Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 372
December 2015

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In This Issue

Critically Endangered Gesneriad Discovered in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana

-Adapted from The Plant Press

Its range may be small, and its flowers even smaller, but it couldn't hide forever: Anetanthus disjuncta (Gesneriaceae) is described for the first time by Smithsonian emeritus research botanist Laurence Skog and Smithsonian research associate John L. Clark in the journal Phytotaxa. The new find is located at a single location on Mt. Ayanganna in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana, at elevations between 800 and 1100 m. This restricted range signals that A. disjuncta should be listed as Critically Endangered according to IUCN Red List criteria.

Anetanthus disjuncta</i> was first collected from Guyana by David Clarke in 2001. (Photo by John L. Clark during a 2014 field expedition to Mt. Ayanganna).

Anetanthus disjuncta was first collected from Guyana by David Clarke in 2001. (Photo by John L. Clark during a 2014 field expedition to Mt. Ayanganna).

Anetanthus disjuncta gets its name from its spatial separation from the other two Anetanthus species, which are found farther west—in Brazil and the Andes from Colombia to Bolivia. Anetanthus gracilis, described in 1877, is the most widespread species in the genus, and it contains a subspecies, Anetanthus gracilis subsp. munchiquensis, which was described in 1995. The remaining Anetanthus species, A. rubra, is known only from its type locality in Amazonas, Peru, and was described by Skog in 1982. Skog and Clark are the world's leading experts on neotropical gesneriads.

The Smithsonian has a long history of research in the Guiana Shield, most visibly since 1983 when the Biological Diversity of the Guiana Shield Program (BDG) got started in the Guianas. The area known as the Guiana Shield includes parts of Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana. The region is biologically rich, but much remains to be uncovered by scientists. Its largely pristine conditions are threatened by logging and mining, and the BDG has been dedicated to studying and preserving this biodiversity hotspot, an especially important task as it continues to reveal new species like Anetanthus disjuncta.

Anetanthus disjuncta</i> was first collected from Guyana by David Clarke in 2001. (Photo by John L. Clark during a 2014 field expedition to Mt. Ayanganna).

Anetanthus disjuncta (Photo by John L. Clark during a 2014 field expedition to Mt. Ayanganna).

Current Literature

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Denisow, B., and Wrzesień, M. 2015. The habitat effect on the diversity of pollen resources in several Campanula spp. - an implication for pollinator conservation. J. Apicult. Res. 54(1):62-71.

Devi, M., and Bhattacharyya, D. 2015. Rediscovery of the red-listed grass Isachne dimyloides (Poaceae: Micrairoideae) 130 years after type collection. Phytotaxa 221(1):93-96.

Dias, L.F.O., Dias, D.V., and Magnusson, W.E. 2015. Influence of environmental governance on deforestation in municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0131425.

Do, T.V., Neinhuis, C., and Wanke, S. 2015. A new species of Aristolochia subgenus Siphisia (Aristolochiaceae) from central Vietnam. Phytotaxa 220(1):69-76.

Do Vale, I., Miranda, I.S., Mitja, D., Grimaldi, M., Nelson, B.W., Desjardins, T., and Costa, L.G.S. 2015. Tree regeneration under different land-use mosaics in the Brazilian Amazon's "Arc of Deforestation". Environ. Manage. 56(2):342-354.

Döge, J.D., de Oliveira, H.V., and Tidon, R. 2015. Rapid response to abiotic and biotic factors controls population growth of two invasive drosophilids (Diptera) in the Brazilian Savanna. Biol. Invasions 17(8):2461-2474.

Dolan, R.W., Stephens, J.D., and Moore, M.E. 2015. Changes in plant species composition and structure in two peri-urban nature preserves over 10 years. Am. Midl. Nat. 174(1):33-48.

Dolman, P.M., Collar, N.J., Scotland, K.M., and Burnside, R.J. 2015. Ark or park: the need to predict relative effectiveness of ex situ and in situ conservation before attempting captive breeding. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(4):841-850.

Donnellan, S.C., Foster, R., Junge, C., Huveneers, C., Rogers, P., Kilian, A., and Bertozzi, T. 2015. Fiddling with the proof: the Magpie Fiddler Ray is a colour pattern variant of the common Southern Fiddler Ray (Rhinobatidae: Trygonorrhina). Zootaxa 3981(3):367-384.

Drake, D., Jennelle, C.S., Liu, J.N., Grodsky, S.M., Schumacher, S., and Sponsler, M. 2015. Regional analysis of wind turbine-caused bat mortality. Acta Chiropterol. 17(1):179-188.

Dubearnes, A., Julius, A., and Utteridge, T.M.A. 2015. A synopsis of the genus Embelia in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Studies in Malaysian Myrsinaceae III. Kew Bull. 70(2):25.

Duckett, P.E., and Repaci, V. 2015. Marine plastic pollution: using community science to address a global problem. Mar. Freshwater Res. 66(8):665-673.

Duniway, M.C., Palmquist, E., and Miller, M.E. 2015. Evaluating rehabilitation efforts following the Milford Flat Fire: successes, failures, and controlling factors. Ecosphere 6(5):80.

Dyakov, N.R. 2015. Rare plants distribution modeling using indirect environmental gradients. Russ. J. Ecol. 46(4):332-338.

Ebert, D.A., and van Hees, K.E. 2015. Beyond Jaws: rediscovering the 'lost sharks' of southern Africa. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 37(2):141-156.

Eby, L.A., Pierce, R., Sparks, M., Carim, K., and Podner, C. 2015. Multiscale prediction of whirling disease risk in the Blackfoot River Basin, Montana: a useful consideration for restoration prioritization? Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 144(4):753-766.

Edwards, C.E. 2015. Looking to the future of conservation genetics: the case for using quantitative genetic experiments to estimate the ability of rare plants to withstand climate change. Am. J. Bot. 102(7):1011-1013.

Egoh, B.N., Paracchini, M.L., Zulian, G., Schägner, J.P., and Bidoglio, G. 2015. Conceptual and operational perspectives on ecosystem restoration options in the European Union and elsewhere: a response to Kotiaho & Moilanen. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(4):820-822.

Eldegard, K., Totland, Ø., and Moe, S.R. 2015. Edge effects on plant communities along power line clearings. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(4):871-880.

Epanchin-Niell, R.S., and Liebhold, A.M. 2015. Benefits of invasion prevention: effect of time lags, spread rates, and damage persistence. Ecol. Econ. 116:146-153.

Ercoli, F., Ruokonen, T.J., Koistinen, S., Jones, R.I., and Hämäläinen, H. 2015. The introduced signal crayfish and native noble crayfish have different effects on sublittoral macroinvertebrate assemblages in boreal lakes. Freshwater Biol. 60(8):1688-1698.

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Silva, A.R.M., Pontes, D.V., Guimarães, M.P., de Oliveira, M.V., de Assis, L.T.F., and Uehara-Prado, M. 2015. Fruit-feeding butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) of the Área de Proteção Especial Manancial Mutuca, Nova Lima and Species list for the Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 15(3):9.

Silva, L., Dias, E.F., Sardos, J., Azevedo, E.B., Schaefer, H., and Moura, M. 2015. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands. AoB Plants 7:plv066.

Sim, I.M.W., Wilkinson, N.I., Scridel, D., Anderson, D., and Roos, S. 2015. Food supplementation does not increase demographic rates in a passerine species of conservation concern. Nat. Conserv. 10:25-43.

Sim-Sim, M., Lopes, T., Ruas, S., and Stech, M. 2015. Does altitude shape molecular diversity and richness of bryophytes in Madeira's natural forest? A case study with four bryophyte species at two altitudinal levels. Plant Ecol. Evol. 148(2):171-180.

Simek, S.L., Belant, J.L., Fan, Z.F., Young, B.W., Leopold, B.D., Fleming, J., and Waller, B. 2015. Source populations and roads affect American black bear recolonization. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 61(4):583-590.

Skog, L.E., and Clark, J.L. 2015. Novae Gesneriaceae Neotropicarum XIX: A third, new species of the elusive Anetanthus found in Guyana. Phytotaxa 218(2):177-183.

Smith, B.S., and Sheley, R.L. 2015. Implementing strategic weed prevention programs to protect rangeland ecosystems. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(2):233-242.

Smith, D.S., Lamit, L.J., Lau, M.K., Gehring, C.A., Shuster, S.M., and Whitham, T.G. 2015. Introduced elk alter traits of a native plant and its plant-associated arthropod community. Acta Oecol. 67:8-16.

Smith, L.M., and Reynolds, H.L. 2015. Extended leaf phenology, allelopathy, and inter-population variation influence invasion success of an understory forest herb. Biol. Invasions 17(8):2299-2313.

Soares, L.A.S.S., Faria, D., Vélez-Garcia, F., Vieira, E.M., Talora, D.C., and Cazetta, E. 2015. Implications of habitat loss on seed predation and early recruitment of a keystone palm in anthropogenic landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0133540.

Solano, R. 2015. A taxonomic synopsis of the Mexican species of Acianthera (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae) including a new species. Phytotaxa 218(1):39-60.

Somaweera, R., Wijayathilaka, N., Bowatte, G., and Meegaskumbura, M. 2015. Conservation in a changing landscape: habitat occupancy of the critically endangered Tennent's leaf-nosed lizard (Ceratophora tennentii) in Sri Lanka. J. Nat. Hist. 49(31-32):1961-1985.

Sommer, R.S., Thiele, V., and Seppä, H. 2015. Use and misuse of the term 'glacial relict' in the Central European biogeography and conservation ecology of insects. Insect Conserv. Divers. 8(4):389-391.

Spooner, P.G. 2015. Minor rural road networks: values, challenges, and opportunities for biodiversity conservation. Nat. Conserv. 11:129-142.

Spotswood, E.N., Bartolome, J.W., and Allen-Diaz, B. 2015. Hotspots of community change: temporal dynamics are spatially variable in understory plant composition of a California oak woodland. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0133501.

St'Anna, B.S., Branco, J.O., de Oliveira, M.M., Boos, H., and Turra, A. 2015. Diet and population biology of the invasive crab Charybdis hellerii in southwestern Atlantic waters. Mar. Biol. Res. 11(8):814-823.

Steen, D.A., and Barrett, K. 2015. Should states in the USA value species at the edge of their geographic range? J. Wildlife Manag. 79(6):872-876.

Stevens, J.L., and Olson, J.B. 2015. Bacterial communities associated with lionfish in their native and invaded ranges. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 531:253-262.

Stevens, K.P., Holland, G.J., Clarke, R.H., Cooke, R., and Bennett, A.F. 2015. What determines habitat quality for a declining woodland bird in a fragmented environment: the grey-crowned babbler Pomatostomus temporalis in south-eastern Australia? PLoS ONE 10(6):e0130738.

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Stone, R.D. 2015. Taxonomic treatment of Memecylon L. section Felixiocylon R.D.Stone (Melastomataceae), with descriptions of four new species from Cameroon, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea (Bioko). Adansonia 37(1):47-61.

Stortini, C.H., Shackell, N.L., Tyedmers, P., and Beazley, K. 2015. Assessing marine species vulnerability to projected warming on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 72(6):1731-1743.

Strickland, C., Dangelmayr, G., Shipman, P.D., Kumar, S., and Stohlgren, T.J. 2015. Network spread of invasive species and infectious diseases. Ecol. Model. 309:1-9.

Strumia, S., Croce, A., and Santangelo, A. 2015. New distributional data of the rare endemic species Eokochia saxicola (Guss.) Freitag and G. Kadereit (Chenopodiaceae): effects on biogeography and conservation. Plant Biosyst. 149(3):559-564.

Sunny, A., Diwakar, S., and Sharma, G.P. 2015. Native insects and invasive plants encounters. Arthropod-Plant Interact. 9(4):323-331.

Suominen, M., Junninen, K., Heikkala, O., and Kouki, J. 2015. Combined effects of retention forestry and prescribed burning on polypore fungi. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(4):1001-1008.

Swaegers, J., Mergeay, J., St-Martin, A., De Knijf, G., Larmuseau, M.H.D., and Stoks, R. 2015. Genetic signature of the colonisation dynamics along a coastal expansion front in the damselfly Coenagrion scitulum. Ecol. Entomol. 40(4):353-361.

Sweet, L.C., and Holt, J.S. 2015. Establishment stage competition between exotic crimson fountaingrass (Pennisetuum setaceum, C4) and native purple needlegrass (Stipa pulchra, C3). Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(2):139-150.

Taiti, S., and Wynne, J.J. 2015. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species. ZooKeys 515:27-49.

Takhelmayum, K., and Gupta, S. 2015. Aquatic insect diversity of a protected area, Keibul Lamjao National Park in Manipur, North East India. J. Asia Pac. Entomol. 18(2):335-341.

Tavares, A.S., and Sobral-Leite, M. 2015. Apinagia brejoagrestinensis (Podostemaceae): a new rheophyte from the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Phytotaxa 220(1):61-68.

Taylor, L.A.V., and Cruzan, M.B. 2015. Propagule pressure and disturbance drive the invasion of perennial false-brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum). Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(2):169-180.

Taylor, L.A.V., Hasenkopf, E.A., and Cruzan, M.B. 2015. Barriers to invasive infilling by Brachypodium sylvaticum in Pacific Northwest forests. Biol. Invasions 17(8):2247-2260.

Tencatt, L.F.C., and Pavanelli, C.S. 2015. Redescription of Corydoras guapore Knaack, 1961 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae), a midwater Corydoradinae species from the rio Guaporé basin. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 13(2):287-296.

Terzopoulou, S., Rigal, F., Whittaker, R.J., Borges, P.A.V., and Triantis, K.A. 2015. Drivers of extinction: the case of Azorean beetles. Biol. Lett. 11(6):20150273.

Teshima, F.A., Ferreira, F.C., and Cetra, M. 2015. Rarity status of endemic and vulnerable fish species in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest protected area. Nat. Conservacao 13(1):67-73.

Thulin, M., and Vollesen, K. 2015. Blepharis gypsophila (Acanthaceae), a new species from Ethiopia. Kew Bull. 70(2):26.

Tollington, S., Greenwood, A., Jones, C.G., Hoeck, P., Chowrimootoo, A., Smith, D., Richards, H., Tatayah, V., and Groombridge, J.J. 2015. Detailed monitoring of a small but recovering population reveals sublethal effects of disease and unexpected interactions with supplemental feeding. J. Anim. Ecol. 84(4):969-977.

Toms, J.D., and Villard, M.A. 2015. Threshold detection: matching statistical methodology to ecological questions and conservation planning objectives. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 10(1):2.

Touihri, M., Villard, M.A., and Charfi-Cheikhrouha, F. 2015. Nesting habitat requirements of two species of North African woodpeckers in native oak forest. Bird Study 62(3):386-393.

Tran, T.N.Q., Jackson, M.C., Sheath, D., Verreycken, H., and Britton, J.R. 2015. Patterns of trophic niche divergence between invasive and native fishes in wild communities are predictable from mesocosm studies. J. Anim. Ecol. 84(4):1071-1080.

Traveset, A., Chamorro, S., Olesen, J.M., and Heleno, R. 2015. Space, time and aliens: charting the dynamic structure of Galápagos pollination networks. AoB Plants 7:plv068.

Treglia, M.L., Fisher, R.N., and Fitzgerald, L.A. 2015. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad. PLoS ONE 10(6):e0131628.

Tripp, E.A., and Lendemer, J.C. 2015. Candelariella clarkii and Lecidea hoganii: two lichen species new to science from White Rocks Open Space, City of Boulder, Colorado. Bryologist 118(2):154-163.

Tuck, G.N., Thomson, R.B., Barbraud, C., Delord, K., Louzao, M., Herrera, M., and Weimerskirch, H. 2015. An integrated assessment model of seabird population dynamics: can individual heterogeneity in susceptibility to fishing explain abundance trends in Crozet wandering albatross? J. Appl. Ecol. 52(4):950-959.

Tyndall, R.W. 2015. Restoration results for a Maryland shale barren after pignut hickory management and a prescribed burn. Castanea 80(2):77-94.

Ureña-Aranda, C.A., Rojas-Soto, O., Martínez-Meyer, E., Yáñez-Arenas, C., Ramírez, R.L., and de los Monteros, A.E. 2015. Using range-wide abundance modeling to identify key conservation areas for the micro-endemic Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus). PLoS ONE 10(6):e0131452.

Valencia, V., West, P., Sterling, E.J., García-Barrios, L., and Naeem, S. 2015. The use of farmers' knowledge in coffee agroforestry management: implications for the conservation of tree biodiversity. Ecosphere 6(7):122.

Van Cuong, C., Russell, M., Brown, S., and Dart, P. 2015. Using Shoreline Video Assessment for coastal planning and restoration in the context of climate change in Kien Giang, Vietnam. Ocean Sci. J. 50(2):413-432.

van der Burgt, X.M., Mackinder, B.A., Wieringa, J.J., and de la Estrella, M. 2015. The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae), Central Africa. Kew Bull. 70(2):29.

van der Hoek, Y. 2015. Tropical botanical gardens play an under-emphasized role in animal conservation. Nat. Conservacao 13(1):88-92.

van Oppen, M.J.H., Lukoschek, V., Berkelmans, R., Peplow, L.M., and Jones, A.M. 2015. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef. PeerJ 3:e1092.

Vehkaoja, M., and Nummi, P. 2015. Beaver facilitation in the conservation of boreal anuran communities. Herpetozoa 28(1-2):75-87.

Velo-Antón, G., el Marnisi, B., Fritz, U., and Fahd, S. 2015. Distribution and conservation status of Emys orbicularis in Morocco. Vertebr. Zool. 65(1):131-134.

Venchi, A., Wilson, S.K., and Borsboom, A.C. 2015. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Zootaxa 3990(2):272-278.

Verma, S.K., and Das Murmu, T. 2015. Impact of environmental and disturbance variables on avian community structure along a gradient of urbanization in Jamshedpur, India. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0133383.

Vesk, P.A., Robinson, D., van der Ree, R., Wilson, C.M., Saywell, S., and McCarthy, M.A. 2015. Demographic effects of habitat restoration for the grey-crowned babbler Pomatostomus temporalis, in Victoria, Australia. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0130153.

Viana, J.L., Sousa, H.D.C., Alves, R.M.D., Pereira, D.G., Silva, J.C., da Paixão, J.F., and Waldschmidt, A.M. 2015. Bionomics of Melipona mondury Smith 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini) in relation to its nesting behavior. Biota Neotrop. 15(3):7.

Vickers, T.W., Sanchez, J.N., Johnson, C.K., Morrison, S.A., Botta, R., Smith, T., Cohen, B.S., Huber, P.R., Ernest, H.B., and Boyce, W.M. 2015. Survival and mortality of pumas (Puma concolor) in a fragmented, urbanizing landscape. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0131490.

Vitecek, S., Kučinić, M., Oláh, J., Previšić, A., Bálint, M., Keresztes, L., Waringer, J., Pauls, S.U., and Graf, W. 2015. Description of two new filtering carnivore Drusus species (Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans. ZooKeys 513:79-104.

Vondrák, J., Malíček, J., Šoun, J., and Pouska, V. 2015. Epiphytic lichens of Stužica (E Slovakia) in the context of Central European old-growth forests. Herzogia 28(1):104-126.

Walovich, K.A., Ebert, D.A., Long, D.J., and Didier, D.A. 2015. Redescription of Hydrolagus africanus (Gilchrist, 1922) (Chimaeriformes: Chimaeridae), with a review of southern African chimaeroids and a key to their identification. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 37(2):157-165.

Walsworth, T.E., and Budy, P. 2015. Integrating nonative species in niche models to prioritize native fish restoration activity locations along a desert river corridor. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 144(4):667-681.

Wang, H., Wang, H.T., Xiao, Y.H., Wang, X.P., Sun, L.X., Shi, J.S., Lin, A.Q., Feng, J., and Wu, Y.H. 2015. Low genetic diversity and moderate inbreeding risk of an insular endemic pit viper (Gloydius shedaoensis): implication for conservation. J. Herpetol. 49(2):190-199.

Wang, R., Aylwin, R., Barwell, L., Chen, X.Y., Chen, Y., Chou, L.S., Cobb, J., Collette, D., Craine, L., Giblin-Davis, R.M., Ghana, S., Harper, M., Harrison, R.D., McPherson, J.R., Peng, Y.Q., Pereira, R.A.S., Reyes-Betancort, A., Rodriguez, L.J.V., Strange, E., van Noort, S., Yang, H.W., Yu, H., and Compton, S.G. 2015. The fig wasp followers and colonists of a widely introduced fig tree, Ficus microcarpa. Insect Conserv. Divers. 8(4):322-336.

Ward, D., and Edney-Browne, E. 2015. Poles apart: comparing trends of alien hymenoptera in New Zealand with Europe (DAISIE). PLoS ONE 10(7):e0132264.

Waser, A.M., Splinter, W., and van der Meer, J. 2015. Indirect effects of invasive species affecting the population structure of an ecosystem engineer. Ecosphere 6(7):109.

Weber, O., von Blittersdorff, R., and Beentje, H. 2015. Eriospermum adpressifolium (Asparagaceae) and Emilia blittersdorffii (Asteraceae) - two new species from Tanzania with nearly identical leaves. Kew Bull. 70(2):28.

Wen, H.Z., Wang, R.J., and Deng, S.J. 2015. Spiradiclis longanensis, a new species of Rubiaceae from China. PhytoKeys 55:113-117.

Weyl, O.L.F., Ellender, B.R., Wasserman, R.J., and Woodford, D.J. 2015. Unintended consequences of using alien fish for human benefit in protected areas. Koedoe 57(1):1264.

Williams, L.M., Nivison, C.L., Ambrose, W.G., Dobbin, R., and Locke, W.L. 2015. Lack of adult novel northern lineages of invasive green crab Carcinus maenas along much of the northern US Atlantic coast. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 532:153-159.

Wilson, A.M., Latimer, A.M., and Silander, J.A. 2015. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112(29):9058-9063.

Wippelhauser, G.S., Zydlewski, G.B., Kieffer, M., Sulikowski, J., and Kinnison, M.T. 2015. Shortnose sturgeon in the Gulf of Maine: use of spawning habitat in the Kennebec System and response to dam removal. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 144(4):742-752.

Wu, A.P., Li, Z.L., He, F.F., Wang, Y.H., and Dong, M. 2015. Screening allelochemical-resistant species of the alien invasive Mikania micrantha for restoration in South China. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0132967.

Wu, J.X., Siegel, R.B., Loffland, H.L., Tingley, M.W., Stock, S.L., Roberts, K.N., Keane, J.J., Medley, J.R., Bridgman, R., and Stermer, C. 2015. Diversity of great gray owl nest sites and nesting habitats in California. J. Wildlife Manag. 79(6):937-947.

Xiao, Y., Li, C., Hsieh, T.Y., Tian, D.K., Zhou, J.J., Zhang, D.G., and Chen, G.X. 2015. Eutrema bulbiferum (Brassicaceae), a new species with bulbils from Hunan, China. Phytotaxa 219(3):233-242.

Xu, H., Li, Y.D., Liu, S.R., Zang, R.G., He, F.L., and Spence, J.R. 2015. Partial recovery of a tropical rain forest a half-century after clear-cut and selective logging. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(4):1044-1052.

Yahr, R. 2015. The status of the conservation priority species Calicium corynellum in the British Isles. Lichenologist 47(4):205-214.

Yang, J., Zhao, L.L., Yang, J.B., and Sun, W.B. 2015. Genetic diversity and conservation evaluation of a critically endangered endemic maple, Acer yangbiense, analyzed using microsatellite markers. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 60:193-198.

Yokochi, K., and Bencini, R. 2015. A remarkably quick habituation and high use of a rope bridge by an endangered marsupial, the western ringtail possum. Nat. Conserv. 11:79-94.

Zanin, M., Sollmann, R., Tôrres, N.M., Furtado, M.M., Jácomo, A.T.A., Silveira, L., and Marco, P. 2015. Landscapes attributes and their consequences on jaguar Panthera onca and cattle depredation occurrence. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 61(4):529-537.

Zefferman, E., Stevens, J.T., Charles, G.K., Dunbar-Irwin, M., Emam, T., Fick, S., Morales, L.V., Wolf, K.M., Young, D.J.N., and Young, T.P. 2015. Plant communities in harsh sites are less invaded: a summary of observations and proposed explanations. AoB Plants 7:plv056.

Zelnik, I., Haler, M., and Gaberščik, A. 2015. Vulnerability of a riparian zone towards invasion by alien plants depends on its structure. Biologia 70(7):869-878.

Zeng, Y.W., Chong, K.Y., Grey, E.K., Lodge, D.M., and Yeo, D.C.J. 2015. Disregarding human pre-introduction selection can confound invasive crayfish risk assessments. Biol. Invasions 17(8):2373-2385.

Zerbini, A.N., Baumgartner, M.F., Kennedy, A.S., Rone, B.K., Wade, P.R., and Clapham, P.J. 2015. Space use patterns of the endangered North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica in the Bering Sea. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 532:269-281.

Zhang, Y., Liu, L., Cheng, L., Cai, Y.J., Yin, H.B., Gao, J.F., and Gao, Y.N. 2015. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams and rivers of a highly developed region (Lake Taihu Basin, China). Aquat. Biol. 23(1):15-28.

Zhao, Z.Q., Wang, L.H., Bai, Z.K., Pan, Z.G., and Wang, Y. 2015. Development of population structure and spatial distribution patterns of a restored forest during 17-year succession (1993-2010) in Pingshuo opencast mine spoil, China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 187(7):431.

Zhou, J.J., Yu, X.L., Deng, Y.F., Yan, H.F., and Lin, Z.L. 2015. Lysimachia huangsangensis (Primulaceae), a new species from Hunan, China. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0132713.

Zizka, A., Thiombiano, A., Dressler, S., Nacoulma, B.M.I., Ouedraogo, A., Ouedraogo, I., Ouedraogo, O., Zizka, G., Hahn, K., and Schmidt, M. 2015. The vascular plant diversity of Burkina Faso (West Africa) - a quantitative analysis and implications for conservation. Candollea 70(1):9-20.

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