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Department ofBotany

No. 374
February 2016

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In This Issue

Environmental Forensics Pieces Together Mysterious Plant Invasion

-Adapted from

On crime scene investigation shows, forensic scientists use remnants of genetic material to solve mysteries in a matter of hours. Researchers at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) published a paper in Wetlands that has more in common with a CSI episode than one might expect—though in their case, the process took months instead of hours.

Their suspect was an invasive reed. A European strain of Phragmites australis arrived in the 1800s, but only began dominating Chesapeake wetlands in the 1980s. SERC scientists attempted to recreate the history of this sudden, aggressive invasion.

A Phragmites patch on Maryland's eastern shore. (Photo by Matt Sievers)

A Phragmites patch on Maryland's eastern shore. (Photo by Matt Sievers)

"We tried to look at every aspect of a plant invasion," says Eric Hazelton, a former SERC fellow and doctoral candidate at Utah State University, and one of the paper's authors.

The team examined the robustness, insect damage, and types of plants in old and young Phragmites patches. "We found that with invasions that are 10 years old, they're essentially the same as invasions that are 50 years old," Hazelton says. "Nothing changed."

Or so it seemed. When the team turned to DNA, they found differences in genetic diversity between old and young patches. Extracting DNA from Phragmites leaves, SERC ecologist Melissa McCormick, who did most of the molecular work, determined how many distinct clones were in each patch and how closely related they were.

The DNA revealed more diversity within young patches (post-1990) than old patches (pre-1971). Old patches, however, were more distinct from patch to patch, whereas young patches were more similar. These differences in genetic diversity led to two possible histories, which are not mutually exclusive.

In one history, the older patches were established independently by rare, single seeds that happened to wind up in a marsh. When another patch started growing close enough to these established patches, they started making seeds with each other. And that is when Phragmites began to explode, forming more diverse, younger patches.

Additionally, the older patches may have started out with more distinct clones, but lost some of that diversity over time as the clones competed against one another for resources. "Both things are likely happening," Hazelton says.

Eric Hazelton in a Phragmites patch on the Nanjemoy River in Maryland. (Photo by Rebekah Downard)

Eric Hazelton in a Phragmites patch on the Nanjemoy River in Maryland. (Photo by Rebekah Downard)

DNA work is never as easy in real life as it is on television, especially when Phragmites is involved. The team plodded through tall, dense, humid Phragmites patches to collect samples, dodging sharp-edged leaves and battling the heat.

This research started as the summer project of former SERC intern Matt Sievers, now a research technologist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. SERC senior scientist Dennis Whigham and Karin Kettenring of Utah State University also contributed to this study.

Understanding Phragmites' recent explosion may help prevent its future spread. The key seems to be catching older patches before they start producing seeds together and forming younger patches. After that, it may be too late. "Once Phragmites comes in and get established, it's just there," McCormick says. "And it's really there. It's there and not much else is."

Forest Giants Suffer Most During Droughts

-Adapted from Smithsonian Newsdesk

In a study published in the journal Nature Plants, a team led by Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) scientists found that bigger trees suffer the most during droughts, regardless of location or forest type. The team, including ecologists Kristina Anderson-Teixeira and Amy Bennett from SCBI, Nathan McDowell from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Craig Allen of USGS, analyzed 40 droughts in 38 forests across the globe, searching for size-related patterns in growth and mortality responses. The study included looking at the fates of hundreds of thousands of individual trees.

"This year is the hottest on record, and there are currently droughts all over the world, including the record-breaking drought in the western United States," said Anderson-Teixeira, senior author on the study. "We're currently experiencing a potentially record-breaking El Niño, which will cause droughts around the world. Trees will die, particularly the larger ones. This is an important study with very concerning present-day implications."

As the world warms, forests everywhere experience more severe droughts. It is vital to understand how these droughts affect forests and might play into a feedback loop that affects the climate. This study found that, almost without exception, the growth of large trees slowed more than that of small trees, and there were greater increases in mortality for large trees. This was true of forests worldwide, ranging from New Mexico's dry piñon-juniper woodlands to Panama's lush tropical forests. Much of the forest data used in this study came from the Center for Tropical Forest Science-Forest Global Earth Observatory, a global Smithsonian-led network of forest research plots.

"Many of us in the scientific community have been saying that the biggest trees in our study systems are dying," said Bennett. "But nobody has ever synthesized all the data. We combed through more than 200 studies incorporating more than 300,000 trees and found that, across the board, the big trees are dying more."

In the absence of drought, small trees typically die more than large trees, yet 65 percent of the time when there was a drought, this pattern reversed and the larger trees died more frequently. This fate had been long suspected but never quantified until now. Other isolated studies found that larger trees are more vulnerable to drought, but this study is the first to look across the globe at trees in a range of ecosystems and find, quantitatively, no matter where they grow, the larger trees tend to suffer most.

Bigger trees have the challenge of delivering water to greater heights, working against both gravity and friction. During normal conditions, their height is an advantage: it gives them the best access to sunlight. But when conditions shift and droughts occur, their height becomes a liability. Sunlight turns into too much solar radiation and heats up their leaves, and the trees do not have enough water to draw up through their roots and cool off the leaves as they normally would. In addition, the bigger trees are more exposed to wind, which increases their water loss and decreases the humidity around them.

In contrast, smaller trees in the understory are protected from high winds and direct sunlight by the trees above them. The larger trees' leaves help create a more humid microclimate, which protects the smaller trees from droughts.

Beyond this, larger trees store more carbon, which mitigates climate change; are homes to myriad smaller forest species; and can even draw water up from deep sources into the surrounding forest. They shape the whole forest. Their vulnerability during drought provides one more motivation to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that drive climate change and drought.

Current Literature

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Chiavegatto, B., and Baumgratz, J.F.A. 2015. A new species of Meriania (Melastomataceae; Merianieae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Syst. Bot. 40(3):791-795.

Christiansen, J.S., Sparboe, M., Sæther, B.S., and Siikavuopio, S.I. 2015. Thermal behaviour and the prospect spread of an invasive benthic top predator onto the Euro-Arctic shelves. Divers. Distrib. 21(9):1004-1013.

Ciancio, J.E., Rossi, C.R., Pascual, M., Anderson, E., and Garza, J.C. 2015. The invasion of an Atlantic Ocean river basin in Patagonia by Chinook salmon: new insights from SNPs. Biol. Invasions 17(10):2989-2998.

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Cochrane, J.F., Lonsdorf, E., Allison, T.D., and Sanders-Reed, C.A. 2015. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles. Ecol. Appl. 25(6):1518-1533.

Coleman, A.M., Diefenderfer, H.L., Ward, D.L., and Borde, A.B. 2015. A spatially based area-time inundation index model developed to assess habitat opportunity in tidal-fluvial wetlands and restoration sites. Ecol. Eng. 82:624-642.

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Correia, M., Caldwell, I.R., Koldewey, H.J., Andrade, J.P., and Palma, J. 2015. Seahorse (Hippocampinae) population fluctuations in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, south Portugal. J. Fish Biol. 87(3):679-690.

Cottee-Jones, H.E.W., Bajpai, O., Chaudhary, L.B., and Whittaker, R.J. 2015. Isolated Ficus trees deliver dual conservation and development benefits in a rural landscape. Ambio 44(7):678-684.

Craig, M.D., Stokes, V.L., Fontaine, J.B., Hardy, G.E.S., Grigg, A.H., and Hobbs, R.J. 2015. Do state-and-transition models derived from vegetation succession also represent avian succession in restored mine pits? Ecol. Appl. 25(7):1790-1806.

Crain, B.J., Sánchez-Cuervo, A.M., White, J.W., and Steinberg, S.J. 2015. Conservation ecology of rare plants within complex local habitat networks. Oryx 49(4):696-703.

Crook, D.A., Lowe, W.H., Allendorf, F.W., Erõs, T., Finn, D.S., Gillanders, B.M., Hadweng, W.L., Harrod, C., Hermoso, V., Jennings, S., Kilada, R.W., Nagelkerken, I., Hansen, M.M., Page, T.J., Riginos, C., Fry, B., and Hughes, J.M. 2015. Human effects on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems: Integrating scientific approaches to support management and mitigation. Sci. Total Environ. 534:52-64.

Crouzeilles, R., Beyer, H.L., Mills, M., Grelle, C.E.V., and Possingham, H.P. 2015. Incorporating habitat availability into systematic planning for restoration: a species-specific approach for Atlantic Forest mammals. Divers. Distrib. 21(9):1027-1037.

Cuyckens, G.A.E., Morales, M.M., and Tognelli, M.F. 2015. Assessing the distribution of a Vulnerable felid species: threats from human land use and climate change to the kodkod Leopardus guigna. Oryx 49(4):611-618.

da Costa, D.P. 2015. Diversity and conservation of Pottiaceae (Pottiales) in the Atlantic Rainforest. Acta Bot. Bras. 29(3):354-374.

da Costa, D.P., dos Santos, N.D., de Rezende, M.A., Buck, W.R., and Schäfer-Verwimp, A. 2015. Bryoflora of the Itatiaia National Park along an elevation gradient: diversity and conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(9):2199-2212.

Da Costa-Lima, J.L., and Araújo, T. 2015. Lectotypification and notes on the distribution and conservation status of Erythroxylum lancifolium (Erythroxylaceae), species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Phytotaxa 226(2):193-195.

da Silva, D.K.A., Coutinho, F.P., Escobar, I.E.C., de Souza, R.G., Oehl, F., Silva, G.A., Cavalcante, U.M.T., and Maia, L.C. 2015. The community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in natural and revegetated coastal areas (Atlantic Forest) in northeastern Brazil. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(9):2213-2226.

Dalmolim, E.B., Zanin, A., and Trevisan, R. 2015. Zizaniopsis longhi-wagnerae (Poaceae, Ehrhartoideae), a new grass from montane grasslands of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Syst. Bot. 40(3):755-760.

Darby, P.C., DeAngelis, D.L., Romanach, S.S., Suir, K., and Bridevaux, J. 2015. Modeling apple snail population dynamics on the Everglades landscape. Landscape Ecol. 30(8):1497-1510.

Davidai, N., Westbrook, J.K., Lessard, J.P., Hallam, T.G., and McCracken, G.F. 2015. The importance of natural habitats to Brazilian free-tailed bats in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Winter Garden region of Texas, United States. Biol. Conserv. 190:107-114.

Davidson, W., and Rieske, L.K. 2015. Native parasitoid response to emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and ash decline in recently invaded forests of the central United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 108(5):777-784.

Davis, A.K., and Dyer, L.A. 2015. Long-term trends in eastern North American monarch butterflies: a collection of studies focusing on spring, summer, and fall dynamics. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 108(5):661-663.

Davis, J., O'Grady, A.P., Dale, A., Arthington, A.H., Gell, P.A., Driver, P.D., Bond, N., Casanova, M., Finlayson, M., Watts, R.J., Capon, S.J., Nagelkerken, I., Tingley, R., Fry, B., Page, T.J., and Specht, A. 2015. When trends intersect: the challenge of protecting freshwater ecosystems under multiple land use and hydrological intensification scenarios. Sci. Total Environ. 534:65-78.

Davy, C.M., Martinez-Nunez, F., Willis, C.K.R., and Good, S.V. 2015. Spatial genetic structure among bat hibernacula along the leading edge of a rapidly spreading pathogen. Conserv. Genet. 16(5):1013-1024.

de Lima, R.A.F., Mori, D.P., Pitta, G., Melito, M.O., Bello, C., Magnago, L.F., Zwiener, V.P., Saraiva, D.D., Marques, M.C.M., de Oliveira, A.A., and Prado, P.I. 2015. How much do we know about the endangered Atlantic Forest? Reviewing nearly 70 years of information on tree community surveys. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(9):2135-2148.

De Oliveira-Jr, J.M.B., Shimano, Y., Gardner, T.A., Hughes, R.M., de Marco, P., and Juen, L. 2015. Neotropical dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) as indicators of ecological condition of small streams in the eastern Amazon. Austral Ecol. 40(6):733-744.

de Paula, L.F.A., Negreiros, D., Azevedo, L.O., Fernandes, R.L., Stehmann, J.R., and Silveira, F.A.O. 2015. Functional ecology as a missing link for conservation of a resource-limited flora in the Atlantic forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(9):2239-2253.

de Rezende, C.L., Uezu, A., Scarano, F.R., and Araujo, D.S.D. 2015. Atlantic Forest spontaneous regeneration at landscape scale. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(9):2255-2272.

Deepak, V., and Vasudevan, K. 2015. Factors influencing the occurrence and vulnerability of the Travancore tortoise Indotestudo travancorica in protected areas in south India. Oryx 49(4):669-676.

Degteva, S.V., Ponomarev, V.I., Eisenman, S.W., and Dushenkov, V. 2015. Striking the balance: Challenges and perspectives for the protected areas network in northeastern European Russia. Ambio 44(6):473-490.

del Castillo, R.F. 2015. A conceptual framework to describe the ecology of fragmented landscapes and implications for conservation and management. Ecol. Appl. 25(6):1447-1455.

Dennis, C.E., Adhikari, S., and Suski, C.D. 2015. Molecular and behavioral responses of early-life stage fishes to elevated carbon dioxide. Biol. Invasions 17(11):3133-3151.

Denoël, M., and Ficetola, G.F. 2015. Using kernels and ecological niche modeling to delineate conservation areas in an endangered patch-breeding phenotype. Ecol. Appl. 25(7):1922-1931.

Di Febbraro, M., Roscioni, F., Frate, L., Carranza, M.L., De Lisio, L., De Rosa, D., Marchetti, M., and Loy, A. 2015. Long-term effects of traditional and conservation-oriented forest management on the distribution of vertebrates in Mediterranean forests: a hierarchical hybrid modelling approach. Divers. Distrib. 21(10):1141-1154.

Dicks, L.V., Baude, M., Roberts, S.P.M., Phillips, J., Green, M., and Carvell, C. 2015. How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge. Ecol. Entomol. 40:22-35.

Do, T.V., Luu, T.H., Wanke, S., and Neinhuis, C. 2015. Three new species and three new records of Aristolochia subgenus Siphisia from Vietnam including a key to the Asian species. Syst. Bot. 40(3):671-691.

Dodd, A.J., Burgman, M.A., McCarthy, M.A., and Ainsworth, N. 2015. The changing patterns of plant naturalization in Australia. Divers. Distrib. 21(9):1038-1050.

Doherty, T.S., Dickman, C.R., Nimmo, D.G., and Ritchie, E.G. 2015. Multiple threats, or multiplying the threats? Interactions between invasive predators and other ecological disturbances. Biol. Conserv. 190:60-68.

Domínguez, M., Reboreda, J.C., and Mahler, B. 2015. Impact of Shiny Cowbird and botfly parasitism on the reproductive success of the globally endangered Yellow Cardinal Gubernatrix cristata. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(3):294-305.

Doody, J.S., Soanes, R., Castellano, C.M., Rhind, D., Green, B., McHenry, C.R., and Clulow, S. 2015. Invasive toads shift predator-prey densities in animal communities by removing top predators. Ecology 96(9):2544-2554.

dos Santos, J.G., Malhado, A.C.M., Ladle, R.J., Correia, R.A., and Costa, M.H. 2015. Geographic trends and information deficits in Amazonian conservation research. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2853-2863.

Douglas, M.R., Slynko, Y.V., Dgebuadze, Y.Y., Olenin, S., Aleksandrov, B., Boltachev, A., Slynko, E.E., Khristenko, D., Minchin, D., Pavlov, D.F., Reshetnikov, A.N., Vekhov, D.A., Ware, C.J., and Douglas, M.E. 2015. Invasion ecology: an international perspective centered in the Holarctic. Fisheries 40(9):464-470.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Wilson, J.G.M., Medland, R.D., and Roxburgh, L. 2015. Excessive bird collecting in Malawi: a new threat. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(3):259-269.

du Rau, P.D., Bourgeois, K., Thévenet, M., Ruffino, L., Dromzée, S., Ouni, R., Abiadh, A., Estève, R., Durand, J.P., Anselme, L., Faggio, G., Yahya, J.M., Rguibi, H., Renda, M., Miladi, B., Hamrouni, H., Alilech, S., Nefla, A., Jaouadi, W., Agrebi, S., and Renou, S. 2015. Reassessment of the size of the Scopoli's Shearwater population at its main breeding site resulted in a tenfold increase: implications for the species conservation. J. Ornithol. 156(4):877-892.

Duerr, A.E., Miller, T.A., Duerr, K.L.C., Lanzone, M.J., Fesnock, A., and Katzner, T.E. 2015. Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(10):2365-2381.

Edwards, K.L., Walker, S.L., Dunham, A.E., Pilgrim, M., Okita-Ouma, B., and Shultz, S. 2015. Low birth rates and reproductive skew limit the viability of Europe's captive eastern black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis michaeli. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2831-2852.

Eisemberg, C.C., Rose, M., Yaru, B., and Georges, A. 2015. Spatial and temporal patterns of harvesting of the Vulnerable pig-nosed turtle Carettochelys insculpta in the Kikori region, Papua New Guinea. Oryx 49(4):659-668.

Eisenlohr, P.V., de Oliveira-Filho, A.T., and Prado, J. 2015. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: new findings, challenges and prospects in a shrinking hotspot. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(9):2129-2133.

El Alami, A., and Chait, A. 2015. Distribution of the endangered Barbary macaque and human-macaque interaction in the tourist region of Ouzoud, Central High Atlas of Morocco. Afr. J. Ecol. 53(3):375-377.

Elgersma, K.J., Wildová, R., Martina, J.P., Currie, W.S., and Goldberg, D.E. 2015. Does clonal resource translocation relate to invasiveness of Typha taxa? Results from a common garden experiment. Aquat. Bot. 126:48-53.

Elleriis, P., Pedersen, M.L., and Toft, S. 2015. Impact of invasive Rosa rugosa on the arthropod fauna of Danish yellow dunes. Biol. Invasions 17(11):3289-3302.

Essig, R. 2015. Fisheries conservation and management: making connections and building partnerships. Fisheries 40(9):431.

Fabina, N.S., Baskett, M.L., and Gross, K. 2015. The differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populations. Ecol. Appl. 25(6):1534-1545.

Falconi, N., Vieira, E.M., Baumgarten, J., Faria, D., and Giné, G.A.F. 2015. The home range and multi-scale habitat selection of the threatened maned three-toed sloth (Bradypus torquatus). Mamm. Biol. 80(5):431-439.

Farnsworth, M.L., Dickson, B.G., Zachmann, L.J., Hegeman, E.E., Cangelosi, A.R., Jackson, T.G., and Scheib, A.F. 2015. Short-term space-use patterns of translocated Mojave desert tortoise in southern California. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0134250.

Fattebert, J., Robinson, H.S., Balme, G., Slotow, R., and Hunter, L. 2015. Structural habitat predicts functional dispersal habitat of a large carnivore: how leopards change spots. Ecol. Appl. 25(7):1911-1921.

Faurby, S., and Svenning, J.C. 2015. Historic and prehistoric human-driven extinctions have reshaped global mammal diversity patterns. Divers. Distrib. 21(10):1155-1166.

Fay, M.F., Pailler, T., and Dixon, K.W. 2015. Orchid conservation: making the links. Ann. Botany 116(3):377-379.

Fenesi, A., Geréd, J., Meiners, S.J., Tóthmérész, B., Török, P., and Ruprecht, E. 2015. Does disturbance enhance the competitive effect of the invasive Solidago canadensis on the performance of two native grasses? Biol. Invasions 17(11):3303-3315.

Ferro, M.L., and Flick, A.J. 2015. “Collection bias” and the importance of natural history collections in species habitat modeling: a case study using Thoracophorus costalis Erichson (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Osoriinae), with a critique of Coleopts. Bull. 69(3):415-425.

Filz, K.J., and Schmitt, T. 2015. Niche overlap and host specificity in parasitic Maculinea butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) as a measure for potential extinction risks under climate change. Org. Divers. Evol. 15(3):555-565.

Finch, T., Saunders, P., Avilés, J.M., Bermejo, A., Catry, I., de la Puente, J., Emmenegger, T., Mardega, I., Mayet, P., Parejo, D., Račinskis, E., Rodríguez-Ruiz, J., Sackl, P., Schwartz, T., Tiefenbach, M., Valera, F., Hewson, C., Franco, A., and Butler, S.J. 2015. A pan-European, multipopulation assessment of migratory connectivity in a near-threatened migrant bird. Divers. Distrib. 21(9):1051-1062.

Fontaine, A., Devillers, R., Peres-Neto, P.R., and Johnson, L.E. 2015. Delineating marine ecological units: a novel approach for deciding which taxonomic group to use and which taxonomic resolution to choose. Divers. Distrib. 21(10):1167-1180.

Foster, C.N., Barton, P.S., Wood, J.T., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2015. Interactive effects of fire and large herbivores on web-building spiders. Oecologia 179(1):237-248.

Francis, M.J., Spooner, P.G., and Matthews, A. 2015. The influence of urban encroachment on squirrel gliders (Petaurus norfolcensis): effects of road density, light and noise pollution. Wildlife Res. 42(4):324-333.

Gagnaire, P.A., Broquet, T., Aurelle, D., Viard, F., Souissi, A., Bonhomme, F., Arnaud-Haond, S., and Bierne, N. 2015. Using neutral, selected, and hitchhiker loci to assess connectivity of marine populations in the genomic era. Evol. Appl. 8(8):769-786.

Galetti, M., Guevara, R., Neves, C.L., Rodarte, R.R., Bovendorp, R.S., Moreira, M., Hopkins, J.B., and Yeakel, J.D. 2015. Defaunation affects the populations and diets of rodents in Neotropical rainforests. Biol. Conserv. 190:2-7.

García-de-Lomas, J., and Vilà, M. 2015. Lists of harmful alien organisms: are the national regulations adapted to the global world? Biol. Invasions 17(11):3081-3091.

García-Ramos, G., Dunoyer, L.A., Sasser, K.L., and Crowley, P.H. 2015. Evolution of resistance by a native competitor can lead to invasion collapse in disease-mediated invasions. Biol. Invasions 17(10):2863-2879.

Gargano, D., Pellegrino, G., and Bernardo, L. 2015. Genetic and fitness consequences of interpopulation mating in Dianthus guliae Janka: conservation implications for severely depleted and isolated plant populations. Conserv. Genet. 16(5):1127-1138.

Garrah, E., Danby, R.K., Eberhardt, E., Cunnington, G.M., and Mitchell, S. 2015. Hot spots and hot times: wildlife road mortality in a regional conservation corridor. Environ. Manage. 56(4):874-889.

Gavan, M.K., Oliver, M.K., Douglas, A., and Piertney, S.B. 2015. Gene dynamics of toll-like receptor 4 through a population bottleneck in an insular population of water voles (Arvicola amphibius). Conserv. Genet. 16(5):1181-1193.

Gibertoni, T.B., Nogueira-Melo, G.S., de Lira, C.R.S., Baltazar, J.M., and Santos, P.J.P. 2015. Distribution of poroid fungi (Basidiomycota) in the Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil: implications for conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(9):2227-2237.

Gilhaus, K., Vogt, V., and Hölzel, N. 2015. Restoration of sand grasslands by topsoil removal and self-greening. Appl. Veg. Sci. 18(4):661-673.

Girado-Beltrán, P., Andreu, J., and Pino, J. 2015. Exploring changes in the invasion pattern of alien flora in Catalonia (NE of Spain) from large datasets. Biol. Invasions 17(10):3015-3028.

Go, K.T.B., Anticamara, J.A., de Ramos, J.A.J., Gabona, S.F., Agao, D.F., Hererra, E.C., and Bitara, A.U. 2015. Species richness and abundance of non-cryptic fish species in the Philippines: a global center of reef fish diversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(10):2475-2495.

Gonçalez, V.M., and Esteves, G.L. 2015. Synopsis of Melochia L. (Byttnerioideae, Malvaceae) in southeastern Brazil. Phytotaxa 226(3):217-232.

González-Muñoz, N., Bellard, C., Leclerc, C., Meyer, J.Y., and Courchamp, F. 2015. Assessing current and future risks of invasion by the "green cancer" Miconia calvescens. Biol. Invasions 17(11):3337-3350.

Gosper, C.R., Prober, S.M., Yates, C.J., and Scott, J.K. 2015. Combining asset- and species-led alien plant management priorities in the world's most intact Mediterranean-climate landscape. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2789-2807.

Gouix, N., Sebek, P., Valladares, L., Brustel, H., and Brin, A. 2015. Habitat requirements of the violet click beetle (Limoniscus violaceus), an endangered umbrella species of basal hollow trees. Insect Conserv. Divers. 8(5):418-427.

Gould, L., and Gabriel, D.N. 2015. Wet and dry season diets of the Endangered Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) in two mountainous rocky outcrop forest fragments in south-central Madagascar. Afr. J. Ecol. 53(3):320-330.

Gour, D.S., and Reddy, P.A. 2015. Need of transboundary collaborations for tiger survival in Indian subcontinent. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2869-2875.

Gradish, A.E., Keyghobadi, N., and Otis, G.W. 2015. Population genetic structure and genetic diversity of the threatened White Mountain arctic butterfly (Oeneis melissa semidea). Conserv. Genet. 16(5):1253-1264.

Graves, G.R. 2015. Recent large-scale colonisation of southern pine plantations by Swainson's Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(3):280-293.

Gray, C.L., Bozigar, M., and Bilsborrow, R.E. 2015. Both extensive and intensive study designs are needed to understand wild resource harvesting: a reply to Sirén. Biol. Conserv. 190:189.

Green, A.L., Maypa, A.P., Almany, G.R., Rhodes, K.L., Weeks, R., Abesamis, R.A., Gleason, M.G., Mumby, P.J., and White, A.T. 2015. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design. Biol. Rev. 90(4):1215-1247.

Green, K.E., Daniel, B.M., Lloyd, S.P., Said, I., Houmadi, A., Salim, D.M., M'Madi, S., Doulton, H., and Young, R.P. 2015. Out of the darkness: the first comprehensive survey of the Critically Endangered Anjouan Scops Owl Otus capnodes. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(3):322-334.

Greenberg, C.H., Goodrick, S., Austin, J.D., and Parresol, B.R. 2015. Hydroregime prediction models for ephemeral groundwater-driven sinkhole wetlands: a planning tool for climate change and amphibian conservation. Wetlands 35(5):899-911.

Grevstad, F.S., and Coop, L.B. 2015. The consequences of photoperiodism for organisms in new climates. Ecol. Appl. 25(6):1506-1517.

Gu, Q.H., Zhang, M., Zhou, C.J., Zhu, G.R., Dong, J., Gao, Y.N., Chen, J., and Chen, P. 2015. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Bellamya quadrata from lakes of middle and lower Yangtze River. Genetica 143(5):545-554.

Guerin, G.R., and Lowe, A.J. 2015. 'Sum of inverse range-sizes' (SIR), a biodiversity metric with many names and interpretations. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2877-2882.

Güneralp, B., Perlstein, A.S., and Seto, K.C. 2015. Balancing urban growth and ecological conservation: a challenge for planning and governance in China. Ambio 44(6):532-543.

Guo, Z.L., Li, Z., and Cui, G.F. 2015. Effectiveness of national nature reserve network in representing natural vegetation in mainland China. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2735-2750.

Hagenlund, M., Østbye, K., Langdal, K., Hassve, M., Pettersen, R.A., Anderson, E., Gregersen, F., and Præbel, K. 2015. Fauna crime: elucidating the potential source and introduction history of European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus L.) into Lake Storsjøen, Norway. Conserv. Genet. 16(5):1085-1098.

Hanna, C., Naughton, I., Boser, C., and Holway, D. 2015. Testing the effects of ant invasions on non-ant arthropods with high-resolution taxonomic data. Ecol. Appl. 25(7):1841-1850.

Hanzelka, J., and Reif, J. 2015. Responses to the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) invasion differ between habitat specialists and generalists in central European forest birds. J. Ornithol. 156(4):1015-1024.

Harrison, S., Cornell, H., and Grace, J.B. 2015. Does natural variation in diversity affect biotic resistance? J. Ecol. 103(5):1099-1106.

Havill, S., Schwinning, S., and Lyons, K.G. 2015. Fire effects on invasive and native warm-season grass species in a North American grassland at a time of extreme drought. Appl. Veg. Sci. 18(4):637-649.

Hayes, M., Boyle, P., Moran, J., and Gormally, M. 2015. Assessing the biodiversity value of wet grasslands: can selected plant and insect taxa be used as rapid indicators of species richness at a local scale? Biodivers. Conserv. 24(10):2535-2549.

Hazelton, E.L.G., McCormick, M.K., Sievers, M., Kettenring, K.M., and Whigham, D.F. 2015. Stand age is associated with clonal diversity, but not vigor, community structure, or insect herbivory in Chesapeake Bay Phragmites australis. Wetlands 35(5):877-888.

Hedwall, P.O., and Mikusiński, G. 2015. Structural changes in protected forests in Sweden: implications for conservation functionality. Can. J. Forest Res. 45(9):1215-1224.

Heino, J., Alahuhta, J., and Fattorini, S. 2015. Phylogenetic diversity of regional beetle faunas at high latitudes: patterns, drivers and chance along ecological gradients. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2751-2767.

Heinrichs, S., and Pauchard, A. 2015. Struggling to maintain native plant diversity in a peri-urban reserve surrounded by a highly anthropogenic matrix. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2769-2788.

Hewitt, A., Holford, P., Renshaw, A., Stone, G., and Morris, E.C. 2015. Seed size and the regeneration niches of one rare (Melaleuca deanei) and three common (Melaleuca styphelioides, Melaleuca thymifolia and Melaleuca nodosa) Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) species of the Sydney region. Austral Ecol. 40(6):661-671.

Hilley, E., and Thiet, R. 2015. Vulnerable broom crowberry (Corema conradii) benefits from ant seed dispersal in coastal US heathlands. Plant Ecol. 216(8):1091-1101.

Hinsley, A., Verissimo, D., and Roberts, D.L. 2015. Heterogeneity in consumer preferences for orchids in international trade and the potential for the use of market research methods to study demand for wildlife. Biol. Conserv. 190:80-86.

Hjarding, A., Tolley, K.A., and Burgess, N.D. 2015. Red List assessments of East African chameleons: a case study of why we need experts. Oryx 49(4):652-658.

Hodgson, J.A., Bennie, J.J., Dale, G., Longley, N., Wilson, R.J., and Thomas, C.D. 2015. Predicting microscale shifts in the distribution of the butterfly Plebejus argus at the northern edge of its range. Ecography 38(10):998-1005.

Holmes, N.D., Campbell, K.J., Keitt, B.S., Griffiths, R., Beek, J., Donlan, C.J., and Broome, K.G. 2015. Reporting costs for invasive vertebrate eradications. Biol. Invasions 17(10):2913-2925.

Hu, Z.J., Ge, Z.M., Ma, Q., Zhang, Z.T., Tang, C.D., Cao, H.B., Zhang, T.Y., Li, B., and Zhang, L.Q. 2015. Revegetation of a native species in a newly formed tidal marsh under varying hydrological conditions and planting densities in the Yangtze Estuary. Ecol. Eng. 83:354-363.

Hudina, S., Žganec, K., and Hock, K. 2015. Differences in aggressive behaviour along the expanding range of an invasive crayfish: an important component of invasion dynamics. Biol. Invasions 17(11):3101-3112.

Hugonnot, V., and Hedenäs, L. 2015. Arvernella microclada Hugonnot & Hedenäs (Amblystegiaceae), a new minute species from France, requiring a separate genus. J. Bryol. 37(3):184-191.

Iacarella, J.C., and Ricciardi, A. 2015. Dissolved ions mediate body mass gain and predatory response of an invasive fish. Biol. Invasions 17(11):3237-3246.

Iannone, B.V., Oswalt, C.M., Liebhold, A.M., Guo, Q.F., Potter, K.M., Nunez-Mir, G.C., Oswalt, S.N., Pijanowski, B.C., and Fei, S.L. 2015. Region-specific patterns and drivers of macroscale forest plant invasions. Divers. Distrib. 21(10):1181-1192.

Ibrahim, L., Vogiatzakis, I.N., Incerti, G., and Feoli, E. 2015. The use of fuzzy plant species density to indicate the effects of land-cover changes on biodiversity. Ecol. Indic. 57:149-158.

Ichinokawa, M., Okamura, H., Watanabe, C., Kawabata, A., and Oozeki, Y. 2015. Effective time closures: quantifying the conservation benefits of input control for the Pacific chub mackerel fishery. Ecol. Appl. 25(6):1566-1584.

Ilunga, E.I.W., Mahy, G., Piqueray, J., Séleck, M., Shutcha, M.N., Meerts, P., and Faucon, M.P. 2015. Plant functional traits as a promising tool for the ecological restoration of degraded tropical metal-rich habitats and revegetation of metal-rich bare soils: a case study in copper vegetation of Katanga, DRC. Ecol. Eng. 82:214-221.

Jakovlić, I., Piria, M., Šprem, N., Tomljanović, T., Matulić, D., and Treer, T. 2015. Distribution, abundance and condition of invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies Ponticola kessleri (Günther, 1861), Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814), and Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) in the Sava River basin, Croatia. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 31(5):888-894.

Jankowiak, Ł., Skórka, P., Ławicki, Ł., Wylegała, P., Polakowski, M., Wuczyński, A., and Tryjanowski, P. 2015. Patterns of occurrence and abundance of roosting geese: the role of spatial scale for site selection and consequences for conservation. Ecol. Res. 30(5):833-842.

Jiang, B., Wong, C.P., Chen, Y.Y., Cui, L.J., and Ouyang, Z.Y. 2015. Advancing wetland policies using ecosystem services - China's way out. Wetlands 35(5):983-995.

Jiang, Z.G., Brosse, S., Jiang, X.M., and Zhang, E. 2015. Measuring ecosystem degradation through half a century of fish species introductions and extirpations in a large isolated lake. Ecol. Indic. 58:104-112.

Johnston, A., Fink, D., Reynolds, M.D., Hochachka, W.M., Sullivan, B.L., Bruns, N.E., Hallstein, E., Merrifield, M.S., Matsumoto, S., and Kelling, S. 2015. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources. Ecol. Appl. 25(7):1749-1756.

Jones, N.F., Pejchar, L., and Kiesecker, J.M. 2015. The energy footprint: how oil, natural gas, and wind energy affect land for biodiversity and the flow of ecosystem services. BioScience 65(3):290-301.

Jones, P.E., and Closs, G.P. 2015. Life history influences the vulnerability of New Zealand galaxiids to invasive salmonids. Freshwater Biol. 60(10):2127-2141.

Kahana, L.W., Malan, G., and Sylvina, T.J. 2015. Glade use by Olive baboons and Blue monkeys in Mount Meru Game Reserve, Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 53(3):362-374.

Kaiser-Bunbury, C.N., Mougal, J., Valentin, T., Gabriel, R., and Blüthgen, N. 2015. Herbicide application as a habitat restoration tool: impact on native island plant communities. Appl. Veg. Sci. 18(4):650-660.

Kaldy, J.E., Shafer, D.J., Ailstock, M.S., and Magoun, A.D. 2015. Effects of temperature, salinity and seed age on induction of Zostera japonica germination in North America, USA. Aquat. Bot. 126:73-79.

Kamel, M., Ghazaly, U.M., and Callmander, M.W. 2015. Conservation status of the Endangered Nubian dragon tree Dracaena ombet in Gebel Elba National Park, Egypt. Oryx 49(4):704-709.

Karpa, D.S., Mendenhall, C.D., Callaway, E., Frishkoff, L.O., Kareiva, P.M., Ehrlich, P.R., and Daily, G.C. 2015. Confronting and resolving competing values behind conservation objectives. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112(35):11132-11137.

Karremans, A.P., Pupulin, F., Grimaldi, D., Beentjes, K.K., Butôt, R., Fazzi, G.E., Kaspers, K., Kruizinga, J., Roessingh, P., Smets, E.F., and Gravendeel, B. 2015. Pollination of Specklinia by nectar-feeding Drosophila: the first reported case of a deceptive syndrome employing aggregation pheromones in Orchidaceae. Ann. Botany 116(3):437-455.

Kašák, J., Mazalová, M., Šipoš, J., and Kuras, T. 2015. Dwarf pine: invasive plant threatens biodiversity of alpine beetles. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(10):2399-2415.

Kawanishi, R., Dohi, R., Fujii, A., and Inoue, M. 2015. Effects of sedimentation on an endangered benthic fish, Cobitis shikokuensis: is sediment-free habitat a requirement or a preference? Ecol. Freshw. Fish 24(4):584-590.

Keeley, J.E. 2015. Attacking invasive grasses. Appl. Veg. Sci. 18(4):541-542.

Keerthika, A., Shukla, A.K., and Khandelwal, V. 2015. Popularization of Manilkara hexandra (Khirni) - an endangered underutilized fruit tree for conservation and utilization. Curr. Sci. 109(6):1010-1011.

Kehoe, L., Kuemmerle, T., Meyer, C., Levers, C., Václavík, T., and Kreft, H. 2015. Global patterns of agricultural land-use intensity and vertebrate diversity. Divers. Distrib. 21(11):1308-1318.

Kim, J.S., Kim, H.T., Son, S.W., and Kim, J.H. 2015. Molecular identification of endangered Korean lady's slipper orchids (Cypripedium, Orchidaceae) and related taxa. Botany 93(9):603-610.

Klock, M.M., Barrett, L.G., Thrall, P.H., and Harms, K.E. 2015. Host promiscuity in symbiont associations can influence exotic legume establishment and colonization of novel ranges. Divers. Distrib. 21(10):1193-1203.

Konopik, O., Steffan-Dewenter, I., and Grafe, T.U. 2015. Effects of logging and oil palm expansion on stream frog communities on Borneo, Southeast Asia. Biotropica 47(5):636-643.

Korábek, O., Juřičková, L., and Ložek, V. 2015. History of two critically endangered grassland snails (Pulmonata: Helicellinae) in the Czech Republic with first molecular data on extinct populations. Biologia 70(8):1102-1107.

Kormann, U., Rösch, V., Batáry, P., Tscharntke, T., Orci, K.M., Samu, F., and Scherber, C. 2015. Local and landscape management drive trait-mediated biodiversity of nine taxa on small grassland fragments. Divers. Distrib. 21(10):1204-1217.

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Marrack, L., Beavers, S., and O'Grady, P. 2015. The relative importance of introduced fishes, habitat characteristics, and land use for endemic shrimp occurrence in brackish anchialine pool ecosystems. Hydrobiologia 758(1):107-122.

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Maslo, B., Valent, M., Gumbs, J.F., and Frick, W.F. 2015. Conservation implications of ameliorating survival of little brown bats with white-nose syndrome. Ecol. Appl. 25(7):1832-1840.

Mason, S., Newsome, D., Moore, S., and Admiraal, R. 2015. Recreational trampling negatively impacts vegetation structure of an Australian biodiversity hotspot. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2685-2707.

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Meloni, M., Reid, A., Caujapé-Castells, J., Soto, M., Fernández-Palacios, J.M., and Conti, E. 2015. High genetic diversity and population structure in the endangered Canarian endemic Ruta oreojasme (Rutaceae). Genetica 143(5):571-580.

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Milbrandt, E.C., Thompson, M., Coen, L.D., Grizzle, R.E., and Ward, K. 2015. A multiple habitat restoration strategy in a semi-enclosed Florida embayment, combining hydrologic restoration, mangrove propagule plantings and oyster substrate additions. Ecol. Eng. 83:394-404.

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Nagy, R.C., Porder, S., Neill, C., Brando, P., Quintino, R.M., and do Nascimento, S.A. 2015. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape. Ecol. Appl. 25(6):1725-1738.

Naumann, K., and Higgins, R.J. 2015. The European fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as an invasive species: impact on local ant species and other epigaeic arthropods. Can. Entomol. 147(5):592-601.

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Niinikoski, P., and Korpelainen, H. 2015. Population genetics of the invasive giant hogweed (Heracleum sp.) in a northern European region. Plant Ecol. 216(8):1155-1162.

Nishio, M., Kawamoto, T., Kawakami, R., Edo, K., and Yamazaki, Y. 2015. Life history and reproductive ecology of the endangered Itasenpara bitterling Acheilognathus longipinnis (Cyprinidae) in the Himi region, central Japan. J. Fish Biol. 87(3):616-633.

Noonan, M.J., Rahman, M.A., Newman, C., Buesching, C.D., and Macdonald, D.W. 2015. Avoiding verisimilitude when modelling ecological responses to climate change: the influence of weather conditions on trapping efficiency in European badgers (Meles meles). Global Change Biol. 21(10):3575-3585.

Norman, J.D., and Whitledge, G.W. 2015. Recruitment sources of invasive Bighead carp (Hypopthalmichthys nobilis) and Silver carp (H. molitrix) inhabiting the Illinois River. Biol. Invasions 17(10):2999-3014.

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Pan, X.B., and Zhu, S.F. 2015. Matthew effect in counting the number of species. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2865-2868.

Pangau-Adam, M., Mühlenberg, M., and Waltert, M. 2015. Rainforest disturbance affects population density of the northern cassowary Casuarius unappendiculatus in Papua, Indonesia. Oryx 49(4):735-742.

Parks, L.C., Wallin, D.O., Cushman, S.A., and McRae, B.H. 2015. Landscape-level analysis of mountain goat population connectivity in Washington and southern British Columbia. Conserv. Genet. 16(5):1195-1207.

Pegg, J., Andreou, D., Williams, C.F., and Britton, J.R. 2015. Head morphology and piscivory of European eels, Anguilla anguilla, predict their probability of infection by the invasive parasitic nematode Anguillicoloides crassus. Freshwater Biol. 60(10):1977-1987.

Penman, T.D., Keith, D.A., Elith, J., Mahony, M.J., Tingley, R., Baumgartner, J.B., and Regan, T.J. 2015. Interactive effects of climate change and fire on metapopulation viability of a forest-dependent frog in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 190:142-153.

Péron, G., and Altwegg, R. 2015. Twenty-five years of change in southern African passerine diversity: nonclimatic factors of change. Global Change Biol. 21(9):3347-3355.

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Petersen, J.E., Brandt, E.C., Grossman, J.J., Allen, G.A., and Benzing, D.H. 2015. A controlled experiment to assess relationships between plant diversity, ecosystem function and planting treatment over a nine year period in constructed freshwater wetlands. Ecol. Eng. 82:531-541.

Petre, C., Selman, W., Kreiser, B., Pearson, S.H., and Wiebe, J.J. 2015. Population genetics of the diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin, in Louisiana. Conserv. Genet. 16(5):1243-1252.

Petrou, Z.I., Manakos, I., and Stathaki, T. 2015. Remote sensing for biodiversity monitoring: a review of methods for biodiversity indicator extraction and assessment of progress towards international targets. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(10):2333-2363.

Pfeiffer, M.B., Venter, J.A., and Downs, C.T. 2015. Identifying anthropogenic threats to Cape Vultures Gyps coprotheres using community perceptions in communal farmland, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(3):353-365.

Pickett, E.J., Thomson, D.L., Li, T.A., and Xing, S. 2015. Jensen's inequality and the impact of short-term environmental variability on long-term population growth rates. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0136072.

Piel, A.K., Cohen, N., Kamenya, S., Ndimuligo, S.A., Pintea, L., and Stewart, F.A. 2015. Population status of chimpanzees in the Masito-Ugalla Ecosystem, Tanzania. Am. J. Primatol. 77(10):1027-1035.

Pietrek, A.G., and González-Roglich, M. 2015. Post-establishment changes in habitat selection by an invasive species: beavers in the Patagonian steppe. Biol. Invasions 17(11):3225-3235.

Pittman, S.E., Muthukrishnan, R., West, N.M., Davis, A.S., Jordan, N.R., and Forester, J.D. 2015. Mitigating the potential for invasive spread of the exotic biofuel crop, Miscanthus × giganteus. Biol. Invasions 17(11):3247-3261.

Plieninger, T., Hartel, T., Martín-López, B., Beaufoy, G., Bergmeier, E., Kirby, K., Montero, M.J., Moreno, G., Oteros-Rozas, E., and Van Uytvanck, J. 2015. Wood-pastures of Europe: geographic coverage, social-ecological values, conservation management, and policy implications. Biol. Conserv. 190:70-79.

Ponnampalam, L.S., Izmal, J.H.F., Adulyanukosol, K., Ooi, J.L.S., and Reynolds, J.E. 2015. Aligning conservation and research priorities for proactive species and habitat management: the case of dugongs Dugong dugon in Johor, Malaysia. Oryx 49(4):743-749.

Pooley, S. 2015. Using predator attack data to save lives, human and crocodilian. Oryx 49(4):581-583.

Pouteau, R., Bayle, É., Blanchard, É., Birnbaum, P., Cassan, J.J., Hequet, V., Ibanez, T., and Vandrot, H. 2015. Accounting for the indirect area effect in stacked species distribution models to map species richness in a montane biodiversity hotspot. Divers. Distrib. 21(11):1329-1338.

Povilitis, T. 2015. Recovering the jaguar Panthera onca in peripheral range: a challenge to conservation policy. Oryx 49(4):626-631.

Pretelli, M.G., Isacch, J.P., and Cardoni, D.A. 2015. Effects of fragmentation and landscape matrix on the nesting success of grassland birds in the Pampas grasslands of Argentina. Ibis 157(4):688-699.

Preuss, S., Berggren, Å., and Cassel-Lundhagen, A. 2015. Genetic patterns reveal an old introduction event and dispersal limitations despite rapid distribution expansion. Biol. Invasions 17(10):2851-2862.

Prevéy, J.S., and Seastedt, T.R. 2015. Increased winter precipitation benefits the native plant pathogen Ustilago bullata that infects an invasive grass. Biol. Invasions 17(10):3041-3047.

Puri, M., Srivathsa, A., Karanth, K.K., Kumar, N.S., and Karanth, K.U. 2015. Multiscale distribution models for conserving widespread species: the case of sloth bear Melursus ursinus in India. Divers. Distrib. 21(9):1087-1100.

Putz, C.M., Schmid, C., and Reisch, C. 2015. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink). Ecol. Evol. 5(17):3610-3621.

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Yu, L., Shi, Y.C., and Gong, P. 2015. Land cover mapping and data availability in critical terrestrial ecoregions: a global perspective with Landsat thematic mapper and enhanced thematic mapper plus data. Biol. Conserv. 190:34-42.

Zaya, D.N., Leicht-Young, S.A., Pavlovic, N.B., Feldheim, K.A., and Ashley, M.V. 2015. Genetic characterization of hybridization between native and invasive bittersweet vines (Celastrus spp.). Biol. Invasions 17(10):2975-2988.

Zhan, A.B., Zhang, L., Xia, Z.Q., Ni, P., Xiong, W., Chen, Y.Y., Haffner, G.D., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2015. Water diversions facilitate spread of non-native species. Biol. Invasions 17(11):3073-3080.

Zhang, H., Hu, Y.P., Zhang, Y.M., and Li, W.J. 2015. Evidence of the Matthew effect in scientific research on mammals in the Chinese First-class National Protected Animals list. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2883-2886.

Zhang, L., Dong, T., Xu, W.H., and Ouyang, Z.Y. 2015. Assessment of habitat fragmentation caused by traffic networks and identifying key affected areas to facilitate rare wildlife conservation in China. Wildlife Res. 42(3):266-279.

Zhao, Y.J., and Gong, X. 2015. Diversity and conservation of plant species in dry valleys, southwest China. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(11):2611-2623.

Ziemba, J.L., Cameron, A.C., Peterson, K., Hickerson, C.A.M., and Anthony, C.D. 2015. Invasive Asian earthworms of the genus Amynthas alter microhabitat use by terrestrial salamanders. Can. J. Zool. 93(10):805-811.

Zografou, K., Adamidis, G.C., Grill, A., Kati, V., Wilson, R.J., and Halley, J.M. 2015. Who flies first? - habitat-specific phenological shifts of butterflies and orthopterans in the light of climate change: a case study from the south-east Mediterranean. Ecol. Entomol. 40(5):562-574.

Zuntini, A.R., Taylor, C.M., and Lohmann, L.G. 2015. Problematic specimens turn out to be two undescribed species of Bignonia (Bignoniaceae). PhytoKeys 56:7-18.

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