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No. 375
March 2016


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In This Issue


Scientists Call for a Shift in When Biology Studies Are Conducted


-Adapted from the Smithsonian Newsdesk

In a sweeping paper in Biology Letters, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) scientists are calling for a dramatic shift in when biologists study animals in their natural habitat.

For generations, according to SCBI conservation ecologist Pete Marra and his team, biologists have had a skewed view of animal ecology. The vast majority of studies of terrestrial vertebrates—amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals—take place during their breeding season. And this bias, Marra contends, is hampering scientists' understanding of animal ecology, evolution and the ability to do effective conservation.

"It's hard to study birds, reptiles, mammals and amphibians throughout the annual cycle," Marra said. "Scientists have been handcuffed by logistics, technological impediments and funding, as well as the perspective that the breeding season alone was what mattered. This has given us a really biased view of species' biology."

In the paper, Marra and his team surveyed more than 2,000 published articles in nine major journals throughout a period of 18 years (1996 through 2012). They analyzed when in an animals' cycle (breeding, migration and winter) the research for each study was conducted, and they found that more than 73 percent of all studies, for four vertebrate land taxa, take place during a single season, and 61 percent of the studies took place only during the species' breeding season. Further, only 5 percent of studies looked at how seasons interacted to affect the biology of the animal.

Marra's team concluded that this bias is driven by a number of factors both philosophical and practical. For a long time, biologists thought that events during the breeding season were the most important in an organism's life. In addition, many ecological and life-history studies are conducted by students, so the studies are dictated by the academic calendar. As such, much field research takes place in the summer—breeding season for many species.

Along with limited time and resources, technological limitations have hampered scientists' abilities to study animals throughout their entire annual cycle. Animals that migrate, hibernate or disperse during the non-breeding season have been difficult to track—or even find—for scientists to study. Emerging new technologies, however, including improved equipment and miniaturized tracking devices, such as those Marra and his graduate student recently used to track ovenbirds to their nonbreeding ground territories for the first time, allow scientists to study animals throughout the year.

Studying any single season alone is not sufficient the paper reports. Scientists' focus needs to be toward understanding how periods of the annual cycle interact to drive animal biology. Such interactions are likely the rule rather than the exception.

The authors contend that more holistic, comprehensive approaches to studying animal biology, throughout animals' lifespans and their annual cycles, will improve not only scientists' understanding of animal biology but are also essential for conservationists' ability to protect and preserve threatened and declining species.


Meetings


Smithsonian Botanical Symposium

The Department of Botany and the United States Botanic Garden will convene the 2016 Smithsonian Botanical Symposium, "Bats, Bees, Birds, Butterflies and Bouquets: New Research in Pollination Biology," to be held at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., on May 20, 2016.

The act of pollination, transferring pollen from one flower to another, remains one of the most ecologically important interactions between plant and animal. It allows plants to produce seeds and reproduce, and provides pollen, nectar and other rewards to the animals that visit the flowers. Pollination is a keystone function of most terrestrial ecosystems, and an estimated 87 percent of flowering plants depend on animal pollination. Plant-pollinator interactions have led to the evolutionary diversification of major groups of both plants and animals. A diverse plate of foods for humans is a result of pollination as well: one out of every three bites of food we eat is the result of an animal pollinating a plant. Yet recent evidence shows that pollinator abundance and diversity is on the decline. What does the threat to the health of pollinators hold for the future of native plant populations and agriculture? Will plant and pollinator populations adapt to a changing climate, invasive species, and habitat loss?

The Symposium will highlight current research in pollination biology, from plant physiology and ecology to evolution and animal behavior. New approaches to the study of plant-animal interactions may provide promise to safeguard biodiversity both here in the U.S. and elsewhere. The invited speakers will cover a wide range of such approaches to illustrate the challenges to plant-pollinator relationships in a rapidly changing world.

A full lineup of speakers will present their talks during the day at the National Museum of Natural History's Baird Auditorium. The event will be followed by a reception and poster session at the U.S. Botanic Garden that evening.

In addition, the 14th José Cuatrecasas Medal in Tropical Botany will be awarded at the Symposium. This prestigious award is presented annually to an international scholar who has contributed significantly to advancing the field of tropical botany. The award is named in honor of Dr. José Cuatrecasas, a pioneering botanist who spent many years working in the Department of Botany at the Smithsonian and devoted his career to plant exploration in tropical South America.

Abstracts for poster presentations may be submitted online at botany.si.edu/sbs/. The deadline for abstract submission is April 13th.

Sponsors of the Symposium are the Department of Botany, the Office of the Associate Director for Research and Collections, the United States Botanic Garden, and the Cuatrecasas Family Foundation.

There will be no registration fee this year, but attendees must register online at botany.si.edu/sbs/ to attend the event. Visit the website, call 202-633-0920, or email sbs@si.edu for more information.

Archilochus colubris</i> (ruby-throated hummingbird) visiting <i>Campsis radicans</i> (<i>=Bignonia radicans</i>, trumpet vine). From J.J. Audubon, The Birds of America: from Drawings Made in the United States and Their Territories, 1840-1844. (Image courtesy of Smithsonian Libraries) Archilochus colubris (ruby-throated hummingbird) visiting Campsis radicans (=Bignonia radicans, trumpet vine). From J.J. Audubon, The Birds of America: from Drawings Made in the United States and Their Territories, 1840-1844. (Image courtesy of Smithsonian Libraries).

Current Literature


Addison, P.F.E., de Bie, K., and Rumpff, L. 2015. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1411-1422.

Adekola, O., Mitchell, G., and Grainger, A. 2015. Inequality and ecosystem services: the value and social distribution of Niger Delta wetland services. Ecosyst. Serv. 12:42-54.

Advay, M., Teksen, M., and Maroofi, H. 2015. Fritillaria avromanica sp. nov. (Liliaeceae) from Iran and notes on F. melananthera in Turkey. Nord. J. Bot. 33(5):526-531.

Ahrends, A., Hollingsworth, P.M., Ziegler, A.D., Fox, J.M., Chen, H.F., Su, Y.F., and Xu, J.C. 2015. Current trends of rubber plantation expansion may threaten biodiversity and livelihoods. Global Environ. Change 34:48-58.

Albuquerque, F., and Beier, P. 2015. Using abiotic variables to predict importance of sites for species representation. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1390-1400.

Algeet-Abarquero, N., Sánchez-Azofeifa, A., Bonatti, J., and Marchamalo, M. 2015. Land cover dynamics in Osa Region, Costa Rica: secondary forest is here to stay. Reg. Environ. Change 15(7):1461-1472.

Allan, J.D., Smith, S.D.P., McIntyre, P.B., Joseph, C.A., Dickinson, C.E., Marino, A.L., Biel, R.G., Olson, J.C., Doran, P.J., Rutherford, E.S., Adkins, J.E., and Adeyemo, A.O. 2015. Using cultural ecosystem services to inform restoration priorities in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Front. Ecol. Environ. 13(8):418-424.

Almquist, T.L., Wirt, K.L., Adams, J.W., and Lym, R.G. 2015. Adaptive development of yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) chemical control recommendations. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(3):276-283.

Alroy, J. 2015. Current extinction rates of reptiles and amphibians. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112(42):13003-13008.

Aslaksen, I., Nybø, S., Framstad, E., Garnåsjordet, P.A., and Skarpaas, O. 2015. Biodiversity and ecosystem services: the Nature Index for Norway. Ecosyst. Serv. 12:108-116.

Attum, O., and Cutshall, C.D. 2015. Movement of translocated turtles according to translocation method and habitat structure. Restor. Ecol. 23(5):588-594.

August-Schmidt, E.M., Haro, G., Bontrager, A., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2015. Preferential associations of invasive Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in a seasonally dry Hawaiian woodland. Pacific Sci. 69(3):385-397.

Ausband, D.E., Stansbury, C.R., Stenglein, J.L., Struthers, J.L., and Waits, L.P. 2015. Recruitment in a social carnivore before and after harvest. Anim. Conserv. 18(5):415-423.

Azor, J.S., Santos, X., and Pleguezuelos, J.M. 2015. Conifer-plantation thinning restores reptile biodiversity in Mediterranean landscapes. Forest Ecol. Manag. 354:185-189.

Bailey, S.A. 2015. An overview of thirty years of research on ballast water as a vector for aquatic invasive species to freshwater and marine environments. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health 18(3):261-268.

Bailey, S.A., and Munawar, M. 2015. A synthesis of marine invasive species research and management in the ROPME Sea Area. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health 18(3):347-354.

Baker, S., Paddock, J., Smith, A.M., Unsworth, R.K.F., Cullen-Unsworth, L.C., and Hertler, H. 2015. An ecosystems perspective for food security in the Caribbean: seagrass meadows in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Ecosyst. Serv. 11:12-21.

Baker, S.C., Halpern, C.B., Wardlaw, T.J., Crawford, R.L., Bigley, R.E., Edgar, G.J., Evans, S.A., Franklin, J.F., Jordan, G.J., Karpievitch, Y., Spies, T.A., and Thomson, R.J. 2015. Short- and long-term benefits for forest biodiversity of retaining unlogged patches in harvested areas. Forest Ecol. Manag. 353:187-195.

Banag, C., Thrippleton, T., Alejandro, G.J., Reineking, B., and Liede-Schumann, S. 2015. Bioclimatic niches of selected endemic Ixora species on the Philippines: predicting habitat suitability due to climate change. Plant Ecol. 216(9):1325-1340.

Bareka, P., Turland, N.J., and Kamari, G. 2015. Bellevalia juliana (Asparagaceae), a new hexaploid species from E Kriti (Greece). Plant Biosyst. 149(4):703-709.

Barelli, C., Albanese, D., Donati, C., Pindo, M., Dallago, C., Rovero, F., Cavalieri, D., Tuohy, K.M., Hauffe, H.C., and De Filippo, C. 2015. Habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation. Sci. Rep. 5:14862.

Bartnik, C., Michalcewicz, J., and Ciach, M. 2015. Dutch elm disease and the habitat of endangered Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (L.): a conservation paradox? Pol. J. Ecol. 63(3):440-447.

Baugh, T., Petite, D., and Woods, J. 2015. River Fork Ranch thermal wetland-biota. Nat. Areas J. 35(4):606-610.

Baulcomb, C., Fletcher, R., Lewis, A., Akoglu, E., Robinson, L., von Almen, A., Hussain, S., and Glenk, K. 2015. A pathway to identifying and valuing cultural ecosystem services: an application to marine food webs. Ecosyst. Serv. 11:128-139.

Baumann-Pickering, S., Simonis, A.E., Oleson, E.M., Baird, R.W., Roch, M.A., and Wiggins, S.M. 2015. False killer whale and short-finned pilot whale acoustic identification. Endang. Species Res. 28(2):97-108.

Beger, M., McGowan, J., Treml, E.A., Green, A.L., White, A.T., Wolff, N.H., Klein, C.J., Mumby, P.J., and Possingham, H.P. 2015. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy. Nat. Commun. 6:8208-8.

Beier, P., and de Albuquerque, F.S. 2015. Environmental diversity as a surrogate for species representation. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1401-1410.

Belotti, E., Weder, N., Bufka, L., Kaldhusdal, A., Küchenhoff, H., Seibold, H., Woelfing, B., and Heurich, M. 2015. Patterns of lynx predation at the interface between protected areas and multi-use landscapes in Central Europe. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0138139.

Bennett, A.J., Conway, W.C., Comer, C.E., Williams, H.M., and Bosworth, S.B. 2015. Seedbank potential of Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) in a Texas bottomland hardwood forest. Nat. Areas J. 35(4):581-584.

Bester-van der Merwe, A.E., and Gledhill, K.S. 2015. Molecular species identification and population genetics of chondrichthyans in South Africa: current challenges, priorities and progress. Afr. Zool. 50(3):205-217.

Björklund, H., Valkama, J., Tomppo, E., and Laaksonen, T. 2015. Habitat effects on the breeding performance of three forest-dwelling hawks. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0137877.

Black, S.A. 2015. A clear purpose is the start point for conservation leadership. Conserv. Lett. 8(5):383-384.

Böhm, M., and Collen, B. 2015. Toward equality of biodiversity knowledge through technology transfer. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1290-1302.

Booth, T.H. 2015. Using a global botanic gardens database to help assess the capabilities of rare eucalypt species to cope with climate change. Int. For. Rev. 17(3):259-268.

Borrelle, S.B., Buxton, R.T., Jones, H.P., and Towns, D.R. 2015. A GIS-based decision-making approach for prioritizing seabird management following predator eradication. Restor. Ecol. 23(5):580-587.

Borsboom, A.C., Wang, J., and Forster, P.I. 2015. Determining maturity and population structure in Macrozamia parcifolia (Zamiaceae), a threatened Australian cycad. Aust. J. Bot. 63(5):392-402.

Boschetti, F., and Vanderklift, M.A. 2015. How the movement characteristics of large marine predators influence estimates of their abundance. Ecol. Model. 313:223-236.

Bouchard, E.H., Little, L.E., Miller, C.M.L., Rundell, S.M., Vlodaver, E.M., and Maciejewski, K. 2015. Undeclared baggage: Do tourists act as vectors for seed dispersal in fynbos protected areas? Koedoe 57(1):1323.

Braccini, M. 2015. Is a global quantitative assessment of shark populations warranted? Fisheries 40(10):492-501.

Bradley, P.W., Gervasi, S.S., Hua, J., Cothran, R.D., Relyea, R.A., Olson, D.H., and Blaustein, A.R. 2015. Differences in sensitivity to the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among amphibian populations. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1347-1356.

Brandão, M.M., Vieira, F.D., Nazareno, A.G., and de Carvalho, D. 2015. Genetic diversity of neotropical tree Myrcia splendens (Myrtaceae) in a fragment-corridor system in the Atlantic rainforest. Flora 216:35-41.

Bregman, T.P., Lees, A.C., Seddon, N., MacGregor, H.E.A., Darski, B., Aleixo, A., Bonsall, M.B., and Tobias, J.A. 2015. Species interactions regulate the collapse of biodiversity and ecosystem function in tropical forest fragments. Ecology 96(10):2692-2704.

Brewer, J.S. 2015. Changes in tree species composition and stand structure in a mature upland oak-dominated forest reflect differences in recruitment, survival, and longevity. Nat. Areas J. 35(4):550-556.

Brimont, L., and Karsenty, A. 2015. Between incentives and coercion: the thwarted implementation of PES schemes in Madagascar's dense forests. Ecosyst. Serv. 14:113-121.

Briones-Salas, M., Cortés-Marcial, M., and Lavariega, M.C. 2015. Diversity and geographical distribution of the terrestrial mammals of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 86(3):685-710.

Brown, G.K., Herrera, J., Bernhardt, P., and Edens-Meier, R. 2015. Potential fungal pathogens of Mead's milkweed (Asclepias meadii: Apocynaceae). Nat. Areas J. 35(4):599-605.

Brown, M.B., Schlacher, T.A., Schoeman, D.S., Weston, M.A., Huijbers, C.M., Olds, A.D., and Connolly, R.M. 2015. Invasive carnivores alter ecological function and enhance complementarity in scavenger assemblages on ocean beaches. Ecology 96(10):2715-2725.

Brudvig, L.A., Damschen, E.I., Haddad, N.M., Levey, D.J., and Tewksbury, J.J. 2015. The influence of habitat fragmentation on multiple plant-animal interactions and plant reproduction. Ecology 96(10):2669-2678.

Bruyere, B.L. 2015. Giving direction and clarity to conservation leadership. Conserv. Lett. 8(5):378-382.

Buchholz, S., Tietze, H., Kowarik, I., and Schirmel, J. 2015. Effects of a major tree invader on urban woodland arthropods. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0137723.

Burgman, M., Jarrad, F., and Main, E. 2015. Decreasing geographic bias in Conservation Biology. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1255-1256.

Butchart, S.H.M., Clarke, M., Smith, R.J., Sykes, R.E., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Harfoot, M., Buchanan, G.M., Angulo, A., Balmford, A., Bertzky, B., Brooks, T.M., Carpenter, K.E., Comeros-Raynal, M.T., Cornell, J., Ficetola, G.F., Fishpool, L.D.C., Fuller, R.A., Geldmann, J., Harwell, H., Hilton-Taylor, C., Hoffmann, M., Joolia, A., Joppa, L., Kingston, N., May, I., Milam, A., Polidoro, B., Ralph, G., Richman, N., Rondinini, C., Segan, D.B., Skolnik, B., Spalding, M.D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Visconti, P., Watson, J.E.M., Wood, L., and Burgess, N.D. 2015. Shortfalls and solutions for meeting national and global conservation area targets. Conserv. Lett. 8(5):329-337.

Buxton, V.L., and Benson, T.J. 2015. Do natural areas in urban landscapes support successful reproduction by a group of conservation priority birds? Anim. Conserv. 18(5):471-479.

Cai, X.Z., Hu, G.W., and Cong, Y.Y. 2015. Impatiens xanthinoides (Balsaminaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. Phytotaxa 227(3):261-267.

Caldeira, M.C., Lecomte, X., David, T.S., Pinto, J.G., Bugalho, M.N., and Werner, C. 2015. Synergy of extreme drought and shrub invasion reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates. Sci. Rep. 5:15110.

Carballo-Cárdenas, E.C. 2015. Controversies and consensus on the lionfish invasion in the Western Atlantic Ocean. Ecol. Soc. 20(3):24.

Carroll, E.L., Brooks, L., Baker, C.S., Burns, D., Garrigue, C., Hauser, N., Jackson, J.A., Poole, M.M., and Fewster, R.M. 2015. Assessing the design and power of capture-recapture studies to estimate demographic parameters for the Endangered Oceania humpback whale population. Endang. Species Res. 28(2):147-162.

Carvajal-Hernández, C.I., and Kromer, T. 2015. Richness and distribution of ferns and lycophytes in the elevational gradient of the Cofre de Perote, Centre of Veracruz, Mexico. Bot. Sci. 93(3):601-614.

Cathcart, C.N., Gido, K.B., and McKinstry, M.C. 2015. Fish community distributions and movements in two tributaries of the San Juan River, USA. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 144(5):1013-1028.

Catlin, D.H., Fraser, J.D., and Felio, J.H. 2015. Demographic responses of piping plovers to habitat creation on the Missouri River. Wildlife Monogr. 192(1):1-42.

Čertner, M., Kolář, F., Schönswetter, P., and Frajman, B. 2015. Does hybridization with a widespread congener threaten the long-term persistence of the Eastern Alpine rare local endemic Knautia carinthiaca? Ecol. Evol. 5(19):4263-4276.

Chambers, B., and Bencini, R. 2015. Factors affecting the use of fauna underpasses by bandicoots and bobtail lizards. Anim. Conserv. 18(5):424-432.

Chandler, R.B., Muths, E., Sigafus, B.H., Schwalbe, C.R., Jarchow, C.J., and Hossack, B.R. 2015. Spatial occupancy models for predicting metapopulation dynamics and viability following reintroduction. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(5):1325-1333.

Chapin, F.S., Sommerkorn, M., Robards, M.D., and Hillmer-Pegram, K. 2015. Ecosystem stewardship: A resilience framework for arctic conservation. Global Environ. Change 34:207-217.

Chase, J.M., Powell, K.I., and Knight, T.M. 2015. 'Bigger data' on scale-dependent effects of invasive species on biodiversity cannot overcome confounded analyses: a comment on Stohlgren & Rejmánek (2014). Biol. Lett. 11(8):20150103.

Cheek, M. 2015. Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) of Halmahera, Indonesia. Blumea 59(3):215-225.

Chen, H.Y., and Kishino, H. 2015. Global pattern of phylogenetic species composition of shark and its conservation priority. Ecol. Evol. 5(19):4455-4465.

Christie, M., Remoundou, K., Siwicka, E., and Wainwright, W. 2015. Valuing marine and coastal ecosystem service benefits: case study of St Vincent and the Grenadines' proposed marine protected areas. Ecosyst. Serv. 11:115-127.

Cisneros, E., Zhou, S.L., and Börner, J. 2015. Naming and shaming for conservation: evidence from the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0136402.

Coleman, R.A., Hoffmann, A.A., and Raadik, T.A. 2015. A review of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia with a description of a new species. Zootaxa 4021(2):243-281.

Conner, L.M., and Morris, G. 2015. Impacts of mesopredator control on conservation of mesopredators and their prey. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0137169.

Correia, M., Castro, S., and Rodríguez-Echeverría, S. 2015. Reproductive success of Acacia longifolia (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) in native and invasive populations. Aust. J. Bot. 63(5):387-391.

Costello, M.J., and Ballantine, B. 2015. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30(9):507-509.

Coulson, S.J. 2015. The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna. Polar Res. 34:27364.

Crespi, E.J., Rissler, L.J., Mattheus, N.M., Engbrecht, K., Duncan, S.I., Seaborn, T., Hall, E.M., Peterson, J.D., and Brunner, J.L. 2015. Geophysiology of wood frogs: landscape patterns of prevalence of disease and circulating hormone concentrations across the eastern range. Integr. Comp. Biol. 55(4):602-617.

Critchlow, R., Plumptre, A.J., Driciru, M., Rwetsiba, A., Stokes, E.J., Tumwesigye, C., Wanyama, F., and Beale, C.M. 2015. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1458-1470.

Cuddington, K., Hull, Z.T., Currie, W.J.S., and Koops, M.A. 2015. Landmarking and strong Allee thresholds. Theor. Ecol. 8(3):333-347.

Culler, L.E., Ayres, M.P., and Virginia, R.A. 2015. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 282(1815):20151549.

Curtis, C.A., and Bradley, B.A. 2015. Climate change may alter both establishment and high abundance of red brome (Bromus rubens) and African mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in the semiarid southwest United States. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(3):341-352.

d'Annunzio, R., Sandker, M., Finegold, Y., and Min, Z. 2015. Projecting global forest area towards 2030. Forest Ecol. Manag. 352:124-133.

Dalgleish, H.J., Lichti, N.I., Schmedding, N., and Swihart, R.K. 2015. Exposure to herbivores increases seedling growth and survival of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) through decreased interspecific competition in canopy gaps. Restor. Ecol. 23(5):655-661.

Darvill, R., and Lindo, Z. 2015. Quantifying and mapping ecosystem service use across stakeholder groups: Implications for conservation with priorities for cultural values. Ecosyst. Serv. 13:153-161.

Davies, K.T.A., Vanderlaan, A.S.M., Smedbol, R.K., and Taggart, C.T. 2015. Oceanographic connectivity between right whale critical habitats in Canada and its influence on whale abundance indices during 1987-2009. J. Marine Syst. 150:80-90.

Davies-Mostert, H.T., Mills, M.G.L., and Macdonald, D.W. 2015. The demography and dynamics of an expanding, managed African wild dog metapopulation. S. Afr. J. Wildlife Res. 45(2):258-273.

Davis, D.R., Watters, J.L., Köhler, G., Whitsett, C., Huron, N.A., Brown, R.M., Diesmos, A.C., and Siler, C.D. 2015. Redescription of the rare Philippine false gecko Pseudogekko brevipes (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) and description of a new species. Zootaxa 4020(2):357-374.

de Camargo, C., Gibbs, H.L., Costa, M.C., Del-Rio, G., Silveira, L.F., Wasko, A.P., and Francisco, M.R. 2015. Marshes as "mountain tops": genetic analyses of the critically endangered São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Aves: Thamnophilidae). PLoS ONE 10(10):e0140145.

de Laubenfels, D.J. 2015. Miscellaneous notes in Coniferae. Novon 24(2):130-132.

de Paoli, H., de Koppel, J.V., van der Zee, E., Kangeri, A., van Belzen, J., Holthuijsen, S., van den Berg, A., Herman, P., Olff, H., and van der Heide, T. 2015. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea. J. Sea Res. 103:42-49.

DeAmicis, S., and Foggo, A. 2015. Long-term field study reveals subtle effects of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum upon the epibiota of Zostera marina. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0137861.

DeKeyser, E.S., Dennhardt, L.A., and Hendrickson, J. 2015. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) invasion in the Northern Great Plains: a story of rapid dominance in an endangered ecosystem. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(3):255-261.

DellaSala, D.A., Baker, R., Heiken, D., Frissell, C.A., Karr, J.R., Nelson, S.K., Noon, B.R., Olson, D., and Strittholt, J. 2015. Building on two decades of ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation under the Northwest Forest Plan, USA. Forests 6(9):3326-3352.

Delmastro, G.B., Boano, G., Lo Conte, P., and Fenoglio, S. 2015. Great cormorant predation on Cisalpine pike: a conservation conflict. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 61(5):743-748.

Deudero, S., and Alomar, C. 2015. Mediterranean marine biodiversity under threat: reviewing influence of marine litter on species. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 98(1-2):58-68.

Devecchi, M.F., and Pirani, J.R. 2015. A new species of Simaba sect. Grandiflorae (Simaroubaceae) from Jalapão region, Tocantins, Brazil. Phytotaxa 227(2):167-174.

Di Blanco, Y.E., Pérez, I.J., and Di Bitetti, M.S. 2015. Habitat selection in reintroduced giant anteaters: the critical role of conservation areas. J. Mammal. 96(5):1024-1035.

Di Marco, M., Collen, B., Rondinini, C., and Mace, G.M. 2015. Historical drivers of extinction risk: using past evidence to direct future monitoring. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 282(1813):20150928.

Dinets, V., Samaš, P., Croston, R., Grim, T., and Hauber, M.E. 2015. Predicting the responses of native birds to transoceanic invasions by avian brood parasites. J. Field Ornithol. 86(3):244-251.

Donald, P.F., Round, P.D., Aung, T.D.W., Grindley, M., Steinmetz, R., Shwe, N.M., and Buchanan, G.M. 2015. Social reform and a growing crisis for southern Myanmar's unique forests. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1485-1488.

dos Santos, A., and Neto, S.R. 2015. Sorocea angustifolia (Moraceae), a new species of Sorocea from the Atlantic forest in Brazil. Novon 24(2):199-202.

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Santo-Silva, E.E., Withey, K.D., Almeida, W.R., Mendes, G., Lopes, A.V., and Tabarelli, M. 2015. Seedling assemblages and the alternative successional pathways experienced by Atlantic forest fragments. Plant Ecol. Divers. 8(4):483-492.

Sassen, M., Sheil, D., and Giller, K.E. 2015. Fuelwood collection and its impacts on a protected tropical mountain forest in Uganda. Forest Ecol. Manag. 354:56-67.

Scasta, J.D., Engle, D.M., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Redfearn, D.D., and Bidwell, T.G. 2015. Meta-analysis of exotic forages as invasive plants in complex multi-functioning landscapes. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(3):292-306.

Schatz, G.E., Ramos, A.C.A., Ortiz, O.O., and McPherson, G. 2015. A new, restricted range species of Annona (Annonaceae) endemic to the Caribbean slope of Panama. Novon 24(2):203-208.

Scheele, B.C., Driscoll, D.A., Fischer, J., Fletcher, A.W., Hanspach, J., Vörös, J., and Hartel, T. 2015. Landscape context influences chytrid fungus distribution in an endangered European amphibian. Anim. Conserv. 18(5):480-488.

Scheper, J., Bommarco, R., Holzschuh, A., Potts, S.G., Riedinger, V., Roberts, S.P.M., Rundlöf, M., Smith, H.G., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Wickens, J.B., Wickens, V.J., and Kleijn, D. 2015. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(5):1165-1175.

Schultz, C.B., and Crone, E.E. 2015. Using ecological theory to develop recovery criteria for an endangered butterfly. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(5):1111-1115.

Seddon, P.J. 2015. Using the IUCN Red List criteria to assess reintroduction success. Anim. Conserv. 18(5):407-408.

Senior, M.J.M., Brown, E., Villalpando, P., and Hill, J.K. 2015. Increasing the scientific evidence base in the "High Conservation Value" (HCV) approach for biodiversity conservation in managed tropical landscapes. Conserv. Lett. 8(5):361-367.

Shao, J., Yang, L.N., Peng, L., Chi, T.H., and Wang, X.M. 2015. An improved artificial bee colony-based approach for zoning protected ecological areas. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0137880.

Sharma, B., Rasul, G., and Chettri, N. 2015. The economic value of wetland ecosystem services: evidence from the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal. Ecosyst. Serv. 12:84-93.

Shier, D.M. 2015. Developing a standard for evaluating reintroduction success using IUCN Red List indices. Anim. Conserv. 18(5):411-412.

Silvino, R.F., and Barbosa, F.A.R. 2015. Eutrophication potential of lakes: an integrated analysis of trophic state, morphometry, land occupation, and land use. Braz. J. Biol. 75(3):607-615.

Sloan, S., and Sayer, J.A. 2015. Forest Resources Assessment of 2015 shows positive global trends but forest loss and degradation persist in poor tropical countries. Forest Ecol. Manag. 352:134-145.

Smith, D.S., Lau, M.K., Jacobs, R., Monroy, J.A., Shuster, S.M., and Whitham, T.G. 2015. Rapid plant evolution in the presence of an introduced species alters community composition. Oecologia 179(2):563-572.

Smith, L.L., Tekiela, D.R., and Barney, J.N. 2015. Predicting biofuel invasiveness: a relative comparison to crops and weeds. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(3):323-333.

Sohel, M.S.I., Mukul, S.A., and Burkhard, B. 2015. Landscape's capacities to supply ecosystem services in Bangladesh: a mapping assessment for Lawachara National Park. Ecosyst. Serv. 12:128-135.

Solórzano, S., and Dávila, P. 2015. Identification of conservation units of Mammillaria crucigera (Cactaceae): perspectives for the conservation of rare species. Plant Ecol. Divers. 8(4):559-569.

Sottile, G.D., Meretta, P.E., Tonello, M.S., Bianchi, M.M., and Mancini, M.V. 2015. Disturbance induced changes in species and functional diversity in southern Patagonian forest-steppe ecotone. Forest Ecol. Manag. 353:77-86.

Spellman, K.V., Schneller, L.C., Mulder, C.P.H., and Carlson, M.L. 2015. Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs. Oecologia 179(2):495-507.

Srbek-Araujo, A.C., Mendes, S.L., and Chiarello, A.G. 2015. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758) roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation. Braz. J. Biol. 75(3):581-586.

Sridhar, V.V., and Bickford, D. 2015. Oviposition site selection in the Malayan giant frog (Limnonectes blythii) in Singapore: conservation implications. Asian Herpetol. Res. 6(3):184-188.

Srinivasan, U., Hines, J.E., and Quader, S. 2015. Demographic superiority with increased logging in tropical understorey insectivorous birds. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(5):1374-1380.

Stan, K., Sanchez-Azofeifa, A., Espírito-Santo, M., and Portillo-Quintero, C. 2015. Simulating deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under changing government policies and socioeconomic conditions. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0137911.

Stefanaki, A., Kantsa, A., Tscheulin, T., Charitonidou, M., and Petanidou, T. 2015. Lessons from Red Data Books: plant vulnerability increases with floral complexity. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0138414.

Stone, R.D. 2015. Memecylon trunciflorum sp. nov. (Melastomataceae-Olisbeoideae) from the Udzungwa Mountains, southern Tanzania. Nord. J. Bot. 33(5):513-517.

Straub, C., Pichlmüller, F., and Helfer, V. 2015. Population genetics of fire salamanders in a pre-Alpine urbanized area (Salzburg, Austria). Salamandra 51(3):245-251.

Stringham, O.C., and Robinson, O.J. 2015. A modeling methodology to evaluate the efficacy of predator exclosures versus predator control. Anim. Conserv. 18(5):451-460.

Su, Z.H., Pan, B.R., Sanderson, S.C., Jiang, X.L., and Zhang, M.L. 2015. Conservation genetics and geographic patterns of genetic variation of the endangered officinal herb Fritillaria pallidiflora. Nord. J. Bot. 33(4):506-512.

Suárez-Mota, M.E., Villaseñor, J.L., and López-Mata, L. 2015. The Bajío region, Mexico and the conservation of its floristic diversity. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 86(3):799-808.

Suich, H., Howe, C., and Mace, G. 2015. Ecosystem services and poverty alleviation: a review of the empirical links. Ecosyst. Serv. 12:137-147.

Sumarga, E., Hein, L., Edens, B., and Suwarno, A. 2015. Mapping monetary values of ecosystem services in support of developing ecosystem accounts. Ecosyst. Serv. 12:71-83.

Swanepoel, L.H., Somers, M.J., and Dalerum, F. 2015. Density of leopards Panthera pardus on protected and non-protected land in the Waterberg Biosphere, South Africa. Wildlife Biol. 21(5):263-268.

Takács, P., Erős, T., Specziár, A., Sály, P., Vitál, Z., Ferincz, Á., Molnár, T., Szabolcsi, Z., Bíró, P., and Csoma, E. 2015. Population genetic patterns of threatened European mudminnow (Umbra krameri Walbaum, 1792) in a fragmented landscape: implications for conservation management. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0138640.

Tanentzap, A.J., Lamb, A., Walker, S., and Farmer, A. 2015. Resolving conflicts between agriculture and the natural environment. PLoS Biol. 13(9):e1002242.

Taole, M., Bihon, W., Wingfield, B.D., Wingfield, M.J., and Burgess, T.I. 2015. Multiple introductions from multiple sources: invasion patterns for an important Eucalyptus leaf pathogen. Ecol. Evol. 5(18):4210-4220.

Teske, P.R., Sandoval-Castillo, J., Sasaki, M., and Beheregaray, L.B. 2015. Invasion success of a habitat-forming marine invertebrate is limited by lower-than-expected dispersal ability. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 536:221-227.

Thieme, J.L., Rodewald, A.D., Brown, J., Anchor, C., and Gehrt, S.D. 2015. Linking grassland and early successional bird territory density to predator activity in urban parks. Nat. Areas J. 35(4):515-532.

Thomas, A., and Biju, S.D. 2015. Tadpole consumption is a direct threat to the endangered purple frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis. Salamandra 51(3):252-258.

Thomas, L., Kennington, W.J., Stat, M., Wilkinson, S.P., Kool, J.T., and Kendrick, G.A. 2015. Isolation by resistance across a complex coral reef seascape. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 282(1812):20151217.

Tran, C.T., Wieczorek, A.M., and Morden, C.W. 2015. Genetic structure and diversity of a rare Hawaiian endemic, Lobelia villosa (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Pacific Sci. 69(3):355-366.

Triviño, M., Juutinen, A., Mazziotta, A., Miettinen, K., Podkopaev, D., Reunanen, P., and Mönkkönen, M. 2015. Managing a boreal forest landscape for providing timber, storing and sequestering carbon. Ecosyst. Serv. 14:179-189.

Troyer, C.M., and Gerber, L.R. 2015. Assessing the impact of the US Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1423-1433.

Tschumi, M., Albrecht, M., Entling, M.H., and Jacot, K. 2015. High effectiveness of tailored flower strips in reducing pests and crop plant damage. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 282(1814):20151369.

Turner, I.M., and Utteridge, T.M.A. 2015. Artabotrys byrsophyllus and A. tipuliferus spp. nov. (Annonaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. Nord. J. Bot. 33(5):562-566.

Turner, I.M., and Utteridge, T.M.A. 2015. A new species of Alphonsea (Annonaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia. Blumea 59(3):206-208.

Turvey, S.T., Crees, J.J., and Di Fonzo, M.M.I. 2015. Historical data as a baseline for conservation: reconstructing long-term faunal extinction dynamics in Late Imperial-modern China. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 282(1813):20151299.

Valenta, V., Moser, D., Kuttner, M., Peterseil, J., and Essl, F. 2015. A high-resolution map of Emerald Ash Borer invasion risk for southern Central Europe. Forests 6(9):3075-3086.

van Beukering, P., Sarkis, S., van der Putten, L., and Papyrakis, E. 2015. Bermuda's balancing act: the economic dependence of cruise and air tourism on healthy coral reefs. Ecosyst. Serv. 11:76-86.

van Elden, S., Miranda, N.A.F., Perissinotto, R., and Adams, J.B. 2015. Plant selection and grazing activity of the invasive snail Theba pisana in coastal Algoa Bay, South Africa. Afr. Zool. 50(3):227-231.

van Heist, M., Liswanti, N., Boissière, M., Padmanaba, M., Basuki, I., and Sheil, D. 2015. Exploring local perspectives for conservation planning: a case study from a remote forest community in Indonesian Papua. Forests 6(9):3278-3303.

van Kleunen, M., Röckle, M., and Stift, M. 2015. Admixture between native and invasive populations may increase invasiveness of Mimulus guttatus. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 282(1815):20151487.

Van Rossum, J., and Renz, M.J. 2015. Composting reduces seed viability of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica). Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(3):284-291.

Vansteenbrugge, L., Ampe, B., De Troch, M., Vincx, M., and Hostens, K. 2015. On the distribution and population dynamics of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Belgian part of the North Sea and Westerschelde estuary. Mar. Environ. Res. 110:33-44.

Venegas-Anaya, M., Escobedo-Galván, A.H., Balaguera-Reina, S.A., Lowrance, F., Sanjur, O.I., and Densmore, L.D. 2015. Population ecology of American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Coiba National Park, Panama. J. Herpetol. 49(3):349-357.

Vierikko, K., Tikka, P., Jaakkola, M., von Weissenberg, M., and Jäppinen, J.P. 2015. Connecting people with nature-ecosystem services as a window of opportunity for local and global biodiversity conservation. Ecosyst. Serv. 14:122-123.

Vo, T.Q., Kuenzer, C., and Oppelt, N. 2015. How remote sensing supports mangrove ecosystem service valuation: a case study in Ca Mau province, Vietnam. Ecosyst. Serv. 14:67-75.

Voigt, A., and Wurster, D. 2015. Does diversity matter? The experience of urban nature's diversity: case study and cultural concept. Ecosyst. Serv. 12:200-208.

Vrebos, D., Staes, J., Vandenbroucke, T., D'Haeyer, T., Johnston, R., Muhumuza, M., Kasabeke, C., and Meire, P. 2015. Mapping ecosystem service flows with land cover scoring maps for data-scarce regions. Ecosyst. Serv. 13:28-40.

Wagner, S.A., and Fraterrigo, J.M. 2015. Positive feedbacks between fire and non-native grass invasion in temperate deciduous forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 354:170-176.

Wallace, H.M., and Leonhardt, S.D. 2015. Do hybrid trees inherit invasive characteristics? Fruits of Corymbia torelliana x C. citriodora hybrids and potential for seed dispersal by bees. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0138868.

Wallach, A.D., Bekoff, M., Nelson, M.P., and Ramp, D. 2015. Promoting predators and compassionate conservation. Conserv. Biol. 29(5):1481-1484.

Wang, X.Y., Wu, F.X., Turvey, S.T., Rosso, M., Tao, C.H., Ding, X.H., and Zhu, Q. 2015. Social organization and distribution patterns inform conservation management of a threatened Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin population. J. Mammal. 96(5):964-971.

Warren, R.J., Potts, D.L., and Frothingham, K.M. 2015. Stream structural limitations on invasive communities in urban riparian areas. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 8(3):353-362.

Watts, C.H., and Mason, N.W.H. 2015. If we build - they mostly come: partial functional recovery but persistent compositional differences in wetland beetle community restoration. Restor. Ecol. 23(5):555-565.

Wetterer, J.K., and Hita Garcia, F. 2015. Worldwide spread of Tetramorium caldarium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecol. News 21:93-99.

Wheeler, M.M., Neill, C., Loucks, E., Weiler, A., Von Holle, B., Pelikan, M., and Chase, T. 2015. Vegetation removal and seed addition contribute to coastal sandplain grassland establishment on former agricultural fields. Restor. Ecol. 23(5):539-547.

White, W.T., Appleyard, S.A., Sabub, B., Kyne, P.M., Harris, M., Lis, R., Baje, L., Usu, T., Smart, J.J., Corrigan, S., Yang, L., and Naylor, G.J.P. 2015. Rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea. PLoS ONE 10(10):e0140075.

Willis, C.K.R. 2015. Conservation physiology and conservation pathogens: white-nose syndrome and integrative biology for host-pathogen systems. Integr. Comp. Biol. 55(4):631-641.

Wood, E.M., Pidgeon, A.M., Radeloff, V.C., Helmers, D.P., Culbert, P.D., Keuler, N.S., and Flather, C.H. 2015. Long-term avian community response to housing development at the boundary of US protected areas: effect size increases with time. J. Appl. Ecol. 52(5):1227-1236.

Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D., Wilkin, P., Williams, B., and Scotland, R.W. 2015. Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia. Kew Bull. 70(3):124.

Wu, J.G. 2015. Detecting and attributing the effect of climate change on the changes in the distribution of Qinghai-Tibet plateau large mammal species over the past 50 years. Mamm. Res. 60(4):353-364.

Xu, C.Y., Tang, S.Q., Fatemi, M., Gross, C.L., Julien, M.H., Curtis, C., and van Klinken, R.D. 2015. Population structure and genetic diversity of invasive Phyla canescens: implications for the evolutionary potential. Ecosphere 6(9):162.

Yang, H., Harrison, R., Yi, Z.F., Goodale, E., Zhao, M.X., and Xu, J.C. 2015. Changing perceptions of forest value and attitudes toward management of a recently established nature reserve: a case study in southwest China. Forests 6(9):3136-3164.

Ye, X., Liu, G.H., Li, Z.S., Wang, H., and Zeng, Y. 2015. Assessing local and surrounding threats to the protected area network in a biodiversity hotspot: the Hengduan Mountains of southwest China. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0138533.

Yousefi, M., Ahmadi, M., Nourani, E., Behrooz, R., Rajabizadeh, M., Geniez, P., and Kaboli, M. 2015. Upward altitudinal shifts in habitat suitability of mountain vipers since the last clacial maximum. PLoS ONE 10(9):e0138087.

Yüzbaşıoğlu, S., Koch, M.A., and Al-Shehbaz, I.I.A. 2015. Proof of a knowledge database concept. Aubrieta ekimii (Brassicaceae), a new species from NW Anatolia (Turkey): morphological and molecular support. Plant Syst. Evol. 301(8):2043-2055.

Zavalaga, C.B., and Alfaro-Shigueto, J. 2015. Unveiling an important Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) breeding colony in Perú and the need for its protection against the potential impact of guano harvest. Waterbirds 38(3):302-307.

Zheng, W.H., Zhuo, Y., Liang, L., Ding, W.Y., Liang, L.Y., and Wang, X.F. 2015. Conservation and population genetic diversity of Curcuma wenyujin (Zingiberaceae), a multifunctional medicinal herb. Genet. Mol. Res. 14(3):10422-10432.

Zhu, M.J., Hoctor, T., Volk, M., Frank, K., and Linhoss, A. 2015. The conservation value of elevation data accuracy and model sophistication in reserve design under sea-level rise. Ecol. Evol. 5(19):4376-4388.

Zweig, C.L., and Newman, S. 2015. Using landscape context to map invasive species with medium-resolution satellite imagery. Restor. Ecol. 23(5):524-530.


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