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Department ofBotany

No. 360
December 2014

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In This Issue

Urban Landscapes Becoming Increasingly Bird-Unfriendly

-Adapted from

Tasty and easy to find, the heath hen was a favorite dish of America's colonial settlers. This beautiful little bird, however, was no match for the appetite of a growing nation. Overhunting sent it to extinction by 1932, when it joined the passenger pigeon (extinct: 1914), great auk (extinct: mid-1800) and the Carolina parakeet (extinct: 1918) on the list of North American birds slaughtered to oblivion for food, feathers or because they were considered pests.

As revealed in an exhibit at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, "Once There Were Billions: Vanished Birds of North America," an amazing diversity of birds once inhabited the vast forests and plains of North America. But if the past appears bleak in terms of America's treatment of its native bird species, the present is even more severe.

A male heath hen on the Great Plain of Martha's Vineyard, ca. 1909. (Photographer unknown)

A male heath hen on the Great Plain of Martha's Vineyard, ca. 1909. (Photographer unknown)

Today, the new urban infrastructure spreading across the American landscape represents bird hazards the colonists never dreamed of, such as skyscrapers, power lines and speeding cars. In addition, the danger has spread to a wider range of species, not just those that humans find tasty or of economic use.

Collisions with electric power lines are a hazard that takes millions of birds each year. Since birds have eyes on opposite sides of their heads, they have a depth-of-field problem in seeing what's right before them, explains Peter Marra of the Smithsonian's Migratory Bird Center. "As they are flying through a particular area they are looking beyond those wires and don't see the power lines. It doesn't take much to break a hollow bone in a wing, which birds have," Marra says.

Electricity from power lines and poles is also responsible for millions of bird deaths each year, particularly eagles and other raptors.

In a recent paper published in the journal PlosOne, Marra, Scott Loss of Oklahoma State University and Tom Will of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, reviewed data from dozens of surveys of bird power-line deaths to get an accurate idea of just how many birds truly die from power line collisions and electrocutions.

"Frequently the figures cited in the media and in scientific literature regarding bird mortality amounts are based on speculation or only on one or two studies extrapolated to the entire United States," says Loss, a former post-doc at the Smithsonian's Migratory Bird Center. "In our work we tried to bring together as much data as we could, from both peer-reviewed literature and in some cases unpublished data, to come up with the best estimates of mortality, using sophisticated statistical methods."

A rough-legged hawk uses a power line pole to survey the landscape for food at the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico. (By John and Karen Hollingsworth, USFWS

A rough-legged hawk uses a power line pole to survey the landscape for food at the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico. (By John and Karen Hollingsworth, USFWS

Based on their work the new estimate of birds killed at power lines each year: between 12 and 64 million. "Obviously there is still a range of uncertainty in our estimates, but it does reflect the best available data," Loss says.

In a second similar study published in the Journal of Wildlife Management, the scientists took a comprehensive look at bird deaths caused by collisions with cars in the United States. Previous estimates of these deaths had been based on a single study done in Great Britain. Their new estimate of between 80 million and 340 million auto-strike bird deaths annually in the U.S. is based on some 20 mortality rates taken from 13 independent studies.

Other causes of bird mortality that are being studied include pesticides, radio towers, cats and wind turbines.

Our idea, says Marra, "is that these are the sorts of hazards theoretically we could mitigate, change or minimize. That is why we did these mortality estimates."

"Our estimates provide evidence pointing to the threats that need attention," Loss says. "This evidence can be used by organizations that are hoping to direct their efforts on bird threats that appear especially large."

Current Literature

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Adams, A.L., Recio, M.R., Robertson, B.C., Dickinson, K.J.M., and van Heezik, Y. 2014. Understanding home range behaviour and resource selection of invasive common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in urban environments. Biol. Invasions 16(9):1791-1804.

Afonso, P., McGinty, N., and Machete, M. 2014. Dynamics of whale shark occurrence at their fringe oceanic habitat. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102060.

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Alele, P.O., Sheil, D., Surget-Groba, Y., Shi, L.L., and Cannon, C.H. 2014. How does conversion of natural tropical rainforest ecosystems affect soil bacterial and fungal communities in the Nile River watershed of Uganda? PLoS ONE 9(8):e104818.

Alvarado-Cárdenas, L.O., and Núñez, J.C.S. 2014. A new species of Cascabela (Apocynaceae; Rauvolfioideae, Plumerieae) from Michoacán, Mexico. Phytotaxa 177(3):163-170.

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Booms, T.L., Holroyd, G.L., Gahbauer, M.A., Trefry, H.E., Wiggins, D.A., Holt, D.W., Johnson, J.A., Lewis, S.B., Larson, M.D., Keyes, K.L., and Swengel, S. 2014. Assessing the status and conservation priorities of the short-eared owl in North America. J. Wildlife Manag. 78(5):772-778.

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Carman, M.R., Grunden, D.W., and Ewart, D. 2014. Coldwater reattachment of colonial tunicate Didemnum vexillum fragments to natural (eelgrass) and artificial (plastic) substrates in New England. Aquat. Invasions 9(1):105-110.

Caro, T., and Riggio, J. 2014. Conservation and behavior of Africa's "Big Five". Curr. Zool. 60(4):486-499.

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Chávez-Pesqueira, M., Suárez-Montes, P., Castillo, G., and Núñez-Farfán, J. 2014. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest. Am. J. Bot. 101(7):1092-1101.

Christensen, S.N. 2014. The epiphytic lichen flora of Platanus orientalis stands in Greece. Willdenowia 44(2):209-227.

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Collingridge, K., van der Molen, J., and Pitois, S. 2014. Modelling risk areas in the North Sea for blooms of the invasive comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865. Aquat. Invasions 9(1):21-36.

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Cortés-Marcial, M., Martínez Ayón, Y.M., and Briones-Salas, M. 2014. Diversity of large and medium mammals in Juchitan, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Anim. Biodivers. Conserv. 37(1):1-12.

Costa, T.J.F., Pinheiro, H.T., Teixeira, J.B., Mazzei, E.F., Bueno, L., Hora, M.S.C., Joyeux, J.C., Carvalho-Filho, A., Amado-Filho, G., Sampaio, C.L.S., and Rocha, L.A. 2014. Expansion of an invasive coral species over Abrolhos Bank, Southwestern Atlantic. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 85(1):252-253.

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Currey, L.M., Heupel, M.R., Simpfendorfer, C.A., and Williams, A.J. 2014. Sedentary or mobile? Variability in space and depth use of an exploited coral reef fish. Mar. Biol. 161(9):2155-2166.

Dávalos, A., Nuzzo, V., and Blossey, B. 2014. Demographic responses of rare forest plants to multiple stressors: the role of deer, invasive species and nutrients. J. Ecology 102(5):1222-1233.

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de Fraga, R., Stow, A.J., Magnusson, W.E., and Lima, A.P. 2014. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in Amazonia. PLoS ONE 9(8):e105453.

de la Sancha, N.U., Higgins, C.L., Presley, S.J., and Strauss, R.E. 2014. Metacommunity structure in a highly fragmented forest: has deforestation in the Atlantic Forest altered historic biogeographic patterns? Divers. Distrib. 20(9):1058-1070.

de Lange, P.J. 2014. A revision of the New Zealand Kunzea ericoides (Myrtaceae) complex. PhytoKeys 40:1-185.

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Dogan, B., Duran, A., and Coşkun, F. 2014. Klasea serratuloides subsp. karamanica subsp. nov. (Asteraceae), from the central and south Anatolia transition zone, Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 32(4):479-484.

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Edwards, T., Cox, E.C., Buzzard, V., Wiese, C., Hillard, L.S., and Murphy, R.W. 2014. Genetic assessments and parentage analysis of captive Bolson tortoises (Gopherus flavomarginatus) inform their "rewilding'' in New Mexico. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102787.

Ellender, B.R., and Weyl, O.L.F. 2014. A review of current knowledge, risk and ecological impacts associated with non-native freshwater fish introductions in South Africa. Aquat. Invasions 9(2):117-132.

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Everatt, K.T., Andresen, L., and Somers, M.J. 2014. Trophic scaling and occupancy analysis reveals a lion population limited by top-down anthropogenic pressure in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique. PLoS ONE 9(6):e99389.

Fattorini, S. 2014. Disentangling the effects of available area, mid-domain constraints, and species environmental tolerance on the altitudinal distribution of tenebrionid beetles in a Mediterranean area. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(10):2545-2560.

Fattorini, S. 2014. Island biogeography of urban insects: tenebrionid beetles from Rome tell a different story. J. Insect Conserv. 18(4):729-735.

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Fenesi, A., Dyer, A.R., Geréd, J., Sándor, D., and Ruprecht, E. 2014. Can transgenerational plasticity contribute to the invasion success of annual plant species? Oecologia 176(1):95-106.

Fernández-Cebrián, R., Araguas, R.M., Sanz, N., and García-Marín, J.L. 2014. Genetic risks of supplementing trout populations with native stocks: a simulation case study from current Pyrenean populations. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 71(8):1243-1255.

Ferreira, S., Velo-Antón, G., Brochard, C., Vieira, C., Alves, P.C., Thompson, D.J., Watts, P.C., and Brito, J.C. 2014. A Critically Endangered new dragonfly species from Morocco: Onychogomphus boudoti sp. nov. (Odonata: Gomphidae). Zootaxa 3856(3):349-365.

Finch, T., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Leech, D.I., and Evans, K.L. 2014. Carry-over effects from passage regions are more important than breeding climate in determining the breeding phenology and performance of three avian migrants of conservation concern. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(10):2427-2444.

Fisher, J.T., Pasztor, C., Wilson, A., Volpe, J.P., and Anholt, B.R. 2014. Recolonizing sea otters spatially segregate from pinnipeds on the Canadian Pacific coastline: the implications of segregation for species conservation. Biol. Conserv. 177:148-155.

Fisichelli, N.A., Abella, S.R., Peters, M., and Krist, F.J. 2014. Climate, trees, pests, and weeds: Change, uncertainty, and biotic stressors in eastern U.S. national park forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 327:31-39.

Foggi, B., Benesperi, R., Viciani, D., Giunti, M., and Lastrucci, L. 2014. Long-term monitoring of an invasion process: the case of an isolated small wetland on a Mediterranean Island, second stage: toward a complete restoration. Biologia 69(8):977-985.

Fordham, D.A., Brook, B.W., Moritz, C., and Nogués-Bravo, D. 2014. Better forecasts of range dynamics using genetic data. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29(8):436-443.

Franco, A.C., Rossatto, D.R., Silva, L.D.R., and Ferreira, C.D. 2014. Cerrado vegetation and global change: the role of functional types, resource availability and disturbance in regulating plant community responses to rising CO2 levels and climate warming. Theor. Exp. Plant Physiol. 26(1):19-38.

Franssen, N.R., Davis, J.E., Ryden, D.W., and Gido, K.B. 2014. Fish community responses to mechanical removal of nonnative fishes in a large southwestern river. Fisheries 39(8):352-363.

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Sørensen, S.B., Larsen, B., Orabi, J., and Ørgaard, M. 2014. Primula farinosa in Denmark; genetic diversity and population management. Nord. J. Bot. 32(4):503-510.

Sousa, R., Novais, A., Costa, R., and Strayer, D.L. 2014. Invasive bivalves in fresh waters: impacts from individuals to ecosystems and possible control strategies. Hydrobiologia 735(1):233-251.

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Spellman, K.V., Mulder, C.P.H., and Hollingsworth, T.N. 2014. Susceptibility of burned black spruce (Picea mariana) forests to non-native plant invasions in interior Alaska. Biol. Invasions 16(9):1879-1895.

Standish, R.J., Hobbs, R.J., Mayfield, M.M., Bestelmeyer, B.T., Suding, K.N., Battaglia, L.L., Eviner, V., Hawkes, C.V., Temperton, V.M., Cramer, V.A., Harris, J.A., Funk, J.L., and Thomas, P.A. 2014. Resilience in ecology: abstraction, distraction, or where the action is? Biol. Conserv. 177:43-51.

Stanton, D.W.G., Hobbs, G.I., McCanfferty, D.J., Chadwick, E.A., Philbey, A.W., Saccheri, I.J., Slater, F.M., and Bruford, M.W. 2014. Contrasting genetic structure of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) across a latitudinal divide. J. Mammal. 95(4):814-823.

Stark, E.J., Atkinson, E.J., and Kozfkay, C.C. 2014. Captive rearing for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): the Idaho and Maine experiences. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 24(3):849-880.

Stévart, T., Biteau, J.P., Cawoy, V., and Droisart, V. 2014. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 3. A new species of Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae) from the Monts de Cristal, Gabon. Phytotaxa 177(1):26-34.

Stireman, J.O., Devlin, H., and Doyle, A.L. 2014. Habitat fragmentation, tree diversity, and plant invasion interact to structure forest caterpillar communities. Oecologia 176(1):207-224.

Streitberger, M., Rose, S., Hermann, G., and Fartmann, T. 2014. The role of a mound-building ecosystem engineer for a grassland butterfly. J. Insect Conserv. 18(4):745-751.

Ström, L., Jansson, R., and Nilsson, C. 2014. Invasibility of boreal wetland plant communities. J. Veg. Sci. 25(4):1078-1089.

Strong, J.S., and Leroux, S.J. 2014. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada. PLoS ONE 9(8):e106264.

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Suckling, D.M., Stringer, L.D., Baird, D.B., Butler, R.C., Sullivan, T.E.S., Lance, D.R., and Simmons, G.S. 2014. Light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) colonization of California. Biol. Invasions 16(9):1851-1863.

Suvorov, P., Svobodová, J., and Albrecht, T. 2014. Habitat edges affect patterns of artificial nest predation along a wetland-meadow boundary. Acta Oecol. 59:91-96.

Sweka, J.A., and Wainwright, T.C. 2014. Use of population viability analysis models for Atlantic and Pacific salmon recovery planning. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 24(3):901-917.

Sydenham, M.A.K., Eldegard, K., and Totland, Ø. 2014. Spatio-temporal variation in species assemblages in field edges: seasonally distinct responses of solitary bees to local habitat characteristics and landscape conditions. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(10):2393-2414.

Syfert, M.M., Joppa, L., Smith, M.J., Coomes, D.A., Bachman, S.P., and Brummitt, N.A. 2014. Using species distribution models to inform IUCN Red List assessments. Biol. Conserv. 177:174-184.

Takeuchi, C., Donnell, A.A., and Fernandes, A.J. 2014. Callianthe montana, a new combination for Abutilon montanum (Malvaceae, Malvoideae), a rediscovered species endemic to the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 177(5):298-300.

Tan, J.P.C., Kiew, R., Saw, L.G., and Ummul-Nazrah, A.R. 2014. Three new species from Gunung Kanthan, a limestone tower karst in Perak, Malaysia. Phytotaxa 177(3):146-154.

Tan, W.H., Liu, T.H., Lin, Y.K., and Hsu, Y.F. 2014. Restoration of an endangered plant, Hygrophila pogonocalyx, leads to an adaptive host shift of the chocolate pansy (Junonia iphita iphita). Zoology 117(4):237-244.

Tanner, R.A., Jin, L., Shaw, R., Murphy, S.T., and Gange, A.C. 2014. An ecological comparison of Impatiens glandulifera Royle in the native and introduced range. Plant Ecol. 215(8):833-843.

Tempel, D.J., Peery, M.Z., and Gutiérrez, R.J. 2014. Using integrated population models to improve conservation monitoring: California spotted owls as a case study. Ecol. Model. 289:86-95.

Terrón-Sigler, A., Peñalver-Duque, P., León-Muez, D., and Torre, F.E. 2014. Spatio-temporal macrofaunal assemblages associated with the endangered orange coral Astroides calycularis (Scleractinia: Dendrophylliidae). Aquat. Biol. 21(2):143-154.

Thijs, K.W., Aerts, R., Musila, W., Siljander, M., Matthysen, E., Lens, L., Pellikka, P., Gulinck, H., and Muys, B. 2014. Potential tree species extinction, colonization and recruitment in Afromontane forest relicts. Basic Appl. Ecol. 15(4):288-296.

Thompson, I.D., Okabe, K., Parrotta, J.A., Brockerhoff, E., Jactel, H., Forrester, D.I., and Taki, H. 2014. Biodiversity and ecosystem services: lessons from nature to improve management of planted forests for REDD-plus. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(10):2613-2635.

Thompson, K., and Gilbert, F. 2014. Phenological synchrony between a plant and a specialised herbivore. Basic Appl. Ecol. 15(4):353-361.

Tingley, M.W., Darling, E.S., and Wilcove, D.S. 2014. Fine- and coarse-filter conservation strategies in a time of climate change. Year Ecol. Conserv. Biol. 1322:92-109.

Toledo-Hernández, C., Vélez-Zuazo, X., Ruiz-Diaz, C.P., Patricio, A.R., Mège, P., Navarro, M., Sabat, A.M., Betancur-R, R., and Papa, R. 2014. Population ecology and genetics of the invasive lionfish in Puerto Rico. Aquat. Invasions 9(2):227-237.

Torre, I., Bros, V., and Santos, X. 2014. Assessing the impact of reforestation on the diversity of Mediterranean terrestrial Gastropoda. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(10):2579-2589.

Tracey, J.A., Sheppard, J., Zhu, J., Wei, F.W., Swaisgood, R.R., and Fisher, R.N. 2014. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation. PLoS ONE 9(7):e101205.

Trovó, M., and Sano, P.T. 2014. Paepalanthus conjunctus, a new species of Paepalanthus sect. Diphyomene (Eriocaulaceae) from Central Brazil. Phytotaxa 178(1):53-56.

Uddin, S.M.M., Hoque, A., and Abdullah, S.A. 2014. The changing landscape of mangroves in Bangladesh compared to four other countries in tropical regions. J. Forest. Res. 25(3):605-611.

Valladares, P., Zuleta, C., and Spotorno, A. 2014. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina 1782) and C. chinchilla (Lichtenstein 1830): review of their distribution and new findings. Anim. Biodivers. Conserv. 37(1):89-93.

Velho, N., Agarwala, M., Srinivasan, U., and Laurance, W.F. 2014. Collateral damage: impacts of ethno-civil strife on biodiversity and natural resource use near Indian nature reserves. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(10):2515-2527.

Verovnik, R., Popović, M., Šašić, M., Cuvelier, S., and Maes, D. 2014. Wanted! Dead or alive: the tale of the Brown's Grayling (Pseudochazara amymone). J. Insect Conserv. 18(4):675-682.

Virkkala, R., Pöyry, J., Heikkinen, R.K., Lehikoinen, A., and Valkama, J. 2014. Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern. Ecol. Evol. 4(15):2991-3003.

Vokou, D., Dimitrakopoulos, P.G., Jones, N., Damialis, A., Monokrousos, N., Pantis, J.D., Mazaris, A.D., and The Natura-2000 Committee (2010–2013) members. 2014. Ten years of co-management in Greek protected areas: an evaluation. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(11):2833-2855.

Vovlas, A., Balletto, E., Altini, E., Clemente, D., and Bonelli, S. 2014. Mobility and oviposition site-selection in Zerynthia cassandra (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae): implications for its conservation. J. Insect Conserv. 18(4):587-597.

Wagensommer, R.P., Fröhlich, T., and Fröhlich, M. 2014. First record of the southeast European species Cerinthe retorta Sibth. & Sm. (Boraginaceae) in Italy and considerations on its distribution and conservation status. Acta Bot. Gallica 161(2):111-115.

Walker, K.F., Jones, H.A., and Klunzinger, M.W. 2014. Bivalves in a bottleneck: taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) in Australasia. Hydrobiologia 735(1):61-79.

WallisDeVries, M.F. 2014. Linking species assemblages to environmental change: moving beyond the specialist-generalist dichotomy. Basic Appl. Ecol. 15(4):279-287.

Wang, F., McShea, W.J., Wang, D.J., Li, S., Zhao, Q., Wang, H., and Lu, Z. 2014. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves. PLoS ONE 9(8):e105086.

Ward, D.F. 2014. Understanding sampling and taxonomic biases recorded by citizen scientists. J. Insect Conserv. 18(4):753-756.

Wärner, C., Wosniok, W., and Diekmann, M. 2014. River corridor plants in North-western Germany are threatened by small population size and short-term environmental events. Tuexenia 34:233-245.

Watson, J.M., and Flores, A.R. 2014. Upping their number, addressing their risk. Viola singularis (Violaceae) revisited, and an evaluation of sect. Andinium, its higher taxonomic group. Phytotaxa 177(3):177-182.

Weise, F.J., Stratford, K.J., and van Vuuren, R.J. 2014. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations - accounting for conservation. PLoS ONE 9(8):e105042.

Wells, C.N., and Tonkyn, D.W. 2014. Range collapse in the Diana fritillary, Speyeria diana (Nymphalidae). Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(4):365-380.

West, N.M., Matlaga, D.P., and Davis, A.S. 2014. Quantifying targets to manage invasion risk: light gradients dominate the early regeneration niche of naturalized and pre-commercial Miscanthus populations. Biol. Invasions 16(9):1991-2001.

Wezel, A., Oertli, B., Rosset, V., Arthaud, F., Leroy, B., Smith, R., Angélibert, S., Bornette, G., Vallod, D., and Robin, J. 2014. Biodiversity patterns of nutrient-rich fish ponds and implications for conservation. Limnology 15(3):213-223.

Whitehorn, P.R., Tinsley, M.C., Brown, M.J.F., Darvill, B., and Goulson, D. 2014. Genetic diversity and parasite prevalence in two species of bumblebee. J. Insect Conserv. 18(4):667-673.

Whitfield, P.E., Munoz, R.C., Buckel, C.A., Degan, B.P., Freshwater, D.W., and Hare, J.A. 2014. Native fish community structure and Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans densities along a depth-temperature gradient in Onslow Bay, North Carolina, USA. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 509:241-254.

Whitney, J.E., Gido, K.B., and Propst, D.L. 2014. Factors associated with the success of native and nonnative species in an unfragmented arid-land riverscape. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 71(8):1134-1145.

Williams, A.V., Nevill, P.G., and Krauss, S.L. 2014. Next generation restoration genetics: applications and opportunities. Trends Plant Sci. 19(8):529-537.

Williams, V.L., Cunningham, A.B., Kemp, A.C., and Bruyns, R.K. 2014. Risks to birds traded for African traditional medicine: a quantitative assessment. PLoS ONE 9(8):e105397.

Winck, G.R., Almeida-Santos, P., and Rocha, C.F.D. 2014. Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae): are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species? Braz. J. Biol. 74(2):338-348.

Wittemyer, G., Northrup, J.M., Blanc, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Omondi, P., and Burnham, K.P. 2014. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(36):13117-13121.

Witzenberger, K.A., and Hochkirch, A. 2014. The genetic integrity of the ex situ population of the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) is seriously threatened by introgression from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). PLoS ONE 9(8):e106083.

Woinarski, J.C.Z., Flakus, S., James, D.J., Tiernan, B., Dale, G.J., and Detto, T. 2014. An island-wide monitoring program demonstrates decline in reporting rate for the Christmas Island flying-fox Pteropus melanotus natalis. Acta Chiropterol. 16(1):117-127.

Wu, R.D., Long, Y.C., Malanson, G.P., Garber, P.A., Zhang, S., Li, D.Q., Zhao, P., Wang, L.Z., and Duo, H.R. 2014. Optimized spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation in China: a systematic conservation planning perspective. PLoS ONE 9(7):e103783.

Xia, C.J., Cao, J., Zhang, H.F., Gao, X.Y., Yang, W.K., and Blank, D. 2014. Reintroduction of Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Xinjiang, China: the status and experience. Biol. Conserv. 177:142-147.

Xu, H., Pan, X.B., Song, Y., Huang, Y., Sun, M.M., and Zhu, S.F. 2014. Intentionally introduced species: more easily invited than removed. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(10):2637-2643.

Yang, X.K., and Lu, X.X. 2014. Drastic change in China's lakes and reservoirs over the past decades. Sci. Rep. 4:6041-10.

Yildirim, H., and Crespo, M.B. 2014. Acantholimon riyatguelii (Plumbaginaceae), a threatened new unarmed species from Central Anatolia, Turkey. Phytotaxa 175(2):73-84.

York, E.M., Butler, C.J., and Lord, W.D. 2014. Global decline in suitable habitat for Angiostrongylus (= Parastrongylus) cantonensis: the role of climate change. PLoS ONE 9(8):e103831.

Yoshida, C.E., and Uieda, V.S. 2014. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna. Braz. J. Biol. 74(2):382-394.

Yu, J.H., Wang, C.J., Wan, J.Z., Han, S.J., Wang, Q.G., and Nie, S.M. 2014. A model-based method to evaluate the ability of nature reserves to protect endangered tree species in the context of climate change. Forest Ecol. Manag. 327:48-54.

Zaiko, A., Minchin, D., and Olenin, S. 2014. "The day after tomorrow": anatomy of an 'r' strategist aquatic invasion. Aquat. Invasions 9(2):145-155.

Zakkak, S., Chatzaki, M., Karamalis, N., and Kati, V. 2014. Spiders in the context of agricultural land abandonment in Greek Mountains: species responses, community structure and the need to preserve traditional agricultural landscapes. J. Insect Conserv. 18(4):599-611.

Zanini, K.J., Bergamin, R.S., Machado, R.E., Pillar, V.D., and Müller, S.C. 2014. Atlantic rain forest recovery: successional drivers of floristic and structural patterns of secondary forest in Southern Brazil. J. Veg. Sci. 25(4):1056-1068.

Zeidemann, V., Kainer, K.A., and Staudhammer, C.L. 2014. Heterogeneity in NTFP quality, access and management shape benefit distribution in an Amazonian extractive reserve. Environ. Conserv. 41(3):242-252.

Zhang, H.X., and Zhang, M.L. 2014. Insight into distribution patterns and conservation planning in relation to woody species diversity in Xinjiang, arid northwestern China. Biol. Conserv. 177:165-173.

Zhang, Q.Y., Zhang, Y.C., Peng, S.L., and Zobel, K. 2014. Climate warming may facilitate invasion of the exotic shrub Lantana camara. PLoS ONE 9(9):e105500.

Zhang, W.Z., Goodale, E., and Chen, J. 2014. How contact with nature affects children's biophilia, biophobia and conservation attitude in China. Biol. Conserv. 177:109-116.

Zhou, W.W., Zhang, B.L., Chen, H.M., Jin, J.Q., Yang, J.X., Wang, Y.Y., Jiang, K., Murphy, R.W., Zhang, Y.P., and Che, J. 2014. DNA barcodes and species distribution models evaluate threats of global climate changes to genetic diversity: a case study from Nanorana parkeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae). PLoS ONE 9(8):e103899.

Zieritz, A., Geist, J., and Gum, B. 2014. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of three stream-dwelling freshwater mussel species: towards a strategy for representative surveys. Hydrobiologia 735(1):123-136.

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