-Parra, M., Rojas, E., Arenas-Rojas, R., Del Rey, T., García-Tardío, M., and López, G. 2012. Reverse of the decline of the endangered Iberian lynx. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):731-736.

Sindaco, R., Wilms, T.M., and Venchi, A. 2012. On the distribution of Uromastyx alfredschmidti Wilms and Böhme, 2000 (Squamata: Agamidae: Uromastycinae). Acta Herpetol. 7(1):23-28.

Sinkins, P.A., and Otfinowski, R. 2012. Invasion or retreat? The fate of exotic invaders on the northern prairies, 40 years after cattle grazing. Plant Ecol. 213(8):1251-1262.

Sinsch, U., Oromi, N., Miaud, C., Denton, J., and Sanuy, D. 2012. Connectivity of local amphibian populations: modelling the migratory capacity of radio-tracked natterjack toads. Anim. Conserv. 15(4):388-396.

Small, S.T., Eytan, R., Bockrath, K., and Wares, J.P. 2012. Evaluation of genetic structure across freshwater mussel community (genus Elliptio) in the Altamaha River basin. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):965-975.

Song, L., Liu, W.-Y., and Nadkarni, N.M. 2012. Response of non-vascular epiphytes to simulated climate change in a montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest China. Biol. Conserv. 152:127-135.

Sosa, V., and De-Nova, J.A. 2012. Endemic angiosperm lineages in Mexico: hotspots for conservation. Acta Bot. Mex. 100:293-315.

Speziale, K.L., Lambertucci, S.A., Carrete, M., and Tella, J.L. 2012. Dealing with non-native species: what makes the difference in South America? Biol. Invasions 14(8):1609-1621.

Srba, M., and Heneberg, P. 2012. Nesting habitat segregation between closely related terricolous sphecid species (Hymenoptera: Spheciformes): key role of soil physical characteristics. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):557-570.

Stefani, F., Aquaro, G., Azzurro, E., Colorni, A., and Galli, P. 2012. Patterns of genetic variation of a Lessepsian parasite. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1725-1736.

Stevenson, M.D., Rossmo, D.K., Knell, R.J., and Le Comber, S.C. 2012. Geographic profiling as a novel spatial tool for targeting the control of invasive species. Ecography 35(8):704-715.

Stierhoff, K.L., Neuman, M., and Butler, J.L. 2012. On the road to extinction? Population declines of the endangered white abalone, Haliotis sorenseni. Biol. Conserv. 152:46-52.

Stoll, P., Gatzsch, K., Rusterholz, H.P., and Baur, B. 2012. Response of plant and gastropod species to knotweed invasion. Basic Appl. Ecol. 13(3):232-240.

Stricker, K.B., and Stiling, P. 2012. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida. Ecology 93(8):1902-1911.

Svensson, G.P., Liedtke, C., Hedenström, E., Breistein, P., Bång, J., and Larsson, M.C. 2012. Chemical ecology and insect conservation: optimising pheromone-based monitoring of the threatened saproxylic click beetle Elater ferrugineus. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):549-555.

Swope, S.M., and Stein, I.R. 2012. Soil type mediates indirect interactions between Centaurea solstitialis and its biocontrol agents. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1697-1710.

Symonds, J.E., and Pither, J. 2012. Multi-scale analyses of exotic and native plant species diversity within Canada's endangered antelope-brush ecosystem. Plant Ecol. 213(8):1263-1275.

Szczys, P., Nisbet, I.C.T., and Wingate, D.B. 2012. Conservation genetics of the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) in the North Atlantic region; implications for the critically endangered population at Bermuda. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):1039-1043.

Taddeo, S., and De Blois, S. 2012. Coexistence of introduced and native common reed (Phragmites australis) in freshwater wetlands. Ecoscience 19(2):99-105.

Talley, T.S., Nguyen, K.C., and Nguyen, A. 2012. Testing the effects of an introduced palm on a riparian invertebrate community in southern California. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42460.

Taranto, G.H., Kvile, K.O., Pitcher, T.J., and Morato, T. 2012. An ecosystem evaluation framework for global seamount conservation and management. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42950.

Ticktin, T., Ganesan, R., Paramesha, M., and Setty, S. 2012. Disentangling the effects of multiple anthropogenic drivers on the decline of two tropical dry forest trees. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(4):774-784.

Tilghman, J.M., Ramee, S.W., and Marsh, D.M. 2012. Meta-analysis of the effects of canopy removal on terrestrial salamander populations in North America. Biol. Conserv. 152:1-9.

Traill, L.W., Wanger, T.C., and Kidd, D. 2012. Large, particular bovids may require localised conservation effort to prevent extinction. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 25:111-116.

Tucker, C.M., Cadotte, M.W., Davies, T.J., and Rebelo, T.G. 2012. Incorporating geographical and evolutionary rarity into conservation prioritization. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):593-601.

Vaca, R.A., Golicher, D.J., Cayuela, L., Hewson, J., and Steininger, M. 2012. Evidence of incipient forest transition in southern Mexico. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42309.

Van Bocxlaer, B., Schultheiss, R., Plisnier, P.D., and Albrecht, C. 2012. Does the decline of gastropods in deep water herald ecosystem change in Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika? Freshwater Biol. 57(8):1733-1744.

Vanden-Broeck, A., Cox, K., Michiels, B., Verschelde, P., and Villar, M. 2012. With a little help from my friends: hybrid fertility of exotic Populus x canadensis enhanced by related native Populus nigra. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1683-1696.

Vanhove, M.P.M., Jocque, M., Mann, D.J., Waters, S., Creedy, T.J., Nuñez-Miño, J.M., Samayoa, A.C., Vaglia, T., and Casteels, J. 2012. Small sample, substantial contribution: additions to the Honduran hawkmoth (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) fauna based on collections from a mountainous protected area (Cusuco National Park). J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):629-633.

Vaudo, A.D., Ellis, J.D., Cambray, G.A., and Hill, M. 2012. The effects of land use on honey bee (Apis mellifera) population density and colony strength parameters in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):601-611.

Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T., Nogué, S., and Rull, V. 2012. Global warming, habitat shifts and potential refugia for biodiversity conservation in the neotropical Guayana Highlands. Biol. Conserv. 152:159-168.

Venesky, M.D., Mendelson, J.R., Sears, B.F., Stiling, P., and Rohr, J.R. 2012. Selecting for tolerance against pathogens and herbivores to enhance success of reintroduction and translocation. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):586-592.

Verdiell-Cubedo, D., Torralva, M., Andreu-Soler, A., and Oliva-Paterna, F.J. 2012. Effects of shoreline urban modification on habitat structure and fish community in littoral areas of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, Spain). Wetlands 32(4):631-641.

Vetter, J.P., Swinnerton, K.J., VanderWerf, E.A., Garvin, J.C., Mounce, H.L., Breniser, H.E., Leonard, D.L., and Fretz, J.S. 2012. Survival estimates for two Hawaiian honeycreepers. Pacific Sci. 66(3):299-309.

Villaseñor, J.L., and Ortiz, E. 2012. The Asteraceae family in the Flora of the Bajio and adjacent regions. Acta Bot. Mex. 100:259-291.

Walisch, T.J., Colling, G., Poncelet, M., and Matthies, D. 2012. Effects of inbreeding and interpopulation crosses on performance and plasticity of two generations of offspring of a declining grassland plant. Am. J. Bot. 99(8):1300-1313.

Walker, R.C.J., Whitmore, N., Rafeliarisoa, T.H., and Hamylton, S. 2012. The effect of habitat degradation on the long term survival of the Critically Endangered Madagascar spider tortoise (Pyxis arachnoides). Biol. Conserv. 152:152-158.

Walsh, J.C., Wilson, K.A., Benshemesh, J., and Possingham, H.P. 2012. Integrating research, monitoring and management into an adaptive management framework to achieve effective conservation outcomes. Anim. Conserv. 15(4):334-336.

Walsh, J.C., Wilson, K.A., Benshemesh, J., and Possingham, H.P. 2012. Unexpected outcomes of invasive predator control: the importance of evaluating conservation management actions. Anim. Conserv. 15(4):319-328.

Webb, M.H., Holdsworth, M.C., and Webb, J. 2012. Nesting requirements of the endangered Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). Emu 112(3):181-188.

Weinländer, M., and Füreder, L. 2012. Associations between stream habitat characteristics and native and alien crayfish occurrence. Hydrobiologia 693(1):237-249.

Whelan, N.V., Johnson, P.D., and Harris, P.M. 2012. Rediscovery of Leptoxis compacta (Anthony, 1854) (Gastropoda: Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae). PLoS ONE 7(8):e42499.

Wilhere, G.F. 2012. Inadvertent policy advocacy in peer review of recovery plans: reply to Carroll et al. Conserv. Biol. 26(4):746-748.

Wilson, A.S., Marra, P.P., and Fleischer, R.C. 2012. Temporal patterns of genetic diversity in Kirtland's warblers (Dendroica kirtlandii), the rarest songbird in North America. BMC Ecology 12:8.

Woltmann, S., Kreiser, B.R., and Sherry, T.W. 2012. Fine-scale genetic population structure of an understory rainforest bird in Costa Rica. Conserv. Genet. 13(4):925-935.

Wright, H.L., Lake, I.R., and Dolman, P.M. 2012. Low-impact agriculture requires urgent attention not greater caution: response to Phalan and colleagues. Conserv. Lett. 5(4):325-326.

Wulff, A.S., and Munzinger, J. 2012. A new narrow endemic endangered species of Scaevola (Goodeniaceae) from New Caledonia. Adansonia 34(1):123-128.

Wunsch, Y., Schirmel, J., and Fartmann, T. 2012. Conservation management of coastal dunes for Orthoptera has to consider oviposition and nymphal preferences. J. Insect Conserv. 16(4):501-510.

Wünscher, T., and Engel, S. 2012. International payments for biodiversity services: review and evaluation of conservation targeting approaches. Biol. Conserv. 152:222-230.

Yang, D.D., González-Bernal, E., Greenlees, M., and Shine, R. 2012. Interactions between native and invasive gecko lizards in tropical Australia. Austral Ecol. 37(5):592-599.

Yu, H., Wan, F.H., and Guo, J.Y. 2012. Different thermal tolerance and hsp gene expression in invasive and indigenous sibling species of Bemisia tabaci. Biol. Invasions 14(8):1587-1595.

Zamorano-Elgueta, C., Cayuela, L., González-Espinosa, M., Lara, A., and Parra-Vázquez, M.R. 2012. Impacts of cattle on the South American temperate forests: challenges for the conservation of the endangered monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana) in Chile. Biol. Conserv. 152:110-118.

Zeigler, M.P., Todd, A.S., and Caldwell, C.A. 2012. Evidence of recent climate change within the historic range of Rio Grande cutthroat trout: implications for management and future persistence. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 141(4):1045-1059.

Zimbres, B.Q.C., de Aquino, P.D.P.U., Machado, R.B., Silveira, L., Jácomo, A.T.A., Sollmann, R., Tôrres, N.M., Furtado, M.M., and Marinho-Filho, J. 2012. Range shifts under climate change and the role of protected areas for armadillos and anteaters. Biol. Conserv. 152:53-61.

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