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Department ofBotany

No. 343
July 2013

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In This Issue

Human Shadow Cast over the Caribbean Slows Coral Growth

Adapted from

Striking Caribbean sunsets occur when particles in the air scatter incoming sunlight. But a particulate shadow over the sea may have effects underwater. A research team, including staff scientist Héctor Guzmán from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, linked airborne particles caused by volcanic activity and air pollution to episodes of slow coral-reef growth.

Like tree rings, long-lived coral skeletons preserve a record of coral growth. Previously, scientists linked coral-growth patterns in the Caribbean to a phenomenon called the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation - fluctuations in sea-surface temperatures and incoming sunlight.

In order to better predict the effects of climate change and human disturbance on reefs, Lester Kwiatkowski, University of Exeter, and researchers from the University of Queensland, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization and STRI analyzed coral-growth records from Belize and Panama spanning the period from 1880 to 2000. An Earth-system model simulation told them how well sea-surface temperature, short-wave radiation and aragonite-saturation state, a measure of ocean acidification, predicted changes in coral growth.

Their data came from several coral cores drilled in reefs near the Atlantic entrance of the Panama Canal formed by the coral species Siderastrea siderea between 1880 and 1989, whereas samples from the Turneffe atoll in Belize showed growth fluctuations in the coral species Montastrea faveolata from 1905 to 1998.

Particles from air pollution, primarily sulfate, reflect incoming sunlight and make clouds brighter reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the sea surface. Coral growth corresponded closely to sea surface temperatures and light levels. Growth fluctuations in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were largely driven by volcanic activity.

Researchers explain a dive in surface temperatures and coral growth in the 1960s by increased air pollution associated with post-World War II industrial expansion in North America and to a lesser extent in Central and South America.

The influence of human aerosol emissions was more pronounced in coral cores from Belize, perhaps because Belize is closer to sources of industrial emissions. Fluctuations unexplained by the model, especially in the growth records from Panama, probably result from runoff from deforestation and from the construction of the Panama Canal waterway.

"The coral growth chronology for Panama allowed us to identify the effects of human interventions at the beginning of 1900s," said Guzmán, "but the decline in growth observed by the middle of the 20th century corresponding to the beginnings of the industrial era in coastal Panama remained unresolved by the model."

"Our study suggests that coral ecosystems are likely to be sensitive to not only future global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration but also to regional aerosol emissions associated with industrialization and decarbonization," said Kwiatkowski.


The Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation, a partnership between George Mason University and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI), is proud to announce their updated course schedule which includes three exciting new offerings. The School is now offering more courses than ever before, in a wide range of topics, all focused on training in different aspects of biodiversity conservation, from effective conservation leadership, to technical tools in statistics and field sampling. All courses are currently either 1- or 2-week intensive residential courses and are now held in a brand-new, sustainably-built Academic Center on the grounds of SCBI in Front Royal, Virginia. Most courses can be taken either for graduate credit or continuing education units. E-mail <> or visit the website <> for more course details and pricing. Scholarships are available for international applicants.

September 9-20, 2013: Ecology and Conservation of Migratory Birds
Led by the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, this course teaches the most current methods in the research of migratory birds including theoretical concepts, field and laboratory methods (including mist-netting, banding, tissue sampling, stable isotope geochemistry, geolocators and radio telemetry), data analysis (including mark-recapture statistics) and applied conservation strategies.

September 30-October 11, 2013: Spatial Ecology, Geospatial Analysis & Remote Sensing
Learn to use GIS tools to address conservation research problems, quantifying effects of human-induced global changes on wildlife and biodiversity. Hands-on lab exercises (e.g. land cover mapping; home range analysis; modeling habitat selection; mapping species distributions) use remote sensing data and SCBI field surveys to monitor global changes, assess impacts on wildlife, and develop mitigating strategies.

October 7-14, 2013: Conservation Breeding Centers for Wildlife Sustainability
This course is designed to teach the philosophies, practices, logistics and management associated with 'conservation breeding', including what makes breeding centers unique and effective. The most significant of these centers in the US have formed a consortium called the Conservation Centers for Species Survival (C2S2), and experts from member institutions, including the SCBI, The Wilds and others, will share the details of the specialized C2S2 expertise and facilities that manage, study and reproduce wild animals on a sufficient scale to create demographically and genetically stable populations.

Additional Upcoming Courses:

Current Literature

Adum, G.B., Eichhorn, M.P., Oduro, W., Ofori-Boateng, C., and Rödel, M.O. 2013. Two-stage recovery of amphibian assemblages following selective logging of tropical forests. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):354-363.

Afdhal, B., Charfi-Cheikhrouha, F., and Moali, A. 2013. Tunisian man-made wetlands as alternative habitats for waterbirds and their role for conservation. Afr. J. Ecol. 51(1):154-163.

Aguilar, A., Douglas, R.B., Gordon, E., Baumsteiger, J., and Goldsworthy, M.O. 2013. Elevated genetic structure in the coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) in managed redwood forests. J. Heredity 104(2):202-216.

Aguirre-Dugua, X., and Eguiarte, L.E. 2013. Genetic diversity, conservation and sustainable use of wild Agave cupreata and Agave potatorum extracted for mezcal production in Mexico. J. Arid Environ. 90:36-44.

Aide, T.M., Clark, M.L., Grau, H.R., López-Carr, D., Levy, M.A., Redo, D., Bonilla-Moheno, M., Riner, G., Andrade-Núñez, M.J., and Muñiz, M. 2013. Deforestation and reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001-2010). Biotropica 45(2):262-271.

Alda, F., Ruiz-López, M.J., García, F.J., Gompper, M.E., Eggert, L.S., and García, J.T. 2013. Genetic evidence for multiple introduction events of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Spain. Biol. Invasions 15(3):687-698.

Allnutt, T.F., Asner, G.P., Golden, C.D., and Powell, G.V.N. 2013. Mapping recent deforestation and forest disturbance in northeastern Madagascar. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(1):1-15.

Alofs, K.M., and Fowler, N.L. 2013. Loss of native herbaceous species due to woody plant encroachment facilitates the establishment of an invasive grass. Ecology 94(3):751-760.

Alves, R.R.N., Lima, J.R.D., and Araujo, H.F.P. 2013. The live bird trade in Brazil and its conservation implications: an overview. Bird Conserv. Int. 23(1):53-65.

Amano, T., and Sutherland, W.J. 2013. Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 280(1756):20122649.

Amézquita, A., Márquez, R., Medina, R., Mejía-Vargas, D., Kahn, T.R., Suárez, G., and Mazariegos, L. 2013. A new species of Andean poison frog, Andinobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae), from the northwestern Andes of Colombia. Zootaxa 3620(1):163-178.

Anbarashan, M., and Parthasarathy, N. 2013. Diversity and ecology of lianas in tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel Coast of India under various disturbance regimes. Flora 208(1):22-32.

Angelov, I., Hashim, I., and Oppel, S. 2013. Persistent electrocution mortality of Egyptian Vultures Neophron percnopterus over 28 years in East Africa. Bird Conserv. Int. 23(1):1-6.

Aquino, R., Cornejo, F.M., Pezo, E., and Heymann, E.W. 2013. Distribution and abundance of white-fronted spider monkeys, Ateles belzebuth (Atelidae), and threats to their survival in Peruvian Amazonia. Folia Primatol. 84(1):1-10.

Arbetman, M.P., Meeus, I., Morales, C.L., Aizen, M.A., and Smagghe, G. 2013. Alien parasite hitchhikes to Patagonia on invasive bumblebee. Biol. Invasions 15(3):489-494.

Arribas, P., Andújar, C., Sánchez-Fernández, D., Abellán, P., and Millán, A. 2013. Integrative taxonomy and conservation of cryptic beetles in the Mediterranean region (Hydrophilidae). Zool. Scr. 42(2):182-200.

Athreya, V., Odden, M., Linnell, J.D.C., Krishnaswamy, J., and Karanth, U. 2013. Big cats in our backyards: persistence of large carnivores in a human dominated landscape in India. PLoS ONE 8(3):e57872.

Attorre, F., De Sanctis, M., Farcomeni, A., Guillet, A., Scepi, E., Vitale, M., Pella, F., and Fasola, M. 2013. The use of spatial ecological modelling as a tool for improving the assessment of geographic range size of threatened species. J. Nature Conserv. 21(1):48-55.

Augustine, D.J., and Baker, B.W. 2013. Associations of grassland bird communities with black-tailed prairie dogs in the North American Great Plains. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):324-334.

Azhar, B., Lindenmayer, D., Wood, J., Fischer, J., Manning, A., McElhinny, C., and Zakaria, M. 2013. Contribution of illegal hunting, culling of pest species, road accidents and feral dogs to biodiversity loss in established oil-palm landscapes. Wildlife Res. 40(1):1-9.

Aziz, S.A., Clements, G.R., Rayan, D.M., and Sankar, P. 2013. Why conservationists should be concerned about natural resource legislation affecting indigenous peoples' rights: lessons from Peninsular Malaysia. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):639-656.

Bahn, V., and McGill, B.J. 2013. Testing the predictive performance of distribution models. Oikos 122(3):321-331.

Balashev, I.A., Baidashnikov, A.A., Romanov, G.A., and Gural-Sverlova, N.V. 2013. Terrestrial molluscs of Khmelnitsky region (the Podolian Upland, Ukraine). Zool. Zh. 92(2):154-166.

Banko, P.C., Camp, R.J., Farmer, C., Brinck, K.W., Leonard, D.L., and Stephens, R.M. 2013. Response of palila and other subalpine Hawaiian forest bird species to prolonged drought and habitat degradation by feral ungulates. Biol. Conserv. 157:70-77.

Baptista, S.L., Pinto, P.V., Freitas, M.D., Cruz, C., and Palmeirim, J.M. 2013. Geophagy by African ungulates: the case of the critically endangered giant sable antelope of Angola (Hippotragus niger variani). Afr. J. Ecol. 51(1):139-146.

Barbet-Massin, M., Rome, Q., Muller, F., Perrard, A., Villemant, C., and Jiguet, F. 2013. Climate change increases the risk of invasion by the Yellow-legged hornet. Biol. Conserv. 157:4-10.

Barceló, C., Domingo, A., Miller, P., Ortega, L., Giffoni, B., Sales, G., McNaughton, L., Marcovaldi, M., Heppell, S.S., and Swimmer, Y. 2013. High-use areas, seasonal movements and dive patterns of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 479:235-250.

Barrett, M.A., Brown, J.L., Junge, R.E., and Yoder, A.D. 2013. Climate change, predictive modeling and lemur health: assessing impacts of changing climate on health and conservation in Madagascar. Biol. Conserv. 157:409-422.

Barros, L.C., Santos, U., Zanuncio, J.C., and Dergam, J.A. 2012. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Parachromis managuensis (Cichlidae): a threat to native fishes of the Doce River in Minas Gerais, Brazil. PLoS ONE 7(6):e39138.

Bartomeus, I., Ascher, J.S., Gibbs, J., Danforth, B.N., Wagner, D.L., Hedtke, S.M., and Winfree, R. 2013. Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110(12):4656-4660.

Barua, M., Bhagwat, S.A., and Jadhav, S. 2013. The hidden dimensions of human-wildlife conflict: health impacts, opportunity and transaction costs. Biol. Conserv. 157:309-316.

Bastin, L., Buchanan, G., Beresford, A., Pekel, J.F., and Dubois, G. 2013. Open-source mapping and services for Web-based land-cover validation. Ecol. Inform. 14:9-16.

Becerra, P.I., and Simonetti, J.A. 2013. Patterns of exotic species richness of different taxonomic groups in a fragmented landscape of central Chile. Bosque 34(1):45-51.

Belay, S., Amsalu, A., and Abebe, E. 2013. Awash National Park, Ethiopia: use policy, ethnic conflict and sustainable resources conservation in the context of decentralization. Afr. J. Ecol. 51(1):122-129.

Bellingeri, M., Cassi, D., and Vincenzi, S. 2013. Increasing the extinction risk of highly connected species causes a sharp robust-to-fragile transition in empirical food webs. Ecol. Model. 251:1-8.

Benavides, R., Rabasa, S.G., Granda, E., Escudero, A., Hódar, J.A., Martínez-Vilalta, J., Rincón, A.M., Zamora, R., and Valladares, F. 2013. Direct and indirect effects of climate on demography and early growth of Pinus sylvestris at the rear edge: changing roles of biotic and abiotic factors. PLoS ONE 8(3):e59824.

Bennett, J.R., and Arcese, P. 2013. Human influence and classical biogeographic predictors of rare species occurrence. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):417-421.

Bennett, J.R., Vellend, M., Lilley, P.L., Cornwell, W.K., and Arcese, P. 2013. Abundance, rarity and invasion debt among exotic species in a patchy ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 15(3):707-716.

Berteaux, D. 2013. Quebec's large-scale Plan Nord. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):242-243.

Bilton, D.T. 2013. Description of the male of Sebasthetops omaliniformis Jäch, 1998-a phylogenetically isolated water beetle from South Africa, with notes on its ecology (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae). Zootaxa 3635(1):94-100.

Blair, C., Arcos, V.H.J., de la Cruz, F.R.M., and Murphy, R.W. 2013. Landscape genetics of leaf-toed geckos in the tropical dry forest of northern Mexico. PLoS ONE 8(2):e57433.

Böhm, M., Collen, B., Baillie, J.E.M., Bowles, P., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Hammerson, G., Hoffmann, M., Livingstone, S.R., Ram, M., Rhodin, A.G.J., Stuart, S.N., van Dijk, P.P., Young, B.E., Afuang, L.E., Aghasyan, A., García, A., Aguilar, C., Ajtic, R., Akarsu, F., Alencar, L.R.V., Allison, A., Ananjeva, N., Anderson, S., Andren, C., Ariano-Sánchez, D., Arredondo, J.C., Auliya, M., Austin, C.C., Avci, A., Baker, P.J., Barreto-Lima, A.F., Barrio-Amorós, C.L., Basu, D., Bates, M.F., Batistella, A., Bauer, A., Bennett, D., Böhme, W., Broadley, D., Brown, R., Burgess, J., Captain, A., Carreira, S., Castañeda, M.D., Castro, F., Catenazzi, A., Cedeño-Vázquez, J.R., Chapple, D.G., Cheylan, M., Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Cogalniceanu, D., Cogger, H., Corti, C., Costa, G.C., Couper, P.J., Courtney, T., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Crochet, P.A., Crother, B., Cruz, F., Daltry, J.C., Daniels, R.I.R., Das, I., de Silva, A., Diesmos, A.C., Dirksen, L., Doan, T.M., Dodd, C.K., Doody, J.S., Dorcas, M.E., de Barros, J.D., Egan, V.T., El Mouden, E., Embert, D., Espinoza, R.E., Fallabrino, A., Feng, X., Feng, Z.J., Fitzgerald, L., Flores-Villela, O., França, F.G.R., Frost, D., Gadsden, H., Gamble, T., Ganesh, S.R., Garcia, M.A., García-Pérez, J.E., Gatus, J., Gaulke, M., Geniez, P., Georges, A., Gerlach, J., Goldberg, S., Gonzalez, J.C.T., Gower, D.J., Grant, T., Greenbaum, E., Grieco, C., Guo, P., et al. 2013. The conservation status of the world's reptiles. Biol. Conserv. 157:372-385.

Borchard, F., Schulte, A.M., and Fartmann, T. 2013. Rapid response of Orthoptera to restoration of montane heathland. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):687-700.

Botzat, A., Fischer, L., and Farwig, N. 2013. Forest-fragment quality rather than matrix habitat shapes herbivory on tree recruits in South Africa. J. Trop. Ecol. 29:111-122.

Bourgeois, K., Ouni, R., Pascal, M., Dromzée, S., Fourcy, D., and Abiadh, A. 2013. Dramatic increase in the Zembretta Yelkouan shearwater breeding population following ship rat eradication spurs interest in managing a 1500-year old invasion. Biol. Invasions 15(3):475-482.

Broughton, R.K., Hill, R.A., and Hinsley, S.A. 2013. Relationships between patterns of habitat cover and the historical distribution of the Marsh Tit, Willow Tit and Lesser Spotted Woodpecker in Britain. Ecol. Inform. 14:25-30.

Buchmann, C.M., Schurr, F.M., Nathan, R., and Jeltsch, F. 2013. Habitat loss and fragmentation affecting mammal and bird communities - the role of interspecific competition and individual space use. Ecol. Inform. 14:90-98.

Budy, P., Thiede, G.P., Lobón-Cerviá, J., Fernandez, G.G., McHugh, P., McIntosh, A., Vøllestad, L.A., Becares, E., and Jellyman, P. 2013. Limitation and facilitation of one of the world's most invasive fish: an intercontinental comparison. Ecology 94(2):356-367.

Buij, R., Kortekaas, K., van Krimpen, R.R.D., van Wijk, R., van der Zanden, S., de Iongh, H.H., Heitkönig, I.M.A., de Snoo, G.R., and Komdeur, J. 2013. Breeding performance of the Grasshopper Buzzard (Butastur rufipennis) in a natural and a human-modified West African savanna . Condor 115(1):47-57.

Cabezas, S., Carrete, M., Tella, J.L., Marchant, T.A., and Bortolotti, G.R. 2013. Differences in acute stress responses between wild-caught and captive-bred birds: a physiological mechanism contributing to current avian invasions? Biol. Invasions 15(3):521-527.

Cale, J.A., McNulty, S.A., Teale, S.A., and Castello, J.D. 2013. The impact of beech thickets on biodiversity. Biol. Invasions 15(3):699-706.

Calviño-Cancela, M., de Silanes, M.E.L., Rubido-Bará, M., and Uribarri, J. 2013. The potential role of tree plantations in providing habitat for lichen epiphytes. Forest Ecol. Manag. 291:386-395.

Cambiè, G., Sánchez-Carnero, N., Mingozzi, T., Muiño, R., and Freire, J. 2013. Identifying and mapping local bycatch hotspots of loggerhead sea turtles using a GIS-based method: implications for conservation. Mar. Biol. 160(3):653-665.

Carrete, M., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Benítez, J.R., Montoya, F., and Donázar, J.A. 2013. Species distribution models and wind farm developments. Biol. Conserv. 157:433.

Carthew, S.M., Garrett, L.A., and Ruykys, L. 2013. Roadside vegetation can provide valuable habitat for small, terrestrial fauna in South Australia. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):737-754.

Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Abreu, J.A., and Figueira, R. 2013. Revision of the family Dipterocarpaceae in Angola. Blumea 57(3):263-274.

Catlin, J., Hughes, M., Jones, T., Jones, R., and Campbell, R. 2013. Valuing individual animals through tourism: science or speculation? Biol. Conserv. 157:93-98.

Catry, I., Franco, A.M.A., Rocha, P., Alcazar, R., Reis, S., Cordeiro, A., Ventim, R., Teodósio, J., and Moreira, F. 2013. Foraging habitat quality constrains effectiveness of artificial nest-site provisioning in reversing population declines in a colonial cavity nester. PLoS ONE 8(3):e58320.

Chambers, F.M., Cloutman, E.W., Daniell, J.R.G., Mauquoy, D., and Jones, P.S. 2013. Long-term ecological study (palaeoecology) to chronicle habitat degradation and inform conservation ecology: an exemplar from the Brecon Beacons, South Wales. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):719-736.

Chen, L.Y., Peng, S.L., Li, J., Lin, Z.G., and Zeng, Y. 2013. Competitive control of an exotic mangrove species: restoration of native mangrove forests by altering light availability. Restor. Ecol. 21(2):215-223.

Chiba, T., and Sato, S. 2013. Invasion of Laguncula pulchella (Gastropoda: Naticidae) and predator-prey interactions with bivalves on the Tona coast, Miyagi prefecture, northern Japan. Biol. Invasions 15(3):587-598.

Chibwana, C., Jumbe, C.B.L., and Shively, G. 2013. Agricultural subsidies and forest clearing in Malawi. Environ. Conserv. 40(1):60-70.

Chivers, D.P., Al-Batati, F., Brown, G.E., and Ferrari, M.C.O. 2013. The effect of turbidity on recognition and generalization of predators and non-predators in aquatic ecosystems. Ecol. Evol. 3(2):268-277.

Chunco, A.J., Phimmachak, S., Sivongxay, N., and Stuart, B.L. 2013. Predicting environmental suitability for a rare and threatened species (Lao newt, Laotriton laoensis) using validated species distribution models. PLoS ONE 8(3):e59853.

Chung, M.Y., López-Pujol, J., Maki, M., Moon, M.O., Hyun, J.O., and Chung, M.G. 2013. Genetic variation and structure within 3 endangered Calanthe species (Orchidaceae) from Korea: inference of population-establishment history and implications for conservation. J. Heredity 104(2):248-262.

Ciccotti, E., Leone, C., Bevacqua, D., De Leo, G., Tancioni, L., and Capoccioni, F. 2012. Integrating habitat restoration and fisheries management: a small-scale case-study to support EEL conservation at the global scale. Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst. 407:04.

Cicuzza, D., Krömer, T., Poulsen, A.D., Abrahamczyk, S., Delhotal, T., Piedra, H.M., and Kessler, M. 2013. A transcontinental comparison of the diversity and composition of tropical forest understory herb assemblages. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):755-772.

Cieślak, E. 2013. Variation and genetic structure of Serratula lycopifolia populations (Vill.) Kern. (Asteraceae) in Poland and adjacent regions. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 82(1):67-75.

Cires, E., De Smet, Y., Cuesta, C., Goetghebeur, P., Sharrock, S., Gibbs, D., Oldfield, S., Kramer, A., and Samain, M.S. 2013. Gap analyses to support ex situ conservation of genetic diversity in Magnolia, a flagship group. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):567-590.

Clement, F. 2013. For critical social-ecological system studies: integrating power and discourses to move beyond the right institutional fit. Environ. Conserv. 40(1):1-4.

Clements, C.F., Worsfold, N.T., Warren, P.H., Collen, B., Clark, N., Blackburn, T.M., and Petchey, O.L. 2013. Experimentally testing the accuracy of an extinction estimator: Solow's optimal linear estimation model. J. Anim. Ecol. 82(2):345-354.

Clements, T., Gilbert, M., Rainey, H.J., Cuthbert, R., Eames, J.C., Bunnat, P., Teak, S., Chansocheat, S., and Setha, T. 2013. Vultures in Cambodia: population, threats and conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 23(1):7-24.

Clements, T., Rainey, H., An, D., Rours, V., Tan, S., Thong, S., Sutherland, W.J., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2013. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a direct payment for biodiversity conservation: The Bird Nest Protection Program in the Northern Plains of Cambodia. Biol. Conserv. 157:50-59.

Coad, L., Schleicher, J., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Marthews, T.R., Starkey, M., Manica, A., Balmford, A., Mbombe, W., Bineni, T.R.D., and Abernethy, K.A. 2013. Social and ecological change over a decade in a village hunting system, central Gabon. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):270-280.

Cockrell, M.L., and Sorte, C.J.B. 2013. Predicting climate-induced changes in population dynamics of invasive species in a marine epibenthic community. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 440:42-48.

Codesido, M., González-Fischer, C.M., and Bilenca, D.N. 2013. Landbird assemblages in different agricultural landscapes: a case study in the pampas of central Argentina. Condor 115(1):8-16.

Cohen, T.M., Narkiss, T., Dolev, A., Ben-Ari, Y., Kronfeld-Schor, N., Guter, A., Saltz, D., and Bar-Gal, G.K. 2013. Genetic diversity of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) population in Israel. J. Heredity 104(2):192-201.

Coll, M., Navarro, J., and Palomera, I. 2013. Ecological role, fishing impact, and management options for the recovery of a Mediterranean endemic skate by means of food web models. Biol. Conserv. 157:108-120.

Conlisk, E., Syphard, A.D., Franklin, J., Flint, L., Flint, A., and Regan, H. 2013. Uncertainty in assessing the impacts of global change with coupled dynamic species distribution and population models. Global Change Biol. 19(3):858-869.

Cote, D., Gregory, R.S., Morris, C.J., Newton, B.H., and Schneider, D.C. 2013. Elevated habitat quality reduces variance in fish community composition. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 440:22-28.

Coverdale, T.C., Herrmann, N.C., Altieri, A.H., and Bertness, M.D. 2013. Latent impacts: the role of historical human activity in coastal habitat loss. Front. Ecol. Environ. 11(2):69-74.

Critchley, C.N.R., Mitchell, R.J., Rose, R.J., Griffiths, J.B., Jackson, E., Scott, H., and Davies, O.D. 2013. Re-establishment of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull in an eight-year grazing experiment on upland acid grassland. J. Nature Conserv. 21(1):22-30.

Critchley, C.N.R., Wilson, L.A., Mole, A.C., Norton, L.R., and Smart, S.M. 2013. A functional classification of herbaceous hedgerow vegetation for setting restoration objectives. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):701-717.

Cuhel, R.L., and Aguilar, C. 2013. Ecosystem transformations of the Laurentian Great Lake Michigan by nonindigenous biological invaders. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 5:289-320.

Dalrymple, S.E., and Moehrenschlager, A. 2013. "Words matter." A response to Jorgensen's treatment of historic range and definitions of reintroduction. Restor. Ecol. 21(2):156-158.

Dapporto, L., and Dennis, R.L.H. 2013. The generalist-specialist continuum: testing predictions for distribution and trends in British butterflies. Biol. Conserv. 157:229-236.

Darst, C.R., Murphy, P.J., Strout, N.W., Campbell, S.P., Field, K.J., Allison, L., and Averill-Murray, R.C. 2013. A strategy for prioritizing threats and recovery actions for at-risk species. Environ. Manage. 51(3):786-800.

De Hert, K., Jacquemyn, H., Provoost, S., and Honnay, O. 2013. Absence of recruitment limitation in restored dune slacks suggests that manual seed introduction can be a successful practice for restoring orchid populations. Restor. Ecol. 21(2):159-162.

Deane, P.E., McCoy, K.D., Robertson, R.J., Birt, T.P., and Friesen, V.L. 2013. Minimal genetic structure in the Cerulean Warbler despite evidence for ecological differentiation among populations. Condor 115(1):178-185.

Delgado, V., and Ederra, A. 2013. Long-term changes (1982-2010) in the bryodiversity of Spanish beech forests assessed by means of Ellenberg indicator values of temperature, nitrogen, light and pH. Biol. Conserv. 157:99-107.

Dellinger, J.A., Proctor, C., Steury, T.D., Kelly, M.J., and Vaughan, M.R. 2013. Habitat selection of a large carnivore, the red wolf, in a human-altered landscape. Biol. Conserv. 157:324-330.

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Schuette, P., Creel, S., and Christianson, D. 2013. Coexistence of African lions, livestock, and people in a landscape with variable human land use and seasonal movements. Biol. Conserv. 157:148-154.

Selig, E.R., Longo, C., Halpern, B.S., Best, B.D., Hardy, D., Elfes, C.T., Scarborough, C., Kleisner, K.M., and Katona, S.K. 2013. Assessing global marine biodiversity status within a coupled socio-ecological perspective. PLoS ONE 8(4):e60284.

Shanee, S., Allgas, N., and Shanee, N. 2013. Preliminary observations on the behavior and ecology of the Peruvian night monkey (Aotus miconax: Primates) in a remnant cloud forest patch, north eastern Peru. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(1):138-148.

Shwartz, A., Muratet, A., Simon, L., and Julliard, R. 2013. Local and management variables outweigh landscape effects in enhancing the diversity of different taxa in a big metropolis. Biol. Conserv. 157:285-292.

Simaika, J.P., Samways, M.J., Kipping, J., Suhling, F., Dijkstra, K.D.B., Clausnitzer, V., Boudot, J.P., and Domisch, S. 2013. Continental-scale conservation prioritization of African dragonflies. Biol. Conserv. 157:245-254.

Šingliarová, B., Šuvada, R., and Mráz, P. 2013. Allopatric distribution, ecology and conservation status of the Pilosella alpicola group (Asteraceae). Nord. J. Bot. 31(1):122-128.

Skøien, J.O., Schulz, M., Dubois, G., Fisher, I., Balman, M., May, I., and Tuama, É.Ó. 2013. A Model Web approach to modelling climate change in biomes of Important Bird Areas. Ecol. Inform. 14:38-43.

Skokanová, H., and Eremiásová, R. 2013. Landscape functionality in protected and unprotected areas: case studies from the Czech Republic. Ecol. Inform. 14:71-74.

Smith-Ramírez, C., Arellano, G., Hagen, E., Vargas, R., Castillo, J., and Miranda, A. 2013. The role of Turdus falcklandii (Aves: Passeriforme) as disperser of invasive plants in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 86(1):33-48.

Snedden, G.A., and Steyer, G.D. 2013. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 118:11-23.

Souza, A.F., Ramos, N.P., Pizo, M.A., Hübel, I., and Crossetti, L.O. 2013. Afforestation effects on vegetation structure and diversity of grasslands in southern Brazil: the first years. J. Nature Conserv. 21(1):56-62.

Squires, J.R., DeCesare, N.J., Olson, L.E., Kolbe, J.A., Hebblewhite, M., and Parks, S.A. 2013. Combining resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for Canada lynx at their southern range periphery. Biol. Conserv. 157:187-195.

Stahlheber, K.A., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2013. Using livestock to manage plant composition: a meta-analysis of grazing in California Mediterranean grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 157:300-308.

Statton, J., Cambridge, M.L., Dixon, K.W., and Kendrick, G.A. 2013. Aquaculture of Posidonia australis seedlings for seagrass restoration programs: effect of sediment type and organic enrichment on growth. Restor. Ecol. 21(2):250-259.

Stock, W.D., Finn, H., Parker, J., and Dods, K. 2013. Pine as fast food: foraging ecology of an endangered cockatoo in a forestry landscape. PLoS ONE 8(4):e61145.

Stone, R. 2013. A rescue mission for amphibians at the brink of extinction. Science 339(6126):1371.

Stone, R.D. 2013. Warneckea cordiformis sp. nov. (Melastomataceae-Olisbeoideae) from a coastal dry forest in northern Mozambique. Nord. J. Bot. 31(1):113-117.

Suding, K.N., Harpole, W.S., Fukami, T., Kulmatiski, A., MacDougall, A.S., Stein, C., and van der Putten, W.H. 2013. Consequences of plant-soil feedbacks in invasion. J. Ecology 101(2):298-308.

Sztukowski, L.A., and Kesler, D.C. 2013. Bait consumption by Sooty Terns: implications for island eradication programmes. Bird Conserv. Int. 23(1):36-44.

Taedoumg, H., and Hamon, P. 2013. Three new species of Craterispermum (Rubiaceae) from the Lower Guinea Domain. Blumea 57(3):236-242.

Tam, J., and McDaniels, T.L. 2013. Understanding individual risk perceptions and preferences for climate change adaptations in biological conservation. Environ. Sci. Policy 27:114-123.

Tanner, R.A., and Gange, A.C. 2013. The impact of two non-native plant species on native flora performance: potential implications for habitat restoration. Plant Ecol. 214(3):423-432.

Taranto, G.H., Kvile, K.O., Pitcher, T.J., and Morato, T. 2012. An ecosystem evaluation framework for global seamount conservation and management. PLoS ONE 7(8):e42950.

Teixeira, F.Z., Coelho, A.V.P., Esperandio, I.B., and Kindel, A. 2013. Vertebrate road mortality estimates: effects of sampling methods and carcass removal. Biol. Conserv. 157:317-323.

Thompson, K.F., Millar, C.D., Baker, C.S., Dalebout, M., Steel, D., van Helden, A.L., and Constantine, R. 2013. A novel conservation approach provides insights into the management of rare cetaceans. Biol. Conserv. 157:331-340.

Toigo, M., Paillet, Y., Noblecourt, T., Soldati, F., Gosselin, F., and Dauffy-Richard, E. 2013. Does forest management abandonment matter more than habitat characteristics for ground beetles? Biol. Conserv. 157:215-224.

Treasure, A.M., and Chown, S.L. 2013. Contingent absences account for range limits but not the local abundance structure of an invasive springtail. Ecography 36(2):146-156.

Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L., and Shelley, V. 2013. Longitudinal analysis of attitudes toward wolves. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):315-323.

Turner, S.R., Steadman, K.J., Vlahos, S., Koch, J.M., and Dixon, K.W. 2013. Seed treatment optimizes benefits of seed bank storage for restoration-ready seeds: the feasibility of prestorage dormancy alleviation for mine-site revegetation. Restor. Ecol. 21(2):186-192.

Turvey, S.T., Risley, C.L., Moore, J.E., Barrett, L.A., Hao, Y.J., Zhao, X.J., Zhou, K.Y., and Wang, D. 2013. Can local ecological knowledge be used to assess status and extinction drivers in a threatened freshwater cetacean? Biol. Conserv. 157:352-360.

Underwood, J. 2013. Population status of the endangered Laysan Finch. Wilson J. Ornithol. 125(1):159-164.

Unmack, P.J., Hammer, M.P., Adams, M., Johnson, J.B., and Dowling, T.E. 2013. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae). Mol. Ecol. 22(6):1683-1699.

Valenzuela, A.E.J., Rey, A.R., Fasola, L., and Schiavini, A. 2013. Understanding the inter-specific dynamics of two co-existing predators in the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago: the native southern river otter and the exotic American mink. Biol. Invasions 15(3):645-656.

Valle, D., and Clark, J. 2013. Conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS ONE 8(3):e57519.

Vallejos, M.A.V., and Morimoto, D. 2013. The importance of data verification: unchecked errors in basic natural history sampling may greatly impair conservation research. Biol. Conserv. 157:437-438.

Vamberger, M., Stuckas, H., Ayaz, D., Graciá, E., Aloufi, A.A., Els, J., Mazanaeva, L.F., Kami, H.G., and Fritz, U. 2013. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of the poorly known Middle Eastern terrapin Mauremys caspica (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Org. Divers. Evol. 13(1):77-85.

Van Balen, S., Eaton, J.A., and Rheindt, F.E. 2013. Biology, taxonomy and conservation status of the Short-tailed Green Magpie Cissa [t.] thalassina from Java. Bird Conserv. Int. 23(1):91-109.

Van Deusen, P.C., Roesch, F.A., and Wigley, T.B. 2013. Estimating forestland area change from inventory data. J. Forestry 111(2):126-131.

van Rensburg, B.J., Hugo, S., Levin, N., and Kark, S. 2013. Are environmental transitions more prone to biological invasions? Divers. Distrib. 19(3):341-351.

van Strien, A.J., Termaat, T., Kalkman, V., Prins, M., De Knijf, G., Gourmand, A.L., Houard, X., Nelson, B., Plate, C., Prentice, S., Regan, E., Smallshire, D., Vanappelghem, C., and Vanreusel, W. 2013. Occupancy modelling as a new approach to assess supranational trends using opportunistic data: a pilot study for the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):673-686.

Van Vianen, J.C.C.M., Houliston, G.J., Fletcher, J.D., Heenan, P.B., and Chapman, H.M. 2013. New threats to endangered Cook's scurvy grass (Lepidium oleraceum; Brassicaceae): introduced crop viruses and the extent of their spread. Aust. J. Bot. 61(2):161-166.

Van Wynsberge, S., Andréfouët, S., Hamel, M.A., and Kulbicki, M. 2012. Habitats as surrogates of taxonomic and functional fish assemblages in coral reef ecosystems: a critical analysis of factors driving effectiveness. PLoS ONE 7(7):e40997.

Vanthomme, H., Kolowski, J., Korte, L., and Alonso, A. 2013. Distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):281-291.

Vibrans, A.C., McRoberts, R.E., Moser, P., and Nicoletti, A.L. 2013. Using satellite image-based maps and ground inventory data to estimate the area of the remaining Atlantic forest in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Remote Sens. Environ. 130:87-95.

Vilches, B., De Cáceres, M., Sánchez-Mata, D., and Gavilán, R.G. 2013. Indicator species of broad-leaved oak forests in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Ecol. Indic. 26:44-48.

Vilkov, E.V. 2013. Population trends in regular migrants as the basis for a prediction model for conservation of the birds of Eurasia. Russian J. Ecol. 44(2):142-157.

Waddle, J.H., Glorioso, B.M., and Faulkner, S.P. 2013. A quantitative assessment of the conservation benefits of the wetlands reserve program to amphibians. Restor. Ecol. 21(2):200-206.

Wahungu, G.M., Gichohi, N.W., Onyango, I.A., Mureu, L.K., Kamaru, D., Mutisya, S., Mulama, M., Makau, J.K., and Kimuyu, D.M. 2013. Encroachment of open grasslands and Acacia drepanolobium Harms ex B.Y.Sjöstedt habitats by Euclea divinorum Hiern in Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 51(1):130-138.

Wall, J., Wittemyer, G., Klinkenberg, B., Lemay, V., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2013. Characterizing properties and drivers of long distance movements by elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Gourma, Mali. Biol. Conserv. 157:60-68.

Wallner, A.M., Molano-Flores, B., and Dietrich, C.H. 2013. Evaluating hill prairie quality in the Midwestern United States using Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera) and vascular plants: a case study in implementing grassland conservation planning and management. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(3):615-637.

Waples, D.M., Thorne, L.H., Hodge, L.E.W., Burke, E.K., Urian, K.W., and Read, A.J. 2013. A field test of acoustic deterrent devices used to reduce interactions between bottlenose dolphins and a coastal gillnet fishery. Biol. Conserv. 157:163-171.

Watts, S., Sapir, Y., Segal, B., and Dafni, A. 2013. The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees and female solitary bees as pollinators. Ann. Botany 111(3):395-407.

Weiser, E.L., Grueber, C.E., and Jamieson, I.G. 2013. Simulating retention of rare alleles in small populations to assess management options for species with different life histories. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):335-344.

Weekley, C.W., Menges, E.S., Craddock, A.L., and Yahr, R. 2013. Logging as a pretreatment or surrogate for fire in restoring Florida scrub. Castanea 78(1):15-27.

Weeks, E.S., Overton, J.M., and Walker, S. 2013. Estimating patterns of vulnerability in a changing landscape: a case study of New Zealand's indigenous grasslands. Environ. Conserv. 40(1):84-95.

Wilder, B.T., O'Meara, C., Narchi, N., Narváez, A.M., and Aburto-Oropeza, O. 2013. The need for a next generation of Sonoran Desert researchers. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):243-245.

Williams, P.H., Byvaltsev, A., Sheffield, C., and Rasmont, P. 2013. Bombus cullumanus-an extinct European bumblebee species? Apidologie 44(2):121-132.

Willie, J., Petre, C.A., Tagg, N., and Lens, L. 2013. Density of herbaceous plants and distribution of western gorillas in different habitat types in south-east Cameroon. Afr. J. Ecol. 51(1):111-121.

Wittmann, M.J., Hutzenthaler, M., Gabriel, W., and Metzler, D. 2013. Ecological and genetic effects of introduced species on their native competitors. Theor. Popul. Biol. 84:25-35.

Wittmer, H.U., Serrouya, R., Elbroch, L.M., and Marshall, A.J. 2013. Conservation strategies for species affected by apparent competition. Conserv. Biol. 27(2):254-260.

Woodcock, P., Edwards, D.P., Newton, R.J., Khen, C.V., Bottrell, S.H., and Hamer, K.C. 2013. Impacts of intensive logging on the trophic organisation of ant communities in a biodiversity hotspot. PLoS ONE 8(4):e60756.

Wright, C.K., and Wimberly, M.C. 2013. Recent land use change in the Western Corn Belt threatens grasslands and wetlands. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110(10):4134-4139.

Xia, J., Lu, J., Wang, Z.X., Hao, B.B., Wang, H.B., and Liu, G.H. 2013. Pollen limitation and Allee effect related to population size and sex ratio in the endangered Ottelia acuminata (Hydrocharitaceae): implications for conservation and reintroduction. Plant Biol. 15(2):376-383.

Yahr, R., Coppins, B.J., and Coppins, A.M. 2013. Transient populations in the British conservation priority lichen, Cladonia botrytes. Lichenologist 45(2):265-276.

Yeemin, T., Pengsakun, S., Yucharoen, M., Klinthong, W., Sangmanee, K., and Sutthacheep, M. 2013. Long-term decline in Acropora species at Kut Island, Thailand, in relation to coral bleaching events. Mar. Biodivers. 43(1):23-29.

Yokogawa, M., Kaneko, S., Takahashi, Y., and Isagi, Y. 2013. Genetic consequences of rapid population decline and restoration of the critically endangered herb Polemonium kiushianum. Biol. Conserv. 157:401-408.

Yu, T.L., and Guo, Y.S. 2013. Effects of urbanization on bird species richness and community composition. Pakistan J. Zool. 45(1):59-69.

Zhang, H., Zhuang, X.Y., and Chu, L.M. 2013. Plant recruitment in early development stages on rehabilitated quarries in Hong Kong. Restor. Ecol. 21(2):166-173.

Zhang, L.W., and Shao, H.B. 2013. Direct plant-plant facilitation in coastal wetlands: a review. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 119:1-6.

Ziembicki, M.R., Woinarski, J.C.Z., and Mackey, B. 2013. Evaluating the status of species using Indigenous knowledge: novel evidence for major native mammal declines in northern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 157:78-92.

Zotti, M., Persiani, A.M., Ambrosio, E., Vizzini, A., Venturella, G., Donnini, D., Angelini, P., Di Piazza, S., Pavarino, M., Lunghini, D., Venanzoni, R., Polemis, E., Granito, V.M., Maggi, O., Gargano, M.L., and Zervakis, G.I. 2013. Macrofungi as ecosystem resources: conservation versus exploitation. Plant Biosyst. 147(1):219-225.

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