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Department ofBotany

No. 345
September 2013

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In This Issue

Smithsonian Scientists Discover New Species of Carnivore: the Olinguito

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Observed in the wild, tucked away in museum collections, and even exhibited in zoos around the world―there is one mysterious creature that has been a victim of mistaken identity for more than 100 years. A team of Smithsonian scientists, however, uncovered overlooked museum specimens of this remarkable animal, which took them on a journey from museum cabinets in Chicago to cloud forests in South America to genetics labs in Washington, D.C. The result: the olinguito (Bassaricyon neblina)―the first carnivore species to be discovered in the American continents in 35 years. The team's discovery is published in the journal ZooKeys.

A male American redstart (Photo by Dan Pancamo)

A team, led by Smithsonian scientist Kristofer Helgen, spent 10 years examining hundreds of museum specimens and tracking animals in the wild in the cloud forests of Ecuador. The result―the newest species of mammal known to science, the olinguito (Bassaricyon neblina) (Photo by Mark Gurney)

The olinguito is the latest scientifically documented member of the family Procyonidae, which it shares with raccoons, coatis, kinkajous and olingos. The 2-pound olinguito, with its large eyes and woolly orange-brown fur, is native to the cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, as its scientific name, "neblina" (Spanish for "fog"), hints. In addition to being the latest described member of its family, another distinction the olinguito holds is that it is the newest species in the order Carnivora―an incredibly rare discovery in the 21st century.

"The discovery of the olinguito shows us that the world is not yet completely explored, its most basic secrets not yet revealed," said Kristofer Helgen, curator of mammals at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and leader of the team reporting the new discovery. "If new carnivores can still be found, what other surprises await us? So many of the world's species are not yet known to science. Documenting them is the first step toward understanding the full richness and diversity of life on Earth."

Discovering a new species of carnivore, however, does not happen overnight. This one took a decade, and was not the project's original goal―completing the first comprehensive study of olingos, several species of tree-living carnivores in the genus Bassaricyon, was. Helgen's team wanted to understand how many olingo species should be recognized and how these species are distributed―issues that had long been unclear to scientists. Unexpectedly, the team's close examination of more than 95 percent of the world's olingo specimens in museums, along with DNA testing and the review of historic field data, revealed existence of the olinguito, a  previously undescribed species.

The first clue came to Helgen from the olinguito's teeth and skull, which were smaller and differently shaped than those of olingos. Examining museum skins revealed that this new species was also smaller overall with a longer and denser coat; field records showed that it occurred in a unique area of the northern Andes Mountains at 5,000 to 9,000 feet above sea level―elevations much higher than the known species of olingo. This information, however, was coming from overlooked olinguito specimens collected in the early 20th century. The question Helgen and his team wanted to answer next was: Does the olinguito still exist in the wild?

To answer that question, Helgen called on Roland Kays, director of the Biodiversity and Earth Observation Lab at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, to help organize a field expedition.

"The data from the old specimens gave us an idea of where to look, but it still seemed like a shot in the dark," Kays said. "But these Andean forests are so amazing that even if we didn't find the animal we were looking for, I knew our team would discover something cool along the way."

The team had a lucky break that started with a camcorder video. With confirmation of the olinguito's existence via a few seconds of grainy video shot by their colleague Miguel Pinto, a zoologist in Ecuador, Helgen and Kays set off on a three-week expedition to find the animal themselves. Working with Pinto, they found olinguitos in a forest on the western slopes of the Andes, and spent their days documenting what they could about the animal―its characteristics and its forest home. Because the olinguito was new to science, it was imperative for the scientists to record every aspect of the animal. They learned that the olinguito is mostly active at night, is mainly a fruit eater, rarely comes out of the trees and has one baby at a time.

A male American redstart (Photo by Dan Pancamo)

The olinguito mainly eats fruit, but may also eat some insects and nectar. (Photo by Mark Gurney)

In addition to body features and behavior, the team made special note of the olinguito's cloud forest Andean habitat, which is under heavy pressure of human development. The team estimated that 42 percent of historic olinguito habitat has already been converted to agriculture or urban areas.

"The cloud forests of the Andes are a world unto themselves, filled with many species found nowhere else, many of them threatened or endangered," Helgen said. "We hope that the olinguito can serve as an ambassador species for the cloud forests of Ecuador and Colombia, to bring the world's attention to these critical habitats."

While the olinguito is new to science, it is not a stranger to people. People have been living in or near the olinguito's cloud forest world for thousands of years. And while misidentified, specimens have been in museums for more than 100 years, and at least one olinguito from Colombia was exhibited in several zoos in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s. There were even several occasions during the past century when the olinguito came close to being discovered but was not. In 1920, a zoologist in New York thought an olinguito museum specimen was so unusual that it might be a new species, but he never followed through in publishing the discovery.

Giving the olinguito its scientific name is just the beginning. "This is the first step," Helgen said. "Proving that a species exists and giving it a name is where everything starts. This is a beautiful animal, but we know so little about it. How many countries does it live in? What else can we learn about its behavior? What do we need to do to ensure its conservation?" Helgen is already planning his next mission into the clouds.

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Clements, D.R. 2013. Translocation of rare plant species to restore Garry oak ecosystems in western Canada: challenges and opportunities. Botany 91(5):283-291.

Cline, T.J., Bennington, V., and Kitchell, J.F. 2013. Climate change expands the spatial extent and duration of preferred thermal habitat for Lake Superior fishes. PLoS ONE 8(4):e62279.

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Collins, A., Fraser, G., and Snowball, J. 2013. Rhino poaching: supply and demand uncertain. Science 340(6137):1167-1167.

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Cook, M.T., Heppell, S.S., and Garcia, T.S. 2013. Invasive bullfrog larvae lack developmental plasticity to changing hydroperiod. J. Wildlife Manag. 77(4):655-662.

Cooper, E.M., Lunt, P.H., Ellis, J.S., and Knight, M.E. 2013. Biogeographical patterns of variation in Western European populations of the great green bush-cricket (Tettigonia viridissima; Orthoptera Tettigoniidae). J. Insect Conserv. 17(3):431-440.

Cordell, J.R., Levy, C., and Toft, J.D. 2013. Ecological implications of invasive tunicates associated with artificial structures in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Biol. Invasions 15(6):1303-1318.

Coron, C., Meleard, S., Porcher, E., and Robert, A. 2013. Quantifying the mutational meltdown in diploid populations. Am. Nat. 181(5):623-636.

Cowley, P.D., Childs, A.R., and Bennett, R.H. 2013. The trouble with estuarine fisheries in temperate South Africa, illustrated by a case study on the Sundays Estuary. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 35(1):117-128.

Croak, B.M., Crowther, M.S., Webb, J.K., and Shine, R. 2013. Movements and habitat use of an endangered snake, Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Elapidae): implications for conservation. PLoS ONE 8(4):e61711.

Crouzeilles, R., Lorini, M.L., and Grelle, C.E.V. 2013. The importance of using sustainable use protected areas for functional connectivity. Biol. Conserv. 159:450-457.

Cumberland, M.S., and Kirkman, L.K. 2013. The effects of the red imported fire ant on seed fate in the longleaf pine ecosystem. Plant Ecol. 214(5):717-724.

Cunningham, S., and King, L. 2013. Comment on 'Evaluating indices of conservation success: a comparative analysis of outcome- and output-based indices'. Anim. Conserv. 16(2):137-138.

Cuthbert, R.J., Louw, H., Lurling, J., Parker, G., Rexer-Huber, K., Sommer, E., Visser, P., and Ryan, P.G. 2013. Low burrow occupancy and breeding success of burrowing petrels at Gough Island: a consequence of mouse predation. Bird Conserv. Int. 23(2):113-124.

Czarnomska, S.D., Jędrzejewska, B., Borowik, T., Niedziałkowska, M., Stronen, A.V., Nowak, S., Mysłajek, R.W., Okarma, H., Konopiński, M., Pilot, M., Śmietana, W., Caniglia, R., Fabbri, E., Randi, E., Pertoldi, C., and Jędrzejewska, W. 2013. Concordant mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA structuring between Polish lowland and Carpathian Mountain wolves. Conserv. Genet. 14(3):573-588.

Da Silva, C., Ferreira, F.M., Viana, P.L., and De Oliveira, R.P. 2013. A new species of Ichnanthus (Poaceae, Paspaleae) endemic to Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 104(1):21-29.

Dahlström, A., Iuga, A.M., and Lennartsson, T. 2013. Managing biodiversity rich hay meadows in the EU: a comparison of Swedish and Romanian grasslands. Environ. Conserv. 40(2):194-205.

Dalerum, F. 2013. Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 280(1760):20130049.

Dann, T.H., Habicht, C., Baker, T.T., and Seeb, J.E. 2013. Exploiting genetic diversity to balance conservation and harvest of migratory salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 70(5):785-793.

Davis, A.L.V., van Aarde, R.J., Scholtz, C.H., Guldemond, R.A.R., Fourie, J., and Deschodt, C.M. 2013. Is microclimate-driven turnover of dung beetle assemblage structure in regenerating coastal vegetation a precursor to re-establishment of a forest fauna? J. Insect Conserv. 17(3):565-576.

De Angelo, C., Paviolo, A., Wiegand, T., Kanagaraj, R., and Di Bitetti, M.S. 2013. Understanding species persistence for defining conservation actions: a management landscape for jaguars in the Atlantic Forest. Biol. Conserv. 159:422-433.

de Boer, W.F., van Langevelde, F., Prins, H.H.T., de Ruiter, P.C., Blanc, J., Vis, M.J.P., Gaston, K.J., and Hamilton, I.D. 2013. Understanding spatial differences in African elephant densities and occurrence, a continent-wide analysis. Biol. Conserv. 159:468-476.

de Lange, P.J., Heenan, P.B., and Rolfe, J.R. 2013. Uncinia auceps (Cyperaceae): a new endemic hooked sedge for the Chatham Islands. Phytotaxa 104(1):12-20.

de Mitcheson, Y.S., Craig, M.T., Bertoncini, A.A., Carpenter, K.E., Cheung, W.W.L., Choat, J.H., Cornish, A.S., Fennessy, S.T., Ferreira, B.P., Heemstra, P.C., Liu, M., Myers, R.F., Pollard, D.A., Rhodes, K.L., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B.C., Samoilys, M.A., and Sanciangco, J. 2013. Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery. Fish Fish. 14(2):119-136.

Degerman, E., Andersson, K., Söderberg, H., Norrgrann, O., Henrikson, L., Angelstam, P., and Törnblom, J. 2013. Predicting population status of freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera, L.) in central Sweden using instream and riparian zone land-use data. Aquat. Conserv. 23(2):332-342.

Dennenmoser, S., Nolte, A.W., Vamosi, S.M., and Rogers, S.M. 2013. Conservation genetics of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) at the periphery of its distribution range in Peace River, Canada. Conserv. Genet. 14(3):735-739.

Deville, A.S., Grémillet, D., Gauthier-Clerc, M., Guillemain, M., Von Houwald, F., Gardelli, B., and Béchet, A. 2013. Non-linear feeding functional responses in the Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) predict immediate negative impact of wetland degradation on this flagship species. Ecol. Evol. 3(5):1413-1425.

Dicks, L.V., Abrahams, A., Atkinson, J., Biesmeijer, J., Bourn, N., Brown, C., Brown, M.J.F., Carvell, C., Connolly, C., Cresswell, J.E., Croft, P., Darvill, B., De Zylva, P., Effingham, P., Fountain, M., Goggin, A., Harding, D., Harding, T., Hartfield, C., Heard, M.S., Heathcote, R., Heaver, D., Holland, J., Howe, M., Hughes, B., Huxley, T., Kunin, W.E., Little, J., Mason, C., Memmott, J., Osborne, J., Pankhurst, T., Paxton, R.J., Pocock, M.J.O., Potts, S.G., Power, E.F., Raine, N.E., Ranelagh, E., Roberts, S., Saunders, R., Smith, K., Smith, R.M., Sutton, P., Tilley, L.A.N., Tinsley, A., Tonhasca, A., Vanbergen, A.J., Webster, S., Wilson, A., and Sutherland, W.J. 2013. Identifying key knowledge needs for evidence-based conservation of wild insect pollinators: a collaborative cross-sectoral exercise. Insect Conserv. Divers. 6(3):435-446.

Dollar, J.G., Riffell, S.K., and Burger, L.W. 2013. Effects of managing semi-natural grassland buffers on butterflies. J. Insect Conserv. 17(3):577-590.

Douda, K. 2013. Quantifying the host relationships of endangered freshwater mussels - Unio crassus demonstrates a need for unifying methodologies. Biol. Conserv. 159:548-549.

Druce, H.C., Mackey, R.L., Pretorius, K., and Slotow, R. 2013. The intermediate-term effects of PZP immunocontraception: behavioural monitoring of the treated elephant females and associated family groups. Anim. Conserv. 16(2):180-187.

DuRant, S.E., Hopkins, W.A., Hepp, G.R., and Walters, J.R. 2013. Ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications of incubation temperature-dependent phenotypes in birds. Biol. Rev. 88(2):499-509.

Dutton, P.H., Roden, S.E., Stewart, K.R., LaCasella, E., Tiwari, M., Formia, A., Thomé, J.C., Livingstone, S.R., Eckert, S., Chacon-Chaverri, D., Rivalan, P., and Allman, P. 2013. Population stock structure of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the Atlantic revealed using mtDNA and microsatellite markers. Conserv. Genet. 14(3):625-636.

Dyer, J.J., Brewer, S.K., Worthington, T.A., and Bergey, E.A. 2013. The influence of coarse-scale environmental features on current and predicted future distributions of narrow-range endemic crayfish populations. Freshwater Biol. 58(6):1071-1088.

Edwards, T., and Berry, K.H. 2013. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? An assessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations. Conserv. Genet. 14(3):649-659.

Edworthy, A.B., and Martin, K. 2013. Persistence of tree cavities used by cavity-nesting vertebrates declines in harvested forests. J. Wildlife Manag. 77(4):770-776.

Elbakidze, M., Angelstam, P., Sandström, C., Stryamets, N., Crow, S., Axelsson, R., Stryamets, G., and Yamelynets, T. 2013. Biosphere Reserves for conservation and development in Ukraine? Legal recognition and establishment of the Roztochya initiative. Environ. Conserv. 40(2):157-166.

Entenmann, S.K., and Schmitt, C.B. 2013. Actors' perceptions of forest biodiversity values and policy issues related to REDD+ implementation in Peru. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(5):1229-1254.

Evans, D., Demeter, A., Gajdoš, P., and Halada, L. 2013. Adapting environmental conservation legislation for an enlarged European Union: experience from the Habitats Directive. Environ. Conserv. 40(2):97-107.

Falaleeva, M., and Rauschmayer, F. 2013. Evaluating environmental governance in a Belarusian World Bank biodiversity project. Environ. Conserv. 40(2):147-156.

Fant, J.B., Kramer, A., Sirkin, E., and Havens, K. 2013. Genetics of reintroduced populations of the narrowly endemic thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). Botany 91(5):301-308.

Fartmann, T., Muller, C., and Poniatowski, D. 2013. Effects of coppicing on butterfly communities of woodlands. Biol. Conserv. 159:396-404.

Faruk, A., Belabut, D., Ahmad, N., Knell, R.J., and Garner, T.W.J. 2013. Effects of oil-palm plantations on diversity of tropical anurans. Conserv. Biol. 27(3):615-624.

Fattorini, S. 2013. Faunistic knowledge and insect species loss in an urban area: the tenebrionid beetles of Rome. J. Insect Conserv. 17(3):637-643.

Felton, A.M., Felton, A., Rumiz, D.I., Villaroel, N., Chapman, C.A., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2013. Commercial harvesting of Ficus timber - an emerging threat to frugivorous wildlife and sustainable forestry. Biol. Conserv. 159:96-100.

Ferreira, A.F., Quintella, B.R., Maia, C., Mateus, C.S., Alexandre, C.M., Capinha, C., and Almeida, P.R. 2013. Influence of macrohabitat preferences on the distribution of European brook and river lampreys: implications for conservation and management. Biol. Conserv. 159:175-186.

Ferrer, M., Newton, I., and Muriel, R. 2013. Rescue of a small declining population of Spanish imperial eagles. Biol. Conserv. 159:32-36.

Ferretti, F., and Mattioli, S. 2012. The Mesola red deer: present numbers and conservation perspectives. Hystrix 23(2):35-43.

Fieker, C.Z., Reis, M.G., and Dias, M.M. 2013. Structure of bird assemblages in dry and seasonally flooded grasslands in Itirapina Ecological Station, Sao Paulo state. Braz. J. Biol. 73(1):91-101.

Figueroa, J. 2013. The birds of Lobos de Tierra island, Peru: a review and new records (1684-2011). Rev. Bras. Ornitol. 21(1):58-74.

Fischer, J.R., Krogman, R.M., and Quist, M.C. 2013. Influences of native and non-native benthivorous fishes on aquatic ecosystem degradation. Hydrobiologia 711(1):187-199.

Fischer, L.K., von der Lippe, M., Rillig, M.C., and Kowarik, I. 2013. Creating novel urban grasslands by reintroducing native species in wasteland vegetation. Biol. Conserv. 159:119-126.

Fleischer, K., Streitberger, M., and Fartmann, T. 2013. The importance of disturbance for the conservation of a low-competitive herb in mesotrophic grasslands. Biologia 68(3):398-403.

Flory, S.L., and Clay, K. 2013. Pathogen accumulation and long-term dynamics of plant invasions. J. Ecology 101(3):607-613.

Forbanka, D.N., and Niba, A.S. 2013. Distribution and diversity of epigaeic invertebrate assemblages in Silaka Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Afr. Entomol. 21(1):58-69.

Freed, L.A., and Cann, R.L. 2013. More misleading trend analysis of Hawaiian forest birds. Condor 115(2):442-447.

Freudenberger, L., Hobson, P., Schluck, M., Kreft, S., Vohland, K., Sommer, H., Reichle, S., Nowicki, C., Barthlott, W., and Ibisch, P.L. 2013. Nature conservation: priority-setting needs a global change. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(5):1255-1281.

Frias-Torres, S. 2013. Should the Critically Endangered Goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara be culled in Florida? Oryx 47(1):88-95.

Frings, R.M., Vaeßen, S.C.K., Groß, H., Roger, S., Schüttrumpf, H., and Hollert, H. 2013. A fish-passable barrier to stop the invasion of non-indigenous crayfish. Biol. Conserv. 159:521-529.

Fuller, T.L., and Hughey, J.R. 2013. Molecular investigation of the invasive sponge Hymeniacidon sinapium (de Laubenfels, 1930) in Elkhorn Slough, California. Aquat. Invasions 8(1):59-66.

Fuller, T.L., Thomassen, H.A., Peralvo, M., Buermann, W., Milá, B., Kieswetter, C.M., Jarrín-V, P., Devitt, S.E.C., Mason, E., Schweizer, R.M., Schlunegger, J., Chan, J., Wang, O., Schneider, C.J., Pollinger, J.P., Saatchi, S., Graham, C.H., Wayne, R.K., and Smith, T.B. 2013. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variation of common species predicts ranges of threatened ones. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 280(1760):20130423.

Furby, K.A., Bouwmeester, J., and Berumen, M.L. 2013. Susceptibility of central Red Sea corals during a major bleaching event. Coral Reefs 32(2):505-513.

Fusco-Costa, R., and Ingberman, B. 2013. Records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus in a continuous remnant of coastal Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Oryx 47(1):105-108.

Gaither, M.R., Bowen, B.W., and Toonen, R.J. 2013. Population structure in the native range predicts the spread of introduced marine species. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 280(1760):20130409.

Gallagher, R.V., Hughes, L., and Leishman, M.R. 2013. Species loss and gain in communities under future climate change: consequences for functional diversity. Ecography 36(5):531-540.

Gallego-Sala, A.V., and Prentice, I.C. 2013. Blanket peat biome endangered by climate change. Nature Clim. Change 3(2):152-155.

Game, E.T., Kareiva, P., and Possingham, H.P. 2013. Six common mistakes in conservation priority setting. Conserv. Biol. 27(3):480-485.

García-Muñoz, E., Ceacero, F., Carretero, M.A., Pedrajas-Pulido, L., Parra, G., and Guerrero, F. 2013. Optimizing protection efforts for amphibian conservation in Mediterranean landscapes. Acta Oecol. 49:45-52.

Gardner-Gee, R., and Beggs, J.R. 2013. Invasive wasps, not birds, dominate in a temperate honeydew system. Austral Ecol. 38(3):346-354.

Gaskin, J.F., Schwarzlander, M., Hinz, H.L., Williams, L., Gerber, E., Rector, B.G., and Zhang, D. 2013. Genetic identity and diversity of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) in its native and invaded ranges. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 6(2):268-280.

Gatlin, M.R., Shoup, D.E., and Long, J.M. 2013. Invasive zebra mussels (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) survive gut passage of migratory fish species: implications for dispersal. Biol. Invasions 15(6):1195-1200.

Geijer, C.K.A., and Read, A.J. 2013. Mitigation of marine mammal bycatch in US fisheries since 1994. Biol. Conserv. 159:54-60.

Genovart, M., Tavecchia, G., Enseñat, J.J., and Laiolo, P. 2013. Holding up a mirror to the society: children recognize exotic species much more than local ones. Biol. Conserv. 159:484-489.

Gimenez, O., Abadi, F., Barnagaud, J.Y., Blanc, L., Buoro, M., Cubaynes, S., Desprez, M., Gamelon, M., Guilhaumon, F., Lagrange, P., Madon, B., Marescot, L., Papadatou, E., Papaïx, J., Péron, G., and Servanty, S. 2013. How can quantitative ecology be attractive to young scientists? Balancing computer/desk work with fieldwork. Anim. Conserv. 16(2):134-136.

Gippoliti, S., and Groves, C.P. 2012. "Taxonomic inflation" in the historical context of mammalogy and conservation. Hystrix 23(2):8-11.

Gleason, M., Feller, E.M., Merrifield, M., Copps, S., Fujita, R., Bell, M., Rienecke, S., and Cook, C. 2013. A transactional and collaborative approach to reducing effects of bottom trawling. Conserv. Biol. 27(3):470-479.

Gonçalves, V., Rebelo, R., and Gherardi, F. 2013. Fouling of invasive red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) in Lake Trasimeno, Italy. Aquat. Invasions 8(1):117-120.

Gong, S.P., Yang, D.D., Chen, Y.H., Lau, M., and Wang, F.M. 2013. Population status, distribution and conservation needs of the Endangered Mangshan pit viper Protobothrops mangshanensis of China. Oryx 47(1):122-127.

González-Moreno, P., Pino, J., Carreras, D., Basnou, C., Fernández-Rebollar, I., and Vilà, M. 2013. Quantifying the landscape influence on plant invasions in Mediterranean coastal habitats. Landscape Ecol. 28(5):891-903.

Gossner, M.M., Lachat, T., Brunet, J., Isacsson, G., Bouget, C., Brustel, H., Brandl, R., Weisser, W.W., and Müller, J. 2013. Current near-to-nature forest management effects on functional trait composition of saproxylic beetles in beech forests. Conserv. Biol. 27(3):605-614.

Gottelli, D., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Marino, J., Funk, S.M., and Wang, J. 2013. Genetic structure and patterns of gene flow among populations of the endangered Ethiopian wolf. Anim. Conserv. 16(2):234-247.

Gotz, A., Kerwath, S.E., and Atwood, C.G. 2013. A step-by-step framework to assess benefits of established temperate marine protected areas. S. Afr. J. Sci. 109(1-2):36-44.

Gower, D.J., Aberra, R.K., Schwaller, S., Largen, M.J., Collen, B., Spawls, S., Menegon, M., Zimkus, B.M., de Sá, R., Mengistu, A.A., Gebresenbet, F., Moore, R.D., Saber, S.A., and Loader, S.P. 2013. Long-term data for endemic frog genera reveal potential conservation crisis in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. Oryx 47(1):59-69.

Green, D.S., and Crowe, T.P. 2013. Physical and biological effects of introduced oysters on biodiversity in an intertidal boulder field. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 482:119-132.

Green, S.J., Tamburello, N., Miller, S.E., Akins, J.L., and Côté, I.M. 2013. Habitat complexity and fish size affect the detection of Indo-Pacific lionfish on invaded coral reefs. Coral Reefs 32(2):413-421.

Grewell, B.J., Espeland, E.K., and Fiedler, P.L. 2013. Sea change under climate change: case studies in rare plant conservation from the dynamic San Francisco Estuary. Botany 91(5):309-318.

Guerrant, E.O. 2013. The value and propriety of reintroduction as a conservation tool for rare plants. Botany 91(5):v-x.

Guilherme, E. 2012. Birds of the Brazilian state of Acre: diversity, zoogeography, and conservation. Rev. Bras. Ornitol. 20(4):393-442.

Hagell, S., Whipple, A.V., and Chambers, C.L. 2013. Population genetic patterns among social groups of the endangered Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) in a human-dominated landscape. Ecol. Evol. 3(5):1388-1399.

Hallett, L.M., Diver, S., Eitzel, M.V., Olson, J.J., Ramage, B.S., Sardinas, H., Statman-Weil, Z., and Suding, K.N. 2013. Do we practice what we preach? Goal setting for ecological restoration. Restor. Ecol. 21(3):312-319.

Hamel-Leigue, A.C., Herzog, S.K., Larsen, T.H., Mann, D.J., Gill, B.D., Edmonds, W.D., and Spector, S. 2013. Biogeographic patterns and conservation priorities for the dung beetle tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia. Insect Conserv. Divers. 6(3):276-289.

Han, Z.X., Hu, G., Wu, S.B., Cao, C.L., and Dong, X. 2013. A census and status review of the Endangered Francois' langur Trachypithecus francoisi in Chongqing, China. Oryx 47(1):128-133.

Hansen, S.C., and Gosselin, L.A. 2013. Do predators, handling stress or field acclimation periods influence the survivorship of hatchery-reared abalone Haliotis kamtschatkana outplanted into natural habitats? Aquat. Conserv. 23(2):246-253.

Harabiš, F., Tichanek, F., and Tropek, R. 2013. Dragonflies of freshwater pools in lignite spoil heaps: restoration management, habitat structure and conservation value. Ecol. Eng. 55:51-61.

Hardisty, A., Roberts, D., and The Biodiversity Informatics Community. 2013. A decadal view of biodiversity informatics: challenges and priorities. BMC Ecology 13:16.

Harrington, L.A., Moehrenschlager, A., Gelling, M., Atkinson, R.P.D., Hughes, J., and Macdonald, D.W. 2013. Conflicting and complementary ethics of animal welfare considerations in reintroductions. Conserv. Biol. 27(3):486-500.

Harrison, R.D., Tan, S., Plotkin, J.B., Slik, F., Detto, M., Brenes, T., Itoh, A., and Davies, S.J. 2013. Consequences of defaunation for a tropical tree community. Ecol. Lett. 16(5):687-694.

Haskell, D.G., and Pan, J.W. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of threatened and range-restricted limestone specialists in the land snail genus Anguispira. Conserv. Genet. 14(3):671-682.

Hayden, B., Holopainen, T., Amundsen, P.A., Eloranta, A.P., Knudsen, R., Præbel, K., and Kahilainen, K.K. 2013. Interactions between invading benthivorous fish and native whitefish in subarctic lakes. Freshwater Biol. 58(6):1234-1250.

Heard, G.W., McCarthy, M.A., Scroggie, M.P., Baumgartner, J.B., and Parris, K.M. 2013. A Bayesian model of metapopulation viability, with application to an endangered amphibian. Divers. Distrib. 19(5-6):555-566.

Hedges, S., Johnson, A., Ahlering, M., Tyson, M., and Eggert, L.S. 2013. Accuracy, precision, and cost-effectiveness of conventional dung density and fecal DNA based survey methods to estimate Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) population size and structure. Biol. Conserv. 159:101-108.

Hegg, D., MacKenzie, D.I., and Jamieson, I.G. 2013. Use of Bayesian population viability analysis to assess multiple management decisions in the recovery programme for the Endangered takahe Porphyrio hochstetteri. Oryx 47(1):144-152.

Heiler, K.C.M., de Vaate, A.B., Ekschmitt, K., von Oheimb, P.V., Albrecht, C., and Wilke, T. 2013. Reconstruction of the early invasion history of the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in Western Europe. Aquat. Invasions 8(1):53-57.

Helgen, K.M., Pinto, M., Kays, R., Helgen, L., Tsuchiya, M., Quinn, A., Wilson, D., and Maldonado, J. 2013. Taxonomic revision of the olingos (Bassaricyon), with description of a new species, the Olinguito. ZooKeys 324:1-83.

Heneberg, P., Bogusch, P., and Řehounek, J. 2013. Sandpits provide critical refuge for bees and wasps (Hymenoptera: Apocrita). J. Insect Conserv. 17(3):473-490.

Hermoso, V., Januchowski-Hartley, S.R., and Pressey, R.L. 2013. When the suit does not fit biodiversity: loose surrogates compromise the achievement of conservation goals. Biol. Conserv. 159:197-205.

Herrmann, H.W., and Branch, W.R. 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. J. Arid Environ. 93:94-115.

Hiley, J.R., Bradbury, R.B., Holling, M., and Thomas, C.D. 2013. Protected areas act as establishment centres for species colonizing the UK. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 280(1760):20122310.

Hiron, M., Berg, Å., Eggers, S., and Pärt, T. 2013. Are farmsteads over-looked biodiversity hotspots in intensive agricultural ecosystems? Biol. Conserv. 159:332-342.

Hirsch, P.E., Eklov, P., and Svanback, R. 2013. Indirect trophic interactions with an invasive species affect phenotypic divergence in a top consumer. Oecologia 172(1):245-256.

Hogan, F.E., Campbell, C., Harrison, K.A., Milledge, D., and Cooke, R. 2013. Molecular data contradicts historical records and cautions translocation of the Lord Howe Island masked owl. Biol. Conserv. 159:313-320.

Holmes, S.M., Baden, A.L., Brenneman, R.A., Engberg, S.E., Louis, E.E., and Johnson, S.E. 2013. Patch size and isolation influence genetic patterns in black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) populations. Conserv. Genet. 14(3):615-624.

Horák, J., Vodka, S., Pavlíček, J., and Boža, P. 2013. Unexpected visitors: flightless beetles in window traps. J. Insect Conserv. 17(3):441-449.

Hoskin, C.J., Hines, H.B., Meyer, E., Clarke, J., and Cunningham, M. 2013. A new treefrog (Hylidae: Litoria) from Kroombit Tops, east Australia, and an assessment of conservation status. Zootaxa 3646(4):426-446.

Hostetler, J.A., Onorato, D.P., Jansen, D., and Oli, M.K. 2013. A cat's tale: the impact of genetic restoration on Florida panther population dynamics and persistence. J. Anim. Ecol. 82(3):608-620.

Howe, C., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2013. Comment on 'Evaluating indices of conservation success: a comparative analysis of outcome- and output-based indices': response. Anim. Conserv. 16(2):139-140.

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Huang, H.W., and Yeh, Y.M. 2013. Incidental catch of seabirds: strengthening observer programs and increasing cooperation. Anim. Conserv. 16(2):159-160.

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Wilmers, C.C., Wang, Y.W., Nickel, B., Houghtaling, P., Shakeri, Y., Allen, M.L., Kermish-Wells, J., Yovovich, V., and Williams, T. 2013. Scale dependent behavioral responses to human development by a large predator, the puma. PLoS ONE 8(4):e60590.

Wilson, J.S., Gunnell, C.F., Wahl, D.B., and Pitts, J.P. 2013. Testing the species limits of the tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae) endemic to California's Southern Coast Ranges, USA. Insect Conserv. Divers. 6(3):365-371.

Wong, W.M., Leader-Williams, N., and Linkie, M. 2013. Quantifying changes in sun bear distribution and their forest habitat in Sumatra. Anim. Conserv. 16(2):216-223.

Woolaver, L.G., Nichols, R.K., Morton, E.S., and Stutchbury, B.J.M. 2013. Population genetics and relatedness in a critically endangered island raptor, Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi. Conserv. Genet. 14(3):559-571.

Wu, J., Liu, Z.M., and Qian, J.Q. 2013. Non-linear effect of habitat fragmentation on plant diversity: evidence from a sand dune field in a desertified grassland in northeastern China. Ecol. Eng. 54:90-96.

WWF-India. 2013. Tigers in Satpura. WWF-India Publication. New Delhi. 47 pp.

Yang, M., Liu, F., Han, Y.N., Xu, L.M., Juntawong, M., and Liu, Y.L. 2013. Genetic diversity and structure in populations of Nelumbo from America, Thailand and China: implications for conservation and breeding. Aquat. Bot. 107:1-7.

Yeh, Y.M., Huang, H.W., Dietrich, K.S., and Melvin, E. 2013. Estimates of seabird incidental catch by pelagic longline fisheries in the South Atlantic Ocean. Anim. Conserv. 16(2):141-152.

Yemshanov, D., Koch, F.H., Ducey, M., and Koehler, K. 2013. Mapping ecological risks with a portfolio-based technique: incorporating uncertainty and decision-making preferences. Divers. Distrib. 19(5-6):567-579.

Young, H., Griffin, R.H., Wood, C.L., and Nunn, C.L. 2013. Does habitat disturbance increase infectious disease risk for primates? Ecol. Lett. 16(5):656-663.

Yusuf, M., Teklehaimanot, Z., and Gurmu, D. 2013. The decline of the Vulnerable yeheb Cordeauxia edulis, an economically important dryland shrub of Ethiopia. Oryx 47(1):54-58.

Zarco-González, M.M., Monroy-Vilchis, O., and Alaníz, J. 2013. Spatial model of livestock predation by jaguar and puma in Mexico: conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 159:80-87.

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