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Department ofBotany

No. 340
April 2013

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In This Issue

Poachers at Large in Thailand's Nature Reserves Despite Ranger Outposts

Adapted from

Khao Yai National Park in central Thailand covers some 1,357 square miles and, as Thailand's oldest and most popular park, welcomes hundreds of thousands of visitors through its gates each year.

Recently, after examining hundreds of photos taken by camera traps set-up to monitor clouded leopards in the park, three Smithsonian researchers say Khao Yai also is quite popular with a different kind of visitor: poachers.

Next to the Eurasian wild pig, humans were the most common creature to show-up in the camera-trap photos, namely villagers, park staff, tourists and poachers, write Kate Jenks, JoGayle Howard and Peter Leimgruber of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in a recent issue of the journal Biotropica. Humans appeared in photos from 43 of the 217 different sites in the park where the camera traps were set, even though 78 percent of the park is zoned as a strict nature reserve/primitive area.

Poachers. (Photo courtesy of Kate Jenks)

Poachers. (Photo courtesy of Kate Jenks)

Attached to trees in the forest, the camera traps use an infrared beam that can detect motion or a change in temperature to trip the camera's shutter. The researchers considered humans in the snapshots to be "poachers" only if they were carrying a gun, a carcass or animal parts, a bag to carry forest products and animals; or if they were accompanied by a dog, Jenks explains.

Surprisingly, close analysis of the project's some 650 photos revealed the presence of poachers very close to Khao Yai's 21 ranger stations. Few carnivores, such as clouded leopards, were photographed near the stations.

A clouded leopard in a camera trap photo. (Photo courtesy of Kate Jenks)

Image above: A clouded leopard in a camera trap photo. (Photo courtesy of Kate Jenks)

"We expected to find higher carnivore biodiversity near the ranger outposts because those areas should be really well protected," Leimgruber says. They are not.

In fact, Jenks says, "the ranger stations seem to be having the opposite of their intended effect. Building and staffing the outposts required the construction of roads into the park, which has provided easier access for everyone into the forest."

In Southeast Asia poaching is fueled by demand from the traditional Chinese medicine trade, trade in wild bush meat for human consumption and forest products the researchers say. In addition, Jenks says, there are villages right up on the boundary of the park with no transition and no buffer zone. It is very easy for villagers to wander into the park.

Jenks, Howard and Leimgruber recommend increased foot patrols by park staff through the forest and continued monitoring of the impact of these foot patrols using the camera traps. Unless the human presence in and impact on the park is reduced, wildlife populations "will only shrink progressively into smaller and smaller core areas of the park" the researchers write.

Climate Change May Alter Amphibian Evolution

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Most of the more than 6,000 species of frogs in the world lay their eggs in water. But many tropical frogs lay their eggs out of water. This behavior protects the eggs from aquatic predators, such as fish and tadpoles, but also increases their risk of drying out. Justin Touchon, post-doctoral fellow at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, discovered that climate change in Panama may be altering frogs' course of evolution.

By analyzing long-term rainfall data collected by the Panama Canal Authority, Touchon discovered that rainfall patterns are changing just as climate-change models predict.

Pantless tree frogs, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, in amplexus. The female, underneath the male, is laying eggs in a jelly-like matrix. This species can lay its eggs either in water or out of water. (Photo by Justin Touchon)

Image above: Pantless tree frogs, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, in amplexus. The female, underneath the male, is laying eggs in a jelly-like matrix. This species can lay its eggs either in water or out of water. (Photo by Justin Touchon)

"Over the past four decades, rainfall has become more sporadic during the wet season," said Touchon. "The number of rainy days decreased, and the number of gaps between storms increased."

The eggs of the pantless treefrog, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, are extremely susceptible to drying. The embryos die within a day when there is no rain. Heavy rains trigger breeding, so as storms become sporadic, the chance of rain within a day of being laid decrease and so does egg survival.

As weather patterns have changed, the advantage of laying eggs out of water has decreased, not only for pantless treefrogs but potentially for many species. "Pantless treefrogs can switch between laying eggs in water or on leaves, so they may weather the changes we are seeing in rainfall better than other species that have lost the ability to lay eggs in water," said Touchon. "Being flexible in where they put their eggs gives them more options and allows them to make decisions in a given habitat that will increase the survival of their offspring."

Current Literature

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Bergamin, R.S., Müller, S., and Mello, R.S.P. 2012. Indicator species and floristic patterns in different forest formations in southern Atlantic rainforests of Brazil. Community Ecol. 13(2):162-170.

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Cebrian, E., Linares, C., Marschal, C., and Garrabou, J. 2012. Exploring the effects of invasive algae on the persistence of gorgonian populations. Biol. Invasions 14(12):2647-2656.

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Cribb, N., Miller, C., and Seuront, L. 2012. Site fidelity and behaviour of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) in Moon Reef, Fiji Islands: implications for conservation. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 92(8):1793-1798.

Cribb, P., Nusbaumer, L., and Gautier, L. 2012. Angraecum darainense P. J. Cribb & Nusb. and Aeranthes unciformis P. J. Cribb & Nusb. (Orchidaceae), two new species from northern Madagascar. Candollea 67(2):269-275.

Cromsigt, J.P.G.M., Kerley, G.I.H., and Kowalczyk, R. 2012. The difficulty of using species distribution modelling for the conservation of refugee species - the example of European bison. Divers. Distrib. 18(12):1253-1257.

Croteau, E.K., Heist, E.J., Nielsen, C.K., Hutchinson, J.R., and Hellgren, E.C. 2012. Microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA reveal regional population structure in bobcats (Lynx rufus) of North America. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1637-1651.

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Engelen, A.H., Primo, A.L., Cruz, T., and Santos, R. 2013. Faunal differences between the invasive brown macroalga Sargassum muticum and competing native macroalgae. Biol. Invasions 15(1):171-183.

Engelkes, T., and Mills, N.J. 2013. A fast-track for invasion: invasive plants promote the performance of an invasive herbivore. Biol. Invasions 15(1):101-111.

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Fernández-Cruz, J., and Fernández-López, J. 2012. Morphological, molecular and statistical tools to identify Castanea species and their hybrids. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1589-1600.

Ferraz, K.M.P.M.D., de Siqueira, M.F., Alexandrino, E.R., da Luz, D.T.A., and do Couto, H.T.Z. 2012. Environmental suitability of a highly fragmented and heterogeneous landscape for forest bird species in south-eastern Brazil. Environ. Conserv. 39(4):316-324.

Ferreira, R.B., Beard, K.H., Peterson, S.L., Poessel, S.A., and Callahan, C.M. 2012. Establishment of introduced reptiles increases with the presence and richness of native congeners. Amphibia-Reptilia 33(3-4):387-392.

Fichtner, A., Sturm, K., Rickert, C., Härdtle, W., and Schrautzer, J. 2012. Competition response of European beech Fagus sylvatica L. varies with tree size and abiotic stress: minimizing anthropogenic disturbances in forests. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(6):1306-1315.

Firestone, J.L., and Jasieniuk, M. 2012. Seed production is reduced by small population size in natural populations of the invasive grass Lolium multiflorum. Biol. Invasions 14(12):2519-2529.

Fisher-Reid, M.C., Kozak, K.H., and Wiens, J.J. 2012. How is the rate of climatic-niche evolution related to climatic-niche breadth? Evolution 66(12):3836-3851.

Franzén, M., and Nilsson, S.G. 2012. Climate-dependent dispersal rates in metapopulations of burnet moths. J. Insect Conserv. 16(6):941-947.

Freudenberger, L., Hobson, P.R., Schluck, M., and Ibisch, P.L. 2012. A global map of the functionality of terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol. Complex. 12:13-22.

Fritts, A.K., Fritts, M.W., Peterson, D.L., Fox, D.A., and Bring, R.B. 2012. Critical linkage of imperiled species: Gulf Sturgeon as host for Purple Bankclimber mussels. Freshwater Sci. 31(4):1223-1232.

Fukano, Y., and Yahara, T. 2012. Changes in defense of an alien plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia before and after the invasion of a native specialist enemy Ophraella communa. PLoS ONE 7(11):e49114.

Furlan, E., Stoklosa, J., Griffiths, J., Gust, N., Ellis, R., Huggins, R.M., and Weeks, A.R. 2012. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Ecol. Evol. 2(4):844-857.

Furlan, N., Esteves, K.E., and Quináglia, G.A. 2013. Environmental factors associated with fish distribution in an urban neotropical river (Upper Tietê River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil). Environ. Biol. Fish. 96(1):77-92.

Galliez, M., and Fernandez, F.A.S. 2012. Spatial segregation between the water opossum Chironectes minimus and the water rat Nectomys squamipes: just competition avoidance or a conservation problem as well? Mamm. Biol. 77(6):447-450.

Gastauer, M., Trein, L., Meira-Neto, J.A.A., and Schumacher, W. 2013. Evaluation of biotope's importance for biotic resource protection by the Bonner Approach. Ecol. Indic. 24:193-200.

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Gelcich, S., Fernández, M., Godoy, N., Canepa, A., Prado, L., and Castilla, J.C. 2012. Territorial user rights for fisheries as ancillary instruments for marine coastal conservation in Chile. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):1005-1015.

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González-Trujillo, R., Rodriguez, D., González-Romero, A., Forstner, M.R.J., Densmore, L.D., and Reynoso, V.H. 2012. Testing for hybridization and assessing genetic diversity in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) populations from central Veracruz. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1677-1683.

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Gray, D.K., and Arnott, S.E. 2012. The role of dispersal levels, Allee effects and community resistance as zooplankton communities respond to environmental change. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(6):1216-1224.

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Griffith, G.P., Fulton, E.A., Gorton, R., and Richardson, A.J. 2012. Predicting interactions among fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification in a marine system with whole-ecosystem models. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):1145-1152.

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Gunaga, S., Rajeshwari, N., and Vasudeva, R. 2013. Tree diversity and disturbance of kaan forests: relics of a community protected climax vegetation in the Central Western Ghats. Trop. Ecol. 54(1):117-131.

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Hervías, S., Henriques, A., Oliveira, N., Pipa, T., Cowen, H., Ramos, J.A., Nogales, M., Geraldes, P., Silva, C., de Ybáñez, R.R., and Oppel, S. 2013. Studying the effects of multiple invasive mammals on Cory's shearwater nest survival. Biol. Invasions 15(1):143-155.

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Hoban, S.M., Schlarbaum, S.E., Brosi, S.L., and Romero-Severson, J. 2012. A rare case of natural regeneration in butternut, a threatened forest tree, is parent and space limited. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1447-1457.

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Holusa, J. 2012. Grasshoppers and bushcrickets regionally extinct in the Czech Republic: consequence of the disappearance of habitats scattered on the edge of their ranges. J. Insect Conserv. 16(6):949-960.

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Hubbard, K.A., and Chalfoun, A.D. 2012. An experimental evaluation of potential scavenger effects on snake road mortality detections. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 7(2):150-156.

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Hunter, M.E., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Tucker, K.P., King, T.L., Bonde, R.K., Gray, B.A., and McGuire, P.M. 2012. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1623-1635.

Hylander, K., and Weibull, H. 2012. Do time-lagged extinctions and colonizations change the interpretation of buffer strip effectiveness? - a study of riparian bryophytes in the first decade after logging. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(6):1316-1324.

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Invernón, V.R., Devesa, J.A., and López, E. 2012. Centaurea susannae (Cardueae, Compositae): a new species from protected coastal areas in Portugal. Phytotaxa 74:41-46.

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Jackson, M.M., and Naughton-Treves, L. 2012. Eco-bursaries as incentives for conservation around Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya. Environ. Conserv. 39(4):347-356.

Jacoby, D.M.P., Croft, D.P., and Sims, D.W. 2012. Social behaviour in sharks and rays: analysis, patterns and implications for conservation. Fish Fish. 13(4):399-417.

Jansen, S.H.D.R., Holmgren, M., van Langevelde, F., and Wynhoff, I. 2012. Resource use of specialist butterflies in agricultural landscapes: conservation lessons from the butterfly Phengaris (Maculinea) nausithous. J. Insect Conserv. 16(6):921-930.

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Jordaan, L.A., and Downs, C.T. 2012. Nutritional and morphological traits of invasive and exotic fleshy-fruits in South Africa. Biotropica 44(6):738-743.

Jorquera-Jaramillo, C., Vega, J.M.A., Aburto, J., Martínez-Tillería, K., León, M.F., Pérez, M.A., Gaymer, C.F., and Squeo, F.A. 2012. Biodiversity conservation in Chile: new challenges and opportunities in terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 85(3):267-280.

Juen, L., and De Marco, P. 2012. Dragonfly endemism in the Brazilian Amazon: competing hypotheses for biogeographical patterns. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(13):3507-3521.

Kadye, W.T., and Chakona, A. 2012. Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblage in two intermittent streams in north-western Zimbabwe. Afr. J. Ecol. 50(4):428-438.

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Kaltenborn, B.P., Andersen, O., Vittersø, J., and Bjerke, T.K. 2012. Attitudes of Norwegian ptarmigan hunters towards hunting goals and harvest regulations: the effects of environmental orientation. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(13):3369-3384.

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Kati, V., Zografou, K., Tzirkalli, E., Chitos, T., and Willemse, L. 2012. Butterfly and grasshopper diversity patterns in humid Mediterranean grasslands: the roles of disturbance and environmental factors. J. Insect Conserv. 16(6):807-818.

Kaviar, S., Shockey, J., and Sundberg, P. 2012. Observations on the endemic pygmy three-toed sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus of Isla Escudo de Veraguas, Panama. PLoS ONE 7(11):e49854.

Kaya, S., Gündüz, I., and Çiplak, B. 2012. Estimating effects of global warming from past range changes for cold demanding refugial taxa: a case study on South-west Anatolian species Poecilimon birandi. Biologia 67(6):1152-1164.

Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2012. Modelling the effect of individual strategic behaviour on community-level outcomes of conservation interventions. Environ. Conserv. 39(4):305-315.

Kettenring, K.M., and Mock, K.E. 2012. Genetic diversity, reproductive mode, and dispersal differ between the cryptic invader, Phragmites australis, and its native conspecific. Biol. Invasions 14(12):2489-2504.

Khoury, F., Amr, Z., Hamidan, N., Al Hassani, I., Mir, S., Eid, E., and Bolad, N. 2012. Some introduced vertebrate species to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Vertebr. Zool. 62(3):435-451.

Kieling-Rubio, M.A., Droste, A., and Windisch, P.G. 2012. Effects of nickel on the fern Regnellidium diphyllum Lindm. (Marsileaceae). Braz. J. Biol. 72(4):807-811.

Kikillus, K.H., Hare, K.M., and Hartley, S. 2012. Online trading tools as a method of estimating propagule pressure via the pet-release pathway. Biol. Invasions 14(12):2657-2664.

Kinnaird, M.F., and O'Brien, T.G. 2012. Effects of private-land use, livestock management, and human tolerance on diversity, distribution, and abundance of large African mammals. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):1026-1039.

Koji, S., Nakamura, A., and Nakamura, K. 2012. Demography of the Heike firefly Luciola lateralis (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), a representative species of Japan's traditional agricultural landscape. J. Insect Conserv. 16(6):819-827.

Kotze, D.J., Lehvävirta, S., Koivula, M., O'Hara, R.B., and Spence, J.R. 2012. Effects of habitat edges and trampling on the distribution of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in urban forests. J. Insect Conserv. 16(6):883-897.

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Kramer, T.D., Warren, R.J., Tang, Y.Y., and Bradford, M.A. 2012. Grass invasions across a regional gradient are associated with declines in belowground carbon pools. Ecosystems 15(8):1271-1282.

Kuemmerle, T., Hickler, T., Olofsson, J., Schurgers, G., and Radeloff, V.C. 2012. Refugee species: which historic baseline should inform conservation planning? Divers. Distrib. 18(12):1258-1261.

La Mantia, T., Messana, G., Billeci, V., Dimarca, A., Del Signore, M.B., Leanza, M., Console, S.L., Maraventano, G., Nicolini, G., Prazzi, E., Quatrini, P., Sanguedolce, F., Sorrentino, G., and Pasta, S. 2012. Combining bioengineering and plant conservation on a Mediterranean islet. iForest 5:296-305.

Ladle, R.J., Firmino, J.V.L., Malhado, A.C.M., and Rodríguez-Durán, A. 2012. Unexplored diversity and conservation potential of Neotropical hot caves. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):978-982.

Lanza, G.R. 2012. Dam threatens Mekong ecology. Science 338(6114):1537.

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Lemaître, J., Darveau, M., Zhao, Q., and Fortin, D. 2012. Multiscale assessment of the influence of habitat structure and composition on bird assemblages in boreal forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(13):3355-3368.

Li, S., McShea, W.J., Wang, D.J., Lu, Z., and Gu, X.D. 2012. Gauging the impact of management expertise on the distribution of large mammals across protected areas. Divers. Distrib. 18(12):1166-1176.

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Lindegren, M., Vigliano, P., and Nilsson, P.A. 2012. Alien invasions and the game of hide and seek in Patagonia. PLoS ONE 7(10):e44350.

Lira, P.K., Ewers, R.M., Banks-Leite, C., Pardini, R., and Metzger, J.P. 2012. Evaluating the legacy of landscape history: extinction debt and species credit in bird and small mammal assemblages in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(6):1325-1333.

Lityńska-Zając, M., Chwedorzewska, K., Olech, M., Korczak-Abshire, M., and Augustyniuk-Kram, A. 2012. Diaspores and phyto-remains accidentally transported to the Antarctic Station during three expeditions. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(13):3411-3421.

Lo Galbo, A.M., Zimmerman, M.S., Hallac, D., Reynolds, G., Richards, J.H., and Lynch, J.H. 2013. Using hydrologic suitability for native Everglades slough vegetation to assess Everglades restoration scenarios. Ecol. Indic. 24:294-304.

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Ma, S.M., and Zhang, M.L. 2012. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the relic Gymnocarpos przewalskii (Caryophyllaceae) restricted to northwestern China. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1531-1541.

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Marcer, A., Pino, J., Pons, X., and Brotons, L. 2012. Modelling invasive alien species distributions from digital biodiversity atlases. Model upscaling as a means of reconciling data at different scales. Divers. Distrib. 18(12):1177-1189.

Markl, J.S., Schleuning, M., Forget, P.M., Jordano, P., Lambert, J.E., Traveset, A., Wright, S.J., and Böhning-Gaese, K. 2012. Meta-analysis of the effects of human disturbance on seed dispersal by animals. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):1072-1081.

Martensen, A.C., Ribeiro, M.C., Banks-Leite, C., Prado, P.I., and Metzger, J.P. 2012. Associations of forest cover, fragment area, and connectivity with Neotropical understory bird species richness and abundance. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):1100-1111.

Martin, L.M., and Wilsey, B.J. 2012. Assembly history alters alpha and beta diversity, exotic-native proportions and functioning of restored prairie plant communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(6):1436-1445.

Marucco, F., Vucetich, L.M., Peterson, R.O., Adams, J.R., and Vucetich, J.A. 2012. Evaluating the efficacy of non-invasive genetic methods and estimating wolf survival during a ten-year period. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1611-1622.

Mastrangelo, M.E., and Gavin, M.C. 2012. Trade-offs between cattle production and bird conservation in an agricultural frontier of the Gran Chaco of Argentina. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):1040-1051.

Matocq, M.D., Kelly, P.A., Phillips, S.E., and Maldonado, J.E. 2012. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of an endangered subspecies across the changing landscape of the Great Central Valley of California. Mol. Ecol. 21(24):5918-5933.

Mattingly, W.B., Orrock, J.L., and Reif, N.T. 2012. Dendroecological analysis reveals long-term, positive effects of an introduced understory plant on canopy tree growth. Biol. Invasions 14(12):2639-2646.

Mayer, C., Michez, D., Chyzy, A., Brédat, E., and Jacquemart, A.L. 2012. The abundance and pollen foraging behaviour of bumble bees in relation to population size of whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum). PLoS ONE 7(11):e50353.

Mbatudde, M., Mwanjololo, M., Kakudidi, E.K., and Dalitz, H. 2012. Modelling the potential distribution of endangered Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkm. in East Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 50(4):393-403.

McCairns, R.J.S., Kuparinen, A., Panda, B., Jokikokko, E., and Merilä, J. 2012. Effective size and genetic composition of two exploited, migratory whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus lavaretus) populations. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1509-1520.

McClanahan, T.R., Abunge, C.A., and Cinner, J.E. 2012. Heterogeneity in fishers' and managers' preferences towards management restrictions and benefits in Kenya. Environ. Conserv. 39(4):357-369.

McGaugh, S.E. 2012. Comparative population genetics of aquatic turtles in the desert. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1561-1576.

McKinney, L.V., Thomsen, I.M., Kjær, E.D., Bengtsson, S.B.K., and Nielsen, L.R. 2012. Rapid invasion by an aggressive pathogenic fungus (Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus) replaces a native decomposer (Hymenoscyphus albidus): a case of local cryptic extinction? Fungal Ecol. 5(6):663-669.

Meek, M.H., Wintzer, A.P., Shepherd, N., and May, B. 2013. Genetic diversity and reproductive mode in two non-native hydromedusae, Maeotias marginata and Moerisia sp., in the upper San Francisco Estuary, California. Biol. Invasions 15(1):199-212.

Mellano, M.G., Beccaro, G.L., Donno, D., Marinoni, D.T., Boccacci, P., Canterino, S., Cerutti, A.K., and Bounous, G. 2012. Castanea spp. biodiversity conservation: collection and characterization of the genetic diversity of an endangered species. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 59(8):1727-1741.

Mendez, M.M., Schwindt, E., and Bortolus, A. 2013. Patterns of substrata use by the invasive acorn barnacle Balanus glandula in Patagonian salt marshes. Hydrobiologia 700(1):99-107.

Meng, L.Z., Martin, K., Liu, J.X., Burger, F., and Chen, J. 2012. Contrasting responses of hoverflies and wild bees to habitat structure and land use change in a tropical landscape (southern Yunnan, SW China). Insect Science 19(6):666-676.

Mengardo, A.L.T., Figueiredo, C.L., Tambosi, L.R., and Pivello, V.R. 2012. Comparing the establishment of an invasive and an endemic palm species in the Atlantic rainforest. Plant Ecol. Divers. 5(3):345-354.

Merckx, T., Marini, L., Feber, R.E., and Macdonald, D.W. 2012. Hedgerow trees and extended-width field margins enhance macro-moth diversity: implications for management. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(6):1396-1404.

Merritt, D.M., and Shafroth, P.B. 2012. Edaphic, salinity, and stand structural trends in chronosequences of native and non-native dominated riparian forests along the Colorado River, USA. Biol. Invasions 14(12):2665-2685.

Messmer, V., Jones, G.P., Munday, P.L., and Planes, S. 2012. Concordance between genetic and species diversity in coral reef fishes across the Pacific Ocean biodiversity gradient. Evolution 66(12):3902-3917.

Mitchell, T., Alton, L.A., White, C.R., and Franklin, C.E. 2012. Relations between conspecific density and effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on tadpole size in the striped marsh frog. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):1112-1120.

Moenickes, S., and Thiele, J. 2013. What shapes giant hogweed invasion? Answers from a spatio-temporal model integrating multiscale monitoring data. Biol. Invasions 15(1):61-73.

Molina, F.R., de Paggi, S.J., and Frau, D. 2012. Impacts of the invading golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei on zooplankton: a mesocosm experiment. Zool. Stud. 51(6):733-744.

Monzó, C., Juan-Blasco, M., Pekár, S., Mollá, Ó., Castañera, P., and Urbaneja, A. 2013. Pre-adaptive shift of a native predator (Araneae, Zodariidae) to an abundant invasive ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Biol. Invasions 15(1):89-100.

Morat, P., Jaffré, T., Tronchet, F., Munzinger, J., Pillon, Y., Veillon, J.M., Chalopin, M., Birnbaum, P., Rigault, F., Dagostini, G., and Tinel, J. 2012. The taxonomic reference base Florical and characteristics of the native vascular flora of New Caledonia. Adansonia 34(2):179-221.

Moreira, T.S.G., and Creed, J.C. 2012. Invasive, non-indigenous corals in a tropical rocky shore environment: no evidence for generalist predation. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 438:7-13.

Morris-Pocock, J.A., Hennicke, J.C., and Friesen, V.L. 2012. Effects of long-term isolation on genetic variation and within-island population genetic structure in Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) seabirds. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1469-1481.

Mortelliti, A., Sozio, G., Boccacci, F., Ranchelli, E., Cecere, J.G., Battisti, C., and Boitani, L. 2012. Effect of habitat amount, configuration and quality in fragmented landscapes. Acta Oecol. 45:1-7.

Munscher, E.C., Kuhns, E.H., Cox, C.A., and Butler, J.A. 2012. Decreased nest mortality for the Carolina Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata) following removal of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) from a nesting beach in northeastern Florida. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 7(2):176-184.

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Wich, S.A., Gaveau, D., Abram, N., Ancrenaz, M., Baccini, A., Brend, S., Curran, L., Delgado, R.A., Erman, A., Fredriksson, G.M., Goossens, B., Husson, S.J., Lackman, I., Marshall, A.J., Naomi, A., Molidena, E., Nardiyono, Nurcahyo, A., Odom, K., Panda, A., Purnomo, Rafiastanto, A., Ratnasari, D., Santana, A.H., Sapari, I., van Schaik, C.P., Sihite, J., Spehar, S., Santoso, E., Suyoko, A., Tiju, A., Usher, G., Atmoko, S.S.U., Willems, E.P., and Meijaard, E. 2012. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan? PLoS ONE 7(11):e49142.

Wilson, S.K., Graham, N.A.J., Fisher, R., Robinson, J., Nash, K., Chong-Seng, K., Polunin, N.V.C., Aumeeruddy, R., and Quatre, R. 2012. Effect of macroalgal expansion and marine protected areas on coral recovery following a climatic disturbance. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):995-1004.

Wohlhauser, S., and Callmander, M.W. 2012. Exacum alberti-grimaldii Wohlh. & Callm. (Gentianaceae), a new species endemic to northern Madagascar. Candollea 67(2):373-378.

Wood, J.R., Wilmshurst, J.M., Worthy, T.H., Holzapfel, A.S., and Cooper, A. 2012. A lost link between a flightless parrot and a parasitic plant and the potential role of coprolites in conservation paleobiology. Conserv. Biol. 26(6):1091-1099.

Woodard, A.M., Ervin, G.N., and Marsico, T.D. 2012. Host plant defense signaling in response to a coevolved herbivore combats introduced herbivore attack. Ecol. Evol. 2(5):1056-1064.

Wu, W., Zhou, R.C., Ni, G.Y., Shen, H., and Ge, X.J. 2013. Is a new invasive herb emerging? Molecular confirmation and preliminary evaluation of natural hybridization between the invasive Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae) and its native congener S. calendulacea in South China. Biol. Invasions 15(1):75-88.

Xiao, S., Callaway, R.M., Newcombe, G., and Aschehoug, E.T. 2012. Models of experimental competitive intensities predict home and away differences in invasive impact and the effects of an endophytic mutualist. Am. Nat. 180(6):707-718.

Xie, D., Yu, D., You, W.H., and Xia, C.X. 2013. The propagule supply, litter layers and canopy shade in the littoral community influence the establishment and growth of Myriophyllum aquaticum. Biol. Invasions 15(1):113-123.

Yanes, Y. 2012. Anthropogenic effect recorded in the live-dead compositional fidelity of land snail assemblages from San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Biodivers. Conserv. 21(13):3445-3466.

Yao, X.H., Deng, J.Y., and Huang, H.W. 2012. Genetic diversity in Eucommia ulmoides (Eucommiaceae), an endangered traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1499-1507.

Yocom, L.L., and Fulé, P.Z. 2012. Human and climate influences on frequent fire in a high-elevation tropical forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 49(6):1356-1364.

Yu, D., Chen, M., Zhou, Z.C., Eric, R., Tang, Q.Y., and Liu, H.Z. 2013. Global climate change will severely decrease potential distribution of the East Asian coldwater fish Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae). Hydrobiologia 700(1):23-32.

Zanella, C.M., Janke, A., Palma-Silva, C., Kaltchuk-Santos, E., Pinheiro, F.G., Paggi, G.M., Soares, L.E.S., Goetze, M., Büttow, M.V., and Bered, F. 2012. Genetics, evolution and conservation of Bromeliaceae. Genet. Mol. Biol. 35(4):1020-1026.

Zeidler, M., Duchoslav, M., Banaš, M., and Lešková, M. 2012. Impacts of introduced dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) on the diversity and composition of alpine vegetation. Community Ecol. 13(2):213-220.

Zigouris, J., Dawson, F.N., Bowman, J., Gillett, R.M., Schaefer, J.A., and Kyle, C.J. 2012. Genetic isolation of wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations at the eastern periphery of their North American distribution. Conserv. Genet. 13(6):1543-1559.

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