Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

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Department ofBotany

No. 377
May 2016

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Canadian Populations of Magnolia acuminata Have Low Levels of Gene Flow

By Elizabeth Jacobsen
-Adapted from The Plant Press

Populations of Magnolia acuminata may become increasingly isolated and may experience reduced genetic diversity without intervention. (photo by R.A. Howard

Populations of Magnolia acuminata may become increasingly isolated and may experience reduced genetic diversity without intervention. (photo by R.A. Howard

Magnolia acuminata, the cucumber tree, is not the social type. Even where it is widespread, it is never abundant, existing in small populations throughout its range. The northern end of the species distribution lies in Ontario, Canada, where around 200 trees occupy fragmented habitats consisting of small populations of no more than 50, and usually fewer, mature trees. It is considered endangered in Canada and critically imperiled in Indiana, Oklahoma, and Florida. Concerned about its lonely distribution, National Museum of Natural History botanist Elizabeth Zimmer joined Trent University biologists Cara Budd and Joanna Freeland to investigate the tree's genetic diversity using DNA microsatellites, comparing Canadian populations with each other and with populations in the United States (across the heart of M. acuminata's range). Their findings were published in Conservation Genetics. "For other groups of plants with this distribution," comments Zimmer, "in some cases you see there have been bottlenecks, and that's a stronger warning that you have to manage plants."

As it turns out, the northern populations of M. acuminata in Canada have lower levels of genetic diversity than populations across the United States. Zimmer explains, "may not be pollination that maintains genetic diversity, it may be seed dispersal." The beetle species that pollinate the trees likely do not disperse as far as other major pollinating animals, but the plant's seeds are likely dispersed greater distances by birds or in some cases waterways. However seeds must find suitable habitat to germinate, which can be a challenge in today's altered and fragmented environments.

Canadian populations have little gene flow between them; many alleles are found only in one population or another. The trees are long-lived, not reaching fertility until they are 30 years old, and the genetic information in older trees may not represent the state of populations today. This is confirmed by lower levels of genetic diversity found in M. acuminata saplings. The information gathered in the study indicates that the most effective way to protect genetic diversity in peripheral populations is to protect the habitat and dispersers that could facilitate the exchange of seeds between populations.

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Pesamosca, S.C., and Boldrini, I. 2015. Ludwigia litoranea (Onagraceae), a new species from coastal southern Brazil. Phytotaxa 230(2):183-188.

Pickering, C.M., and Barros, A. 2015. Using functional traits to assess the resistance of subalpine grassland to trampling by mountain biking and hiking. J. Environ. Manage. 164:129-136.

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Pinto-da-Rocha, R., da Fonseca-Ferreira, R., and Bichuette, M.E. 2015. A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iindumoema smeagol sp n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae). ZooKeys 537:79-95.

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Piwowarczyk, R., Kwolek, D., Denysenko, M., Cygan, M., Góralski, G., Ślesak, H., Tuleja, M., and Joachimiak, A.J. 2015. Orobanche grenieri (Orobanchaceae), a southwestern European species newly found in Asia. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 52(5-6):411-418.

Pomeroy, D., Shaw, P., Opige, M., Kaphu, G., Ogada, D.L., and Virani, M.Z. 2015. Vulture populations in Uganda: using road survey data to measure both densities and encounter rates within protected and unprotected areas. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(4):399-414.

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Purcell, C.M., Chabot, C.L., Craig, M.T., Martinez-Takeshita, N., Allen, L.G., and Hyde, J.R. 2015. Developing a genetic baseline for the yellowtail amberjack species complex, Seriola lalandi sensu lato, to assess and preserve variation in wild populations of these globally important aquaculture species. Conserv. Genet. 16(6):1475-1488.

Rahman, S.C., Rashid, S.M.A., Datta, R., Mro, P., and Roy, C.J. 2015. Status, exploitation, and conservation of freshwater turtles and tortoises in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 14(2):130-135.

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Ramos, R.M., Pezzuti, J.C.B., and Vieira, E.M. 2016. Age structure of the Vulnerable white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari in areas under different levels of hunting pressure in the Amazon Forest. Oryx 50(1):56-62.

Rawat, B., Gairola, S., Sekar, K.C., and Rawal, R.S. 2015. The present status and future prospects of forest vegetation in part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a World Heritage Site), India. J. Forest. Res. 26(4):897-904.

Recio, M.R., Seddon, P.J., and Moore, A.B. 2015. Niche and movement models identify corridors of introduced feral cats infringing ecologically sensitive areas in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 192:48-56.

Reeson, A. 2015. Tradable rights in conservation: useful policy tool or industry in themselves? Environ. Conserv. 42(4):289-290.

Reisner, M.D., Doescher, P.S., and Pyke, D.A. 2015. Stress-gradient hypothesis explains susceptibility to Bromus tectorum invasion and community stability in North America's semi-arid Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis ecosystems. J. Veg. Sci. 26(6):1212-1224.

Reudink, M.W., Van Wilgenburg, S.L., Steele, L.S., Pillar, A.G., Marra, P.P., and McKellar, A.E. 2015. Patterns of migratory connectivity in Vaux's Swifts at a northern migratory roost: a multi-isotope approach. Condor 117(4):670-682.

Rocha, P.R., Melo, T., Rebelo, R., and Catry, P. 2015. A significant nesting population of loggerhead turtles at the nature reserve of Santa Luzia, Cabo Verde. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 14(2):161-166.

Rodhouse, T.J., Ormsbee, P.C., Irvine, K.M., Vierling, L.A., Szewczak, J.M., and Vierling, K.T. 2015. Establishing conservation baselines with dynamic distribution models for bat populations facing imminent decline. Divers. Distrib. 21(12):1401-1413.

Rodríguez, A., Gómez, J.F., and Nieves-Aldrey, J.L. 2015. Modeling the potential distribution and conservation status of three species of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in the Iberian range. J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):921-934.

Rodríguez-Muñoz, R., del Valle, C.R., Bañuelos, M.J., and Mirol, P. 2015. Revealing the consequences of male-biased trophy hunting on the maintenance of genetic variation. Conserv. Genet. 16(6):1375-1394.

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Ruiz-Sanchez, E., Clark, L.G., Londoño, X., Mejía-Saulés, T., and Cortés Rodríguez, G. 2015. Morphological keys to the genera and species of bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) of Mexico. Phytotaxa 236(1):1-24.

Russell-Smith, J., Murphy, B.P., and Lawes, M.J. 2015. Both fire size and frequency matter: a response to Griffiths et al. Biol. Conserv. 192:477-477.

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Sagwe, R.N., Muya, S.M., and Maranga, R. 2015. Effects of land use patterns on the diversity and conservation status of butterflies in Kisii highlands, Kenya. J. Insect Conserv. 19(6):1119-1127.

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Schopmeyer, S.A., and Lirman, D. 2015. Occupation dynamics and impacts of damselfish territoriality on recovering populations of the threatened staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0141302.

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Shakeel, U., Minhas, R.A., Awan, M.S., Bibi, S.S., and Iftikhar, N. 2015. Conservation status of Himalayan grey goral (Naemorhedus goral bedfordi Hardwicke, 1825) in Machiara National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool. 47(5):1297-1304.

Shryock, D.F., Havrilla, C.A., DeFalco, L.A., Esque, T.C., Custer, N.A., and Wood, T.E. 2015. Landscape genomics of Sphaeralcea ambigua in the Mojave Desert: a multivariate, spatially-explicit approach to guide ecological restoration. Conserv. Genet. 16(6):1303-1317.

Šigutová, H., Šigut, M., and Dolný, A. 2015. Intensive fish ponds as ecological traps for dragonflies: an imminent threat to the endangered species Sympetrum depressiusculum (Odonata: Libellulidae). J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):961-974.

Sikkema, J.J., and Boyd, J.N. 2015. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana. Acta Oecol. 69:182-191.

Silliman, B.R., Schrack, E., He, Q., Cope, R., Santoni, A., van der Heide, T., Jacobi, R., Jacobi, M., and van de Koppel, J. 2015. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112(46):14295-14300.

Silva, D.P., Macêdo, A.C.B.A., Ascher, J.S., and De Marco, P. 2015. Range increase of a Neotropical orchid bee under future scenarios of climate change. J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):901-910.

Silvertown, J. 2015. Have ecosystem services been oversold? Trends Ecol. Evol. 30(11):641-648.

Sirén, A.H., and Wilkie, D.S. 2016. The effects of ammunition price on subsistence hunting in an Amazonian village. Oryx 50(1):47-55.

Slancarova, J., Garcia-Pereira, P., Fric, Z.F., Romo, H., and Garcia-Barros, E. 2015. Butterflies in Portuguese 'montados': relationships between climate, land use and life-history traits. J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):823-836.

Smith, D.R., McRae, S.E., Augspurger, T., Ratcliffe, J.A., Nichols, R.B., Eads, C.B., Savidge, T., and Bogan, A.E. 2015. Developing a conservation strategy to maximize persistence of an endangered freshwater mussel species while considering management effectiveness and cost. Freshwater Sci. 34(4):1324-1339.

Sorice, M.G., and Donlan, C.J. 2015. A human-centered framework for innovation in conservation incentive programs. Ambio 44(8):788-792.

Spash, C.L. 2015. Bulldozing biodiversity: the economics of offsets and trading-in Nature. Biol. Conserv. 192:541-551.

Springer, K.B., Manker, C.R., and Pigati, J.S. 2015. Dynamic response of desert wetlands to abrupt climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112(47):14522-14526.

Stanley, D.A., Smith, K.E., and Raine, N.E. 2015. Bumblebee learning and memory is impaired by chronic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide. Sci. Rep. 5:16508.

Stanton, D.W.G., Hart, J., Vosper, A., Kumpel, N.F., Wang, J.L., Ewen, J.G., and Bruford, M.W. 2016. Non-invasive genetic identification confirms the presence of the Endangered okapi Okapia johnstoni south-west of the Congo River. Oryx 50(1):134-137.

Stephens, P.A. 2015. Land sparing, land sharing, and the fate of Africa's lions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112(48):14753-14754.

Stevenson, D.J., Jensen, J.B., Schlimm, E.A., and Moore, M. 2015. The distribution, habitat use, activity, and status of the spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata) in Georgia. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 14(2):136-142.

Stirnemann, R.L., Potter, M.A., Butler, D., and Minot, E.O. 2015. Compounding effects of habitat fragmentation and predation on bird nests. Austral Ecol. 40(8):974-981.

Stockwell, B.L., Larson, W.A., Waples, R.K., Abesamis, R.A., Seeb, L.W., and Carpenter, K.E. 2016. The application of genomics to inform conservation of a functionally important reef fish (Scarus niger) in the Philippines. Conserv. Genet. 17(1):239-249.

Street, G.M., Vennen, L.M.V., Avgar, T., Mosser, A., Anderson, M.L., Rodgers, A.R., and Fryxell, J.M. 2015. Habitat selection following recent disturbance: model transferability with implications for management and conservation of moose (Alces alces). Can. J. Zool. 93(11):813-821.

Sugai, K., Watanabe, S., Kuishi, T., Imura, S., Ishigaki, K., Yokota, M., Yanagawa, S., and Suyama, Y. 2016. Extremely low genetic diversity of the northern limit populations of Nypa fruticans (Arecaceae) on Iriomote Island, Japan. Conserv. Genet. 17(1):221-228.

Sugimoto, T., Hasegawa, O., Azuma, N., Masatomi, H., Sato, F., Matsumoto, F., Masatomi, Y., Izumi, H., and Abe, S. 2015. Genetic structure of the endangered red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido, Japan and conservation implications. Conserv. Genet. 16(6):1395-1401.

Sullivan, M.J.P., Newson, S.E., and Pearce-Higgins, J.W. 2015. Using habitat-specific population trends to evaluate the consistency of the effect of species traits on bird population change. Biol. Conserv. 192:343-352.

Sun, Y.W., Wang, T.J., Skidmore, A.K., Wang, Q., and Ding, C.Q. 2015. Decline of traditional rice farming constrains the recovery of the endangered Asian crested ibis (Nipponia nippon). Ambio 44(8):803-814.

Sun, Z.Y., Chen, Y.Q., Schaefer, V., Liang, H.M., Li, W.H., Huang, S.Q., and Peng, C.L. 2015. Responses of the hybrid between Sphagneticola trilobata and Sphagneticola calendulacea to low temperature and weak light characteristic in South China. Sci. Rep. 5:16906.

Suni, S.S., and Whiteley, A.R. 2015. Genetic structure of a montane perennial plant: the influence of landscape and flowering phenology. Conserv. Genet. 16(6):1431-1442.

Sunny, A., Monroy-Vilchis, O., Zarco-González, M.M., Mendoza-Martínez, G.D., and Martínez-Gómez, D. 2015. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation. Genetica 143(6):705-716.

Sydeman, W.J., Poloczanska, E., Reed, T.E., and Thompson, S.A. 2015. Climate change and marine vertebrates. Science 350(6262):772-777.

Tagg, N., Willie, J., Duarte, J., Petre, C.A., and Fa, J.E. 2015. Conservation research presence protects: a case study of great ape abundance in the Dja region, Cameroon. Anim. Conserv. 18(6):489-498.

Tauler, H., Real, J., Hernández-Matías, A., Aymerich, P., Baucells, J., Martorell, C., and Santandreu, J. 2015. Identifying key demographic parameters for the viability of a growing population of the endangered Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(4):426-439.

Terrado, M., Sabater, S., Chaplin-Kramer, B., Mandle, L., Ziv, G., and Acuña, V. 2016. Model development for the assessment of terrestrial and aquatic habitat quality in conservation planning. Sci. Total Environ. 540:63-70.

Thapa, I., Butchart, S.H.M., Gurung, H., Stattersfield, A.J., Thomas, D.H.L., and Birch, J.C. 2016. Using information on ecosystem services in Nepal to inform biodiversity conservation and local to national decision-making. Oryx 50(1):147-155.

Thompson, P.D., Webber, P.A., and Mellon, C.D. 2015. The role of introduced populations in the management and conservation of least chub. Fisheries 40(11):546-556.

Thompson, S.J., Johnson, D.H., Niemuth, N.D., and Ribic, C.A. 2015. Avoidance of unconventional oil wells and roads exacerbates habitat loss for grassland birds in the North American great plains. Biol. Conserv. 192:82-90.

Tichanek, F., and Tropek, R. 2015. Conservation value of post-mining headwaters: drainage channels at a lignite spoil heap harbour threatened stream dragonflies. J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):975-985.

Tobón-Sampedro, A., and Rojas-Soto, O.R. 2015. The geographic and seasonal potential distribution of the little known Fuertes's Oriole Icterus fuertesi. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(4):489-502.

Tomas, F., Martínez-Crego, B., Hernán, G., and Santos, R. 2015. Responses of seagrass to anthropogenic and natural disturbances do not equally translate to its consumers. Global Change Biol. 21(11):4021-4030.

Tonra, C.M., Sager-Fradkin, K., Morley, S.A., Duda, J.J., and Marra, P.P. 2015. The rapid return of marine-derived nutrients to a freshwater food web following dam removal. Biol. Conserv. 192:130-134.

Torrella, S.A., Ginzburg, R., and Galetto, L. 2015. Forest fragmentation in the Argentine Chaco: recruitment and population patterns of dominant tree species. Plant Ecol. 216(11):1499-1510.

Tortato, F.R., Layme, V.M.G., Crawshaw, P.G., and Izzo, T.J. 2015. The impact of herd composition and foraging area on livestock predation by big cats in the Pantanal of Brazil. Anim. Conserv. 18(6):539-547.

Trovó, M., and Sano, P.T. 2015. Shedding light on a species from the shadows: the case of Paepalanthus macaheensis (Eriocaulaceae). Phytotaxa 230(3):250-258.

Turgeon, J., Reid, S.M., Bourret, A., Pratt, T.C., Reist, J.D., Muir, A.M., and Howland, K.L. 2016. Morphological and genetic variation in Cisco (Coregonus artedi) and Shortjaw Cisco (C. zenithicus): multiple origins of Shortjaw Cisco in inland lakes require a lake-specific conservation approach. Conserv. Genet. 17(1):45-56.

Val, J., Muñiz, S., Gomà, J., and Navarro, E. 2016. Influence of global change-related impacts on the mercury toxicity of freshwater algal communities. Sci. Total Environ. 540:53-62.

Valdespino, I.A. 2015. Lectotypification of Selaginella tenuissima and S. papagaiensis (Selaginellaceae) with the description of S. monticola. Phytotaxa 233(2):153-165.

van de Crommenacker, J., Bourgeois, Y.X.C., Warren, B.H., Jackson, H., Fleischer-Dogley, F., Groombridge, J., and Bunbury, N. 2015. Using molecular tools to guide management of invasive alien species: assessing the genetic impact of a recently introduced island bird population. Divers. Distrib. 21(12):1414-1427.

Van der Colff, D., Dreyer, L.L., Valentine, A., and Roets, F. 2015. Invasive plant species may serve as a biological corridor for the invertebrate fauna of naturally isolated hosts. J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):863-875.

Van Der Wal, R., Fischer, A., Selge, S., and Larson, B.M.H. 2015. Neither the public nor experts judge species primarily on their origins. Environ. Conserv. 42(4):349-355.

Velevski, M., Nikolov, S.C., Ben, H., Dobrev, V., Sidiropoulos, L., Saravia, V., Tsiakiris, R., Arkumarev, V., Galanaki, A., Kominos, T., Stara, K., Kret, E., Grubac, B., Lisicanec, E., Kastritis, T., Vavylis, D., Topi, M., Hoxha, B., and Oppel, S. 2015. Population decline and range contraction of the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in the Balkan Peninsula. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(4):440-450.

Veselý, L., Buřič, M., and Kouba, A. 2015. Hardy exotics species in temperate zone: can "warm water" crayfish invaders establish regardless of low temperatures? Sci. Rep. 5:16340.

Vieira, C.R., Pitts, J., and Colli, G.R. 2015. Microhabitat changes induced by edge effects impact velvet ant (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) communities in southeastern Amazonia, Brazil. J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):849-861.

Vítová, J., Vít, P., and Suda, J. 2015. Rare occurrence of reciprocal hybridization in a sympatric population of the Czech stenoendemic Dianthus arenarius subsp. bohemicus and widespread D. carthusianorum. Preslia 87(3):329-345.

Warchola, N., Bastianelli, C., Schultz, C.B., and Crone, E.E. 2015. Fire increases ant-tending and survival of the Fender's blue butterfly larvae. J. Insect Conserv. 19(6):1063-1073.

Watts, C., Ranson, H., Thorpe, S., Cave, V., Clarkson, B., Thornburrow, D., Bartlam, S., and Bodmin, K. 2015. Invertebrate community turnover following control of an invasive weed. Arthropod-Plant Interact. 9(6):585-597.

Weber, M., Hauer, G., and Farr, D. 2015. Economic-ecological evaluation of temporary biodiversity offsets in Alberta's boreal forest. Environ. Conserv. 42(4):315-324.

Weise, F.J., Lemeris, J.R., Munro, S.J., Bowden, A., Venter, C., van Vuuren, M., and van Vuuren, R.J. 2015. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) running the gauntlet: an evaluation of translocations into free-range environments in Namibia. PeerJ 3:e1346.

Westbrook, C.E., Ringang, R.R., Cantero, S.M.A., HDAR & TNC Urchin Team, and Toonen, R.J. 2015. Survivorship and feeding preferences among size classes of outplanted sea urchins, Tripneustes gratilla, and possible use as biocontrol for invasive alien algae. PeerJ 3:e1235.

Westgate, M.J., Scheele, B.C., Ikin, K., Hoefer, A.M., Beaty, R.M., Evans, M., Osborne, W., Hunter, D., Rayner, L., and Driscoll, D.A. 2015. Citizen science program shows urban areas have lower occurrence of frog species, but not accelerated declines. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0140973.

Whytock, R.C., Buij, R., Virani, M.Z., and Morgan, B.J. 2016. Do large birds experience previously undetected levels of hunting pressure in the forests of Central and West Africa? Oryx 50(1):76-83.

Willis, S.C., Winemiller, K.O., Montaña, C.G., Macrander, J., Reiss, P., Farias, I.P., and Ortí, G. 2015. Population genetics of the speckled peacock bass (Cichla temensis), South America's most important inland sport fishery. Conserv. Genet. 16(6):1345-1357.

Wilson, J.F., Baker, D., Cook, M., Davis, G., Freestone, R., Gardner, D., Grundy, D., Lowe, N., Orridge, S., and Young, H. 2015. Climate association with fluctuation in annual abundance of fifty widely distributed moths in England and Wales: a citizen-science study. J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):935-946.

Woolaver, L.G., Nichols, R.K., Morton, E.S., and Stutchbury, B.J.M. 2015. Breeding ecology and predictors of nest success in the Critically Endangered Ridgway's Hawk Buteo ridgwayi. Bird Conserv. Int. 25(4):385-398.

Wu, J., Pan, H., Zhang, J., Yang, S.Z., and Zhao, M.S. 2015. Effect of sun exposure on saproxylic beetle assemblages may change with topoclimate in a subtropical forest of east China. J. Insect Conserv. 19(5):877-889.

Xiong, W., Sui, X.Y., Liang, S.H., and Chen, Y.F. 2015. Non-native freshwater fish species in China. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 25(4):651-687.

Xu, C.L., Barrett, J., Lank, D.B., and Ydenberg, R.C. 2015. Large and irregular population fluctuations in migratory Pacific (Calidris alpina pacifica) and Atlantic (C. a. hudsonica) dunlins are driven by density-dependence and climatic factors. Pop. Ecol. 57(4):551-567.

Xuereb, A.T.J., Rouse, J.D., Cunnington, G., and Lougheed, S.C. 2015. Population genetic structure at the northern range limit of the threatened eastern hog-nosed snake (Heterodon platirhinos). Conserv. Genet. 16(6):1265-1276.

Yang, C.Z., Cai, D.L., and Wen, F. 2015. Oreocharis striata (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Fujian, China. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 52(5-6):369-372.

Young, M., and Carr, M.H. 2015. Application of species distribution models to explain and predict the distribution, abundance and assemblage structure of nearshore temperate reef fishes. Divers. Distrib. 21(12):1428-1440.

Zakkak, S., Radovic, A., Nikolov, S.C., Shumka, S., Kakalis, L., and Kati, V. 2015. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe. J. Environ. Manage. 164:171-179.

Zavodna, M., Abdelkrim, J., Pellissier, V., and Machon, N. 2015. A long-term genetic study reveals complex population dynamics of multiple-source plant reintroductions. Biol. Conserv. 192:1-9.

Zhang, B.Q., He, C.S., Burnham, M., and Zhang, L.H. 2016. Evaluating the coupling effects of climate aridity and vegetation restoration on soil erosion over the Loess Plateau in China. Sci. Total Environ. 539:436-449.

Zhang, J., Nielsen, S.E., Stolar, J., Chen, Y.H., and Thuiller, W. 2015. Gains and losses of plant species and phylogenetic diversity for a northern high-latitude region. Divers. Distrib. 21(12):1441-1454.

Zhang, S.B., Chen, W.Y., Huang, J.L., Bi, Y.F., and Yang, X.F. 2015. Orchid species richness along elevational and environmental gradients in Yunnan, China. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0142621.

Zhang, Y., Ding, S., Bentsen, C.N., Ma, S.Q., Jia, X.B., and Meng, W. 2015. Differences in stream fish assemblages subjected to different levels of anthropogenic pressure in the Taizi River catchment, China. Ichthyol. Res. 62(4):450-462.

Zhang, Y., Jia, Q., Prins, H.H.T., Cao, L., and de Boer, W.F. 2015. Effect of conservation efforts and ecological variables on waterbird population sizes in wetlands of the Yangtze River. Sci. Rep. 5:17136.

Zhang, Z.J., He, J.S., Li, J.S., and Tang, Z.Y. 2015. Distribution and conservation of threatened plants in China. Biol. Conserv. 192:454-460.

Zhao, D.P., and Feng, P.S. 2015. Temperature increase impacts personality traits in aquatic non-native species: Implications for biological invasion under climate change. Curr. Zool. 61(6):966-971.

Zhivotovsky, L.A., Teterina, A.A., Mukhina, N.V., Stroganov, A.N., Rubtsova, G.A., and Afanasiev, K.I. 2016. Effects of genetic drift in a small population of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua kildinensis Derjugin) landlocked in a meromictic lake: genetic variation and conservation measures. Conserv. Genet. 17(1):229-238.

Zhu, D.H., Wang, P., Zhang, W.Z., Yuan, Y., Li, B., and Wang, J. 2015. Sampling and complementarity effects of plant diversity on resource use increases the invasion resistance of communities. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0141559.

Zilverberg, C.J., Teoh, K., Boe, A., Johnson, W.C., and Owens, V. 2016. Strategic use of native species on environmental gradients increases diversity and biomass relative to switchgrass monocultures. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 215:110-121.

Zimmerman, M., Oddy, D., Stolen, E., Breininger, D., and Pruett, C.L. 2015. Microspatial sampling reveals cryptic influences on gene flow in a threatened mammal. Conserv. Genet. 16(6):1403-1414.

Zou, Y., Sang, W.G., and Axmacher, J.C. 2015. Resilience of insect assemblages to climate change in mature temperate mountain forests of NE China. J. Insect Conserv. 19(6):1163-1172.

Zozaya, S.M., Alford, R.A., and Schwarzkopf, L. 2015. Invasive house geckos are more willing to use artificial lights than are native geckos. Austral Ecol. 40(8):982-987.

Zwieten, N.A.V., Van Der Duim, R., and Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. 2015. Compensating for livestock killed by lions: payment for environmental services as a policy arrangement. Environ. Conserv. 42(4):363-372.

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