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Department ofBotany

No. 367
July 2015

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In This Issue

If Trees Could Talk: Forest Research Network Reveals Global Change Effects

-Adapted from the Smithsonian Newsdesk

Permafrost thaw drives forest loss in Canada, while drought has killed trees in Panama, southern India and Borneo. In the U.S., in Virginia, over-abundant deer eat trees before they reach maturity, while nitrogen pollution has changed soil chemistry in Canada and Panama. Continents apart, these changes have all been documented by the Smithsonian-led Center for Tropical Forest Science-Forest Global Earth Observatory, CTFS-ForestGEO, which released a new report revealing how forests are changing worldwide.

Tropical forest canopy in Panama. (photo by Christian Ziegler)

Tropical forest canopy in Panama. (photo by Christian Ziegler)

"With 107 collaborators we've published a major overview of what 59 forests in 24 countries, where we monitor nearly 6 million trees, teach us about forest responses to global change," said Kristina Anderson-Teixeira, first author of the report and CTFS-ForestGEO ecosystem ecologist based at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute.

Many of the changes occurring in forests worldwide are attributable to human impacts on climate, atmospheric chemistry, land use and animal populations that are so pervasive as to warrant classification of a new geologic period in Earth's history—the Anthropocene, the Age of Humans.

Measuring and understanding the effects of all these changes—collectively termed "global change"—are easier said than done. Some of the best information about these global-scale changes comes from CTFS-ForestGEO, the only network of standardized forest-monitoring sites that span the globe.

Since the censuses began at the first site on Barro Colorado Island in Panama in 1981, atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased by 16 percent. The forest sites in the network have warmed by an average of more than 1 degree F (0.6 degree C) and experienced up to 30 percent changes in precipitation. Landscapes around protected sites experience deforestation.

The plot network now includes forests from Brazil to northern Canada, from Gabon to England and from Papua New Guinea to China.

In addition to identifying, mapping, measuring and monitoring trees, researchers describe the relatedness of trees, track flower and seed production, collect insects, survey mammals, quantify carbon stocks and flows within the ecosystem, take soil samples and measure climate variables like rainfall and temperature. The thorough study of these plots provides insights into not only how forests are changing but also why.

Climate change scenarios predict that most of these sites will face warmer and often drier conditions in the future—some experiencing novel climates with no modern analogs. Forests are changing more rapidly than expected by chance alone, and shifts in species composition have been associated with environmental change. Biomass increased at many tropical sites across the network.

"It is incredibly rewarding to work with a team of forest scientists from 78 research institutions around the world, including four Smithsonian units," Anderson-Teixeira said. "CTFS-ForestGEO is a pioneer in the kind of collaborative effort it takes to understand how forests worldwide are changing."

"We look forward to using the CTFS-ForestGEO network to continue to understand how and why forests respond to change, and what this means for the climate, biodiversity conservation and human well-being," said Stuart Davies, network director.

Current Literature

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Abella, S.R., and Fornwalt, P.J. 2015. Ten years of vegetation assembly after a North American mega fire. Global Change Biol. 21(2):789-802.

Abella, S.R., O'Brien, K.L., and Weesner, M.W. 2015. Revegetating disturbance in national parks: reestablishing native plants in Saguaro National Park, Sonoran Desert. Nat. Areas J. 35(1):18-25.

Ackley, J.W., Wu, J.G., Angilletta, M.J., Myint, S.W., and Sullivan, B. 2015. Rich lizards: how affluence and land cover influence the diversity and abundance of desert reptiles persisting in an urban landscape. Biol. Conserv. 182:87-92.

Ağdamar, S., Tarkan, A.S., Keskin, E., Top, N., Doğaç, E., Baysal, Ö., and Emiroğlu, Ö. 2015. The role of environmental factors and genetic diversity on colonization success of a non-native fish, Lepomis gibbosus from western part of Turkey. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 58:195-203.

Aguilar-Soto, V., Melgoza-Castillo, A., Villarreal-Guerrero, F., Wehenkel, C., and Pinedo-Alvarez, C. 2015. Modeling the potential distribution of Picea chihuahuana Martínez, an endangered species at the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Forests 6(3):692-707.

Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J., Serna-Chavez, H.M., Villalobos-Arambula, A.R., de la Rosa, J.A.P., and Raes, N. 2015. Similar but not equivalent: ecological niche comparison across closely-related Mexican white pines. Divers. Distrib. 21(3):245-257.

Akeboshi, A., Takagi, S., Murakami, M., Hasegawa, M., and Miyashita, T. 2015. A forest-grassland boundary enhances patch quality for a grassland-dwelling butterfly as revealed by dispersal processes. J. Insect Conserv. 19(1):15-24.

Albins, M.A. 2015. Invasive Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans reduce abundance and species richness of native Bahamian coral-reef fishes. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 522:231-243.

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Álvares-Carvalho, S.V., Duarte, J.F., Carvalho, D., Pereira, G.S., Silva-Mann, R., and Ferreira, R.A. 2015. Schinus terebinthifolius: population structure and implications for its conservation. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 58:120-125.

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Anderson, S.C., Moore, J.W., McClure, M.M., Dulvy, N.K., and Cooper, A.B. 2015. Portfolio conservation of metapopulations under climate change. Ecol. Appl. 25(2):559-572.

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Andrello, M., Jacobi, M.N., Manel, S., Thuiller, W., and Mouillot, D. 2015. Extending networks of protected areas to optimize connectivity and population growth rate. Ecography 38(3):273-282.

Apodaca, J.J., and Godwin, J.C. 2015. Effects of buffering key habitat for terrestrial salamanders: implications for the management of the federally threatened Red Hills salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti) and other imperiled plethodontids. Forests 6(3):827-838.

Appleton, C.C., and Miranda, N.A.F. 2015. Two Asian freshwater snails newly introduced into South Africa and an analysis of alien species reported to date. Afr. Invertebr. 56(1):1-17.

Arai, T. 2015. Diversity and conservation of coral reef fishes in the Malaysian South China Sea. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 25(1):85-101.

Armenta-Montero, S., Carvajal-Hernández, C.I., Ellis, E.A., and Krömer , T. 2015. Distribution and conservation status of Phlegmariurus (Lycopodiaceae) in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(1):114-137.

Aronson, M.F.J., Handel, S.N., La Puma, I.P., and Clemants, S.E. 2015. Urbanization promotes non-native woody species and diverse plant assemblages in the New York metropolitan region. Urban Ecosyst. 18(1):31-45.

Asner, G.P. 2015. Organismic remote sensing for tropical forest ecology and conservation. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 100(3):127-140.

Aswani, S., Flores, C.F., and Broitman, B.R. 2015. Human harvesting impacts on managed areas: ecological effects of socially-compatible shellfish reserves. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 25(1):217-230.

Azzurro, E., Goren, M., Diamant, A., Galil, B., and Bernardi, G. 2015. Establishing the identity and assessing the dynamics of invasion in the Mediterranean Sea by the dusky sweeper, Pempheris rhomboidea Kossmann & Räuber, 1877 (Pempheridae, Perciformes). Biol. Invasions 17(3):815-826.

Bahm, M.A., Barnes, T.G., and Jensen, K.C. 2015. Native grass establishment using Journey® herbicide. Nat. Areas J. 35(1):69-73.

Barlow, K.E., Briggs, P.A., Haysom, K.A., Hutson, A.M., Lechiara, N.L., Racey, P.A., Walsh, A.L., and Langton, S.D. 2015. Citizen science reveals trends in bat populations: the National Bat Monitoring Programme in Great Britain. Biol. Conserv. 182:14-26.

Barrios-O'Neill, D., Dick, J.T.A., Emmerson, M.C., Ricciardi, A., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2015. Predator-free space, functional responses and biological invasions. Funct. Ecol. 29(3):377-384.

Barros, A., Monz, C., and Pickering, C. 2015. Is tourism damaging ecosystems in the Andes? Current knowledge and an agenda for future research. Ambio 44(2):82-98.

Barros, A., Pickering, C., and Gudes, O. 2015. Desktop analysis of potential impacts of visitor use: a case study for the highest park in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Environ. Manage. 150:179-195.

Bawa, K.S., and Seidler, R. 2015. Deforestation and sustainable mixed-use landscapes: a view from the Eastern Himalaya. Ann. Mo. Bot. Garden 100(3):141-149.

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Bedini, R., Bedini, M., Bonechi, L., and Piazzi, L. 2015. Effects of non-native turf-forming Rhodophyta on mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Biol. Res. 11(4):430-437.

Bejarano, S., Lohr, K., Hamilton, S., and Manfrino, C. 2015. Relationships of invasive lionfish with topographic complexity, groupers, and native prey fishes in Little Cayman. Mar. Biol. 162(2):253-266.

Bennett, J.M., Clarke, R.H., Thomson, J.R., and Mac Nally, R. 2015. Fragmentation, vegetation change and irruptive competitors affect recruitment of woodland birds. Ecography 38(2):163-171.

Benson, J.F., Mills, K.J., and Patterson, B.R. 2015. Resource selection by wolves at dens and rendezvous sites in Algonquin park, Canada. Biol. Conserv. 182:223-232.

Bentley, L., Barker, N.P., and Dold, A.P. 2015. Genetic diversity of the endangered Faucaria tigrina (Aizoaceae) through ISSR "fingerprinting" using automated fragment detection. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 58:156-161.

Berger, J., Schaller, G.B., Cheng, E., Kang, A., Krebs, M., Li, L.S., and Hebblewhite, M. 2015. Legacies of past exploitation and climate affect mammalian sexes differently on the roof of the World - the case of wild yaks. Sci. Rep. 5:8676.

Berhane, A., Totland, Ø., Haile, M., and Moe, S.R. 2015. Intense use of woody plants in a semiarid environment of Northern Ethiopia: Effects on species composition, richness and diversity. J. Arid Environ. 114:14-21.

Bernal-Escobar, A., Payan, E., and Cordovez, J.M. 2015. Sex dependent spatially explicit stochastic dispersal modeling as a framework for the study of jaguar conservation and management in South America. Ecol. Model. 299:40-50.

Bierzychudek, P., and Warner, K. 2015. Modeling caterpillar movement to guide habitat enhancement for Speyeria zerene hippolyta, the Oregon silverspot butterfly. J. Insect Conserv. 19(1):45-54.

Birkemoe, T., and Sverdrup-Thygeson, A. 2015. Trophic levels and habitat specialization of beetles caught on experimentally added aspen wood: does trap type really matter? J. Insect Conserv. 19(1):163-173.

Bitty, E.A., Bi, S.G., Bene, J.C.K., Kouassi, P.K., and McGraw, W.S. 2015. Cocoa farming and primate extirpation inside Côte d'Ivoire's protected areas. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(1):95-113.

Blake, S., Guézou, A., Deem, S.L., Yackulic, C.B., and Cabrera, F. 2015. The dominance of introduced plant species in the diets of migratory Galapagos tortoises increases with elevation on a human-occupied island. Biotropica 47(2):246-258.

Boersma, P.D., Rebstock, G.A., and García-Borboroglu, P. 2015. Marine protection is needed for Magellanic penguins in Argentina based on long-term data. Biol. Conserv. 182:197-204.

Bogar, L.M., Dickie, I.A., and Kennedy, P.G. 2015. Testing the co-invasion hypothesis: ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on Alnus glutinosa and Salix fragilis in New Zealand. Divers. Distrib. 21(3):268-278.

Borgerson, C. 2015. The effects of illegal hunting and habitat on two sympatric endangered primates. Int. J. Primatol. 36(1):74-93.

Börner, J., Marinho, E., and Wunder, S. 2015. Mixing carrots and sticks to conserve forests in the Brazilian Amazon: a spatial probabilistic modeling approach. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0116846.

Bouget, C., Brin, A., Tellez, D., and Archaux, F. 2015. Intraspecific variations in dispersal ability of saproxylic beetles in fragmented forest patches. Oecologia 177(3):911-920.

Boukhicha, J., Ben Hassine, O.K., and Tlig-Zouari, S. 2015. Range extension and conservation status of Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda: Patellidae) in the Tunisian shores. Afr. J. Ecol. 53(1):64-74.

Bourland, N., Cerisier, F., Dainou, K., Smith, A.L., Hubau, W., Beeckman, H., Brostaux, Y., Fayolle, A., Biwolé, A.B., Fétéké, F., Gillet, J.F., Morin-Rivat, J., Lejeune, P., Ntoude Tiba, E., Van Acker, J., and Doucet, J.L. 2015. How tightly linked are Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) patches to anthropogenic disturbances in southeastern Cameroon? Forests 6(2):293-310.

Bowles, M.L., McBride, J.L., and Bell, T.J. 2015. Long-term processes affecting restoration and viability of the federal threatened Mead's milkweed (Asclepias meadii). Ecosphere 6(1):11-22.

Bradley, B.A., Early, R., and Sorte, C.J.B. 2015. Space to invade? Comparative range infilling and potential range of invasive and native plants. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 24(3):348-359.

Brook, R.K., and van Beest, F.M. 2014. Feral wild boar distribution and perceptions of risk on the central Canadian prairies. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 38(3):486-494.

Brooks, T.M., Cuttelod, A., Faith, D.P., Garcia-Moreno, J., Langhammer, P., and Pérez-Espona, S. 2015. Why and how might genetic and phylogenetic diversity be reflected in the identification of key biodiversity areas? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 370(1662):20140019.

Brown, A.R., Owen, S.F., Peters, J., Zhang, Y., Soffker, M., Paull, G.C., Hosken, D.J., Wahab, M.A., and Tylerbr, C.R. 2015. Climate change and pollution speed declines in zebrafish populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112(11):E1237-E1246.

Brummitt, N., Bachman, S.P., Aletrari, E., Chadburn, H., Griffiths-Lee, J., Lutz, M., Moat, J., Rivers, M.C., Syfert, M.M., and Lughadha, E.M.N. 2015. The Sampled Red List Index for Plants, phase II: ground-truthing specimen-based conservation assessments. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 370(1662):20140015.

Brunbjerg, A.K., Jørgensen, G.P., Nielsen, K.M., Pedersen, M.L., Svenning, J.C., and Ejrnæs, R. 2015. Disturbance in dry coastal dunes in Denmark promotes diversity of plants and arthropods. Biol. Conserv. 182:243-253.

Bu, C., Wu, S., Zhang, K., Yang, Y., and Gao, G. 2015. Biological soil crusts: an eco-adaptive biological conservative mechanism and implications for ecological restoration. Plant Biosyst. 149(2):364-373.

Buerki, S., Callmander, M.W., Bachman, S., Moat, J., Labat, J.N., and Forest, F. 2015. Incorporating evolutionary history into conservation planning in biodiversity hotspots. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 370(1662):20140014.

Bulleri, F., and Piazzi, L. 2015. Variations in importance and intensity of competition underpin context dependency in the effects of an invasive seaweed on resident assemblages. Mar. Biol. 162(2):485-489.

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Burivalova, Z., Bauert, M.R., Hassold, S., Fatroandrianjafinonjasolomiovazo, N.T., and Koh, L.P. 2015. Relevance of global forest change data set to local conservation: case study of forest degradation in Masoala National Park, Madagascar. Biotropica 47(2):267-274.

Burke, A. 2015. Rare plants in a Succulent - Nama Karoo ecotone in southern Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 53(1):93-102.

Burrows, L., Cieraad, E., and Head, N. 2015. Scotch broom facilitates indigenous tree and shrub germination and establishment in dryland New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 39(1):61-70.

Byng, J.W., Florens, F.B.V., and Baider, C. 2015. Syzygium pyneei (Myrtaceae), a new critically endangered endemic species from Mauritius. PhytoKeys 46:61-66.

Campbell, M.J., Edwards, W., Odell, E., Mohandass, D., and Laurance, W.F. 2015. Can lianas assist in rainforest restoration? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(1):257-273.

Caronni, S., Calabretti, C., Delaria, M.A., Bernardi, G., Navone, A., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., Panzalis, P., and Ceccherelli, G. 2015. Consumer depletion alters seagrass resistance to an invasive macroalga. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0115858.

Castellanos-Galindo, G.A., Cantera, J.R., Saint-Paul, U., and Ferrol-Schulte, D. 2015. Threats to mangrove social-ecological systems in the most luxuriant coastal forests of the Neotropics. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(3):701-704.

Cerda, Y., Grez, A.A., and Simonetti, J.A. 2015. The role of the understory on the abundance, movement and survival of Ceroglossus chilensis in pine plantations: an experimental test. J. Insect Conserv. 19(1):119-127.

Cestari, C. 2015. Coexistence between Nearctic-Neotropical migratory shorebirds and humans on urban beaches of the Southern Hemisphere: a current conservation challenge in developing countries. Urban Ecosyst. 18(1):285-291.

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Chen, S.B., Slik, J.W.F., Mao, L.F., Zhang, J., Sa, R.L., Zhou, K.X., and Gao, J.X. 2015. Spatial patterns and environmental correlates of bryophyte richness: sampling effort matters. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(3):593-607.

Chen, X., Adams, B., Bergeron, C., Sabo, A., and Hooper-Bùi, L. 2015. Ant community structure and response to disturbances on coastal dunes of Gulf of Mexico. J. Insect Conserv. 19(1):1-13.

Choi, C.Y., Nam, H.Y., and Lee, W.S. 2014. Behavioural responses of wintering black-faced spoonbills (Platalea minor) to disturbance. Wildlife Res. 41(6):465-472.

Chornesky, E.A., Ackerly, D.D., Beier, P., Davis, F.W., Flint, L.E., Lawler, J.J., Moyle, P.B., Moritz, M.A., Scoonover, M., Byrd, K., Alvarez, P., Heller, N.E., Micheli, E.R., and Weiss, S.B. 2015. Adapting California's ecosystems to a changing climate. BioScience 65(3):247-262.

Clauzel, C., Bannwarth, C., and Foltete, J.C. 2015. Integrating regional-scale connectivity in habitat restoration: an application for amphibian conservation in eastern France. J. Nature Conserv. 23:98-107.

Cochrane, J.A., Hoyle, G.L., Yates, C.J., Wood, J., and Nicotra, A.B. 2015. Climate warming delays and decreases seedling emergence in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Oikos 124(2):150-160.

Coles, R.G., Rasheed, M.A., McKenzie, L.J., Grech, A., York, P.H., Sheaves, M., McKenna, S., and Bryant, C. 2015. The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area seagrasses: managing this iconic Australian ecosystem resource for the future. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 153:A1-A12.

Comtet, T., Sandionigi, A., Viard, F., and Casiraghi, M. 2015. DNA (meta)barcoding of biological invasions: a powerful tool to elucidate invasion processes and help managing aliens. Biol. Invasions 17(3):905-922.

Cooling, M., Sim, D.A., and Lester, P.J. 2015. Density-dependent effects of an invasive ant on a ground-dwelling arthropod community. Environ. Entomol. 44(1):44-53.

Costanza, J.K., Terando, A.J., McKerrow, A.J., and Collazo, J.A. 2015. Modeling climate change, urbanization, and fire effects on Pinus palustris ecosystems of the southeastern US. J. Environ. Manage. 151:186-199.

Costion, C.M., Edwards, W., Ford, A.J., Metcalfe, D.J., Cross, H.B., Harrington, M.G., Richardson, J.E., Hilbert, D.W., Lowe, A.J., and Crayn, D.M. 2015. Using phylogenetic diversity to identify ancient rain forest refugia and diversification zones in a biodiversity hotspot. Divers. Distrib. 21(3):279-289.

Couvreur, T.L.P., Niangadouma, R., Sonké, B., and Sauquet, H. 2015. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon. PhytoKeys 46:1-19.

Cumming, G.S., Allen, C.R., Ban, N.C., Biggs, D., Biggs, H.C., Cumming, D.H.M., De Vos, A., Epstein, G., Etienne, M., Maciejewski, K., Mathevet, R., Moore, C., Nenadovic, M., and Schoon, M. 2015. Understanding protected area resilience: a multi-scale, social-ecological approach. Ecol. Appl. 25(2):299-319.

Cupido, C.N. 2015. Roella divina sp. nov. (Campanulaceae: Campanuloideae) from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Nord. J. Bot. 33(1):34-37.

da Silva, C.F., Corte, G.N., Yokoyama, L.Q., Abrahão, J.R., and Amaral, A.C.Z. 2015. Growth, mortality, and reproduction of Tagelus plebeius (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae) in Southeast Brazil. Helgoland Mar. Res. 69(1):1-12.

da Silva, L.G., Ribeiro, M.C., Hasui, É., da Costa, C.A., and da Cunha, R.G.T. 2015. Patch size, functional isolation, visibility and matrix permeability influences Neotropical primate occurrence within highly fragmented landscapes. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0114025.

da Silva, M.J. 2015. Manihot appanii (Euphorbiaceae s. s.), a new species from Brazil, and a key to the species with unlobed or very shortly lobed leaves. Syst. Bot. 40(1):168-173.

da Silva, M.J., and de Souza, A.O. 2015. A new species of Chamaecrista (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cassieae) from the highlands of Goiás, Brazil. Syst. Bot. 40(1):157-161.

Dalrymple, R.L., Buswell, J.M., and Moles, A.T. 2015. Asexual plants change just as often and just as fast as do sexual plants when introduced to a new range. Oikos 124(2):196-205.

Dantas, L.G., Esposito, T., de Sousa, A.C.B., Félix, L., Amorim, L.L.B., Benko-Iseppon, A.M., Batalha, H., and Pedrosa-Harand, A. 2015. Low genetic diversity and high differentiation among relict populations of the neotropical gymnosperm Podocarpus sellowii (Klotz.) in the Atlantic Forest. Genetica 143(1):21-30.

Darling, J.A. 2015. Genetic studies of aquatic biological invasions: closing the gap between research and management. Biol. Invasions 17(3):951-971.

Darling, J.A., and Piraino, S. 2015. MOLTOOLS: a workshop on "Molecular tools for monitoring marine invasive species". Biol. Invasions 17(3):809-813.

David, A.S., Zarnetske, P.L., Hacker, S.D., Ruggiero, P., Biel, R.G., and Seabloom, E.W. 2015. Invasive congeners differ in successional impacts across space and time. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0117283.

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Zeng, Q., Zhang, Y.M., Sun, G.Q., Duo, H.R., Wen, L., and Lei, G.C. 2015. Using species distribution model to estimate the wintering population size of the endangered Scaly-sided Merganser in China. PLoS ONE 10(2):e0117307.

Zenker, M.M., DeVries, P.J., Penz, C.M., Teston, J.A., Freitas, A.V.L., and Pie, M.R. 2015. Diversity and composition of Arctiinae moth assemblages along elevational and spatial dimensions in Brazilian Atlantic Forest. J. Insect Conserv. 19(1):129-140.

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Zheng, Y.L., Feng, Y.L., Zhang, L.K., Callaway, R.M., Valiente-Banuet, A., Luo, D.Q., Liao, Z.Y., Lei, Y.B., Barclay, G.F., and Silva-Pereyra, C. 2015. Integrating novel chemical weapons and evolutionarily increased competitive ability in success of a tropical invader. New Phytol. 205(3):1350-1359.

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Živić, I., Radosavljević, T., Stojanović, K., and Petrović, A. 2015. The first molecular characterization of the genus Hirudo on the territory of Serbia: estimation of endangerment. Aquat. Ecol. 49(1):81-90.

Zolkos, S.G., Jantz, P., Cormier, T., Iverson, L.R., McKenney, D.W., and Goetz, S.J. 2015. Projected tree species redistribution under climate change: implications for ecosystem vulnerability across protected areas in the eastern United States. Ecosystems 18(2):202-220.

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