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Department ofBotany

No. 356
August 2014

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In This Issue

Global Warming Will Open Arctic to Invasive Species

Adapted from

For the first time in roughly 2 million years, melting Arctic sea ice is connecting the north Pacific and north Atlantic oceans. The newly opened passages leave both coasts and Arctic waters vulnerable to a large wave of invasive species, biologists from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center assert in a commentary published in Nature Climate Change.

A cargo ship releases ballast water from its hull into the ocean. Microscopic organisms often thrive in ballast water, and when ships release the water in new ports, the new species can start an invasion. (Smithsonian Environmental Research Center)

A cargo ship releases ballast water from its hull into the ocean. Microscopic organisms often thrive in ballast water, and when ships release the water in new ports, the new species can start an invasion. (Smithsonian Environmental Research Center)

Two new shipping routes have opened in the Arctic: the Northwest Passage through Canada, and the Northern Sea Route, a 3000-mile stretch along the coasts of Russia and Norway connecting the Barents and Bering seas. While new opportunities for tapping Arctic natural resources and interoceanic trade are high, commercial ships often inadvertently carry invasive species. Organisms from previous ports can cling to the undersides of their hulls or be pumped in the enormous tanks of ballast water inside their hulls. Now that climate change has given ships a new, shorter way to cross between oceans, the risks of new invasions are escalating.

"Trans-Arctic shipping is a game changer that will play out on a global scale," said lead author Whitman Miller. "The economic draw of the Arctic is enormous. Whether it's greater access to the region's rich natural resource reserves or cheaper and faster inter-ocean commercial trade, Arctic shipping will reshape world markets. If unchecked, these activities will vastly alter the exchange of invasive species, especially across the Arctic, north Atlantic and north Pacific oceans."

The first commercial voyage through the Northwest Passage—a carrier from British Columbia loaded with coal bound for Finland—occurred in September 2013. Meanwhile, traffic through the Northern Sea Route has been rising rapidly since 2009. The scientists project that at the current rate, it could continue to rise 20 percent every year for the next quarter century, and this does not take into account ships sailing to the Arctic itself.

For the past 100-plus years, shipping between oceans passed through the Panama or Suez Canals. Both contain warm, tropical water, likely to kill or severely weaken potential invaders from colder regions. In the Panama Canal, species on the hulls of ships also had to cope with a sharp change in salinity, from marine to completely fresh water. The Arctic passages contain only cold, marine water. As long as species are able to endure cold temperatures, their odds of surviving an Arctic voyage are good. That, combined with the shorter length of the voyages, means many more species are likely to remain alive throughout the journey.

Though the routes pose major risks to the north Atlantic and north Pacific coasts, the Arctic is also becoming an attractive destination. Tourism is growing, and it contains vast stores of natural resources. The Arctic holds an estimated 13 percent of the world's untapped oil and 30 percent of its natural gas. Greenland's supply of rare earth metals is estimated to be able to fill 20 to 25 percent of global demand for the near future. Until now the Arctic has been largely isolated from intensive shipping, shoreline development and human-induced invasions, but the scientists said that is likely to change drastically in the decades to come.

"The good news is that the Arctic ecosystem is still relatively intact and has had low exposure to invasions until now," said coauthor Greg Ruiz. "This novel corridor is only just opening. Now is the time to advance effective management options that prevent a boom in invasions and minimize their ecological, economic and health impacts."

Current Literature

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Aguiar, A., Barbosa, R.I., Barbosa, J.B.F., and Mourão, M. 2014. Invasion of Acacia mangium in Amazonian savannas following planting for forestry. Plant Ecol. Divers. 7(1-2):359-369.

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Eskelinen, A., and Harrison, S. 2014. Exotic plant invasions under enhanced rainfall are constrained by soil nutrients and competition. Ecology 95(3):682-692.

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Etherington, R., and Shapcott, A. 2014. Do habitat fragmentation and fire influence variation of plant species composition, structure and diversity within three regional ecosystems on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia? Aust. J. Bot. 62(1):36-47.

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Fisher, J., Beames, L., Rangers, B.J., Rangers, N.N., Majer, J., and Heterick, B. 2014. Using ants to monitor changes within and surrounding the endangered Monsoon Vine Thickets of the tropical Dampier Peninsula, north Western Australia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 318:78-90.

Franklin, J., Regan, H.M., and Syphard, A.D. 2014. Linking spatially explicit species distribution and population models to plan for the persistence of plant species under global change. Environ. Conserv. 41(2):97-109.

Freyhof, J., Kärst, H., and Geiger, M. 2014. Valencia robertae, a new killifish from southern Greece (Cyprinodontiformes: Valenciidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Fresh. 24(4):289-298.

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Silva, M.P.P., Kamino, L.H.Y., and Pôrto, K.C. 2014. Is the current network system of protected areas in the Atlantic Forest effective in conserving key species of bryophytes? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):61-74.

Simberloff, D., and Vitule, J.R.S. 2014. A call for an end to calls for the end of invasion biology. Oikos 123(4):408-413.

Sinclair, A.R.E., Nkwabi, A., Mduma, S.A.R., and Magige, F. 2014. Responses of the Serengeti avifauna to long-term change in the environment. Ostrich 85(1):1-11.

Skelly, D.K., Bolden, S.R., and Freidenburg, L.K. 2014. Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians. Ecol. Appl. 24(2):340-345.

Skórka, P., Martyka, R., Wójcik, J.D., and Lenda, M. 2014. An invasive gull displaces native waterbirds to breeding habitats more exposed to native predators. Pop. Ecol. 56(2):359-374.

Smith, L.M., and Reynolds, H.L. 2014. Light, allelopathy, and post-mortem invasive impact on native forest understory species. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1131-1144.

Smith, S.D.A., and Edgar, R.J. 2014. Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats. PLoS ONE 9(4):e94593.

Sobanski, N., and Marques, M.C.M. 2014. Effects of soil characteristics and exotic grass cover on the forest restoration of the Atlantic Forest region. J. Nature Conserv. 22(3):217-222.

Sousa-Baena, M.S., Garcia, L.C., and Peterson, A.T. 2014. Completeness of digital accessible knowledge of the plants of Brazil and priorities for survey and inventory. Divers. Distrib. 20(4):369-381.

Souto, T., Deichmann, J.L., Núñez, C., and Alonso, A. 2014. Classifying conservation targets based on the origin of motivation: implications over the success of community-based conservation projects. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1331-1337.

St-Louis, V., Pidgeon, A.M., Kuemmerle, T., Sonnenschein, R., Radeloff, V.C., Clayton, M.K., Locke, B.A., Bash, D., and Hostert, P. 2014. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1643):20130197.

Statton, J., Kendrick, G.A., Dixon, K.W., and Cambridge, M.L. 2014. Inorganic nutrient supplements constrain restoration potential of seedlings of the seagrass, Posidonia australis. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):196-203.

Steen, D.A., Godwin, J.C., McClure, C.J.W., and Barbour, M. 2014. Informing management of endemic habitat specialists: multiscale habitat selection by the Red Hills salamander. J. Wildlife Manag. 78(3):463-470.

Steffen, M.A., Irwin, K.J., Blair, A.L., and Bonett, R.M. 2014. Larval masquerade: a new species of paedomorphic salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Eurycea) from the Ouachita Mountains of North America. Zootaxa 3786(4):423-442.

Strand, D.A., Jussila, J., Johnsen, S.I., Viljamaa-Dirks, S., Edsman, L., Wiik-Nielsen, J., Viljugrein, H., Engdahl, F., and Vrålstad, T. 2014. Detection of crayfish plague spores in large freshwater systems. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):544-553.

Strijk, J.S., Sirimongkol, S., Rueangruea, S., Ritphet, N., and Chamchumroon, V. 2014. Lithocarpus orbicarpus (Fagaceae), a new species of Stone Oak from Phang Nga province, Thailand. PhytoKeys 34:33-46.

Stringer, I., Watts, C., Thornburrow, D., Chappell, R., and Price, R. 2014. Saved from extinction? Establishment and dispersal of Mercury Islands tusked weta, Motuweta isolata, following translocation onto mammal-free islands. J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):203-214.

Swatridge, C.J., Monadjem, A., Steyn, D.J., Batchelor, G.R., and Hardy, I.C.W. 2014. Factors affecting diet, habitat selection and breeding success of the African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus in a fragmented landscape. Ostrich 85(1):47-55.

Szitár, K., Ónodi, G., Somay, L., Pándi, I., Kucs, P., and Kröel-Dulay, G. 2014. Recovery of inland sand dune grasslands following the removal of alien pine plantation. Biol. Conserv. 171:52-60.

Tambosi, L.R., Martensen, A.C., Ribeiro, M.C., and Metzger, J.P. 2014. A framework to optimize biodiversity restoration efforts based on habitat amount and landscape connectivity. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):169-177.

Tamburello, L., Bulleri, F., Balata, D., and Benedetti-Cecchi, L. 2014. The role of overgrazing and anthropogenic disturbance in shaping spatial patterns of distribution of an invasive seaweed. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):406-414.

Tegetmeyer, C., Frick, A., and Seifert, N. 2014. Modelling habitat suitability in the Aquatic Warbler wintering ground Djoudj National Park area in Senegal. Ostrich 85(1):57-66.

Tewksbury, J.J., Anderson, J.G.T., Bakker, J.D., Billo, T.J., Dunwiddie, P.W., Groom, M.J., Hampton, S.E., Herman, S.G., Levey, D.J., Machnicki, N.J., Del Rio, C.M., Power, M.E., Rowell, K., Salomon, A.K., Stacey, L., Trombulak, S.C., and Wheeler, T.A. 2014. Natural history's place in science and society. BioScience 64(4):300-310.

Thomas, R.L., Owen-Smith, L., Drake, D.C., and Alexander, G.J. 2014. Restoring breeding habitat for Giant Bullfrogs (Pyxicephalus adspersus) in South Africa. Afr. J. Herpetol. 63(1):13-24.

Thompson, K., Shepherd, A., and Gilbert, F. 2014. Plant quality and the presence of beneficiaries govern the larval distribution of the critically endangered Sinai Baton Blue butterfly (Pseudophilotes sinaicus). J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):189-195.

Timm, B.C., and McGarigal, K. 2014. Fowler's toad (Anaxyrus fowleri) activity patterns on a roadway at Cape Cod National Seashore. J. Herpetol. 48(1):111-116.

Tischew, S., Baasch, A., Grunert, H., and Kirmer, A. 2014. How to develop native plant communities in heavily altered ecosystems: examples from large-scale surface mining in Germany. Appl. Veg. Sci. 17(2):288-301.

Tisovec, K.C., Cassano, C.R., Boubli, J.P., and Pardini, R. 2014. Mixed-species groups of marmosets and tamarins across a gradient of agroforestry intensification. Biotropica 46(2):248-255.

Tonkin, Z., Ramsey, D.S.L., Macdonald, J., Crook, D., King, A.J., and Kaus, A. 2014. Does localized control of invasive eastern gambusia (Poeciliidae: Gambusia holbrooki) increase population growth of generalist wetland fishes? Austral Ecol. 39(3):355-366.

Torres-Florez, J.P., Hucke-Gaete, R., Rosenbaum, H., and Figueroa, C.C. 2014. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales. Ecol. Evol. 4(8):1398-1412.

Torres-Irineo, E., Amandè, M.J., Gaertner, D., de Molina, A.D., Murua, H., Chavance, P., Ariz, J., Ruiz, J., and Lezama-Ochoa, N. 2014. Bycatch species composition over time by tuna purse-seine fishery in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1157-1173.

Traveset, A., Kueffer, C., and Daehler, C.C. 2014. Global and regional nested patterns of non-native invasive floras on tropical islands. J. Biogeogr. 41(4):823-832.

Treves, A., and Bruskotter, J. 2014. Tolerance for predatory wildlife. Science 344(6183):476-477.

Trujillo, C., Katinas, L., and Bonifacino, J.M. 2014. The genus Panphalea (Compositae: Nassauvieae) in Uruguay. Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 49(1):93-105.

Tweiten, M.A., Hotchkiss, S.C., Vitousek, P.M., Kellner, J.R., Chadwick, O.A., and Asner, G.P. 2014. Resilience against exotic species invasion in a tropical montane forest. J. Veg. Sci. 25(3):734-749.

Ukrainsky, A.S., and Orlova-Bienkowskaja, M.J. 2014. Expansion of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to European Russia and adjacent regions. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1003-1008.

van de Vliet, M.S., Diekmann, O.E., Machado, M., Beebee, T.J.C., Beja, P., and Serrão, E.A. 2014. Genetic divergence for the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl in southwest Portugal: dispersal barriers shaping geographic patterns. J. Herpetol. 48(1):38-44.

van Dijk, W.F.A., van Ruijven, J., Berendse, F., and de Snoo, G.R. 2014. The effectiveness of ditch banks as dispersal corridor for plants in agricultural landscapes depends on species' dispersal traits. Biol. Conserv. 171:91-98.

van Grunsven, R.H.A., Donners, M., Boekee, K., Tichelaar, I., van Geffen, K.G., Groenendijk, D., Berendse, F., and Veenendaal, E.M. 2014. Spectral composition of light sources and insect phototaxis, with an evaluation of existing spectral response models. J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):225-231.

Van Rees, C.B., and Reed, J.M. 2014. Wetland loss in Hawai'i since human settlement. Wetlands 34(2):335-350.

van Strien, M.J., Keller, D., Holderegger, R., Ghazoul, J., Kienast, F., and Bolliger, J. 2014. Landscape genetics as a tool for conservation planning: predicting the effects of landscape change on gene flow. Ecol. Appl. 24(2):327-339.

Vašek, M., Všetičková, L., Roche, K., and Jurajda, P. 2014. Diet of two invading gobiid species (Proterorhinus semilunaris and Neogobius melanostomus) during the breeding and hatching season: no field evidence of extensive predation on fish eggs and fry. Limnologica 46:31-36.

Vaz-Pinto, F., Martínez, B., Olabarria, C., and Arenas, F. 2014. Neighbourhood competition in coexisting species: the native Cystoseira humilis vs the invasive Sargassum muticum. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 454:32-41.

Villa, F., Voigt, B., and Erickson, J.D. 2014. New perspectives in ecosystem services science as instruments to understand environmental securities. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1639):20120286.

Villard, M.A., and Metzger, J.P. 2014. Beyond the fragmentation debate: a conceptual model to predict when habitat configuration really matters. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):309-318.

Volcan, M.V., Gonçalves, Â.C., and Lanés, L.E.K. 2014. Austrolebias quirogai (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) in Brazil: occurrence, population parameters, habitat characteristics, and conservation status. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 44(1):37-44.

Walker, L.R., Hölzel, N., Marrs, R., del Moral, R., and Prach, K. 2014. Optimization of intervention levels in ecological restoration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 17(2):187-192.

Wanderley, A.M., Lopes, A.V., and Machado, I.C. 2014. Reproductive ecology of Ameroglossum pernambucense (Scrophulariaceae): is this ornithophilous and threatened shrub highly adapted to a naturally fragmented habitat? Plant Syst. Evol. 300(5):1099-1110.

Wang, Y.L., Yang, J.F., and Zhang, S.Z. 2014. Magnolia denudata var. glabrata var. nov. (Magnoliaceae) from Hunan, China. Nord. J. Bot. 32(2):160-166.

Wanger, T.C., Darras, K., Bumrungsri, S., Tscharntke, T., and Klein, A.M. 2014. Bat pest control contributes to food security in Thailand. Biol. Conserv. 171:220-223.

Warman, R.D. 2014. Global wood production from natural forests has peaked. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1063-1078.

Wegmann, M., Santini, L., Leutner, B., Safi, K., Rocchini, D., Bevanda, M., Latifi, H., Dech, S., and Rondinini, C. 2014. Role of African protected areas in maintaining connectivity for large mammals. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1643):20130193.

Weller, F., Cecchini, L.A., Shannon, L., Sherley, R.B., Crawford, R.J.M., Altwegg, R., Scott, L., Stewart, T., and Jarre, A. 2014. A system dynamics approach to modelling multiple drivers of the African penguin population on Robben Island, South Africa. Ecol. Model. 277:38-56.

Whinam, J., Abdul-Rahman, J.A., Visoiu, M., di Folco, M.B.F., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2014. Spatial and temporal variation in damage and dieback in a threatened subantarctic cushion species. Aust. J. Bot. 62(1):10-21.

White, P.J.C., Stoate, C., Szczur, J., and Norris, K. 2014. Predator reduction with habitat management can improve songbird nest success. J. Wildlife Manag. 78(3):402-412.

Whitehead, A.L., Byrom, A.E., Clayton, R.I., and Pech, R.P. 2014. Removal of livestock alters native plant and invasive mammal communities in a dry grassland-shrubland ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1105-1118.

Whitfeld, T.J.S., Lodge, A.G., Roth, A.M., and Reich, P.B. 2014. Community phylogenetic diversity and abiotic site characteristics influence abundance of the invasive plant Rhamnus cathartica L. J. Plant Ecol. 7(2):202-209.

Whitmarsh, S.K., Fairweather, P.G., Brock, D.J., and Miller, D. 2014. Nektonic assemblages determined from baited underwater video in protected versus unprotected shallow seagrass meadows on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 503:205-218.

Wiedmann, B.P., and Sargeant, G.A. 2014. Ecotypic variation in recruitment of reintroduced bighorn sheep: implications for translocation. J. Wildlife Manag. 78(3):394-401.

Wilson, G., Gruber, M.A., and Lester, P.J. 2014. Foraging relationships between elephants and Lantana camara invasion in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, India. Biotropica 46(2):194-201.

Wilson, S.M., Raby, G.D., Burnett, N.J., Hinch, S.G., and Cooke, S.J. 2014. Looking beyond the mortality of bycatch: sublethal effects of incidental capture on marine animals. Biol. Conserv. 171:61-72.

Winder, V.L., McNew, L.B., Gregory, A.J., Hunt, L.M., Wisely, S.M., and Sandercock, B.K. 2014. Effects of wind energy development on survival of female greater prairie-chickens. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):395-405.

Winter, S., Jung, L.S., Eckstein, R.L., Otte, A., Donath, T.W., and Kriechbaum, M. 2014. Control of the toxic plant Colchicum autumnale in semi-natural grasslands: effects of cutting treatments on demography and diversity. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):524-533.

Witmer, G.W. 2014. Evaluating habitat manipulations and rodenticides to protect seedlings from rodent damage at restored landfills in New York. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):178-184.

Wood, C.L., Lafferty, K.D., DeLeo, G., Young, H.S., Hudson, P.J., and Kuris, A.M. 2014. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Ecology 95(4):817-832.

Woodcock, B.A., Savage, J., Bullock, J.M., Nowakowski, M., Orr, R., Tallowin, J.R.B., and Pywell, R.F. 2014. Enhancing floral resources for pollinators in productive agricultural grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 171:44-51.

Xiao, H.F., Feng, Y.L., Schaefer, D.A., and Yang, X.D. 2014. Soil fungi rather than bacteria were modified by invasive plants, and that benefited invasive plant growth. Plant Soil 378(1-2):253-264.

Yang, Q., Fu, Y., Wang, Y.Q., Wang, Y., Zhang, W.H., Li, X.Y., Reng, Y.Q., and Zhang, J. 2014. Genetic diversity and differentiation in the critically endangered orchid (Amitostigma hemipilioides): implications for conservation. Plant Syst. Evol. 300(5):871-879.

Yang, Y.H., Li, W.D., and Wang, G. 2014. Can we use disease to control biological invasion?-A theoretical research. Ecol. Model. 277:97-107.

Ye, S.W., Li, Z.J., Zhang, T.L., Liu, J.S., and Xie, S.G. 2014. Assessing fish distribution and threats to fish biodiversity in the Yangtze River Basin, China. Ichthyol. Res. 61(2):183-188.

Yildirim, H., and Şenol, S.G. 2014. Alkanna malatyana (Boraginaceae), a new species from East Anatolia, Turkey. Phytotaxa 164(2):124-132.

Yoshioka, A., Akasaka, M., and Kadoya, T. 2014. Spatial prioritization for biodiversity restoration: a simple framework referencing past species distributions. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):185-195.

Zank, C., Becker, F.G., Abadie, M., Baldo, D., Maneyro, R., and Borges-Martins, M. 2014. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations? PLoS ONE 9(4):e94625.

Zhai, D.L., Xu, J.C., Dai, Z.C., Cannon, C.H., and Grumbine, R.E. 2014. Increasing tree cover while losing diverse natural forests in tropical Hainan, China. Reg. Environ. Change 14(2):611-621.

Zhang, J., Mayor, S.J., and He, F.L. 2014. Does disturbance regime change community assembly of angiosperm plant communities in the boreal forest? J. Plant Ecol. 7(2):188-201.

Zhang, J.L., Liu, F.Z., and Cui, G.F. 2014. The efficacy of landscape-level conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China. PLoS ONE 9(4):e95081.

Zhang, J.Y., Cheng, K.W., Zang, R.G., and Ding, Y. 2014. Changes in floristic composition, community structure and species diversity across a tropical coniferous-broadleaved forest ecotone. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):126-144.

Zhang, L.B., and Liu, H.M. 2014. Dryopteris damingshanensis (Dryopteridaceae): a new fern in subgenus Nothoperanema from Guangxi, China. Novon 23(1):119-122.

Zhang, L.B., Sun, Q.W., and He, H. 2014. Selaginella wangpeishanii (Selaginellaceae), a new lycophyte from a limestone cave in Guizhou, China. Phytotaxa 164(3):195-199.

Zhang, M.G., Zhou, Z.K., Chen, W.Y., Cannon, C.H., Raes, N., and Slik, J.W.F. 2014. Major declines of woody plant species ranges under climate change in Yunnan, China. Divers. Distrib. 20(4):405-415.

Zhu, G.P., Rédei, D., Kment, P., and Bu, W.J. 2014. Effect of geographic background and equilibrium state on niche model transferability: predicting areas of invasion of Leptoglossus occidentalis. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1069-1081.

Zinner, D., Wygoda, C., Razafimanantsoa, L., Rasoloarison, R., Andrianandrasana, H.T., Ganzhorn, J.U., and Torkler, F. 2014. Analysis of deforestation patterns in the central Menabe, Madagascar, between 1973 and 2010. Reg. Environ. Change 14(1):157-166.

Zohmann, M., Immitzer, M., Wöss, M., Gossow, H., and Nopp-Mayr, U. 2014. Modelling habitat use of Tetrao urogallus L. in Austria for conservation issues. J. Nature Conserv. 22(3):223-234.

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