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Department ofBotany

No. 373
January 2016

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In This Issue

Butterfly Extinctions on Barro Colorado Island

-Adapted from STRI News

During 90 years of note-taking and net-swinging, scientists identified 601 butterfly species on Panama's Barro Colorado Island, the most intensively studied piece of tropical real-estate in the world. Currently, 390 butterfly species breed on the 6 square-mile island, one-seventh the size of Orlando's Disney World, according to a team lead by Yves Basset at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. In a recent article in the journal PLoS ONE, since the 1930s, 23 species have disappeared from the island, compared to 50-60 species of birds lost during the same period.

During 90 years of note-taking and net-swinging, scientists identified 601 butterfly species on Panama's Barro Colorado Island, the most intensively studied piece of tropical real-estate in the world.

During 90 years of note-taking and net-swinging, scientists identified 601 butterfly species on Panama's Barro Colorado Island, the most intensively studied piece of tropical real-estate in the world

The team compared the richest sets of records: from 1923-1943, when lepidopterists scrutinized the newly-founded field station to discover what inhabited America's tropical forests with records from 1993-2013. Most of the records from the recent period come from the butterfly-monitoring component added to the Smithsonian's large-scale, long-term global forest monitoring project, ForestGEO, in 2008.

In the early period, researchers identified butterflies based on their shape, size and color. Now collectors also use gene sequences (genetic barcodes) to distinguish one species from another. Overall, the butterfly families on the island with the most species were the skippers in the Hesperiidae family (with 33 percent) and the colorful Nymphalidae, also known as brush-footed butterflies (with 31 percent).

Six percent of the species identified in early studies were not found in recent studies. Butterfly extinctions are usually caused by habitat loss or by extinction of the host plants eaten by butterfly larvae. Local extinction of the host plants probably only accounted for the disappearance of four species from Barro Colorado.

Many of the butterfly species that disappeared were small-winged species Hesperiids, which feed on herbaceous plants. They may have disappeared because the island continues to lose open areas as the forest ages. Their host plants are still there, but are scattered and may be harder for the butterflies to locate.

Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates, and therefore, should not be neglected by conservationists.

The team of lepidopterists who collaborated on this study work at the University of South Bohemia and Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, the Universidad de Panama, the Northern Plains Agricultural Lab of the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the Florida Museum of Natural History McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity and at the Smithsonian Institution.

Critically Endangered Wrasse Now Favorite Food of Invasive Lionfish

-Adapted from

Scientists examining the stomach contents of invasive lionfish caught on the inner barrier reef of Belize have discovered that nearly half of the diet of these aggressive fish consists of a critically endangered fish known as the social wrasse (Halichoeres socialis).

A lionfish shown with two mature female social wrasses, Halichoeres socialis, recovered from its stomach in Belize. (Photo by Luiz Rocha)

A lionfish shown with two mature female social wrasses, Halichoeres socialis, recovered from its stomach in Belize. (Photo by Luiz Rocha)

The social wrasse is one of five coral reef fishes listed at the highest risk of extinction on the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Found only on clear–water reefs around inshore mangrove islands in Belize, "its combination of traits—small size, schooling, and low, hovering behavior—make it an easy target for the lionfish," says Smithsonian scientist Carole Baldwin of the Division of Fishes at the National Museum of Natural History.

"The social wrasse is already under heavy stress from habitat destruction by development. Added pressure from lionfish predation may spell extinction for the social wrasse," Baldwin and co-authors write in a recent article in the journal Coral Reefs. Other Caribbean fish species with traits similar to the social wrasse and limited ranges may face the same fate.

A Pacific fish popular in the aquarium trade, lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) were introduced to the Atlantic in the mid-1990s. Today they are found along the U.S. Atlantic coast from Rhode Island to Florida, in the Bahamas and Gulf of Mexico and throughout the Caribbean. "Invasive lionfish are two to three times more effective at removing small native fishes than are native predators," the scientists write. Lionfish are the latest in a long list of threats to Caribbean coral reefs, other threats include climate change, habitat destruction and pollution.

During their study the scientists speared 68 lionfish within the habitat range of the social wrasse and removed their stomachs. Of the 44 stomachs found to contain recently eaten fish, the scientists identified the consumed prey by morphology and through DNA analysis. Social wrasses represented 46 percent of the fishes found in lionfish stomachs, making them the primary prey item of the lionfish. One lionfish had 18 social wrasses in its stomach.

While the social wrasse lives only in shallow water, the lionfish is able to exploit deeper depths. For example, Baldwin is currently studying fish living in deep tropical reefs (as deep as 660 feet) off the coast of Curacao, and has encountered large numbers of lionfish eating native species there. "My worry is that they are decimating species of native fish that have yet to even be discovered," she says.

While the lionfish invasion of the Caribbean cannot be stopped, "targeted removals have reduced lionfish numbers in many areas," the scientists write, mainly by divers seeking them for food. "Lionfish is delicious—cooked or as sushi/sashimi/ceviche—which lends hope to efforts that we will be able to control their numbers," Baldwin explains.

Some fisherman want nothing to do with lionfish because of the potential of being stung by their neurotoxin-containing fin spines, which at a minimum cause hours of excruciating pain, Baldwin says. In rare cases a lionfish sting can cause paralysis and even death.

While conducting their study, Baldwin and co-author Luiz Rocha of the California Academy of Sciences, were stung "because we put speared lionfish into mesh bags while scuba diving, and venomous spines poking from the bag got us," Baldwin explains. "Divers are now using lionfish containment devices, which are containers made with PVC pipe. Once you get the lionfish into the container, no worries."

"On the whole, the social wrasse is just one brick in the wall we call biodiversity," Baldwin says. The coral reef ecosystem "won't crumble by removing one brick, but at some point if enough bricks are removed, it will."

Current Literature

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Blake, B., and Ermgassen, P.S.E.Z. 2015. The history and decline of Ostrea Lurida in Willapa Bay, Washington. J. Shellfish Res. 34(2):273-280.

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Burke, R.L. 2015. Head-starting turtles: learning from experience. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(1):299-308.

Burokiene, D., Prospero, S., Jung, E., Marciulyniene, D., Moosbrugger, K., Norkute, G., Rigling, D., Lygis, V., and Schoebel, C.N. 2015. Genetic population structure of the invasive ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in its expanding range. Biol. Invasions 17(9):2743-2756.

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Büyüktahtakın, I.E., Kıbış, E.Y., Cobuloglu, H.I., Houseman, G.R., and Lampe, J.T. 2015. An age-structured bio-economic model of invasive species management: insights and strategies for optimal control. Biol. Invasions 17(9):2545-2563.

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Caballero, S., Correa-Cárdenas, C.A., and Trujillo, F. 2015. Population structure and genetic diversity of the endangered South American giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) from the Orinoco basin in Colombia: management implications and application to current conservation programs. J. Heredity 106:469-477.

Caillouet, C.W., Shaver, D.J., and Landry, A.M. 2015. Kemp's Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) head-start and reintroduction to Padre Island National Seashore, Texas. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(1):309-377.

Cameron, E.K., and Bayne, E.M. 2015. Spatial patterns and spread of exotic earthworms at local scales. Can. J. Zool. 93(9):721-726.

Campbell, H.A., Dwyer, R.G., Wilson, H., Irwin, T.R., and Franklin, C.E. 2015. Predicting the probability of large carnivore occurrence: a strategy to promote crocodile and human coexistence. Anim. Conserv. 18(4):387-395.

Canestraro, B.K., and Labiak, P.H. 2015. The fern genus Polybotrya (Dryopteridaceae) in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, with the description of a new species. Brittonia 67(3):191-215.

Canhos, D.A.L., Sousa-Baena, M.S., de Souza, S., Maia, L.C., Stehmann, J.R., Canhos, V.P., De Giovanni, R., Bonacelli, M.B.M., Los, W., and Peterson, A.T. 2015. The importance of biodiversity e-infrastructures for megadiverse countries. PLoS Biol. 13(7):e1002204.

Carpio, A.J., Cabrera, M., and Tortosa, F.S. 2015. Evaluation of methods for estimating species richness and abundance of reptiles in olive groves. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(1):54-63.

Carrara, R., and Flores, G.E. 2015. Endemic epigean Tenebrionids (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from the Andean Region: exploring the patagonian-diversification hypothesis. Zootaxa 4007(1):47-62.

Carson, E.W., Souza, V., Espinosa-Pérez, H., and Turner, T.F. 2015. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and phylogeography of Lucania interioris inform biodiversity conservation in the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin, México. West. N. Am. Naturalist 75(2):200-208.

Castellanos-Morales, G., Ortega, J., Castillo-Gámez, R.A., Sackett, L.C., and Eguiarte, L.E. 2015. Genetic variation and structure in contrasting geographic distributions: widespread versus restricted black-tailed prairie dogs (subgenus Cynomys). J. Heredity 106:478-490.

Catano, C.P., and Stout, I.J. 2015. Functional relationships reveal keystone effects of the gopher tortoise on vertebrate diversity in a longleaf pine savanna. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(8):1957-1974.

Cheek, M., Tandang, D.N., and Pelser, P.B. 2015. Nepenthes barcelonae (Nepenthaceae), a new species from Luzon, Philippines. Phytotaxa 222(2):145-150.

Cheng, F., Li, W., Castello, L., Murphy, B.R., and Xie, S.G. 2015. Potential effects of dam cascade on fish: lessons from the Yangtze River. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 25(3):569-585.

Cheng, F., Li, W., Klopfer, M., Murphy, B.R., and Xie, S.G. 2015. Population genetic structure and its implication for conservation of Coreius guichenoti in the upper Yangtze River. Environ. Biol. Fish. 98(9):1999-2007.

Chevaldonné, P., Pérez, T., Crouzet, J.M., Bay-Nouailhat, W., Bay-Nouailhat, A., Fourt, M., Almón, B., Pérez, J., Aguilar, R., and Vacelet, J. 2015. Unexpected records of "deep-sea" carnivorous sponges Asbestopluma hypogea in the shallow NE Atlantic shed light on new conservation issues. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 36(3):475-484.

Cibot, M., Bortolamiol, S., Seguya, A., and Krief, S. 2015. Chimpanzees facing a dangerous situation: a high-traffic asphalted road in the Sebitoli area of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Am. J. Primatol. 77(8):890-900.

Clayton, J.A., Pavey, C.R., Vernes, K., and Jefferys, E. 2015. Diet of mala (Lagorchestes hirsutus) at Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park and comparison with that of historic free-ranging mala in the Tanami Desert: implications for management and future reintroductions. Aust. Mammal. 37(2):201-211.

Coetzer, W.G., Downs, C.T., Perrin, M.R., and Willows-Munro, S. 2015. Molecular systematics of the Cape Parrot (Poicephalus robustus): implications for taxonomy and conservation. PLoS ONE 10(8):e0133376.

Cohen, P.J., and Steenbergen, D.J. 2015. Social dimensions of local fisheries co-management in the Coral Triangle. Environ. Conserv. 42(3):278-288.

Collen, B. 2015. Conservation prioritization in the context of uncertainty. Anim. Conserv. 18(4):315-317.

Connette, G.M., Crawford, J.A., and Peterman, W.E. 2015. Climate change and shrinking salamanders: alternative mechanisms for changes in plethodontid salamander body size. Global Change Biol. 21(8):2834-2843.

Conteh, A., Gavin, M.C., and Solomon, J. 2015. Quantifying illegal hunting: a novel application of the quantitative randomised response technique. Biol. Conserv. 189:16-23.

Coro, G., Webb, T.J., Appeltans, W., Bailly, N., Cattrijsse, A., and Pagano, P. 2015. Classifying degrees of species commonness: North Sea fish as a case study. Ecol. Model. 312:272-280.

Costello, M.J., Claus, S., Dekeyzer, S., Vandepitte, L., Tuama, É.Ó., Lear, D., and Tyler-Walters, H. 2015. Biological and ecological traits of marine species. PeerJ 3:e1201.

Coulon, A., Aben, J., Palmer, S.C.F., Stevens, V.M., Callens, T., Strubbe, D., Lens, L., Matthysen, E., Baguette, M., and Travis, J.M.J. 2015. A stochastic movement simulator improves estimates of landscape connectivity. Ecology 96(8):2203-2213.

Crandall, R., and Knight, T.M. 2015. Positive frequency dependence undermines the success of restoration using historical disturbance regimes. Ecol. Lett. 18(9):883-891.

Crase, B., Vesk, P.A., Liedloff, A., and Wintle, B.A. 2015. Modelling both dominance and species distribution provides a more complete picture of changes to mangrove ecosystems under climate change. Global Change Biol. 21(8):3005-3020.

Cross, A.T., Skates, L.M., Adamec, L., Hammond, C.M., Sheridan, P.M., and Dixon, K.W. 2015. Population ecology of the endangered aquatic carnivorous macrophyte Aldrovanda vesiculosa at a naturalised site in North America. Freshwater Biol. 60(9):1772-1783.

Crous, C.J., Pryke, J.S., and Samways, M.J. 2015. Conserving a geographically isolated Charaxes butterfly in response to habitat fragmentation and invasive alien plants. Koedoe 57(1):1297.

Cruz, I.C.S., de Kikuchi, R.K.P., Longo, L.L., and Creed, J.C. 2015. Evidence of a phase shift to Epizoanthus gabrieli Carlgreen, 1951 (Order Zoanthidea) and loss of coral cover on reefs in the Southwest Atlantic. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 36(3):318-325.

Cultid-Medina, C., Martínez-Quintero, B.G., Escobar, F., and de Ulloa, P.C. 2015. Movement and population size of two dung beetle species in an Andean agricultural landscape dominated by sun-grown coffee. J. Insect Conserv. 19(4):617-626.

Cunha, H.A., da Silva, V.M.F., Santos, T.E.C., Moreira, S.M., do Carmo, N.A.S., and Solé-Cava, A.M. 2015. When you get what you haven't paid for: molecular identification of "douradinha" fish fillets can help end the illegal use of river dolphins as bait in Brazil. J. Heredity 106:565-572.

Curnick, D.J., Head, C.E.I., Huang, D., Crabbe, M.J.C., Gollock, M., Hoeksema, B.W., Johnson, K.G., Jones, R., Koldewey, H.J., Obura, D.O., Rosen, B.R., Smith, D.J., Taylor, M.L., Turner, J.R., Wren, S., and Redding, D.W. 2015. Setting evolutionary-based conservation priorities for a phylogenetically data-poor taxonomic group (Scleractinia). Anim. Conserv. 18(4):303-312.

Daut, E.F., Brightsmith, D.J., Mendoza, A.P., Puhakka, L., and Peterson, M.J. 2015. Illegal domestic bird trade and the role of export quotas in Peru. J. Nature Conserv. 27:44-53.

Dávalos, A., Nuzzo, V., and Blossey, B. 2015. Single and interactive effects of deer and earthworms on non-native plants. Forest Ecol. Manag. 351:28-35.

David, C., Vaz, S., Loots, C., Antajan, E., van der Molen, J., and Travers-Trolet, M. 2015. Understanding winter distribution and transport pathways of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North Sea: coupling habitat and dispersal modelling approaches. Biol. Invasions 17(9):2605-2619.

Davoodian, N. 2015. Fungal conservation in the United States: current status of federal frameworks. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(8):2099-2104.

de Carvalho, R.A., and Tejerina-Garro, F.L. 2015. Relationships between taxonomic and functional components of diversity: implications for conservation of tropical freshwater fishes. Freshwater Biol. 60(9):1854-1862.

De Castro, O., Gianguzzi, L., Carucci, F., De Luca, A., Gesuele, R., and Guida, M. 2015. Old sleeping Sicilian beauty: seed germination in the palaeoendemic Petagnaea gussonei (Spreng.) Rauschert (Saniculoideae, Apiaceae). Plant Biol. 17(5):1095-1098.

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Simaika, J.P., and Samways, M.J. 2015. Predicted range shifts of dragonflies over a wide elevation gradient in the southern hemisphere. Freshwater Sci. 34(3):1133-1143.

Singleton, G.R., Jacob, J., Krebs, C.J., and Monadjem, A. 2015. A meeting of mice and men: rodent impacts on food security, human diseases and wildlife conservation; ecosystem benefits; fascinating biological models. Wildlife Res. 42(2):83-85.

Sjöstedt, M., and Sundström, A. 2015. Coping with illegal fishing: an institutional account of success and failure in Namibia and South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 189:78-85.

Smith, P.C. 2015. First do no harm: recognizing and mitigating the risk of disease introduction associated with chelonian head-starting initiatives. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(1):550-558.

Smith, R.F., Venugopal, P.D., Baker, M.E., and Lamp, W.O. 2015. Habitat filtering and adult dispersal determine the taxonomic composition of stream insects in an urbanizing landscape. Freshwater Biol. 60(9):1740-1754.

Soares, N.S., Gonçalves, C.A., Araújo, G.M., and Lomônaco, C. 2015. Floristic composition and abundance in forest fragments: a case study from southern Goiás, Brazil. Biosci. J. 31(4):1238-1252.

Soga, M., Kawahara, T., Fukuyama, K., Sayama, K., Kato, T., Shimomura, M., Itoh, T., Yoshida, T., and Ozaki, K. 2015. Landscape versus local factors shaping butterfly communities in fragmented landscapes: does host plant diversity matter? J. Insect Conserv. 19(4):781-790.

Solomon, J.N., Gavin, M.C., and Gore, M.L. 2015. Detecting and understanding non-compliance with conservation rules. Biol. Conserv. 189:1-4.

Somlyay, L., and Sennikov, A.N. 2015. Atlas Florae Europaeae notes 24. Taxonomic interpretation and typification of Sorbus pannonica (Rosaceae), a presumed intermediate between S. aria and S. graeca from Hungary. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 52(3-4):274-287.

Sosa, J.A., and Perry, G. 2015. Site fidelity, movement, and visibility following translocation of ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) from a wildlife rehabilitation center in the high plains of Texas. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(1):255-262.

Souto, C.P., Mathiasen, P., Acosta, M.C., Quiroga, M.P., Vidal-Russell, R., Echeverría, C., and Premoli, A.C. 2015. Identifying genetic hotspots by mapping molecular diversity of widespread trees: when commonness matters. J. Heredity 106:537-545.

St. John, F.A.V., Mai, C.H., and Pei, K.J.C. 2015. Evaluating deterrents of illegal behaviour in conservation: carnivore killing in rural Taiwan. Biol. Conserv. 189:86-94.

Staddon, S.C., Nightingale, A., and Shrestha, S.K. 2015. Exploring participation in ecological monitoring in Nepal's community forests. Environ. Conserv. 42(3):268-277.

Staubus, W.J., Boyd, E.S., Adams, T.A., Spear, D.M., Dipman, M.M., and Meyer, W.M. 2015. Ant communities in native sage scrub, non-native grassland, and suburban habitats in Los Angeles County, USA: conservation implications. J. Insect Conserv. 19(4):669-680.

Steen, D.A., Osborne, P.A., Dovčiak, M., Patrick, D.A., and Gibbs, J.P. 2015. A preliminary investigation into the short-term effects of a prescribed fire on habitat quality for a snake assemblage. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(1):263-272.

Strauss, M.K.L., Kilewo, M., Rentsch, D., and Packer, C. 2015. Food supply and poaching limit giraffe abundance in the Serengeti. Pop. Ecol. 57(3):505-516.

Struebig, M.J., Fischer, M., Gaveau, D.L.A., Meijaard, E., Wich, S.A., Gonner, C., Sykes, R., Wilting, A., and Kramer-Schadt, S. 2015. Anticipated climate and land-cover changes reveal refuge areas for Borneo's orang-utans. Global Change Biol. 21(8):2891-2904.

Stuhldreher, G., and Fartmann, T. 2015. Oviposition-site preferences of a declining butterfly Erebia medusa (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae) in nutrient-poor grasslands. Eur. J. Entomol. 112(3):493-499.

Sugai, L.S.M., Ochoa-Quintero, J.M., Costa-Pereira, R., and Roque, F.O. 2015. Beyond aboveground. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(8):2109-2112.

Suhonen, J., Rannikko, J., and Sorvari, J. 2015. The rarity of host species affects the co-extinction risk in socially parasitic bumblebee Bombus (Psithyrus) species. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 52(4):236-242.

Sun, Y.J., and Wells, M.G. 2015. The application of life-history and predation allometry to population dynamics to predict the critical density of extinction. Ecol. Model. 312:136-149.

Tack, J.D., and Fedy, B.C. 2015. Landscapes for energy and wildlife: conservation prioritization for golden eagles across large spatial scales. PLoS ONE 10(8):e0134781.

Takada, Y. 2015. Morisita's prosperity index revisited. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(8):2093-2097.

Tan, L.C., Cai, Y.J., An, Z.S., Cheng, H., Shen, C.C., Breitenbach, S.F.M., Gao, Y.L., Edwards, R.L., Zhang, H.W., and Du, Y.J. 2015. A Chinese cave links climate change, social impacts, and human adaptation over the last 500 years. Sci. Rep. 5:12284.

Tepolt, C.K., and Palumbi, S.R. 2015. Transcriptome sequencing reveals both neutral and adaptive genome dynamics in a marine invader. Mol. Ecol. 24(16):4145-4158.

Termaat, T., van Grunsven, R.H.A., Plate, C.L., and van Strien, A.J. 2015. Strong recovery of dragonflies in recent decades in The Netherlands. Freshwater Sci. 34(3):1094-1104.

Terry, R.C., and Rowe, R.J. 2015. Energy flow and functional compensation in Great Basin small mammals under natural and anthropogenic environmental change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112(31):9656-9661.

Thébaud, O., Boschetti, F., Jennings, S., Smith, A.D.M., and Pascoe, S. 2015. Of sets of offsets: cumulative impacts and strategies for compensatory restoration. Ecol. Model. 312:114-124.

Theodorou, J.A., James, R., Tzovenis, I., and Hellio, C. 2015. The recruitment of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758) on the ropes of a Mediterranean mussel long line farm. J. Shellfish Res. 34(2):409-414.

Thomas, A.S., Gavin, M.C., and Milfont, T.L. 2015. Estimating non-compliance among recreational fishers: Insights into factors affecting the usefulness of the randomized response and item count techniques. Biol. Conserv. 189:24-32.

Thomas, G., Lorenz, A.W., Sundermann, A., Haase, P., Peter, A., and Stoll, S. 2015. Fish community responses and the temporal dynamics of recovery following river habitat restorations in Europe. Freshwater Sci. 34(3):975-990.

Tomillo, P.S., Roberts, S.A., Hernández, R., Spotila, J.R., and Paladino, F.V. 2015. Nesting ecology of East Pacific green turtles at Playa Cabuyal, Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 36(3):506-516.

Tougas-Tellier, M.A., Morin, J., Hatin, D., and Lavoie, C. 2015. Freshwater wetlands: fertile grounds for the invasive Phragmites australis in a climate change context. Ecol. Evol. 5(16):3421-3435.

Tuberville, T.D., Norton, T.M., Buhlmann, K.A., and Greco, V. 2015. Head-starting as a management component for gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(1):455-471.

Turner, K.G., Freville, H., and Rieseberg, L.H. 2015. Adaptive plasticity and niche expansion in an invasive thistle. Ecol. Evol. 5(15):3183-3197.

Turney, S., Cameron, E.R., Cloutier, C.A., and Buddle, C.M. 2015. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified. PeerJ 3:e1168.

Turpin, J. 2015. North Kimberley Mammals - on the fringe of the high-rainfall zone. Aust. Mammal. 37(2):132-145.

Ueda, A., Dwibadra, D., Noerdjito, W.A., Sugiarto, Kon, M., Ochi, T., Takahashi, M., and Fukuyama, K. 2015. Effect of habitat transformation from grassland to Acacia mangium plantation on dung beetle assemblage in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. J. Insect Conserv. 19(4):765-780.

Valdez, F.P., Haag, T., Azevedo, F.C.C., Silveira, L., Cavalcanti, S.M.C., Salzano, F.M., and Eizirik, E. 2015. Population genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: molecular evidence for demographic connectivity on a regional scale. J. Heredity 106:503-511.

Vale, C.G., da Silva, M.J.F., Camposa, J.C., Torres, J., and Brito, J.C. 2015. Applying species distribution modelling to the conservation of an ecologically plastic species (Papio papio) across biogeographic regions in West Africa. J. Nature Conserv. 27:26-36.

van der Meer, E., Rasmussen, G.S.A., and Fritz, H. 2015. Using an energetic cost-benefit approach to identify ecological traps: the case of the African wild dog. Anim. Conserv. 18(4):359-366.

van Teeffelen, A., Meller, L., van Minnen, J., Vermaat, J., and Cabeza, M. 2015. How climate proof is the European Union's biodiversity policy? Reg. Environ. Change 15(6):997-1010.

Van Wilgen, N.J., and McGeoch, M.A. 2015. Balancing effective conservation with sustainable resource use in protected areas: precluded by knowledge gaps. Environ. Conserv. 42(3):246-255.

Vatseva, R. 2015. Mapping urban land use and land cover change in the Black Sea coastal zone in Bulgaria for the period 1977-2011 using remote sensing and GIS. C.R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 68(7):903-908.

Vera-Escalona, I., Habit, E., and Ruzzante, D.E. 2015. Echoes of a distant time: effects of historical processes on contemporary genetic patterns in Galaxias platei in Patagonia. Mol. Ecol. 24(16):4112-4128.

Victoriano, P.F., Muñoz-Mendoza, C., Sáez, P.A., Salinas, H.F., Muñoz-Ramírez, C., Sallaberry, M., Fibla, P., and Méndez, M.A. 2015. Evolution and conservation on top of the world: phylogeography of the marbled water frog (Telmatobius marmoratus species complex; Anura, Telmatobiidae) in protected areas of Chile. J. Heredity 106:546-559.

Villamagna, A., Scott, L., and Gillespie, J. 2015. Collateral benefits from public and private conservation lands: a comparison of ecosystem service capacities. Environ. Conserv. 42(3):204-215.

Vinarski, M.V., and Kramarenko, S.S. 2015. How does the discrepancies among taxonomists affect macroecological patterns? A case study of freshwater snails of Western Siberia. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(8):2079-2091.

Vincenot, C.E., Koyama, L., and Russo, D. 2015. Near threatened? First report of unsuspected human-driven decline factors in the Ryukyu flying fox (Pteropus dasymallus) in Japan. Mamm. Biol. 80(4):273-277.

Vitales, D., García-Fernández, A., Garnatje, T., Vallès, J., Cowan, R.S., Fay, M.F., and Pellicer, J. 2015. Conservation genetics of the rare Iberian endemic Cheirolophus uliginosus (Asteraceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 179(1):157-171.

Voirin, B. 2015. Biology and conservation of the pygmy sloth, Bradypus pygmaeus. J. Mammal. 96(4):703-707.

Vye, S.R., Emmerson, M.C., Arenas, F., Dick, J.T.A., and O'Connor, N.E. 2015. Stressor intensity determines antagonistic interactions between species invasion and multiple stressor effects on ecosystem functioning. Oikos 124(8):1005-1012.

Walston, L.J., Najjar, S.J., LaGory, K.E., and Drake, S.M. 2015. Spatial ecology of Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) in southcentral New Hampshire with implications to road mortality. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(1):284-296.

Wang, A.Q., Chen, J.D., Jing, C.W., Ye, G.Q., Wu, J.P., Huang, Z.X., and Zhou, C.S. 2015. Monitoring the invasion of Spartina alterniflora from 1993 to 2014 with Landsat TM and SPOT 6 satellite data in Yueqing Bay, China. PLoS ONE 10(8):e0135538.

Ward-Paige, C.A., Britten, G.L., Bethea, D.M., and Carlson, J.K. 2015. Characterizing and predicting essential habitat features for juvenile coastal sharks. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 36(3):419-431.

Warren-Thomas, E., Dolman, P.M., and Edwards, D.P. 2015. Increasing demand for natural rubber necessitates a robust sustainability initiative to mitigate impacts on tropical biodiversity. Conserv. Lett. 8(4):230-241.

Werner, J.R., Krebs, C.J., Donker, S.A., Boonstra, R., and Sheriff, M.J. 2015. Arctic ground squirrel population collapse in the boreal forests of the Southern Yukon. Wildlife Res. 42(2):176-184.

White, E.L., Hunt, P.D., Schlesinger, M.D., Corser, J.D., and deMaynadier, P.G. 2015. Prioritizing Odonata for conservation action in the northeastern USA. Freshwater Sci. 34(3):1079-1093.

White, K.L., Eason, D.K., Jamieson, I.G., and Robertson, B.C. 2015. Evidence of inbreeding depression in the critically endangered parrot, the kakapo. Anim. Conserv. 18(4):341-347.

White, R.L., Sutton, A.E., Salguero-Gómez, R., Bray, T.C., Campbell, H., Cieraad, E., Geekiyanage, N., Gherardi, L., Hughes, A.C., Jørgensen, P.S., Poisot, T., DeSoto, L., and Zimmerman, N. 2015. The next generation of action ecology: novel approaches towards global ecological research. Ecosphere 6(8):134.

Wilson, T.S., Sleeter, B.M., and Davis, A.W. 2015. Potential future land use threats to California's protected areas. Reg. Environ. Change 15(6):1051-1064.

Wuyun, T., Amo, H., Xu, J.S., Ma, T., Uematsu, C., and Katayama, H. 2015. Population structure of and conservation strategies for wild Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. in China. PLoS ONE 10(8):e0133686.

Xavier, J.C., Allcock, A.L., Cherel, Y., Lipinski, M.R., Pierce, G.J., Rodhouse, P.G.K., Rosa, R., Shea, E.K., Strugnell, J.M., Vidal, E.A.G., Villanueva, R., and Ziegler, A. 2015. Future challenges in cephalopod research. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 95(5):999-1015.

Xu, R.B., Wu, F., Hilt, S., Wu, C., Wang, X.L., and Chang, X.X. 2015. Recovery limitation of endangered Ottelia acuminata by allelopathic interaction with cyanobacteria. Aquat. Ecol. 49(3):333-342.

Yang, B., Busch, J., Zhang, L., Ran, J.H., Gu, X.D., Zhang, W., Du, B.B., Xu, Y., and Mittermeier, R.A. 2015. China's collective forest tenure reform and the future of the giant panda. Conserv. Lett. 8(4):251-261.

Yang, Y.Q., Huang, B.H., Yu, Z.X., and Liao, P.C. 2015. Inferences of demographic history and fine-scale landscape genetics in Cycas panzhihuaensis and implications for its conservation. Tree Genet. Genomes 11(4):78.

Yeatman, G.J., and Wayne, A.F. 2015. Seasonal home range and habitat use of a critically endangered marsupial (Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi) inside and outside a predator-proof sanctuary. Aust. Mammal. 37(2):157-163.

Zaman, K., Tenney, C., Rush, C.E., and Hill, R.I. 2015. Population ecology of a California endemic: Speyeria adiaste clemencei. J. Insect Conserv. 19(4):753-763.

Zelarayán, M.L.C., Celentano, D., Oliveira, E.C., Triana, S.P., Sodré, D.N., Muchavisoy, K.H.M., and Rousseau, G.X. 2015. Impact of degradation on carbon stock of riparian forests in the eastern Amazon, Brazil. Acta Amaz. 45(3):271-281.

Zemanová, H., Bolfíková, B.Č., Brandlová, K., Hejcmanová, P., and Hulva, P. 2015. Conservation genetics of the Western Derby eland (Taurotragus derbianus derbianus) in Senegal: integration of pedigree and microsatellite data. Mamm. Biol. 80(4):328-332.

Zentelis, R., and Lindenmayer, D. 2015. Bombing for biodiversity—enhancing conservation values of military training areas. Conserv. Lett. 8(4):299-305.

Zhang, G.J., Hu, H.H., Zhang, C.F., Tian, X.J., Peng, H., and Gao, T.G. 2015. Inaccessible biodiversity on limestone cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae), a new critically endangered species from China. PLoS ONE 10(8):e0134895.

Zhang, S.S., Shi, F.Q., Yang, W.Z., Xiang, Z.Y., Kang, H.M., and Duan, Z.L. 2015. Autotoxicity as a cause for natural regeneration failure in Nyssa yunnanensis and its implications for conservation. Israel J. Plant Sci. 62(3):187-197.

Zhang, W.X., Yin, D., Huang, D.Z., Du, N., Liu, J., Guo, W.H., and Wang, R.Q. 2015. Altitudinal patterns illustrate the invasion mechanisms of alien plants in temperate mountain forests of northern China. Forest Ecol. Manag. 351:1-8.

Zhou, T., Liu, S.C., Feng, Z.L., Liu, G., Gan, Q., and Peng, S.L. 2015. Use of exotic plants to control Spartina alterniflora invasion and promote mangrove restoration. Sci. Rep. 5:12980.

Zúñiga-Reinoso, Á., and Cid-Arcos, M. 2015. A new species of Callyntra (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from central Chile. Zootaxa 4000(2):294-298.

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