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Department ofBotany



No. 339
March 2013


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In This Issue


Scrub-Jay on Santa Cruz Island is among Rarest Bird Species in the U.S.


Adapted from Smithsonianscience.org

Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute scientists and collaborators have found that the island scrub-jay's population on Santa Cruz Island—its only habitat—is significantly smaller than previously believed and that it is therefore at greater risk of extinction. According to the study, published in Ecological Applications, the previous estimate of 12,500 birds is five times larger than the actual population and the new data make the jay one of the 10 rarest songbird species in the continental United States. While the number of birds on the island is lower, the researchers estimate that the island scrub-jay population has actually grown between 20 and 30 percent over the last few decades.

"If you're trying to manage populations or conserve them, first you need to know how many there are," said Scott Sillett, SCBI researcher and lead author of the paper. "Without good information, conservation resources could be wasted or important populations overlooked."

Island Scrub-Jay © Colin Woolley

Image above: Island Scrub-Jay © Colin Woolley

The researchers counted jays from 307 points on Santa Cruz Island. Using vegetation maps, they found that jays were most abundant in upper- to mid-elevation plant communities that are dominated by island scrub-oak. Because the birds are harder to detect in denser habitats, the scientists were not able to physically count every jay. Instead they used an extended statistical model that provided an unbiased estimate of the jay population. Incomplete sampling led to the incorrect earlier estimates, according to Sillett.

The statistic model also allowed the scientists to estimate previous populations based on vegetation maps from 1985. They found that although the island scrub-jays are rarer than thought, the removal of non-native sheep, pigs and cows that destroy the birds' habitat on the island has led to the increase in population.

"Citizens often hear conservation doom and gloom, but in this case we have both good news and a cautionary tale," Sillett said. "The number of jays has increased in the past 30 years thanks to wise stewardship of the Santa Cruz Island by The Nature Conservancy and the U.S. National Park Service. I believe the island scrub-jay may have a brighter future."

The innovative method to determine the abundance of this species can be applied to other animal species that may require conservation action. As a result of this research, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has changed the island scrub-jay's status from near threatened to vulnerable. Potential threats to this jay's small population include restricted island range, lack of genetic diversity, West Nile virus and loss of habitat to oak disease and wildfire.


Current Literature


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Abella, S.R., Craig, D.J., Smith, S.D., and Newton, A.C. 2012. Identifying native vegetation for reducing exotic species during the restoration of desert ecosystems. Restor. Ecol. 20(6):781-787.

Addo-Fordjour, P., Rahmad, Z.B., and Shahrul, A.M.S. 2012. Effects of human disturbance on liana community diversity and structure in a tropical rainforest, Malaysia: implication for conservation. J. Plant Ecol. 5(4):391-399.

Agoo, E.M.G., and Madulid, D.A. 2012. Cycas sancti-lasallei (Cycadaceae), a new species from the Philippines. Blumea 57(2):131-133.

Aguilar, B.M., Martinez, E.S., and Figueroa, J.G. 2012. In situ analysis of the current conservation status of Mammillaria herrerae Werderm. in the southern Chihuahuan Desert. Bradleya 30:111-126.

Ah-Peng, C., Bardat, J., Pocs, T., Soderstrom, L., Stamenoff, P., and Strasberg, D. 2012. Red List of liverworts and hornworts for Reunion (Mascarene archipelago). Phytotaxa 68:1-23.

Ali, H., and Qaiser, M. 2012. Contribution to the red list of the plants of Pakistan: a case study of a narrow endemic Astragalus chitralensis Ali (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae). Pakistan J. Bot. 44(5):1741-1744.

Almodóvar, A., Nicola, G.G., Leal, S., Torralva, M., and Elvira, B. 2012. Natural hybridization with invasive bleak Alburnus alburnus threatens the survival of Iberian endemic calandino Squalius alburnoides complex and Southern Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus. Biol. Invasions 14(11):2237-2242.

Álvarez-Molina, L.L., Martínez, M.L., Pérez-Maqueo, O., Gallego-Fernández, J.B., and Flores, P. 2012. Richness, diversity, and rate of primary succession over 20 year in tropical coastal dunes. Plant Ecol. 213(10):1597-1608.

Alves, L.C.P.D., Zappes, C.A., and Andriolo, A. 2012. Conflicts between river dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti) and fisheries in the Central Amazon: a path toward tragedy? Zoologia 29(5):420-429.

Alves, R.R.N., Gonçalves, M.B.R., and Vieira, W.L.S. 2012. Caça, uso e conservação de vertebrados no semiárido Brasileiro. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 5(3):394-416.

Antill, T.M., Naeth, M.A., Bork, E.W., and Westhaver, A.L. 2012. Russian thistle (Salsola tragus L.) control on bighorn sheep winter ranges in Jasper National Park. Nat. Areas J. 32(43):391-397.

Arduini, I., and Ercoli, L. 2012. Recovery of understory vegetation in clear-cut stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) plantations. Plant Biosyst. 146:244-258.

Arthur, M.A., Bray, S.R., Kuchle, C.R., and McEwan, R.W. 2012. The influence of the invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii, on leaf decomposition and microbial community dynamics. Plant Ecol. 213(10):1571-1582.

Atkinson, K.L., and Lacroix, C. 2012. Evaluating re-introduction methods for the Gulf of Saint Lawrence aster (Symphyotrichum laurentianum) on Prince Edward Island. Botany 90(11):1170-1179.

Averill-Murray, R.C., Darst, C.R., Field, K.J., and Allison, L.J. 2012. A new approach to conservation of the Mojave desert tortoise. BioScience 62(10):893-899.

Badano, E.I., García-Guzmán, J., Vergara-Briceño, C.H., Martínez-Romero, L.E., Barranco-León, M.D., Luna-Castellanos, F., Acuña-Cors, A.M., García-Valenzuela, M.A., and Ramos-Palacios, C.R. 2012. Conservation value of a natural protected area in the state of Puebla, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 83(3):834-846.

Bailarote, B.C., Lievens, B., and Jacquemyn, H. 2012. Does mycorrhizal specificity affect orchid decline and rarity? Am. J. Bot. 99(10):1655-1665.

Baker, J.D., Howell, E.A., and Polovina, J.J. 2012. Relative influence of climate variability and direct anthropogenic impact on a sub-tropical Pacific top predator, the Hawaiian monk seal. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 469:175-189.

Baldissera, R., Rodrigues, E.N.L., and Hartz, S.M. 2012. Metacommunity composition of web-spiders in a fragmented Neotropical forest: relative importance of environmental and spatial effects. PLoS ONE 7(10):e48099.

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Barrios-Garcia, M.N., and Ballari, S.A. 2012. Impact of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in its introduced and native range: a review. Biol. Invasions 14(11):2283-2300.

Barve, N., Bonilla, A.J., Brandes, J., Brown, J.C., Brunsell, N., Cochran, F.V., Crosthwait, R.J., Gentry, J., Gerhart, L.M., Jackson, T., Kern, A.J., Oberhauser, K.S., Owens, H.L., Peterson, T., Reed, A.S., Soberón, J., Sundberg, A.D., and Williams, L.M. 2012. Climate-change and mass mortality events in overwintering monarch butterflies. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 83(3):817-824.

Becker, C.G., Rodriguez, D., Longo, A.V., Talaba, A.L., and Zamudio, K.R. 2012. Disease risk in temperate amphibian populations is higher at closed-canopy sites. PLoS ONE 7(10):e48205.

Becquet, V., Simon-Bouhet, B., Pante, E., Hummel, H., and Garcia, P. 2012. Glacial refugium versus range limit: conservation genetics of Macoma balthica, a key species in the Bay of Biscay (France). J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 432:73-82.

Ben-Zion, Y., Fried, Y., and Shnerb, N.M. 2012. Migration, coherence and persistence in a fragmented landscape. Theor. Ecol. 5(4):481-493.

Bennett, V.A., Doerr, V.A.J., Doerr, E.D., Manning, A.D., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2012. The anatomy of a failed reintroduction: a case study with the Brown Treecreeper. Emu 112(4):298-312.

Bicca-Marques, J.C., and Calegaro-Marques, C. 2012. Are the risks of conservation introduction worth taking? Zoologia 29(5):395-396.

Biedrzycka, A., Solarz, W., and Okarma, H. 2012. Hybridization between native and introduced species of deer in Eastern Europe. J. Mammal. 93(5):1331-1341.

Bitanyi, S., Nesje, M., Kusiluka, L.J.M., Chenyambuga, S.W., and Kaltenborn, B.P. 2012. Awareness and perceptions of local people about wildlife hunting in western Serengeti communities. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 5(2):208-224.

Blanco, G., Sergio, F., Sanchéz-Zapata, J.A., Pérez-García, J.M., Botella, F., Martínez, F., Zuberogoitia, I., Frías, O., Roviralta, F., Martínez, J.E., and Hiraldo, F. 2012. Safety in numbers? Supplanting data quality with fanciful models in wildlife monitoring and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(12):3269-3276.

Bocetti, C.I., Goble, D.D., and Scott, J.M. 2012. Using conservation management agreements to secure postrecovery perpetuation of conservation-reliant species: the Kirtland's warbler as a case study. BioScience 62(10):874-879.

Bonnaud, E., Berger, G., Bourgeois, K., Legrand, J., and Vidal, E. 2012. Predation by cats could lead to the extinction of the Mediterranean endemic Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan at a major breeding site. Ibis 154(3):566-577.

Bonnevie, B.T., Connan, M., and McQuaid, C.D. 2012. Effects of re-breeding rates on population size estimation of biennial breeders: results from a model based on albatrosses. Ibis 154(3):499-507.

Bowling, A.C., Martin, J., and Kitchens, W.M. 2012. The effect of changes in habitat conditions on the movement of juvenile Snail Kites Rostrhamus sociabilis. Ibis 154(3):554-565.

Brancalion, P.H.S., Viani, R.A.G., Aronson, J., Rodrigues, R.R., and Nave, A.G. 2012. Improving planting stocks for the Brazilian Atlantic forest restoration through community-based seed harvesting strategies. Restor. Ecol. 20(6):704-711.

Brownscombe, J.W., Masson, L., Beresford, D.V., and Fox, M.G. 2012. Modeling round goby Neogobius melanostomus range expansion in a Canadian river system. Aquat. Invasions 7(4):537-545.

Bucher, E.H., and Curto, E. 2012. Influence of long-term climatic changes on breeding of the Chilean flamingo in Mar Chiquita, Córdoba, Argentina. Hydrobiologia 697(1):127-137.

Buden, D.W. 2012. Coconut crabs, Birgus latro (Anomura: Coenobitidae), of Sorol Atoll, Yap, with remarks on the status of B. latro in the Federated States of Micronesia. Pacific Sci. 66(4):509-522.

Buffa, G., and Villani, M. 2012. Are the ancient forests of the Eastern Po Plain large enough for a long term conservation of herbaceous nemoral species? Plant Biosyst. 146(4):970-984.

Buril, M.T., and Alves, M. 2012. Jacquemontia macrocalyx (Convolvulaceae), a new species endemic to the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. Novon 22(2):137-140.

Burton, A.C. 2012. Critical evaluation of a long-term, locally-based wildlife monitoring program in West Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(12):3079-3094.

Cabrera-Guzmán, E., and Reynoso, V.H. 2012. Amphibian and reptile communities of rainforest fragments: minimum patch size to support high richness and abundance. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(12):3243-3265.

Callmander, M.W., Phillipson, P.B., and Schatz, G.E. 2012. Two new species of Stereospermum (Bignoniaceae) from Madagascar. Novon 22(2):141-147.

Campos, P.R.A., Neto, E.D.C., de Oliveira, V.M., and Gomes, M.A.F. 2012. Neutral communities in fragmented landscapes. Oikos 121(11):1737-1748.

Cano, E., Cano-Ortiz, A., Veloz, A., Alatorre, J., and Otero, R. 2012. Comparative analysis between the mangrove swamps of the Caribbean and those of the State of Guerrero (Mexico). Plant Biosyst. 146:112-130.

Carbutt, C. 2012. The emerging invasive alien plants of the Drakensberg Alpine Centre, southern Africa. Bothalia 42(2):71-85.

Carrión-Tacuri, J., Berjano, R., Guerrero, G., Figueroa, M.E., Tye, A., and Castillo, J.M. 2012. Nectar production by invasive Lantana camara and endemic L. peduncularis in the Galápagos Islands. Pacific Sci. 66(4):435-445.

Casanova, M.T. 2012. Does cereal crop agriculture in dry swamps damage aquatic plant communities? Aquat. Bot. 103:54-59.

Chillo, V., and Anand, M. 2012. Effects of past pollution on zoochory in a recovering mixed temperate-boreal forest. Ecoscience 19(3):258-265.

Choudhary, R.K., Bach, T.T., Nong, L.V., Hai, D.V., Quang, B.H., Lee, Y.M., Park, S.H., Lee, C., and Lee, J. 2012. Dillenia tetrapetala (Dilleniaceae), a new species from HonBa Nature Reserve, Vietnam. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 49(5-6):369-376.

Christie, K., Craig, M.D., Stokes, V.L., and Hobbs, R.J. 2012. Home range size and micro-habitat density requirements of Egernia napoleonis: implications for restored Jarrah forest of south western Australia. Restor. Ecol. 20(6):740-746.

Chucholl, C., Morawetz, K., and Groß, H. 2012. The clones are coming - strong increase in Marmorkrebs [Procambarus fallax (Hagen, 1870) f. virginalis] records from Europe. Aquat. Invasions 7(4):511-519.

Clark, L.V., and Jasieniuk, M. 2012. Spontaneous hybrids between native and exotic Rubus in the Western United States produce offspring both by apomixis and by sexual recombination. Heredity 109(5):320-328.

Clausen, K.K., Clausen, P., Fælled, C.C., and Mouritsen, K.N. 2012. Energetic consequences of a major change in habitat use: endangered Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota losing their main food resource. Ibis 154(4):803-814.

Cohen, P.J., Evans, L.S., and Mills, M. 2012. Social networks supporting governance of coastal ecosystems in Solomon Islands. Conserv. Lett. 5(5):376-386.

Conallin, A.J., Smith, B.B., Thwaites, L.A., Walker, K.F., and Gillanders, B.M. 2012. Environmental Water Allocations in regulated lowland rivers may encourage offstream movements and spawning by common carp, Cyprinus carpio: implications for wetland rehabilitation. Mar. Freshwater Res. 63(10):865-877.

Conrad, K. 2012. Trade bans: a perfect storm for poaching? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 5(3):245-254.

Constán-Nava, S., and Bonet, A. 2012. Genetic variability modulates the effect of habitat type and environmental conditions on early invasion success of Ailanthus altissima in Mediterranean ecosystems. Biol. Invasions 14(11):2379-2392.

Contreras-Lozano, J.A., Lazcano, D., and Contreras-Balderas, A.J. 2012. Herpetofauna of the Cerro El Potosi Natural Protected Area of Nuevo Leon, Mexico: status of the ecological and altitudinal distribution. Nat. Areas J. 32(43):377-385.

Croce, A., Nazzaro, R., and La Valva, V. 2012. Evidence of dramatic biodiversity loss in a wet biotope calls for urgent conservation strategies. Plant Biosyst. 146(4):827-834.

Cruz, J., Sutherland, D.R., and Leung, L.K.P. 2012. Den use, home range and territoriality of the koomal (Trichosurus vulpecula hypoleucus) with implications for current forest management strategies. Aust. J. Zool. 60(3):141-151.

Daga, V.S., Gubiani, E.A., Cunico, A.M., and Baumgartner, G. 2012. Effects of abiotic variables on the distribution of fish assemblages in streams with different anthropogenic activities in southern Brazil. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 10(3):643-652.

Dapporto, L., Bruschini, C., Dincă, V., Vila, R., and Dennis, R.L.H. 2012. Identifying zones of phenetic compression in West Mediterranean butterflies (Satyrinae): refugia, invasion and hybridization. Divers. Distrib. 18(11):1066-1076.

Davidson, A.D., Detling, J.K., and Brown, J.H. 2012. Ecological roles and conservation challenges of social, burrowing, herbivorous mammals in the world's grasslands. Front. Ecol. Environ. 10(9):477-486.

Davis, M.A., Colehour, A., Daney, J., Foster, E., MacMillen, C., Merrill, E., O'Neil, J., Pearson, M., Whitney, M., Anderson, M.D., and Dosch, J.J. 2012. The population dynamics and ecological effects of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata, in a Minnesota oak woodland. Am. Midl. Nat. 168(2):364-374.

de Carvalho-Sobrinho, J.G., Machado, M.C., and de Queiroz, L.P. 2012. Spirotheca elegans (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae), a new species from Bahia, Brazil. Syst. Bot. 37(4):978-982.

de Freitas, T.R.O., Fernandes, F.A., Fornel, R., and Roratto, P.A. 2012. An endemic new species of tuco-tuco, genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae), with a restricted geographic distribution in southern Brazil. J. Mammal. 93(5):1355-1367.

de Oliveira, A.C.P., Penha, A.D., de Souza, R.F., and Loiola, M.I.B. 2012. Floristic composition of a savanna community in Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. Acta Bot. Bras. 26(3):559-569.

De Silva, S.S. 2012. Aquaculture: a newly emergent food production sector-and perspectives of its impacts on biodiversity and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(12):3187-3220.

de Wit, R., Mazouni, N., and Viaroli, P. 2012. Preface: Research and management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems, south-north comparisons. Hydrobiologia 699(1):1-4.

Delalieux, S., Somers, B., Haest, B., Spanhove, T., Vanden Borre, J., and Mücher, C.A. 2012. Heathland conservation status mapping through integration of hyperspectral mixture analysis and decision tree classifiers. Remote Sens. Environ. 126:222-231.

DeLuca, J.J. 2012. Birds of conservation concern in eastern Acre, Brazil: distributional records, occupancy estimates, human-caused mortality, and opportunities for ecotourism. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 5(3):301-319.

Dimitrov, D., Nogués-Bravo, D., and Scharff, N. 2012. Why do tropical mountains support exceptionally high biodiversity? The Eastern Arc Mountains and the drivers of Saintpaulia diversity. PLoS ONE 7(11):e48908.

Do, Y., Jm Lineman, M., and Joo, G.J. 2012. Impacts of different land-use patterns on the carabid beetle diversity and species assemblages in South Korea. Ekoloji 21(84):9-17.

Doody, J.S., Rhind, D., Castellano, C.M., and Bass, M. 2012. Rediscovery of the scaly-tailed possum (Wyulda squamicaudata) in the eastern Kimberley. Aust. Mammal. 34(2):260-262.

Dosso, K., Yéo, K., Konaté, S., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2012. Importance of protected areas for biodiversity conservation in central Côte d'Ivoire: comparison of termite assemblages between two neighboring areas under differing levels of disturbance. J. Insect Sci. 12:131.

Dostál, P., Weiser, M., and Koubek, T. 2012. Native jewelweed, but not other native species, displays post-invasion trait divergence. Oikos 121(11):1849-1859.

Doxa, A., Robert, A., Crivelli, A., Catsadorakis, G., Naziridis, T., Nikolaou, H., Jiguet, F., and Theodorou, K. 2012. Shifts in breeding phenology as a response to population size and climatic change: a comparison between short- and long-distance migrant species. Auk 129(4):753-762.

Dozières, A., Chapuis, J.L., Thibault, S., and Baudry, E. 2012. Genetic structure of the French red squirrel populations: implication for conservation. PLoS ONE 7(10):e47607.

Drew, J.A., and Barber, P.H. 2012. Comparative phylogeography in Fijian coral reef fishes: a multi-taxa approach towards marine reserve design. PLoS ONE 7(10):e47710.

Drew, J.A., Buxman, C.L., Holmes, D.D., Mandecki, J.L., Mungkaje, A.J., Richardson, A.C., and Westneat, M.W. 2012. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea. BMC Ecology 12:15.

Dubey, S., Croak, B., Pike, D., Webb, J., and Shine, R. 2012. Phylogeography and dispersal in the velvet gecko (Oedura lesueurii), and potential implications for conservation of an endangered snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides). BMC Evol. Biol. 12:67.

Duren, O.C., Muir, P.S., and Hosten, P.E. 2012. Vegetation change from the Euro-American settlement era to the present in relation to environment and disturbance in southwest Oregon. Northwest Sci. 86(4):310-328.

Einheuser, M.D., Nejadhashemi, A.P., Sowa, S.P., Wang, L.Z., Hamaamin, Y.A., and Woznicki, S.A. 2012. Modeling the effects of conservation practices on stream health. Sci. Total Environ. 435:380-391.

Engber, E.A., and Varner, J.M. 2012. Predicting Douglas-fir sapling mortality following prescribed fire in an encroached grassland. Restor. Ecol. 20(6):665-668.

Ernandes, P., and Marchiori, S. 2012. The rare water fern Marsilea strigosa Willd.: morphological and anatomical observations concerning a small population in a Mediterranean temporary pond in Puglia. Plant Biosyst. 146:131-136.

Faggi, A., da Costa, M.L.M.N., Pereira, T.S., Sold, T.B., and Mejía, M. 2012. Latin American and Caribbean botanic gardens: advances and challenges at national and regional levels. Plant Ecol. Divers. 5(2):259-263.

Fautley, R., Coulson, T., and Savolainen, V. 2012. A comparative analysis of the factors promoting deer invasion. Biol. Invasions 14(11):2271-2281.

Feiner, Z.S., Aday, D.D., and Rice, J.A. 2012. Phenotypic shifts in white perch life history strategy across stages of invasion. Biol. Invasions 14(11):2315-2329.

Fenoglio, M.S., Srivastava, D., Valladares, G., Cagnolo, L., and Salvo, A. 2012. Forest fragmentation reduces parasitism via species loss at multiple trophic levels. Ecology 93(11):2407-2420.

Fernández, M., Hamilton, H., Alvarez, O., and Guo, Q.H. 2012. Does adding multi-scale climatic variability improve our capacity to explain niche transferability in invasive species? Ecol. Model. 246:60-67.

Fey, S.B., and Cottingham, K.L. 2012. Thermal sensitivity predicts the establishment success of nonnative species in a mesocosm warming experiment. Ecology 93(11):2313-2320.

Fontolan, G., Pillon, S., Bezzi, A., Villalta, R., Lipizer, M., Triches, A., and D'Aietti, A. 2012. Human impact and the historical transformation of saltmarshes in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, northern Adriatic Sea. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 113:41-56.

Fouquet, A., Loebmann, D., Castroviejo-Fisher, S., Padial, J.M., Orrico, V.G.D., Lyra, M.L., Roberto, I.J., Kok, P.J.R., Haddad, C.F.B., and Rodrigues, M.T. 2012. From Amazonia to the Atlantic forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 65(2):547-561.

Frazer, T.K., Jacoby, C.A., Edwards, M.A., Barry, S.C., and Manfrino, C.M. 2012. Coping with the lionfish invasion: can targeted removals yield beneficial effects? Rev. Fish. Sci. 20(4):185-191.

Freitas, G.H.S., Chaves, A.V., Costa, L.M., Santos, F.R., and Rodrigues, M. 2012. A new species of Cinclodes from the Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil: insights into the biogeographical history of the South American highlands. Ibis 154(4):738-755.

French, K. 2012. Competition strength of two significant invasive species in coastal dunes. Plant Ecol. 213(10):1667-1673.

Fritschle, J.A. 2012. Identification of old-growth forest reference ecosystems using historic land surveys, Redwood National Park, California. Restor. Ecol. 20(6):679-687.

Früh, D., Stoll, S., and Haase, P. 2012. Physicochemical and morphological degradation of stream and river habitats increases invasion risk. Biol. Invasions 14(11):2243-2253.

Gaertner, M., Nottebrock, H., Fourie, H., Privett, S.D.J., and Richardson, D.M. 2012. Plant invasions, restoration, and economics: perspectives from South African fynbos. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 14(5):341-353.

Gallien, L., Douzet, R., Pratte, S., Zimmermann, N.E., and Thuiller, W. 2012. Invasive species distribution models - how violating the equilibrium assumption can create new insights. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 21(11):1126-1136.

Gandiwa, E. 2012. Local knowledge and perceptions of animal population abundances by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 5(3):255-269.

García-Guzman, P., Loayza, A.P., Carvajal, D.E., Letelier, L., and Squeo, F.A. 2012. The ecology, distribution and conservation status of Myrcianthes coquimbensis: a globally endangered endemic shrub of the Chilean Coastal Desert. Plant Ecol. Divers. 5(2):197-204.

Garcia-Ulloa, J., Sloan, S., Pacheco, P., Ghazoul, J., and Koh, L.P. 2012. Lowering environmental costs of oil-palm expansion in Colombia. Conserv. Lett. 5(5):366-375.

Gardener, M.R., Bustamante, R.O., Herrera, I., Durigan, G., Pivello, V.R., Moro, M.F., Stoll, A., Langdon, B., Baruchi, Z., Rico, A., Arredondo-Nuñez, A., and Flores, S. 2012. Plant invasions research in Latin America: fast track to a more focused agenda. Plant Ecol. Divers. 5(2):225-232.

Gargano, D., Mingozzi, A., Massolo, A., Rinaldo, S., and Bernardo, L. 2012. Patterns of vegetation cover/dynamics in a protected Mediterranean mountain area: influence of the ecological context and protection policy. Plant Biosyst. 146:9-18.

Gâteblé, G. 2012. History, biology, and conservation of Pacific endemics. 1. The royal creeper, Oxera pulchella (Lamiaceae), a New Caledonian ornamental plant. Pacific Sci. 66(4):413-433.

Giam, X.L., Koh, L.P., Tan, H.H., Miettinen, J., Tan, H.T.W., and Ng, P.K.L. 2012. Global extinctions of freshwater fishes follow peatland conversion in Sundaland. Front. Ecol. Environ. 10(9):465-470.

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Wang, J.Y., Yang, S.C., Fruet, P.F., Daura-Jorge, F.G., and Secchi, E.R. 2012. Mark-recapture analysis of the critically endangered eastern Taiwan Strait population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis): implications for conservation. Bull. Mar. Sci. 88(4):885-902.

Wang, Y.P., Wang, X., and Ding, P. 2012. Nestedness of snake assemblages on islands of an inundated lake. Curr. Zool. 58(6):828-836.

Wang, Z.M., Wu, J.G., Madden, M., and Mao, D.H. 2012. China's wetlands: conservation plans and policy impacts. Ambio 41(7):782-786.

Ward, E.J., Pess, G.R., Anlauf-Dunn, K., and Jordan, C.E. 2012. Applying time series models with spatial correlation to identify the scale of variation in habitat metrics related to threatened coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Pacific Northwest. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 69(11):1773-1782.

Watling, J.I., Romanach, S.S., Bucklin, D.N., Speroterra, C., Brandt, L.A., Pearlstine, L.G., and Mazzotti, F.J. 2012. Do bioclimate variables improve performance of climate envelope models? Ecol. Model. 246:79-85.

Weaver, J.E., Conway, T.M., and Fortin, M.J. 2012. An invasive species' relationship with environmental variables changes across multiple spatial scales. Landscape Ecol. 27(9):1351-1362.

Weston, M.A., McLeod, E.M., Blumstein, D.T., and Guay, P.J. 2012. A review of flight-initiation distances and their application to managing disturbance to Australian birds. Emu 112(4):269-286.

Widerberg, M.K., Ranius, T., Drobyshev, I., Nilsson, U., and Lindbladh, M. 2012. Increased openness around retained oaks increases species richness of saproxylic beetles. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(12):3035-3059.

Willcox, E.V., and Giuliano, W.M. 2012. Roller chopping effectively reduces shrub cover and density in pine flatwoods. Restor. Ecol. 20(6):721-729.

Willette, D.A., and Ambrose, R.F. 2012. Effects of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea on the native seagrass, Syringodium filiforme, and associated fish and epibiota communities in the Eastern Caribbean. Aquat. Bot. 103:74-82.

Wilson, B.A., Valentine, L.E., Reaveley, A., Isaac, J., and Wolfe, K.M. 2012. Terrestrial mammals of the Gnangara Groundwater System, Western Australia: history, status, and the possible impacts of a drying climate. Aust. Mammal. 34(2):202-216.

Wirsing, A.J., and Heithaus, M.R. 2012. Behavioural transition probabilities in dugongs change with habitat and predator presence: implications for sirenian conservation. Mar. Freshwater Res. 63(11):1069-1076.

Wundrow, E.J., Carrillo, J., Gabler, C.A., Horn, K.C., and Siemann, E. 2012. Facilitation and competition among invasive plants: a field experiment with alligatorweed and water hyacinth. PLoS ONE 7(10):e48444.

Wyckoff, P.H., Greiman, R., Krueger, A., and Luce, L. 2012. Forest dynamics at Minnesota's prairie-forest border driven by invasive buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and native bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 139(3):311-322.

Xu, C.L., and Schneider, D.C. 2012. Efficacy of conservation measures for the American lobster: reproductive value as a criterion. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 69(10):1831-1839.

Yamaura, Y., Oka, H., Taki, H., Ozaki, K., and Tanaka, H. 2012. Sustainable management of planted landscapes: lessons from Japan. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(12):3107-3129.

Yuan, N., Comes, H.P., Mao, Y.R., Qi, X.S., and Qiu, Y.X. 2012. Genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the Thousand-Island Lake region of southeast China on the distylous herb Hedyotis chrysotricha (Rubiaceae). Am. J. Bot. 99(10):1715-1725.

Zanan, R.L., and Nadaf, A.B. 2012. Pandanus martinianus (Pandanaceae), a new endemic species from northeastern India. Phytotaxa 73:1-7.

Zeiter, M., and Stampfli, A. 2012. Positive diversity-invasibility relationship in species-rich semi-natural grassland at the neighbourhood scale. Ann. Botany 110(7):1385-1393.

Zhang, L., Zhang, L.B., and Liu, J. 2012. Polystichum yaanense (Dryopteridaceae), a remarkable new species from Sichuan, China. Novon 22(2):244-249.

Zhang, R., and Shea, K. 2012. Integrating multiple disturbance aspects: management of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Ann. Botany 110(7):1395-1401.

Zilio, F., and de Mendonça-Lima, A. 2012. The White-rumped Hawk (Buteo leucorrhous) in southern Brazil: status, conservation, and first description of the nest. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 23(1):51-61.

Zuber, S.T., Muller, K., Laushman, R.H., and Roles, A.J. 2012. Hybridization between an invasive and a native species of the crayfish genus Orconectes in north-central Ohio. J. Crustacean Biol. 32(6):962-971.

Zuel, N., Griffiths, C.J., Hector, A., Hansen, D.M., Jones, C.G., and Albrecht, M. 2012. Ingestion by an endemic frugivore enhances seed germination of endemic plant species but decreases seedling survival of exotics. J. Biogeogr. 39(11):2021-2030.


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