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Department ofBotany

No. 346
October 2013

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In This Issue

Genetics Research on Leopards and Tigers in India Underscores Importance of Protecting Forest Corridors

Adapted from the Conservation Ecology Center

A tiger in the Satpura-Maikal forest in Central India. (Photo Credit: Sandeep Sharma and Trishna Dutta, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)

A tiger in the Satpura-Maikal forest in Central India. (Photo Credit: Sandeep Sharma and Trishna Dutta, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)

As rapid economic expansion continues to shape the Asian landscape on which many species depend, time is running out for conservationists aiming to save wildlife such as tigers and leopards. Scientists at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute have used genetic analysis to find that the natural forest corridors in India are essential to ensuring a future for these species. According to two studies recently published in two papers, these corridors are successfully connecting populations of tigers and leopards to ensure genetic diversity and gene flow. The results of the study that focused on tigers were published in Ecology and Evolution, and the results from the study that tracked leopards were published in Diversity and Distributions.

"This research provides crucial information about the need to maintain these vital veins to support tiger and leopard populations," said Sandeep Sharma, SCBI visiting scholar and lead author of the Ecology and Evolution paper. "These habitats and corridors in India are threatened by infrastructural developments and need to be conserved if we want to save these species for future generations."

Habitat fragmentation can divide populations of species into isolated groups, which can lead to inbreeding and a genetic bottleneck that affects the long-term viability of the population. Scientists can determine the scope of such isolation by analyzing the extent to which groups of the same species from one range have become genetically distinct. The authors of the two papers used fecal samples to analyze the genetics of tiger and leopard populations in four reserves in central India: Satpura, Melghat, Pench and Kanha. The Kanha and Pench reserves and the Satpura and Melghat reserves are connected via forest corridors that tigers, leopards, humans and cattle share.

The researchers found that both tiger and leopard populations in the reserves had maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Neither tigers nor leopards were genetically distinct, with one exception among the leopards, which the scientists hope to explain with additional research. The corridors appear to allow individuals to move between reserves, facilitating genetic exchange.

However, the proliferation of roads, rail lines, mining, urbanization and other forms of development through the corridors jeopardize these species' ability to move between reserves. Several coal mines have been proposed in the forest corridor between the Satpura and Pench tiger reserves, as has the widening of a national highway (NH-7) and a broad-gauge railway line that cut across the corridor between the Kanha and Pench tiger reserves.

"By looking at two species, we were really able to illustrate the functionality of these corridors," said Trishna Dutta, SCBI visiting student and lead author of the Diversity and Distributions paper. "Conserving a whole landscape, rather than piecemeal protected areas, would ensure a better chance for the long-term persistence of these and other species."

The Indian subcontinent contains the largest number of tiger conservation areas, which are home to 60 percent of the world's wild tigers. Leopard range has historically extended through most of sub-Saharan Africa, along parts of the North African coast, through central, south and southeast Asia and north to the Amur River valley in Russia.

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Cohen, O., Barocas, A., and Geffen, E. 2013. Conflicting management policies for the Arabian wolf Canis lupus arabs in the Negev Desert: is this justified? Oryx 47(2):228-236.

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Corsi, M.P., Eby, L.A., and Barfoot, C.A. 2013. Hybridization with rainbow trout alters life history traits of native westslope cutthroat trout. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 70(6):895-904.

Coser, T.S., Versieux, L.M., and Wendt, T. 2013. Alcantarea galactea (Bromeliaceae), a new giant bromeliad from Brazil, with populations seen from the sky. Syst. Bot. 38(2):339-343.

Cullen, R. 2013. Biodiversity protection prioritisation: a 25-year review. Wildlife Res. 40(2):108-116.

Cullen, R., and White, P.C.L. 2013. Interdisciplinarity in biodiversity project evaluation: a work in progress. Wildlife Res. 40(2):163-168.

Cunnington, G.M., and Fahrig, L. 2013. Mate attraction by male anurans in the presence of traffic noise. Anim. Conserv. 16(3):275-285.

Da Silva, E.M., King, V.M., Russell-Mercier, J.L., and Sargent, R.D. 2013. Evidence for pollen limitation of a native plant in invaded communities. Oecologia 172(2):469-476.

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de Carvalho, E.A.R., and Morato, R.G. 2013. Factors affecting big cat hunting in Brazilian protected areas. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(2):303-310.

de Paz, J.P., and Caujapé-Castells, J. 2013. A review of the allozyme data set for the Canarian endemic flora: causes of the high genetic diversity levels and implications for conservation. Ann. Botany 111(6):1059-1073.

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DeFisher, L.E., and Bonter, D.N. 2013. Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra) on herring gull (Larus argentatus) reproduction. PLoS ONE 8(5):e64185.

Delia, J.R.J., Whitney, J.L., and Burkhardt, T. 2013. Rediscovery of 'lost' treefrogs from the Oaxacan highlands of Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(6-7):1405-1414.

Denoël, M., Perez, A., Cornet, Y., and Ficetola, G.F. 2013. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species. PLoS ONE 8(5):e62727.

Dhanwatey, H.S., Crawford, J.C., Abade, L.A.S., Dhanwatey, P.H., Nielsen, C.K., and Sillero-Zubiri, C. 2013. Large carnivore attacks on humans in central India: a case study from the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve. Oryx 47(2):221-227.

Dhyani, D., Dhyani, S., and Maikhuri, R.K. 2013. Assessing anthropogenic pressure and its impact on Hippophae salicifolia pockets in Central Himalaya, Uttarakhand. J. Mt. Sci. 10(3):464-471.

Di Minin, E., Fraser, I., Slotow, R., and MacMillan, D.C. 2013. Conservation marketing and education for less charismatic biodiversity and conservation businesses for sustainable development. Anim. Conserv. 16(3):263-264.

Di Minin, E., Fraser, I., Slotow, R., and MacMillan, D.C. 2013. Understanding heterogeneous preference of tourists for big game species: implications for conservation and management. Anim. Conserv. 16(3):249-258.

Díaz-Sacco, J.J., and Izawa, M. 2013. Road use by the Iriomote cat (Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis) on Iriomote-jima Island in relation to its herpetile prey. Mamm. Stud. 38(2):73-80.

Dingaan, M.N.V., and du Preez, P.J. 2013. Grassland communities of urban open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa. Koedoe 55(1):1075.

Diniz, M.F., and Brito, D. 2013. Threats to and viability of the giant anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Pilosa: Myrmecophagidae), in a protected Cerrado remnant encroached by urban expansion in central Brazil. Zoologia 30(2):151-156.

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Silva-Soares, T., and Scherrer, P.V. 2013. Amphibians of Parque Estadual do Forno Grande, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil: species composition and conservation. North-West. J. Zool. 9(1):113-120.

Skálová, H., Jarošík, V., Dvořáčková, Š., and Pyšek, P. 2013. Effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the performance of native and invasive species of Impatiens under varying levels of shade and moisture. PLoS ONE 8(5):e62842.

Skroblin, A., and Legge, S. 2013. Conservation of the patchily distributed and declining purple-crowned fairy-wren (Malurus coronatus coronatus) across a vast landscape: the need for a collaborative landscape-scale approach. PLoS ONE 8(5):e64942.

Smith, A.B. 2013. On evaluating species distribution models with random background sites in place of absences when test presences disproportionately sample suitable habitat. Divers. Distrib. 19(7):867-872.

Smith, S.B., DeSando, S.A., and Pagano, T. 2013. The value of native and invasive fruit-bearing shrubs for migrating songbirds. Northeastern Nat. 20(1):171-184.

Song, Z.Y., Zhang, J.Q., Jiang, X.M., Wang, C.M., and Xie, Z.C. 2013. Population structure of an endemic gastropod in Chinese plateau lakes: evidence for population decline. Freshwater Sci. 32(2):450-461.

Steven, R., Castley, J.G., and Buckley, R. 2013. Tourism revenue as a conservation tool for threatened birds in protected areas. PLoS ONE 8(5):e62598.

Stevenson, T.C., Tissot, B.N., and Walsh, W.J. 2013. Socioeconomic consequences of fishing displacement from marine protected areas in Hawaii. Biol. Conserv. 160:50-58.

Storck-Tonon, D., Morato, E.F., de Melo, A.W.F., and de Oliveira, M.L. 2013. Orchid Bees of forest fragments in Southwestern Amazonia. Biota Neotrop. 13(1):133-141.

Stringell, T.B., Bamber, R.N., Burton, M., Lindenbaum, C., Skates, L.R., and Sanderson, W.G. 2013. A tool for protected area management: multivariate control charts "cope' with rare variable communities. Ecol. Evol. 3(6):1667-1676.

Suárez, E., Zapata-Ríos, G., Utreras, V., Strindberg, S., and Vargas, J. 2013. Controlling access to oil roads protects forest cover, but not wildlife communities: a case study from the rainforest of Yasuni Biosphere Reserve (Ecuador). Anim. Conserv. 16(3):265-274.

Suárez-Esteban, A., Delibes, M., and Fedriani, J.M. 2013. Barriers or corridors? The overlooked role of unpaved roads in endozoochorous seed dispersal. J. Appl. Ecol. 50(3):767-774.

Suazo, C.G., Schlatter, R.P., Arriagada, A.M., Cabezas, L.A., and Ojeda, J. 2013. Fishermen's perceptions of interactions between seabirds and artisanal fisheries in the Chonos archipelago, Chilean Patagonia. Oryx 47(2):184-189.

Sunarto, Kelly, M.J., Klenzendorf, S., Vaughan, M.R., Zulfahmi, Hutajulu, M.B., and Parakkasi, K. 2013. Threatened predator on the equator: multi-point abundance estimates of the tiger Panthera tigris in central Sumatra. Oryx 47(2):211-220.

Tanferna, A., López-Jiménez, L., Blas, J., Hiraldo, F., and Sergio, F. 2013. Habitat selection by Black kite breeders and floaters: implications for conservation management of raptor floaters. Biol. Conserv. 160:1-9.

Tarazi, R., Sebbenn, A.M., Kageyama, P.Y., and Vencovsky, R. 2013. Edge effects enhance selfing and seed harvesting efforts in the insect-pollinated Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae). Heredity 110(6):578-585.

Tempa, T., Hebblewhite, M., Mills, L.S., Wangchuk, T.R., Norbu, N., Wangchuk, T., Nidup, T., Dendup, P., Wangchuk, D., Wangdi, Y., and Dorji, T. 2013. Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan: a hot spot for wild felids. Oryx 47(2):207-210.

Tererai, F., Gaertner, M., Jacobs, S.M., and Richardson, D.M. 2013. Eucalyptus invasions in riparian forests: effects on native vegetation community diversity, stand structure and composition. Forest Ecol. Manag. 297:84-93.

Tesfaye, D., Fashing, P.J., Bekele, A., Mekonnen, A., and Atickem, A. 2013. Ecological flexibility in Boutourlini's blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis boutourlinii) in Jibat Forest, Ethiopia: a comparison of habitat use, ranging behavior, and diet in intact and fragmented forest. Int. J. Primatol. 34(3):615-640.

Tetetla-Rangel, E., Hernández-Stefanoni, J.L., and Dupuy, J.M. 2013. Patterns of rare woody species richness: the influence of environment, landscape attributes and spatial structure across different spatial scales. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(6-7):1435-1450.

Thogmartin, W.E., Sanders-Reed, C.A., Szymanski, J.A., McKann, P.C., Pruitt, L., King, R.A., Runge, M.C., and Russell, R.E. 2013. White-nose syndrome is likely to extirpate the endangered Indiana bat over large parts of its range. Biol. Conserv. 160:162-172.

Thomas, C.D., Anderson, B.J., Moilanen, A., Eigenbrod, F., Heinemeyer, A., Quaife, T., Roy, D.B., Gillings, S., Armsworth, P.R., and Gaston, K.J. 2013. Reconciling biodiversity and carbon conservation. Ecol. Lett. 16:39-47.

Thomsen, M.S., Stæhr, P.A., Nejrup, L., and Schiel, D.R. 2013. Effects of the invasive macroalgae Gracilaria vermiculophylla on two co-occurring foundation species and associated invertebrates. Aquat. Invasions 8(2):133-145.

Thulin, M., Phillipson, P.B., and Lavin, M. 2013. Peltiera (Fabaceae), the coming and going of an "extinct" genus in Madagascar. Adansonia 35(1):61-71.

Tollington, S., Jones, C.G., Greenwood, A., Tatayah, V., Raisin, C., Burke, T., Dawson, D.A., and Groombridge, J.J. 2013. Long-term, fine-scale temporal patterns of genetic diversity in the restored Mauritius parakeet reveal genetic impacts of management and associated demographic effects on reintroduction programmes. Biol. Conserv. 161:28-38.

Tovar, C., Arnillas, C.A., Cuesta, F., and Buytaert, W. 2013. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions. PLoS ONE 8(5):e63634.

Towns, D.R., West, C.J., and Broome, K.G. 2013. Purposes, outcomes and challenges of eradicating invasive mammals from New Zealand islands: an historical perspective. Wildlife Res. 40(2):94-107.

Treanor, H.B., Giersch, J.J., Kappenman, K.M., Muhlfeld, C.C., and Webb, M.A.H. 2013. Thermal tolerance of meltwater stonefly Lednia tumana nymphs from an alpine stream in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Montana, USA. Freshwater Sci. 32(2):597-605.

Trentanovi, G., von der Lippe, M., Sitzia, T., Ziechmann, U., Kowarik, I., and Cierjacks, A. 2013. Biotic homogenization at the community scale: disentangling the roles of urbanization and plant invasion. Divers. Distrib. 19(7):738-748.

Trovó, M., Echternacht, L., and Sano, P.T. 2013. Three new species of Paepalanthus sect. Diphyomene (Eriocaulaceae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Novon 22(3):325-331.

Tucker, C.M., and Cadotte, M.W. 2013. Unifying measures of biodiversity: understanding when richness and phylogenetic diversity should be congruent. Divers. Distrib. 19(7):845-854.

Tumenta, P.N., de Iongh, H.H., Funston, P.J., and de Haes, H.A.U. 2013. Livestock depredation and mitigation methods practised by resident and nomadic pastoralists around Waza National Park, Cameroon. Oryx 47(2):237-242.

Turnhout, E., Waterton, C., Neves, K., and Buizer, M. 2013. Rethinking biodiversity: from goods and services to "living with". Conserv. Lett. 6(3):154-161.

Uchii, K., Okuda, N., Minamoto, T., and Kawabata, Z. 2013. An emerging infectious pathogen endangers an ancient lineage of common carp by acting synergistically with conspecific exotic strains. Anim. Conserv. 16(3):324-330.

Urban-Malinga, B., Warzocha, J., and Zalewski, M. 2013. Effects of the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria spp. on benthic processes and meiobenthos of a species-poor brackish system. J. Sea Res. 80:25-34.

Urban, R.A., Titus, J.E., and Hansen, H.H. 2013. Positive feedback favors invasion by a submersed freshwater plant. Oecologia 172(2):515-523.

Van Couwenberghe, R., Collet, C., Pierrat, J.C., Verheyen, K., and Gegout, J.C. 2013. Can species distribution models be used to describe plant abundance patterns? Ecography 36(6):665-674.

van de Merwe, J.P., Ibrahim, K., and Whittier, J.M. 2013. Post-emergence handling of green turtle hatchlings: improving hatchery management worldwide. Anim. Conserv. 16(3):316-323.

van Oosterhout, C., Mohammed, R.S., Xavier, R., Stephenson, J.F., Archard, G.A., Hockley, F.A., Perkins, S.E., and Cable, J. 2013. Invasive freshwater snails provide resource for native marine hermit crabs. Aquat. Invasions 8(2):185-191.

Van Wilgen, N.J., Dopolo, M., Symonds, A., Vermeulen, W., Bester, E., Smith, K., and McGeoch, M.A. 2013. An inventory of natural resources harvested from national parks in South Africa. Koedoe 55(1):1096.

Vanbergen, A.J., and the Insect Pollinators Initiative. 2013. Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators. Front. Ecol. Environ. 11(5):251-259.

Vanhove, W., and Van Damme, P. 2013. Value chains of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) in a centre of diversity and its on-farm conservation implications. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(2):158-180.

Vargas, R., Gärtner, S., Alvarez, M., Hagen, E., and Reif, A. 2013. Does restoration help the conservation of the threatened forest of Robinson Crusoe Island? The impact of forest gap attributes on endemic plant species richness and exotic invasions. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(6-7):1283-1300.

Venevskaia, I., Venevsky, S., and Thomas, C.D. 2013. Projected latitudinal and regional changes in vascular plant diversity through climate change: short-term gains and longer-term losses. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(6-7):1467-1483.

Verhofstad, M.J.J.M., Grutters, B.M.C., van der Velde, G., and Leuven, R.S.E.W. 2013. Effects of water depth on survival, condition and stable isotope values of three invasive dreissenid species in a deep freshwater lake. Aquat. Invasions 8(2):157-169.

Verlynde, S., Dubuisson, J.Y., Stévart, T., Simo-Droissart, M., Geerinck, D., Sonké, B., Cawoy, V., Descourvières, P., and Droissart, V. 2013. Taxonomic revision of the genus Bolusiella (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) with a new species from Cameroon, Burundi and Rwanda. Phytotaxa 114(1):1-22.

Viana, P.L., Filgueiras, T.S., and Graciano-Ribeiro, D. 2013. A new woody bamboo (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from central Brazil, Aulonemia xerophylla. Novon 22(3):371-376.

Vicente, J.R., Pinto, A.T., Araújo, M.B., Verburg, P.H., Lomba, A., Randin, C.F., Guisan, A., and Honrado, J.P. 2013. Using life strategies to explore the vulnerability of ecosystem services to invasion by alien plants. Ecosystems 16(4):678-693.

Vieilledent, G., Grinand, C., and Vaudry, R. 2013. Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar. Ecol. Evol. 3(6):1702-1716.

Virkkala, R., Heikkinen, R.K., Fronzek, S., and Leikola, N. 2013. Climate change, northern birds of conservation concern and matching the hotspots of habitat suitability with the reserve network. PLoS ONE 8(6):e63376.

Vogler, F., and Reisch, C. 2013. Vital survivors: low genetic variation but high germination in glacial relict populations of the typical rock plant Draba aizoides. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(6-7):1301-1316.

Vuorio, V., Heikkinen, R.K., and Tikkanen, O.P. 2013. Breeding success of the threatened great crested newt in boreal forest ponds. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 50(3):158-169.

Wade, A.S.I., Barov, B., Burfield, I.J., Gregory, R.D., Norris, K., and Butler, S.J. 2013. Quantifying the detrimental impacts of land-use and management change on European forest bird populations. PLoS ONE 8(5):e64552.

Wandrag, E.M., Sheppard, A., Duncan, R.P., and Hulme, P.E. 2013. Mutualism vs. antagonism in introduced and native ranges: can seed dispersal and predation determine Acacia invasion success? Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 15(3):171-179.

Waters, C.G., Story, R., and Costello, M.J. 2013. A methodology for recruiting a giant clam, Tridacna maxima, directly to natural substrata: a first step in reversing functional extinctions? Biol. Conserv. 160:19-24.

Watling, J.I., Bucklin, D.N., Speroterra, C., Brandt, L.A., Mazzotti, F.J., and Romanach, S.S. 2013. Validating predictions from climate envelope models. PLoS ONE 8(5):e63600.

Wayne, A.F., Maxwell, M.A., Ward, C.G., Vellios, C.V., Ward, B.G., Liddelow, G.L., Wilson, I., Wayne, J.C., and Williams, M.R. 2013. Importance of getting the numbers right: quantifying the rapid and substantial decline of an abundant marsupial, Bettongia penicillata. Wildlife Res. 40(3):169-183.

White, A.M., Zipkin, E.F., Manley, P.N., and Schlesinger, M.D. 2013. Conservation of avian diversity in the Sierra Nevada: moving beyond a single-species management focus. PLoS ONE 8(5):e63088.

Wickham, J., Wood, P.B., Nicholson, M.C., Jenkins, W., Druckenbrod, D., Suter, G.W., Strager, M.P., Mazzarella, C., Galloway, W., and Amos, J. 2013. The overlooked terrestrial impacts of mountaintop mining. BioScience 63(5):335-348.

Williams, N.M., and Winfree, R. 2013. Local habitat characteristics but not landscape urbanization drive pollinator visitation and native plant pollination in forest remnants. Biol. Conserv. 160:10-18.

Williamson, L., Hudson, M., O'Connell, M., Davidson, N., Young, R., Amano, T., and Székely, T. 2013. Areas of high diversity for the world's inland-breeding waterbirds. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(6-7):1501-1512.

Willoughby, J.R., Sundaram, M., Lewis, T.L., and Swanson, B.J. 2013. Population decline in a long-lived species: the wood turtle in Michigan. Herpetologica 69(2):186-198.

Wingfield, J.C. 2013. The comparative biology of environmental stress: behavioural endocrinology and variation in ability to cope with novel, changing environments. Anim. Behav. 85(5):1127-1133.

Winter, M., Devictor, V., and Schweiger, O. 2013. Conquering current obstacles for avoiding the misuse of evolutionary diversity in nature conservation: a reply to Flosauer and Mooers. Trends Ecol. Evol. 28(6):323-324.

Wintzer, A.P., Meek, M.H., and Moyle, P.B. 2013. Abundance, size, and diel feeding ecology of Blackfordia virginica (Mayer, 1910), a non-native hydrozoan in the lower Napa and Petaluma Rivers, California (USA). Aquat. Invasions 8(2):147-156.

Witczuk, J., Pagacz, S., and Mills, L.S. 2013. Disproportionate predation on endemic marmots by invasive coyotes. J. Mammal. 94(3):702-713.

Wnek, J.P., Bien, W.F., and Avery, H.W. 2013. Artificial nesting habitats as a conservation strategy for turtle populations experiencing global change. Integr. Zool. 8(2):209-221.

Wong, W.M., and Linkie, M. 2013. Managing sun bears in a changing tropical landscape. Divers. Distrib. 19(7):700-709.

Wood, D.A., Vandergast, A.G., Barr, K.R., Inman, R.D., Esque, T.C., Nussear, K.E., and Fisher, R.N. 2013. Comparative phylogeography reveals deep lineages and regional evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts. Divers. Distrib. 19(7):722-737.

Yan, W.B., Zeng, Z.G., Pan, D., Wang, T.J., Zhang, Q., Fu, Y.N., Lin, X.M., and Song, Y.L. 2013. Scale-dependent habitat selection by reintroduced Eld's deer (Cervus eldi) in a human-dominated landscape. Wildlife Res. 40(3):217-227.

Yang, W., Dietz, T., Kramer, D.B., Chen, X.D., and Liu, J.G. 2013. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human well-being. PLoS ONE 8(5):e64582.

Yang, W., Dietz, T., Liu, W., Luo, J.Y., and Liu, J.G. 2013. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services. PLoS ONE 8(5):e64581.

Yildiz, K., and Çirpici, A.H. 2013. Taxonomic revision of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) sections Siphonomorpha, Lasiostemones, Sclerocalycinae, Chloranthae, Tataricae, and Otites in Turkey. Turk. J. Bot. 37(2):191-218.

Yuan, Y.G., Wang, B., Zhang, S.S., Tang, J.J., Tu, C., Hu, S.J., Yong, J.W.H., and Chen, X. 2013. Enhanced allelopathy and competitive ability of invasive plant Solidago canadensis in its introduced range. J. Plant Ecol. 6(3):253-263.

Zabin, C.J., Danner, E.M., Baumgartner, E.P., Spafford, D., Miller, K.A., and Pearse, J.S. 2013. A comparison of intertidal species richness and composition between Central California and Oahu, Hawaii. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 34(2):131-156.

Zaller, J.G., Parth, M., Szunyogh, I., Semmelrock, I., Sochurek, S., Pinheiro, M., Frank, T., and Drapela, T. 2013. Herbivory of an invasive slug is affected by earthworms and the composition of plant communities. BMC Ecology 13:20.

Zeisset, I., and Beebee, T.J.C. 2013. Donor population size rather than local adaptation can be a key determinant of amphibian translocation success. Anim. Conserv. 16(3):359-366.

Zenni, R.D., and Nuñez, M.A. 2013. The elephant in the room: the role of failed invasions in understanding invasion biology. Oikos 122(6):801-815.

Zhao, B., Pan, B., Zhang, Y., and Wen, F. 2013. Primulina guizhongensis (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Guangxi, China. Phytotaxa 109(1):27-35.

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