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Department ofBotany

No. 348
December 2013

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In This Issue

Tropical Forests Fix Themselves

Tropical forests speed their own recovery, capturing nitrogen and carbon faster after being logged or cleared for agriculture. Researchers working at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute think the discovery that trees "turn up" their ability to capture or "fix" nitrogen from the air and release it into the soil as the forest makes a comeback has far-reaching implications for forest restoration projects to mitigate global warming , as reported in the journal Nature.

The Agua Salud Project in the Panama Canal Watershed makes it possible for Smithsonian scientists to quantify carbon storage, runoff and biodiversity for land uses including teak and native tree species plantations. (Photo by Christian Ziegler)

Nearly 50 percent of the world’s tropical forests are secondary forests that have regrown after clearing, agriculture or cattle grazing. The Agua Salud Project in the Panama Canal Watershed makes it possible for Smithsonian scientists to quantify carbon storage, runoff and biodiversity for land uses including teak and native tree species plantations. (Photo by Christian Ziegler)

"This is the first solid case showing how nitrogen fixation by tropical trees directly affects the rate of carbon recovery after agricultural fields are abandoned," said Jefferson Hall, STRI staff scientist. "Trees turn nitrogen fixation on and off according to the need for nitrogen in the system."

Hall directs the Agua Salud Project, an experiment spanning more than a square mile of the Panama Canal watershed. Researchers compare land-use options, measuring carbon storage, runoff and biodiversity to find out how mature tropical forest, native trees in forest restoration plots and abandoned pastureland compare. The project hosted the collaboration between scientists at Princeton University, Wageningen University, the University of Copenhagen, Yale University and STRI to explore the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon storage.

They compared the tree growth rate and nitrogen levels on pastureland abandoned two, 12, 30 and 80 years ago with trees growing in mature forests. Tree species that "fixed" nitrogen from the atmosphere put on carbon weight up to nine times faster than their non-fixing neighbors during early stages of forest recovery. Nitrogen-fixers provided enough nitrogen fertilizer in the soil to facilitate storage of 50,000 kilograms of carbon per hectare during the first 12 years of growth.

"Diversity really matters," said the study's first author, Sarah Batterman, who worked collaboratively on the project with Lars Hedin at Princeton University. "Each tree species fixes nitrogen and carbon differently so species important at 12 years drop out or become less common at 30 years. You can really see how different players contribute to the development of a mature tropical forest and the ecosystem services it provides."


The Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation, a partnership between George Mason University and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI), is proud to announce their updated 2014 course schedule. This is shaping up to be a full year, and the school is planning to add a number of additional courses to the list below, so continue to check the website for updated information. All courses are currently either 1- or 2-week intensive residential courses hosted in the school's new, sustainably-built Academic Center on the grounds of SCBI in Front Royal, Virginia. Most courses can be taken either for graduate credit or continuing education units. Limited scholarships are available for international applicants. Visit or email for more details about each course, course costs, and credits earned.

March 31-April 11, 2014: AniMove: Animal Movement Analysis for Conservation
Animal movements are critical for maintaining ecosystems services and biodiversity. Technological advances have greatly increased our ability to track animal movements, but analyzing and contextualizing vast amounts of tracking data can present scientific, computational, and technical challenges. This two-week course focuses on interdisciplinary approaches linking animal movement with environmental factors to address theoretical and applied questions in conservation biology. To achieve this, participants will acquire significant skills in computational ecology, modeling, remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

April 28-May 9, 2014: Species Monitoring & Conservation: Terrestrial Mammals
This course teaches current techniques in assessment and monitoring of wild mammal populations, including bats. Participants learn principles of study design; current field assessment methods; data analysis techniques including MARK and DISTANCE software; application of monitoring data to decision-making and population management; and collection and preparation of museum voucher specimens.

May 19-30, 2014: Estimating Animal Abundance and Occupancy
The course is designed to provide a strong theoretical and analytical background to both graduate students and professionals in distance sampling, mark-recapture, and occupancy modeling techniques, with a strong focus on the practical use of field data in the programs DISTANCE, MARK and PRESENCE. The course is taught by Gary White, Jim Nichols, Jim Hines and Joe Kolowski.

Additional Upcoming Courses:

Current Literature

Abolafya, M., Onmuş, O., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H., and Bilgin, R. 2013. Using citizen science data to model the distributions of common songbirds of Turkey under different global climatic change scenarios. PLoS ONE 8(7):e68037.

Aguilar-Santelises, R., and del Castillo, R.F. 2013. Factors affecting woody plant species diversity of fragmented seasonally dry oak forests in the Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 84(2):575-590.

Al-Chokhachy, R., Alder, J., Hostetler, S., Gresswell, R., and Shepard, B. 2013. Thermal controls of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and invasive fishes under climate change. Global Change Biol. 19(10):3069-3081.

Albrecht, H., and Haider, S. 2013. Species diversity and life history traits in calcareous grasslands vary along an urbanization gradient. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(10):2243-2267.

Alexander, K.N.A., and Dubbeldam, A. 2013. A survey of ancient woodland indicator molluscs in selected sites on the Isle of Man. J. Conchology 41:407-417.

Ali, R., and Pelkey, N. 2013. Satellite images indicate vegetation degradation due to invasive herbivores in the Andaman Islands. Curr. Sci. 105(2):209-214.

Anandharaj, M., Sivakumar, S., and Rani, M.R.P. 2013. Conservation of Dugong dugon (sea cow) in Gulf of Mannar. Curr. Sci. 105(2):149-150.

Andersen, J.J., Portnoy, D.S., Hafner, J.C., and Light, J.E. 2013. Populations at risk: conservation genetics of kangaroo mice (Microdipodops) of the Great Basin Desert. Ecol. Evol. 3(8):2497-2513.

Andrello, M., Mouillot, D., Beuvier, J., Albouy, C., Thuiller, W., and Manel, S. 2013. Low connectivity between Mediterranean marine protected areas: a biophysical modeling approach for the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. PLoS ONE 8(7):e68564.

Antunes, A.Z., da Silva, B.G., Matsukuma, C.K., de Eston, M.R., and dos Santos, A.M.R. 2013. Birds from Carlos Botelho Park state of São Paulo southeastern Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 13(2):124-140.

Antunes-Carvalho, C., and Lopes-Andrade, C. 2013. Two invaders instead of one: the true identity of species under the name Ceracis cucullatus (Coleoptera: Ciidae). PLoS ONE 8(8):e72319.

Aravind, N.A. 2013. Potential of social network and internet media for biodiversity mapping and conservation. Curr. Sci. 105(3):291-293.

Aslan, C.E., Zavaleta, E.S., Tershy, B., and Croll, D. 2013. Mutualism disruption threatens global plant biodiversity: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66993.

Babcock, R.C. 2013. Leigh Marine Laboratory contributions to marine conservation. New Zeal. J. Mar. Fresh. 47(3):360-373.

Bai, F., Chisholm, R., Sang, W.G., and Dong, M. 2013. Spatial risk assessment of alien invasive plants in China. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47(14):7624-7632.

Barbosa, A.M., Pautasso, M., and Figueiredo, D. 2013. Species-people correlations and the need to account for survey effort in biodiversity analyses. Divers. Distrib. 19(9):1188-1197.

Barney, J.N., Tekiela, D.R., Dollete, E.S.J., and Tomasek, B.J. 2013. What is the "real" impact of invasive plant species? Front. Ecol. Environ. 11(6):322-329.

Bartlam-Brooks, H.L.A., Bonyongo, M.C., and Harris, S. 2013. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta. Ecol. Evol. 3(9):2795-2805.

Barton, P.S., Colloff, M.J., Pullen, K.R., and Cunningham, S.A. 2013. Arthropod assemblages in a focal tree species (Eucalyptus microcarpa) depends on the species mix in restoration plantings. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(9):2091-2110.

Batterman, S.A., Hedin, L.O., van Breugel, M., Ransijn, J., Craven, D.J., and Hall, J.S. 2013. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession. Nature 502(7470):224-227.

Bell, T.J., Powell, K.I., and Bowles, M.L. 2013. Viability model choice affects projection accuracy and reintroduction decisions. J. Wildlife Manag. 77(6):1104-1113.

Beltrán, W., and Wunderle, J.M. 2013. Determinants of tree species preference for foraging by insectivorous birds in a novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodland in Puerto Rico: the role of foliage palatability. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(9):2071-2089.

Berlow, E.L., Knapp, R.A., Ostoja, S.M., Williams, R.J., McKenny, H., Matchett, J.R., Guo, Q.H., Fellers, G.M., Kleeman, P., Brooks, M.L., and Joppa, L. 2013. A network extension of species occupancy models in a patchy environment applied to the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus). PLoS ONE 8(8):e72200.

Bernard, E., do Nascimento, J.L., and Aguiar, L.M.D. 2013. Flagging a species as threatened: the case of Eptesicus taddeii, an endemic bat from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biota Neotrop. 13(2):314-318.

Bernardo, P.V.D., and de Melou, F.R. 2013. Assemblage of medium and large size mammals in an urban Semideciduous Seasonal Forest fragment in Cerrado biome. Biota Neotrop. 13(2):76-80.

Bertrin, V., Boutry, S., Dutartre, A., and Lambert, E. 2013. Characeae communities in the Medoc area lakes (South-West France). Elements of ecology and distribution. Acta Bot. Gallica 160(2):131-140.

Bielby, J., Bovero, S., Angelini, C., Favelli, M., Gazzaniga, E., Perkins, M., Sotgiu, G., Tessa, G., and Garner, T.W.J. 2013. Geographic and taxonomic variation in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and transmission within a highly endemic amphibian community. Divers. Distrib. 19(9):1153-1163.

Bieringer, G., Zulka, K.P., Milasowszky, N., and Sauberer, N. 2013. Edge effect of a pine plantation reduces dry grassland invertebrate species richness. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(10):2269-2283.

Blanco-Pastor, J.L., Fernández-Mazuecos, M., and Vargas, P. 2013. Past and future demographic dynamics of alpine species: limited genetic consequences despite dramatic range contraction in a plant from the Spanish Sierra Nevada. Mol. Ecol. 22(16):4177-4195.

Bode, M., Brennan, K.E.C., Helmstedt, K., Desmond, A., Smia, R., and Algar, D. 2013. Interior fences can reduce cost and uncertainty when eradicating invasive species from large islands. Method. Ecol. Evol. 4(9):819-827.

Bonanomi, G., Incerti, G., and Allegrezza, M. 2013. Assessing the impact of land abandonment, nitrogen enrichment and fairy-ring fungi on plant diversity of Mediterranean grasslands. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(10):2285-2304.

Bouget, C., Larrieu, L., Nusillard, B., and Parmain, G. 2013. In search of the best local habitat drivers for saproxylic beetle diversity in temperate deciduous forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(9):2111-2130.

Bouzid, W., Štefka, J., Bahri-Sfar, L., Beerli, P., Loot, G., Lek, S., Haddaoui, N., Hypša, V., Scholz, T., Dkhil-Abbes, T., Meddour, R., and Ben Hassine, O.K. 2013. Pathways of cryptic invasion in a fish parasite traced using coalescent analysis and epidemiological survey. Biol. Invasions 15(9):1907-1923.

Braunisch, V., Coppes, J., Arlettaz, R., Suchant, R., Schmid, H., and Bollmann, K. 2013. Selecting from correlated climate variables: a major source of uncertainty for predicting species distributions under climate change. Ecography 36(9):971-983.

Broadhurst, B.T., Ebner, B.C., Lintermans, M., Thiem, J.D., and Clear, R.C. 2013. Jailbreak: a fishway releases the endangered Macquarie perch from confinement below an anthropogenic barrier. Mar. Freshwater Res. 64(9):900-908.

Bryan, J.E., Shearman, P.L., Asner, G.P., Knapp, D.E., Aoro, G., and Lokes, B. 2013. Extreme differences in forest degradation in Borneo: comparing practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei. PLoS ONE 8(7):e69679.

Cacabelos, E., Olabarria, C., Viejo, R.M., Rubal, M., Veiga, P., Incera, M., Gestoso, I., Vaz-Pinto, F., Mejia, A., Engelen, A.H., and Arenas, F. 2013. Invasion of Sargassum muticum in intertidal rockpools: patterns along the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Mar. Environ. Res. 90:18-26.

Calles, O., Karlsson, S., Vezza, P., Comoglio, C., and Tielman, J. 2013. Success of a low-sloping rack for improving downstream passage of silver eels at a hydroelectric plant. Freshwater Biol. 58(10):2168-2179.

Campbell, D.R., and Wendlandt, C. 2013. Altered precipitation affects plant hybrids differently than their parental species. Am. J. Bot. 100(7):1322-1331.

Campos, P.R.A., Rosas, A., de Oliveira, V.M., and Gomes, M.A.F. 2013. Effect of landscape structure on species diversity. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66495.

Caplat, P., Cheptou, P.O., Diez, J., Guisan, A., Larson, B.M.H., Macdougall, A.S., Peltzer, D.A., Richardson, D.M., Shea, K., van Kleunen, M., Zhang, R., and Buckley, Y.M. 2013. Movement, impacts and management of plant distributions in response to climate change: insights from invasions. Oikos 122(9):1265-1274.

Caraballo-Ortiz, M.A. 2013. Rediscovery of Arrabidaea chica (Bignoniaceae) and Entada polystachya var. polyphylla (Fabaceae) in Puerto Rico. Phytotaxa 125(1):53-58.

Cardinale, B.J., Gross, K., Fritschie, K., Flombaum, P., Fox, J.W., Rixen, C., van Ruijven, J., Reich, P.B., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., and Wilsey, B.J. 2013. Biodiversity simultaneously enhances the production and stability of community biomass, but the effects are independent. Ecology 94(8):1697-1707.

Carreras, C., Godley, B.J., León, Y.M., Hawkes, L.A., Revuelta, O., Raga, J.A., and Tomás, J. 2013. Contextualising the last survivors: population structure of marine turtles in the Dominican Republic. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66037.

Caryl, F.M., Thomson, K., and van der Ree, R. 2013. Permeability of the urban matrix to arboreal gliding mammals: sugar gliders in Melbourne, Australia. Austral Ecol. 38(6):609-616.

Castello, L., McGrath, D.G., Hess, L.L., Coe, M.T., Lefebvre, P.A., Petry, P., Macedo, M.N., Renó, V.F., and Arantes, C.C. 2013. The vulnerability of Amazon freshwater ecosystems. Conserv. Lett. 6(4):217-229.

Cayuela, H., Besnard, A., and Joly, P. 2013. Multi-event models reveal the absence of interaction between an invasive frog and a native endangered amphibian. Biol. Invasions 15(9):2001-2012.

Cerrillo, R.M.N., Agote, N., Pizarro, F., Ceacero, C.J., and Palacios, G. 2013. Elements for a non-detriment finding of Cedrela spp. in Bolivia - a CITES implementation case study. J. Nature Conserv. 21(4):241-252.

Chagas, E.C.D., Barbosa, M.R.D., and Goldenberg, R. 2013. A new species of Miconia (Melastomataceae, Miconieae) from northeastern Brazil. Brittonia 65(3):305-309.

Cheek, M., and Simão-Bianchini, R. 2013. Keraunea gen. nov. (Convolvulaceae) from Brazil. Nord. J. Bot. 31(4):453-457.

Chen, S.G., and Zeng, Q.W. 2013. The identity of Magnolia odoratissima (Magnoliaceae) from China. Turk. J. Bot. 37(4):656-661.

Chilcott, S., Freeman, R., Davies, P.E., Crook, D.A., Fulton, W., Hamr, P., Jarvis, D., and Sanger, A.C. 2013. Extinct habitat, extant species: lessons learned from conservation recovery actions for the Pedder galaxias (Galaxias pedderensis) in south-west Tasmania, Australia. Mar. Freshwater Res. 64(9):864-873.

Chivers, L.S., Lundy, M.G., Colhoun, K., Newton, S.F., Houghton, J.D.R., and Reid, N. 2013. Identifying optimal feeding habitat and proposed Marine Protected Areas (pMPAs) for the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) suggests a need for complementary management approaches. Biol. Conserv. 164:73-81.

Choi, H.J., Kaneko, S., Yokogawa, M., Song, G.P., Kim, D.S., Kang, S.H., Suyama, Y., and Isagi, Y. 2013. Population and genetic status of a critically endangered species in Korea, Euchresta japonica (Leguminosae), and their implications for conservation. J. Plant Biol. 56(4):251-257.

Choudhury, B., and Khan, M.L. 2013. Conservation through cultivation: a promising opportunity for the critically endangered tree Gymnocladus assamicus. Curr. Sci. 105(3):294-295.

Ciotir, C., Yesson, C., and Freeland, J. 2013. The evolutionary history and conservation value of disjunct Bartonia paniculata subsp. paniculata (Branched Bartonia) populations in Canada. Botany 91(9):605-613.

Clarke, R.T., Liley, D., Sharp, J.M., and Green, R.E. 2013. Building development and roads: implications for the distribution of stone curlews across the Brecks. PLoS ONE 8(8):e72984.

Clayton, S., Litchfield, C., and Geller, E.S. 2013. Psychological science, conservation, and environmental sustainability. Front. Ecol. Environ. 11(7):377-382.

Coles, S.L., and Riegl, B.M. 2013. Thermal tolerances of reef corals in the Gulf: a review of the potential for increasing coral survival and adaptation to climate change through assisted translocation. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 72(2):323-332.

Collazo, J.A., Fackler, P.L., Pacifici, K., White, T.H., Llerandi-Roman, I., and Dinsmore, S.J. 2013. Optimal allocation of captive-reared Puerto Rican parrots: decisions when divergent dynamics characterize managed populations. J. Wildlife Manag. 77(6):1124-1134.

Colón-Rivera, R.J., Marshall, K., Soto-Santiago, F.J., Ortiz-Torres, D., and Flower, C.E. 2013. Moving forward: fostering the next generation of Earth stewards in the STEM disciplines. Front. Ecol. Environ. 11(7):383-391.

Converse, S.J., Moore, C.T., and Armstrong, D.P. 2013. Demographics of reintroduced populations: estimation, modeling, and decision analysis. J. Wildlife Manag. 77(6):1081-1093.

Converse, S.J., Moore, C.T., Folk, M.J., and Runge, M.C. 2013. A matter of tradeoffs: reintroduction as a multiple objective decision. J. Wildlife Manag. 77(6):1145-1156.

Cook, R., Fariñas-Franco, J.M., Gell, F.R., Holt, R.H.F., Holt, T., Lindenbaum, C., Porter, J.S., Seed, R., Skates, L.R., Stringell, T.B., and Sanderson, W.G. 2013. The substantial first impact of bottom fishing on rare biodiversity hotspots: a dilemma for evidence-based conservation. PLoS ONE 8(8):e69904.

Copeland, H.E., Pocewicz, A., Naugle, D.E., Griffiths, T., Keinath, D., Evans, J., and Platt, J. 2013. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation: a novel framework to quantify the benefits of sage-grouse conservation policy and easements in Wyoming. PLoS ONE 8(6):e67261.

Cornelisse, T.M., Bennett, M.K., and Letourneau, D.K. 2013. The implications of habitat management on the population viability of the endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone) metapopulation. PLoS ONE 8(8):e71005.

Costa, W.J.E.M., and Amorim, P.F. 2013. Delimitation of cryptic species of Notholebias, a genus of seasonal miniature killifishes threatened with extinction from the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Fresh. 24(1):63-72.

Côté, I.M., Green, S.J., and Hixon, M.A. 2013. Predatory fish invaders: insights from Indo-Pacific lionfish in the western Atlantic and Caribbean. Biol. Conserv. 164:50-61.

Coverdale, T.C., Axelman, E.E., Brisson, C.P., Young, E.W., Altieri, A.H., and Bertness, M.D. 2013. New England salt marsh recovery: opportunistic colonization of an invasive species and its non-consumptive effects. PLoS ONE 8(8):e73823.

Csergő, A.M., Demeter, L., and Turkington, R. 2013. Declining diversity in abandoned grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains: do dominant species matter? PLoS ONE 8(8):e73533.

Cunha, A.H., Varela-Álvarez, E., Paulo, D.S., Sousa, I., and Serrão, E.A. 2013. The rediscovery of Caulerpa prolifera in Ria Formosa, Portugal, 60 years after the previous record. Cah. Biol. Mar. 54(3):359-364.

Day, N.J., and Buckley, H.L. 2013. Twenty-five years of plant community dynamics and invasion in New Zealand tussock grasslands. Austral Ecol. 38(6):688-699.

Daşkin, R. 2013. Arabis kaynakiae (Brassicaceae), a new species from South Anatolia, Turkey. Phytotaxa 126(1):43-48.

de Baan, L., Mutel, C.L., Curran, M., Hellweg, S., and Koellner, T. 2013. Land use in life cycle assessment: global characterization factors based on regional and global potential species extinction. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47(16):9281-9290.

De Carvalho, T.R., and Giaretta, A.A. 2013. Taxonomic circumscription of Adenomera martinezi (Bokermann, 1956) (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leptodactylinae) with the recognition of a new cryptic taxon through a bioacoustic approach. Zootaxa 3701(2):207-237.

de Castro, G.C., and van den Berg, E. 2013. Structure and conservation value of high-diversity hedgerows in southeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(9):2041-2056.

de Kok, R. 2013. The genus Premna L. (Lamiaceae) in the Flora Malesiana area. Kew Bull. 68(1):55-84.

de Magalhães, A.L.B., and Jacobi, C.M. 2013. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 11(2):433-441.

de Oliveira, L., da Silva, M.J., and de Sales, M.F. 2013. Synopsis of the tribe Hureae (Euphorbioideae, Euphorbiaceae). Brittonia 65(3):310-329.

de Sousa, R.F., Venere, P.C., and Faria, K.D. 2013. Bats in forest remnants of the Cerrado savanna of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 13(2):236-241.

Del Vecchio, S., Acosta, A., and Stanisci, A. 2013. The impact of Acacia saligna invasion on Italian coastal dune EC habitats. C.R. Biologies 336(7):364-369.

Delany, M.F., Kiltie, R.A., Glass, S.L., and Hannon, C.L. 2013. Sources of variation in the abundance and detection of the endangered Florida Grasshopper Sparrow. Southeast. Nat. 12(3):638-654.

Delean, S., Bull, C.M., Brook, B.W., Heard, L.M.B., and Fordham, D.A. 2013. Using plant distributions to predict the current and future range of a rare lizard. Divers. Distrib. 19(9):1125-1137.

Delprete, P.G., and Persson, C. 2013. Sphinctanthus fluvii-dulcis (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae), a new species from the Rio Doce Valley, Atlantic forest of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with detailed observations on ovary morphology. Kew Bull. 68(1):173-177.

Di Febbraro, M., Lurz, P.W.W., Genovesi, P., Maiorano, L., Girardello, M., and Bertolino, S. 2013. The use of climatic niches in screening procedures for introduced species to evaluate risk of spread: a case with the American eastern grey squirrel. PLoS ONE 8(7):e66559.

Di Minin, E., Hunter, L.T.B., Balme, G.A., Smith, R.J., Goodman, P.S., and Slotow, R. 2013. Creating larger and better connected protected areas enhances the persistence of big game species in the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biodiversity hotspot. PLoS ONE 8(8):e71788.

Diekötter, T., and Crist, T.O. 2013. Quantifying habitat-specific contributions to insect diversity in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Insect Conserv. Divers. 6(5):607-618.

Dodds, W.K., Perkin, J.S., and Gerken, J.E. 2013. Human impact on freshwater ecosystem services: a global perspective. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47(16):9061-9068.

Dorresteijn, I., Hartel, T., Hanspach, J., von Wehrden, H., and Fischer, J. 2013. The conservation value of traditional rural landscapes: the case of woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania. PLoS ONE 8(6):e65236.

Duncan, D.H., and Vesk, P.A. 2013. Examining change over time in habitat attributes using Bayesian reinterpretation of categorical assessments. Ecol. Appl. 23(6):1277-1287.

Durska, E. 2013. Effects of disturbances on scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) in Pine Forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 22(9):1991-2021.

Dutra, V.F., and Garcia, F.C.P. 2013. Two new species and one new variety of Mimosa sect. Habbasia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) from Central Brazil. Kew Bull. 68(1):163-171.

Dybala, K.E., Eadie, J.M., Gardali, T., Seavy, N.E., and Herzog, M.P. 2013. Projecting demographic responses to climate change: adult and juvenile survival respond differently to direct and indirect effects of weather in a passerine population. Global Change Biol. 19(9):2688-2697.

Dymond, J.R., Ausseil, A.G.E., Kirschbaum, M.U.F., Carswell, F.E., and Mason, N.W.H. 2013. Opportunities for restoring indigenous forest in New Zealand. J. Royal Soc. N. Z. 43(3):141-153.

Dymytrova, L., Nadyeina, O., Naumovych, A., Keller, C., and Scheidegger, C. 2013. Primeval beech forests of Ukrainian Carpathians are sanctuaries for rare and endangered epiphytic lichens. Herzogia 26(1):73-89.

Elliott, E.C., and Cornell, S.J. 2013. Are anomalous invasion speeds robust to demographic stochasticity? PLoS ONE 8(7):e67871.

Ellis, I.M., Stoessel, D., Hammer, M.P., Wedderburn, S.D., Suitor, L., and Hall, A. 2013. Conservation of an inauspicious endangered freshwater fish, Murray hardyhead (Craterocephalus fluviatilis), during drought and competing water demands in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Mar. Freshwater Res. 64(9):792-806.

Endrizzi, S., Bruno, M.C., and Maiolini, B. 2013. Distribution and morphometry of native and alien crayfish in Trentino (Italy). J. Limnol. 72(2):343-360.

Essl, F., Moser, D., Dirnbock, T., Dullinger, S., Milasowszky, N., Winter, M., and Rabitsch, W. 2013. Native, alien, endemic, threatened, and extinct species diversity in European countries. Biol. Conserv. 164:90-97.

Essl, F., Steinbauer, K., Dullinger, S., Mang, T., and Moser, D. 2013. Telling a different story: a global assessment of bryophyte invasions. Biol. Invasions 15(9):1933-1946.

Estany-Tigerström, D., Bas, J.M., Clavero, M., and Pons, P. 2013. Is the blue tit falling into an ecological trap in Argentine ant invaded forests? Biol. Invasions 15(9):2013-2027.

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