Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 357
September 2014

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In This Issue

Smithsonian Scientist Discovers Lost Species of Nightsnake in Mexico

Adapted from the Smithsonian Newsdesk

After eluding scientists for nearly 80 years, the Clarion nightsnake (Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha unaocularus), a nocturnal reptilian species that was initially discovered in the first half of the 19th century and then struck from the scientific record, was rediscovered by National Museum of Natural History researcher Daniel Mulcahy. The new snake species is found exclusively on the Mexican island of Clarion and could have remained unknown to science if not for the team's efforts to solve the case surrounding its disappearance. Details of this discovery are published in PLoS ONE.

This 18-inch Clarion Nightsnake (Hypsiglena unaocularus), found on black lava rock habitat on the island of Clarion, is darker in color than its mainland relatives and has a distinctive pattern of spots on its head and neck. The Clarion Nightsnake, which was initially discovered in the first half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century and then struck from the scientific record, was rediscovered and declared a new species by National Museum of Natural History researcher Daniel Mulcahy and a team of Mexican scientists led by ecologist Juan Martínez-Gómez in May 2014. (Photo courtesy of Daniel Mulcahy)

This 18-inch Clarion Nightsnake (Hypsiglena unaocularus), found on black lava rock habitat on the island of Clarion, is darker in color than its mainland relatives and has a distinctive pattern of spots on its head and neck. The Clarion Nightsnake, which was initially discovered in the first half of the 19th century and then struck from the scientific record, was rediscovered and declared a new species by National Museum of Natural History researcher Daniel Mulcahy and a team of Mexican scientists led by ecologist Juan Martínez-Gómez in May 2014. (Photo courtesy of Daniel Mulcahy)

Mulcahy was inspired to begin the search for the Clarion nightsnake after studying the lone specimen in the American Museum of Natural History's collections. The snake's unique scale pattern and markings led the research team to believe it represented a new species that might still live on Clarion today. Mulcahy also uncovered the controversy surrounding the inclusion of this snake in the scientific record, and found that it appears to be the only species ever to be discarded due to a presumed locality error. Tests of the museum specimen's ancient DNA were inconclusive, prompting Mulcahy to collaborate with Juan Martínez-Gómez, an expert on the Revillagigedo Islands, and venture into the field using the naturalist William Beebe's writings as guide to find the lost nightsnake themselves.

"The rediscovery of the Clarion nightsnake is an incredible story of how scientists rely on historical data and museum collections to solve modern-day mysteries about biodiversity in the world we live in," said Mulcahy. "Proper identification is the first step toward conserving this snake, and we plan to continue monitoring this species to learn more about the role it plays in the delicate Clarion Island ecosystem."

Beebe first discovered the Clarion nightsnake in 1936 while on an expedition to western Mexico, where he wrote about its unusual coloration and found only a single specimen. During the next several decades, scientists were unable to detect any trace of the Clarion nightsnake in their field studies, leading them to negate the validity of Beebe's findings. In May 2013, Mulcahy and Martínez-Gómez's team at the Instituto de Ecología in Xalapa retraced Beebe's steps on Clarion in an effort to locate the lost snake species. After an intensive search, the team identified 11 snakes that matched Beebe's description, and conducted a series of DNA tests at the Smithsonian's Laboratories of Analytical Biology to confirm that the Clarion nightsnake, now recognized as a full species (Hypsiglena unaocualrus), is genetically distinct from other snakes located on the mainland of Mexico.

While never formally declared extinct, this species remained absent from scientific literature due to two main factors: the nightsnake's home on Clarion is extremely remote and only accessible by military escort, significantly restricting the number of biologists who can access this area, and the snake's secretive, nocturnal behavior and dark coloration make it difficult to detect in the field.

While current populations of this species appear to be viable, Clarion's fragile ecosystem is threatened by invasive species such as feral cats on neighboring islands. These cats prey on lizards, which are likely a main food source for the Clarion nightsnake.

Losing Large Mammals Increases Human Risk from Rodent-borne Diseases

Adapted from

Save the Rhinos! Save the Elephants! Save the humans?! It seems strange to be connecting our own fate to that of wildlife but new research suggests that protecting these large animals may also be, in effect, protecting our own health.

A plains zebra (Equus quagga) gazes through a fence that excludes large animals from a research plot at the Mpala Research Centre in Kenya. (Photo by Duncan Kimuyu)

A plains zebra (Equus quagga) gazes through a fence that excludes large animals from a research plot at the Mpala Research Centre in Kenya. (Photo by Duncan Kimuyu)

As populations of large wildlife decline around the world, scientists are concerned about the potential effects this will have not only on the smaller animals they leave behind, but also the diseases they carry. Hillary Young, former Smithsonian Post-doctoral Fellow and now Assistant Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and Kris Helgen, Curator of Mammals from the Smithsonian's Museum of Natural History, have provided new experimental evidence showing that the risk of rodent-borne disease doubles in landscapes that have lost these large animals.

This experimental study used 24 acres of savanna in East Africa that had been fenced off to keep out large wildlife species, such as elephants, giraffes, lions and zebras. The exclusion of these large animals, which has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at Mpala Research Centre, a research station in Kenya, provided the scientists a perfect opportunity to observe the effects of large animals on the remaining rodent population and the number of infected fleas they carry. The results of the study were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

An interview with Young and Helgen about how a reduction in large wildlife can impact human health is available online at Smithsonian Science.

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Cimon-Morin, J., Darveau, M., and Poulin, M. 2014. Ecosystem services expand the biodiversity conservation toolbox - a response to Deliège and Neuteleers. Biol. Conserv. 172:219-220.

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Darbyshire, I., Phillipson, P.B., and Rakotonasolo, F. 2014. Additions to the genus Barleria in Madagascar. Kew Bull. 69(2):9513.

Darden, T.L., and Tarpey, C.M. 2014. Genetic characterization of the savannah and Pee Dee River populations of robust redhorse (Moxostoma robustum) with conservation implications. Copeia 2014(1):70-78.

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De Coster, G., Anaruma, F., and dos Santos, R.F. 2014. Human health risks of forest conservation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(18):E1815.

De Fraga, C.N., and Saavedra, M.M. 2014. A new cauliflorous white-flowered species of Ouratea (Ochnaceae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Phytotaxa 167(1):119-126.

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de Mestral, L., and Bradford, M.J. 2014. Evaluation of IUCN spatial distribution metrics for a migratory species, Fraser River Sockeye salmon. Biol. Conserv. 173:53-59.

Deanna, R., González, S.L., and Barboza, G.E. 2014. Four new species and eighteen lectotypifications of Larnax from Ecuador and Peru and a new synonym of Deprea orinocensis (Solanaceae: Solanoideae, Physalideae). Phytotaxa 167(1):1-34.

Deliège, G., and Neuteleers, S. 2014. Ecosystem services as an argument for biodiversity preservation: why its strength is its problem - reply to Cimon-Morin et al. Biol. Conserv. 172:218.

Deudero, S., Box, A., Vázquez-Luis, M., and Arroyo, N.L. 2014. Benthic community responses to macroalgae invasions in seagrass beds: diversity, isotopic niche and food web structure at community level. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 142:12-22.

Devoto, M., Bailey, S., and Memmott, J. 2014. Ecological meta-networks integrate spatial and temporal dynamics of plant-bumble bee interactions. Oikos 123(6):714-720.

Dharmarajan, G., Beasley, J.C., Fike, J.A., and Rhodes, O.E. 2014. Effects of landscape, demographic and behavioral factors on kin structure: testing ecological predictions in a mesopredator with high dispersal capability. Anim. Conserv. 17(3):225-234.

Diekmann, M., Jandt, U., Alard, D., Bleeker, A., Corcket, E., Gowing, D.J.G., Stevens, C.J., and Duprè, C. 2014. Long-term changes in calcareous grassland vegetation in North-western Germany - no decline in species richness, but a shift in species composition. Biol. Conserv. 172:170-179.

Diffendorfer, J.E., Loomis, J.B., Ries, L., Oberhauser, K., Lopez-Hoffman, L., Semmens, D., Semmens, B., Butterfield, B., Bagstad, K., Goldstein, J., Wiederholt, R., Mattsson, B., and Thogmartin, W.E. 2014. National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation. Conserv. Lett. 7(3):253-262.

Diller, J.L., Frazer, T.K., and Jacoby, C.A. 2014. Coping with the lionfish invasion: evidence that naive, native predators can learn to help. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 455:45-49.

Do Amaral, V.S., and Simone, L.R.L. 2014. Revision of genus Crassostrea (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) of Brazil. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 94(4):811-836.

Doak, D.F., and Cutler, K. 2014. Re-evaluating evidence for past population trends and predicted dynamics of Yellowstone grizzly bears. Conserv. Lett. 7(3):312-322.

Dogan, B., Duran, A., Gültepe, M., Öztürk, M., and Coşkunçelebi, K. 2014. Tragopogon anatolicus (Asteraceae), a new species from east Turkey. Phytotaxa 167(3):235-244.

Douglas, D.J.T., Nalwanga, D., Katebaka, R., Atkinson, P.W., Pomeroy, D.E., Nkuutu, D., and Vickery, J.A. 2014. The importance of native trees for forest bird conservation in tropical farmland. Anim. Conserv. 17(3):256-264.

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Schott, K.M., Karst, J., and Landhäusser, S.M. 2014. The role of microsite conditions in restoring trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) from seed. Restor. Ecol. 22(3):292-295.

Schulten, J.R., Cole, T.C., Cordell, S., Publico, K.M., Ostertag, R., Enoka, J.E., and Michaud, J.D. 2014. Persistence of native trees in an invaded Hawaiian lowland wet forest: experimental evaluation of light and water constraints. Pacific Sci. 68(2):267-285.

Sebastián-González, E., and Green, A.J. 2014. Habitat use by waterbirds in relation to pond size, water depth, and isolation: lessons from a restoration in southern Spain. Restor. Ecol. 22(3):311-318.

Shah, M.A., and Shaanker, R.U. 2014. Invasive species: reality or myth? Biodivers. Conserv. 23(6):1425-1426.

Sheley, R.L., and James, J.J. 2014. Simultaneous intraspecific facilitation and interspecific competition between native and annual grasses. J. Arid Environ. 104:80-87.

Shiels, A.B., Pitt, W.C., Sugihara, R.T., and Witmer, G.W. 2014. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 11. Rattus rattus, the black rat (Rodentia: Muridae). Pacific Sci. 68(2):145-184.

Shoemaker, K.T., Breisch, A.R., Jaycox, J.W., and Gibbs, J.P. 2014. Disambiguating the minimum viable population concept: response to Reed and McCoy. Conserv. Biol. 28(3):871-873.

Shutt, K., Heistermann, M., Kasim, A., Todd, A., Kalousova, B., Profosouva, I., Petrzelkova, K., Fuh, T., Dicky, J.F., Bopalanzognako, J.B., and Setchell, J.M. 2014. Effects of habituation, research and ecotourism on faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in wild western lowland gorillas: implications for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 172:72-79.

Silva, C.A., Vieira, M.F., de Carvalho-Okano, R.M., and de Oliveira, L.O. 2014. Reproductive success and genetic diversity of Psychotria hastisepala (Rubiaceae), in fragmented Atlantic forest, Southeastearn Brazil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62(1):309-319.

Silvis, A., Kniowski, A.B., Gehrt, S.D., and Ford, W.M. 2014. Roosting and foraging social structure of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). PLoS ONE 9(5):e96937.

Simberloff, D. 2014. Biological invasions: what's worth fighting and what can be won? Ecol. Eng. 65:112-121.

Singh, H.P., Batish, D.R., Dogra, K.S., Kaur, S., Kohli, R.K., and Negi, A. 2014. Negative effect of litter of invasive weed Lantana camara on structure and composition of vegetation in the lower Siwalik Hills, northern India. Environ. Monit. Assess. 186(6):3379-3389.

Skema, C. 2014. Reevaluation of species delimitations in Dombeya section Hilsenbergia (Dombeyaceae). Syst. Bot. 39(2):541-562.

Smith, A.L., Bull, C.M., Gardner, M.G., and Driscoll, D.A. 2014. Life history influences how fire affects genetic diversity in two lizard species. Mol. Ecol. 23(10):2428-2441.

Smith, M.A., Walker, N.J., Free, C.M., Kirchhoff, M.J., Drew, G.S., Warnock, N., and Stenhouse, I.J. 2014. Identifying marine Important Bird Areas using at-sea survey data. Biol. Conserv. 172:180-189.

Soule, M. 2014. Also seeking common ground in conservation. Conserv. Biol. 28(3):637-638.

Sousa-Baena, M.S., Garcia, L.C., and Peterson, A.T. 2014. Knowledge behind conservation status decisions: data basis for "Data Deficient" Brazilian plant species. Biol. Conserv. 173:80-89.

Sousa-Santos, C., Gante, H.F., Robalo, J., Cunha, P.P., Martins, A., Arruda, M., Alves, M.J., and Almada, V. 2014. Evolutionary history and population genetics of a cyprinid fish (Iberochondrostoma olisiponensis) endangered by introgression from a more abundant relative. Conserv. Genet. 15(3):665-677.

Sousa-Santos, C., Robalo, J., and Almada, V. 2014. Spawning behaviour of a threatened Iberian cyprinid and its implications for conservation. Acta Ethol. 17(2):99-106.

Spalding, M.D., McIvor, A.L., Beck, M.W., Koch, E.W., Möller, I., Reed, D.J., Rubinoff, P., Spencer, T., Tolhurst, T.J., Wamsley, T.V., van Wesenbeeck, B.K., Wolanski, E., and Woodroffe, C.D. 2014. Coastal ecosystems: a critical element of risk reduction. Conserv. Lett. 7(3):293-301.

Spencer, L.J., and Bousquin, S.G. 2014. Interim responses of floodplain wetland vegetation to Phase I of the Kissimmee River Restoration Project: comparisons of vegetation maps from five periods in the river's history. Restor. Ecol. 22(3):397-408.

Spilman, C.A., Schoch, N., Porter, W.F., and Glennon, M.J. 2014. The effects of lakeshore development on common loon (Gavia immer) productivity in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Waterbirds 37:94-101.

Spinks, P.Q., Thomson, R.C., and Shaffer, H.B. 2014. The advantages of going large: genome-wide SNPs clarify the complex population history and systematics of the threatened western pond turtle. Mol. Ecol. 23(9):2228-2241.

Springer, A.M., and van Vliet, G.B. 2014. Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(18):E1880-E1888.

Steckel, J., Westphal, C., Peters, M.K., Bellach, M., Rothenwoehrer, C., Erasmi, S., Scherber, C., Tscharntke, T., and Steffan-Dewenter, I. 2014. Landscape composition and configuration differently affect trap-nesting bees, wasps and their antagonists. Biol. Conserv. 172:56-64.

Stokes, D.L., Church, E.D., Cronkright, D.M., and Lopez, S. 2014. Pictures of an Invasion: English Holly (Ilex aquifolium) in a Semi-natural Pacific Northwest Forest. Northwest Sci. 88(2):75-93.

Sugimoto, T., Aramilev, V.V., Kerley, L.L., Nagata, J., Miquelle, D.G., and McCullough, D.R. 2014. Noninvasive genetic analyses for estimating population size and genetic diversity of the remaining Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) population. Conserv. Genet. 15(3):521-532.

Suhonen, J., Korkeamäki, E., Salmela, J., and Kuitunen, M. 2014. Risk of local extinction of Odonata freshwater habitat generalists and specialists. Conserv. Biol. 28(3):783-789.

Sulieman, H.M. 2014. Natural regeneration potential of abandoned agricultural land in the southern Gadarif Region, Sudan: implications for conservation. Afr. J. Ecol. 52(2):217-227.

Sun, Y.W., Skidmore, A.K., Wang, T.J., van Gils, H.A.M.J., Wang, Q., Qing, B.P., and Ding, C.Q. 2014. Reduced dependence of Crested Ibis on winter-flooded rice fields: implications for their conservation. PLoS ONE 9(5):e98690.

Sundblad, G., Bergström, U., Sandström, A., and Eklöv, P. 2014. Nursery habitat availability limits adult stock sizes of predatory coastal fish. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71(3):672-680.

Tear, T.H., Stratton, B.N., Game, E.T., Brown, M.A., Apse, C.D., and Shirer, R.R. 2014. A return-on-investment framework to identify conservation priorities in Africa. Biol. Conserv. 173:42-52.

Temperton, V.M., Higgs, E., Choi, Y.D., Allen, E., Lamb, D., Lee, C.S., Harris, J., Hobbs, R.J., and Zedler, J.B. 2014. Flexible and adaptable restoration: an example from South Korea. Restor. Ecol. 22(3):271-278.

Terzioğlu, S., Serdar, B., Karaköse, M., Coşkunçelebi, K., and Gültepe, M. 2014. New data on Salix anatolica (Salicaceae) endemic to Turkey. Phytotaxa 167(1):111-118.

Thoma, M., Kranz-Baltensperger, Y., Kropf, C., Graber, W., Nentwig, W., and Frick, H. 2014. The new Southeast Asian goblin spider genus Aposphragisma (Araneae, Oonopidae): diversity and phylogeny. Zootaxa 3798(1):1-86.

Thompson, K.A., and Newmaster, S.G. 2014. Molecular taxonomic tools provide more accurate estimates of species richness at less cost than traditional morphology-based taxonomic practices in a vegetation survey. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(6):1411-1424.

Toft, J.E., Burke, J.L., Carey, M.P., Kim, C.K., Marsik, M., Sutherland, D.A., Arkema, K.K., Guerry, A.D., Levin, P.S., Minello, T.J., Plummer, M., Ruckelshaus, M.H., and Townsend, H.M. 2014. From mountains to sound: modelling the sensitivity of Dungeness crab and Pacific oyster to landsea interactions in Hood Canal, WA. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71(3):725-738.

Trabucchi, M., O'Farrell, P.J., Notivol, E., and Comín, F.A. 2014. Mapping ecological processes and ecosystem services for prioritizing restoration efforts in a semi-arid Mediterranean river basin. Environ. Manage. 53(6):1132-1145.

Trevine, V., Forlanil, M.C., Haddad, C.F.B., and Zaher, H. 2014. Herpetofauna of Paranapiacaba: expanding our knowledge on a historical region in the Atlantic forest of southeastern Brazil. Zoologia 31(2):126-146.

Trueman, M., Standish, R.J., and Hobbs, R.J. 2014. Identifying management options for modified vegetation: application of the novel ecosystems framework to a case study in the Galapagos Islands. Biol. Conserv. 172:37-48.

Tyler, N., Stokkan, K.A., Hogg, C., Nellemann, C., Vistnes, A.I., and Jeffery, G. 2014. Ultraviolet vision and avoidance of power lines in birds and mammals. Conserv. Biol. 28(3):630-631.

Utteridge, T.M.A., Julius, A., and Sabran, S. 2014. Ardisia silamensis, a new ultramafic species from Borneo; studies in Malaysian Myrsinaceae II. Kew Bull. 69(2):9510.

Vafidis, D., Antoniadou, C., Voultsiadou, E., and Chintiroglou, C. 2014. Population structure of the protected fan mussel Pinna nobilis in the south Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 94(4):787-796.

Valdecantos, A., Fuentes, D., Smanis, A., Llovet, J., Morcillo, L., and Bautista, S. 2014. Effectiveness of low-cost planting techniques for improving water availability to Olea europaea seedlings in degraded drylands. Restor. Ecol. 22(3):327-335.

Valencia, V., García-Barrios, L., West, P., Sterling, E.J., and Naeem, S. 2014. The role of coffee agroforestry in the conservation of tree diversity and community composition of native forests in a Biosphere Reserve. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 189:154-163.

van der Heide, T., Tielens, E., van der Zee, E.M., Weerman, E.J., Holthuijsen, S., Eriksson, B.K., Piersma, T., van de Koppel, J., and Olff, H. 2014. Predation and habitat modification synergistically interact to control bivalve recruitment on intertidal mudflats. Biol. Conserv. 172:163-169.

van Velzen, R., and Wieringa, J.J. 2014. Rinorea calcicola (Violaceae), an endangered new species from south-eastern Gabon. Phytotaxa 167(3):267-275.

Vandepitte, K., De Meyer, T., Helsen, K., Van Acker, K., Roldán-Ruiz, I., Mergeay, J., and Honnay, O. 2014. Rapid genetic adaptation precedes the spread of an exotic plant species. Mol. Ecol. 23(9):2157-2164.

Vasconcelos, R.P., Eggleston, D.B., Le Pape, O., and Tulp, I. 2014. Patterns and processes of habitat-specific demographic variability in exploited marine species. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71(3):638-647.

Vásquez-Carrillo, C., Friesen, V., Hall, L., and Peery, M.Z. 2014. Variation in MHC class II B genes in marbled murrelets: implications for delineating conservation units. Anim. Conserv. 17(3):244-255.

Veríssimo, D., Fraser, I., Girão, W., Campos, A.A., Smith, R.J., and MacMillan, D.C. 2014. Evaluating conservation flagships and flagship fleets. Conserv. Lett. 7(3):263-270.

Viciani, D., Lastrucci, L., Dell'Olmo, L., Ferretti, G., and Foggi, B. 2014. Natura 2000 habitats in Tuscany (central Italy): synthesis of main conservation features based on a comprehensive database. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(6):1551-1576.

Virkkala, R., Heikkinen, R.K., Lehikoinen, A., and Valkama, J. 2014. Matching trends between recent distributional changes of northern-boreal birds and species-climate model predictions. Biol. Conserv. 172:124-127.

Vorsino, A.E., Fortini, L.B., Amidon, F.A., Miller, S.E., Jacobi, J.D., Price, J.P., Gon, S.O., and Koob, G.A. 2014. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates. PLoS ONE 9(5):e95427.

Wagner, V., and Nelson, C.R. 2014. Herbicides can negatively affect seed performance in native plants. Restor. Ecol. 22(3):288-291.

Wan, J.Z., Wang, C.J., Han, S.J., and Yu, J.H. 2014. Planning the priority protected areas of endangered orchid species in northeastern China. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(6):1395-1409.

Wang, K.J., Li, X.H., and Yan, M.F. 2014. Microsatellite markers reveal genetic diversity of wild soybean in different habitats and implications for conservation strategies (Glycine soja) in China. Conserv. Genet. 15(3):605-618.

Watson, S.J., Luck, G.W., Spooner, P.G., and Watson, D.M. 2014. Land- use change: incorporating the frequency, sequence, time span, and magnitude of changes into ecological research. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12(4):241-249.

Wedderburn, S.D., Barnes, T.C., and Hillyard, K.A. 2014. Shifts in fish assemblages indicate failed recovery of threatened species following prolonged drought in terminating lakes of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Hydrobiologia 730(1):179-190.

Westgate, M.J., Barton, P.S., Lane, P.W., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2014. Global meta-analysis reveals low consistency of biodiversity congruence relationships. Nat. Commun. 5:3899.

Westwood, A., Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, E., and Keith, D.M. 2014. Re-defining recovery: a generalized framework for assessing species recovery. Biol. Conserv. 172:155-162.

Whiteley, A.R., McGarigal, K., and Schwartz, M.K. 2014. Pronounced differences in genetic structure despite overall ecological similarity for two Ambystoma salamanders in the same landscape. Conserv. Genet. 15(3):573-591.

Whitley, S.N., and Bollens, S.M. 2014. Fish assemblages across a vegetation gradient in a restoring tidal freshwater wetland: diets and potential for resource competition. Environ. Biol. Fish. 97(6):659-674.

Wigginton, R.D., Pearson, J., and Whitcraft, C.R. 2014. Invasive plant ecosystem engineer facilitates community and trophic level alteration for brackish marsh invertebrates. Ecosphere 5(4):40.

Williams, C.D., Hayes, M., Mc Donnell, R.J., Anderson, R., Bleasdale, A., and Gormally, M.J. 2014. Factors affecting wetland ground beetle (Carabidae) assemblages: how important are habitats, conservation designations and management? Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(3):206-222.

Wittmer, H.U., Hasenbank, M., Elbroch, L.M., and Marshall, A.J. 2014. Incorporating preferential prey selection and stochastic predation into population viability analysis for rare prey species. Biol. Conserv. 172:8-14.

Wódkiewicz, M., Ziemiański, M., Kwiecień, K., Chwedorzewska, K.J., and Galera, H. 2014. Spatial structure of the soil seed bank of Poa annua L. - alien species in the Antarctica. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(6):1339-1346.

Wright, D.J., Spurgin, L.G., Collar, N.J., Komdeur, J., Burke, T., and Richardson, D.S. 2014. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler. Mol. Ecol. 23(9):2165-2177.

Wu, T.Y., Walther, B.A., Chen, Y.H., Lin, R.S., and Lee, P.F. 2014. Reassessment of the conservation status and protected area coverage of Taiwanese birds: How distribution modelling can help species conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 24(2):223-238.

Yamazaki, S., Grafton, Q.R., Kompas, T., and Jennings, S. 2014. Biomass management targets and the conservation and economic benefits of marine reserves. Fish Fish. 15(2):196-208.

Yan, X.L., Bao, W.K., and Pang, X.Y. 2014. Indirect effects of hiking trails on the community structure and diversity of trunk-epiphytic bryophytes in an old-growth fir forest. J. Bryol. 36:44-55.

Yanahan, A.D., and Taylor, S.J. 2014. Vegetative communities as indicators of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(6):1591-1609.

Young, H.S., Dirzo, R., Helgen, K.M., McCauley, D.J., Billeter, S.A., Kosoy, M.Y., Osikowicz, L.M., Salkeld, D.J., Young, T.P., and Dittmar, K. 2014. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease in Africa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(19):7036-7041.

Zahawi, R.A., Reid, J.L., and Holl, K.D. 2014. Hidden costs of passive restoration. Restor. Ecol. 22(3):284-287.

Zenni, R.D. 2014. Analysis of introduction history of invasive plants in Brazil reveals patterns of association between biogeographical origin and reason for introduction. Austral Ecol. 39(4):401-407.

Zenni, R.D., Bailey, J.K., and Simberloff, D. 2014. Rapid evolution and range expansion of an invasive plant are driven by provenance-environment interactions. Ecol. Lett. 17(6):727-735.

Zhang, H., and Gorelick, S.M. 2014. Coupled impacts of sea-level rise and tidal marsh restoration on endangered California clapper rail. Biol. Conserv. 172:89-100.

Zhang, J.D., Hull, V., Huang, J.Y., Yang, W., Zhou, S.Q., Xu, W.H., Huang, Y., Ouyang, Z.Y., Zhang, H.M., and Liu, J.G. 2014. Natural recovery and restoration in giant panda habitat after the Wenchuan earthquake. Forest Ecol. Manag. 319:1-9.

Zupan, L., Cabeza, M., Maiorano, L., Roquet, C., Devictor, V., Lavergne, S., Mouillot, D., Mouquet, N., Renaud, J., and Thuiller, W. 2014. Spatial mismatch of phylogenetic diversity across three vertebrate groups and protected areas in Europe. Divers. Distrib. 20(6):674-685.

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