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No. 380
August 2016


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In This Issue


Cause for Hope: Secondary Tropical Forests Quickly Put on Weight


-Adapted from STRI News

How fast tropical forests recover after deforestation has major consequences for climate change mitigation. A team including Smithsonian scientists discovered that some secondary tropical forests recover biomass quickly: half of the forests in the study attained 90 percent of old-growth forest levels in 66 years or less. The study was published in the journal Nature. Conservation planners can use their resulting biomass-recovery map for Latin America to prioritize conservation efforts.

How fast tropical forests recover after deforestation has major consequences for climate change mitigation

How fast tropical forests recover after deforestation has major consequences for climate change mitigation

""Regenerating secondary forests could play a critical role in carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation" said Daisy Dent, a research associate at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama and a lecturer at the University of Stirling. "However, previous studies have tended to focus on single sites. This study brings together data from many sites that span the Neotropics. We illustrate that secondary forests are highly productive and resilient."

Less than half of the world's tropical forests are primary or old-growth forests; the rest are growing back after logging or other disturbances. The new study focused on secondary forests growing back on land almost completely deforested for agriculture. Although such forests are known to accumulate carbon rapidly, how quickly they recover and restore the ecosystem services provided by old-growth forest was uncertain because of inconsistencies in the methods used in previous studies.

This study was unprecedented in scope: 45 sites in eight countries, 1,478 study plots and more than 168,000 trees. Sites covered the full latitudinal range of the tropics, from 20 degrees north in Mexico to 22 degrees south in Brazil, and extended across areas of high-to-low rainfall and low-to-high soil fertility. The extent of forest cover in the surrounding landscape (indicating the availability of tree seeds for regeneration) and the intensity of prior land use was also considered.

After 20 years of recovery, the average biomass in these regenerating forests was calculated to be equivalent to a carbon uptake rate 11 times that of Amazonianold-growth forests, and more than twice that of selectively logged Amazonian forests in which reduced-impact logging techniques had been used. However, biomass accumulation rates differed widely across sites. Sites with higher rainfall had higher absolute rates of biomass accumulation. Soil fertility, local forest cover and prior land-use were not found to have an effect. However, higher soil fertility did improve the relative rate of biomass accumulation compared to old-growth forests in the same area.

The authors produced a map of the potential for biomass recovery and carbon sequestration across the New World tropics. Areas such as the dry forests of Mexico and northeastern Brazil had low recovery rates, whereas the moister forests of Central America and large parts of Amazonia had high recovery rates. In moist forest areas, where potential for biomass accumulation is highest, restoration and reforestation may be the optimal land-use activities. Where the capacity of forest recovery is lower, such as seasonally dry forest, a higher emphasis should be placed on protection of existing forest to minimize forest loss.

"Collaborations like the one illustrated here by the 2ndFor Network, in which site-based monitoring and manipulations allow us to test mechanistic hypotheses related to forest development, and large-scale analysis across sites allow for robust synthesis, are critically important in the era of global change," said Jefferson Hall, STRI staff scientist and director of the Agua Salud Project in the Panama Canal Watershed.


Current Literature


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Abdullah, M.M., Feagin, R.A., Musawi, L., Whisenant, S., and Popescu, S. 2016. The use of remote sensing to develop a site history for restoration planning in an arid landscape. Restor. Ecol. 24(1):91-99.

Abelson, A., Halpern, B.S., Reed, D.C., Orth, R.J., Kendrick, G.A., Beck, M.W., Belmaker, J., Krause, G., Edgar, G.J., Airoldi, L., Brokovich, E., France, R., Shashar, N., De Blaeij, A., Stambler, N., Salameh, P., Shechter, M., and Nelson, P.A. 2016. Upgrading marine ecosystem restoration using ecological-social concepts. BioScience 66(2):156-163.

Affonso, I.D., Azevedo, R.F., dos Santos, N.L.C., Dias, R.M., Agostinho, A.A., and Gomes, L.C. 2015. Pulling the plug: strategies to preclude expansion of dams in Brazilian rivers with high-priority for conservation. Nat. Conservacao 13(2):199-203.

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Alvarado, S.T., Buisson, E., Carrière, S.M., Rabarison, H., Rajeriarison, C., Andrianjafy, M., Randriatsivery, F.M., Rasoafaranaivo, M.H., Raharimampionona, J., Lowry, P.P., and Birkinshaw, C. 2015. Achieving sustainable conservation in Madagascar: The case of the newly established Ibity Mountain Protected Area. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(2):367-395.

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Amaya-Villarreal, A.M., Estrada, A., and Vargas-Ramírez, N. 2015. Use of wild foods during the rainy season by a reintroduced population of scarlet macaws (Ara macao cyanoptera) in Palenque, Mexico. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(2):455-478.

Amtstaetter, F., O'Connor, J., and Pickworth, A. 2016. Environmental flow releases trigger spawning migrations by Australian grayling Prototroctes maraena, a threatened, diadromous fish. Aquat. Conserv. 26(1):35-43.

Ancillotto, L., Strubbe, D., Menchetti, M., and Mori, E. 2016. An overlooked invader? Ecological niche, invasion success and range dynamics of the Alexandrine parakeet in the invaded range. Biol. Invasions 18(2):583-595.

Andrade, B.O., Koch, C., Boldrini, I.I., Vélez-Martin, E., Hasenack, H., Hermann, J.M., Kollmann, J., Pillar, V.D., and Overbeck, G.E. 2015. Grassland degradation and restoration: a conceptual framework of stages and thresholds illustrated by southern Brazilian grasslands. Nat. Conservacao 13(2):95-104.

Annorbah, N.N.D., Collar, N.J., and Marsden, S.J. 2016. Trade and habitat change virtually eliminate the Grey Parrot Psittacus erithacus from Ghana. Ibis 158(1):82-91.

Applegate, R.D. 2015. The importance of data management in wildlife conservation. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 39(3):449-450.

Arnold, M., Teagle, H., Brown, M.P., and Smale, D.A. 2016. The structure of biogenic habitat and epibiotic assemblages associated with the global invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida in comparison to native macroalgae. Biol. Invasions 18(3):661-676.

Arregoitia, L.D.V. 2016. Biases, gaps, and opportunities in mammalian extinction risk research. Mamm. Rev. 46(1):17-29.

Arriagada, R.A., Echeverria, C.M., and Moya, D.E. 2016. Creating protected areas on public lands: is there room for additional conservation? PLoS ONE 11(2):e0148094.

Arts, K., Fischer, A., and van der Wal, R. 2016. Boundaries of the wolf and the wild: a conceptual examination of the relationship between rewilding and animal reintroduction. Restor. Ecol. 24(1):27-34.

Aryal, A., Dhakal, M., Panthi, S., Yadav, B.P., Shrestha, L.B., Bencini, R., Raubenheimer, D., and Ji, W.H. 2015. Is trophy hunting of bharal (blue sheep) and Himalayan tahr contributing to their conservation in Nepal? Hystrix 26(2):85-88.

Bacela-Spychalska, K. 2016. Attachment ability of two invasive amphipod species may promote their spread by overland transport. Aquat. Conserv. 26(1):196-201.

Backs, J.R., Terry, M., and Ashley, M.V. 2016. Using genetic analysis to evaluate hybridization as a conservation concern for the threatened species Quercus hinckleyi C.H. Muller (Fagaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 177(2):122-131.

Baisre, J.A. 2016. The uncritical use of anecdotes in marine historical ecology: response to McClenachan et al. Conserv. Biol. 30(1):228-229.

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Barbosa, J.M., Asner, G.P., Martin, R.E., Baldeck, C.A., Hughes, F., and Johnson, T. 2016. Determining subcanopy Psidium cattleianum invasion in Hawaiian forests using imaging spectroscopy. Remote Sens. 8(1):33.

Barker, N.K.S., Fontaine, P.C., Cumming, S.G., Stralberg, D., Westwood, A., Bayne, E.M., Sólymos, P., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Song, S.J., and Rugg, D.J. 2015. Ecological monitoring through harmonizing existing data: lessons from the Boreal Avian Modelling Project. Wildlife Soc. Bull. 39(3):480-487.

Barrera-Salazar, A., Mandujano, S., Espino-Barros, O.A.V., and Jiménez-García, D. 2015. Classification of vegetation types in the habitat of white-tailed deer in a location of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(2):547-563.

Bassett, I.E., Cook, J., Buchanan, F., and Russell, J.C. 2016. Treasure Islands: biosecurity in the Hauraki Gulf Marine Park. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 40(2):250-266.

Baude, M., Kunin, W.E., Boatman, N.D., Conyers, S., Davies, N., Gillespie, M.A.K., Morton, R.D., Smart, S.M., and Memmott, J. 2016. Historical nectar assessment reveals the fall and rise of floral resources in Britain. Nature 530(7588):85-88.

Bauer, J.T., and Reynolds, H.L. 2016. Restoring native understory to a woodland invaded by Euonymus fortunei: multiple factors affect success. Restor. Ecol. 24(1):45-52.

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Becker, C.G., Rodriguez, D., Longo, A.V., Toledo, L.F., Lambertini, C., Leite, D.S., Haddad, C.F.B., and Zamudio, K.R. 2016. Deforestation, host community structure, and amphibian disease risk. Basic Appl. Ecol. 17(1):72-80.

Beckmann, M., Bruelheide, H., and Erfmeier, A. 2016. Reduced tolerance to simulated herbivory on clonal organs in alien genotypes: a multi-species experiment with native and introduced origins. Biol. Invasions 18(2):549-563.

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Bellard, C., Leclerc, C., Hoffmann, B.D., and Courchamp, F. 2016. Vulnerability to climate change and sea-level rise of the 35th biodiversity hotspot, the Forests of East Australia. Environ. Conserv. 43(1):79-89.

Bertacchi, M.I.F., Amazonas, N.T., Brancalion, P.H.S., Brondani, G.E., de Oliveira, A.C.S., de Pascoa, M.A.R., and Rodrigues, R.R. 2016. Establishment of tree seedlings in the understory of restoration plantations: natural regeneration and enrichment plantings. Restor. Ecol. 24(1):100-108.

Best, A.M., Johnston, C.E., and O'Neil, P.E. 2016. Pattern of invasion by Weed Shiner (Notropis texanus), a nonindigenous cyprinid in the Bear Creek system (Tennessee River drainage), USA. Biol. Invasions 18(2):395-410.

Bhatt, J.P., and Pandit, M.K. 2016. Endangered Golden mahseer Tor putitora Hamilton: a review of natural history. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 26(1):25-38.

Bilgili, B., Sağýroğlu, M., Şeker, M., and Duman, H. 2016. Dichoropetalum alanyensis (Apiaceae), a new species from South Anatolia, Turkey. Turk. J. Bot. 40(2):201-208.

Binzet, R. 2016. A new species of Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) from Anatolia. Turk. J. Bot. 40(2):194-200.

Blandón, A.C., Perelman, S.B., Ramírez, M., López, A., Javier, O., and Robbins, C.S. 2016. Temporal bird community dynamics are strongly affected by landscape fragmentation in a Central American tropical forest region. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(2):311-330.

Bloch, C.P., and Klingbeil, B.T. 2016. Anthropogenic factors and habitat complexity influence biodiversity but wave exposure drives species turnover of a subtropical rocky inter-tidal metacommunity. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 37(1):64-76.

Boch, S., Prati, D., Schöning, I., and Fischer, M. 2016. Lichen species richness is highest in non-intensively used grasslands promoting suitable microhabitats and low vascular plant competition. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(2):225-238.

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Bombaci, S.P., Farr, C.M., Gallo, H.T., Mangan, A.M., Stinson, L.T., Kaushik, M., and Pejchar, L. 2016. Using Twitter to communicate conservation science from a professional conference. Conserv. Biol. 30(1):216-225.

Boonsuk, B., Chantaranothai, P., and Hodkinson, T.R. 2016. A taxonomic revision of the genus Digitaria (Panicoideae: Poaceae) in mainland Southeast Asia. Phytotaxa 246(4):248-280.

Borroto-Páez, R., Bosch, R.A., Fabres, B.A., and García, O.A. 2015. Introduced amphibians and reptiles in the Cuban archipelago. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 10(3):985-1012.

Bouget, C., and Parmain, G. 2016. Effects of landscape design of forest reserves on Saproxylic beetle diversity. Conserv. Biol. 30(1):92-102.

Braby, M.F., and Williams, M.R. 2016. Biosystematics and conservation biology: critical scientific disciplines for the management of insect biological diversity. Austral Entomol. 55(1):1-17.

Brancalion, P.H.S., and Holl, K.D. 2016. Functional composition trajectory: a resolution to the debate between Suganuma, Durigan, and Reid. Restor. Ecol. 24(1):1-3.

Bridge, T.C.L., Grech, A.M., and Pressey, R.L. 2016. Factors influencing incidental representation of previously unknown conservation features in marine protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 30(1):154-165.

Brown, L.M., and Crone, E.E. 2016. Minimum area requirements for an at-risk butterfly based on movement and demography. Conserv. Biol. 30(1):103-112.

Brown, L.R., Komoroske, L.M., Wagner, R.W., Morgan-King, T., May, J.T., Connon, R.E., and Fangue, N.A. 2016. Coupled downscaled climate models and ecophysiological metrics forecast habitat compression for an endangered estuarine fish. PLoS ONE 11(1):e0146724.

Brusch, G.A., Taylor, E.N., and Whitfield, S.M. 2016. Turn up the heat: thermal tolerances of lizards at La Selva, Costa Rica. Oecologia 180(2):325-334.

Buczkowski, G. 2016. The Trojan horse approach for managing invasive ants: a study with Asian needle ants, Pachycondyla chinensis. Biol. Invasions 18(2):507-515.

Büneker, H.M., Soares, K.P., and De Assis, L.C. 2016. The Dyckia sordida complex (Bromeliaceae, Pitcairnioideae) and a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 244(1):57-68.

Burkart, S., Gugerli, F., Senn, J., Kuehn, R., and Bolliger, J. 2016. Evaluating the functionality of expert-assessed wildlife corridors with genetic data from roe deer. Basic Appl. Ecol. 17(1):52-60.

Burman, J., Westerberg, L., Ostrow, S., Ryrholm, N., Bergman, K.O., Winde, I., Nyabuga, F.N., Larsson, M.C., and Milberg, P. 2016. Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the case of Synanthedon vespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden. J. Insect Conserv. 20(1):11-21.

Burns, P.A., Rowe, K.M.C., Holmes, B.P., and Rowe, K.C. 2015. Historical resurveys reveal persistence of smoky mouse (Pseudomys fumeus) populations over the long-term and through the short-term impacts of fire. Wildlife Res. 42(8):668-677.

Byatt, M.A., Chapman, N.C., Latty, T., and Oldroyd, B.P. 2016. The genetic consequences of the anthropogenic movement of social bees. Insect. Soc. 63(1):15-24.

Bănăduc, D., Rey, S., Trichkova, T., Lenhardt, M., and Curtean-Bănăduc, A. 2016. The Lower Danube River-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea: A pivotal area of major interest for the past, present and future of its fish fauna - A short review. Sci. Total Environ. 545:137-151.

Cabra-Rivas, I., Saldaña, A., Castro-Díez, P., and Gallien, L. 2016. A multi-scale approach to identify invasion drivers and invaders' future dynamics. Biol. Invasions 18(2):411-426.

Campos-Silva, J.V., da Fonseca, S.F., and Peres, C. 2015. Policy reversals do not bode well for conservation in Brazilian Amazonia. Nat. Conservacao 13(2):193-195.

Carbonell, J.A., Millán, A., Green, A.J., Céspedes, V., Coccia, C., and Velasco, J. 2016. What traits underpin the successful establishment and spread of the invasive water bug Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis? Hydrobiologia 768(1):273-286.

Carbonero, J., García-Díaz, P., Ávila, C., Arribas, O., and Lizana, M. 2016. Distribution, habitat characterization and conservation status of Iberolacerta martinezricai (ARRIBAS, 1996), in the Sierra de Francia, Salamanca, Spain. Herpetozoa 28(3-4):149-165.

Carboni, M., Münkemüller, T., Lavergne, S., Choler, P., Borgy, B., Violle, C., Essl, F., Roquet, C., Munoz, F., DivGrass Consortium, and Thuiller, W. 2016. What it takes to invade grassland ecosystems: traits, introduction history and filtering processes. Ecol. Lett. 19(3):219-229.

Cardoso, R.S., Barboza, C.A.M., Skinner, V.B., and Cabrini, T.M.B. 2016. Crustaceans as ecological indicators of metropolitan sandy beaches health. Ecol. Indic. 62:154-162.

Carlsson, S., Bergman, K.O., Jansson, N., Ranius, T., and Milberg, P. 2016. Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificially created decaying wood habitat. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(2):393-405.

Carman, V.G., Bruno, I., Maxwell, S., Álvarez, K., Albareda, D., Acha, E.M., and Campagna, C. 2016. Habitat use, site fidelity and conservation opportunities for juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in the Rio de la Plata, Argentina. Mar. Biol. 163(1):20.

Carneiro, L.R.D., Lima, A.P., Machado, R.B., and Magnusson, W.E. 2016. Limitations to the use of species-distribution models for environmental-impact assessments in the Amazon. PLoS ONE 11(1):e0146543.

Carvalho, A.L.G. 2016. Three new species of the Tropidurus spinulosus group (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from Eastern Paraguay. Am. Mus. Novit. 3853:1-44.

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Castilla, A.R., Pope, N., and Jha, S. 2016. Positive density-dependent reproduction regulated by local kinship and size in an understorey tropical tree. Ann. Botany 117(2):319-329.

Castro, A., and Espinosa, C.I. 2015. Seasonal diversity of butterflies and its relationship with woody-plant resources availability in an Ecuadorian tropical dry forest. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(2):333-351.

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Cavada, N., Barelli, C., Ciolli, M., and Rovero, F. 2016. Primates in human-modified and fragmented landscapes: the conservation relevance of modelling habitat and disturbance factors in density estimation. PLoS ONE 11(2):e0148289.

Chagas, A.T.D., da Costa, M.A., Martins, A.P.V., Resende, L.C., and Kalapothakis, E. 2015. Illegal hunting and fishing in Brazil: a study based on data provided by environmental military police. Nat. Conservacao 13(2):183-189.

Chan, K.M.A., Balvanera, P., Benessaiah, K., Chapman, M., Díaz, S., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Gould, R., Hannahs, N., Jax, K., Klain, S., Luck, G.W., Martín-López, B., Muraca, B., Norton, B., Ott, K., Pascual, U., Satterfield, T., Tadaki, M., Taggart, J., and Turner, N. 2016. Why protect nature? Rethinking values and the environment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113(6):1462-1465.

Chaplin-Kramer, R., Jonell, M., Guerry, A., Lambin, E.F., Morgan, A.J., Pennington, D., Smith, N., Franch, J.A., and Polasky, S. 2015. Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains. Year Ecol. Conserv. Biol. 1355:77-97.

Chen, H.L., and Koprowski, J.L. 2016. Differential effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of native forest-dependent and introduced edge-tolerant species. PLoS ONE 11(1):e0148121.

Chiou, C.R., Chen, Y.J., Wang, H.H., and Grant, W.E. 2016. Predicted range expansion of the invasive plant Leucaena leucocephala in the Hengchun peninsula, Taiwan. Biol. Invasions 18(2):381-394.

Chisholm, R.A., Wijedasa, L.S., and Swinfield, T. 2016. The need for long-term remedies for Indonesia's forest fires. Conserv. Biol. 30(1):5-6.

Chollett, I., Box, S.J., and Mumby, P.J. 2016. Quantifying the squeezing or stretching of fisheries as they adapt to displacement by marine reserves. Conserv. Biol. 30(1):166-175.

Chuang, A., and Peterson, C.R. 2016. Expanding population edges: theories, traits, and trade-offs. Global Change Biol. 22(2):494-512.

Chucholl, C., and Schrimpf, A. 2016. The decline of endangered stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium) in southern Germany is related to the spread of invasive alien species and land-use change. Aquat. Conserv. 26(1):44-56.

Cimon-Morin, J., Darveau, M., and Poulin, M. 2016. Site complementarity between biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning of sparsely-populated regions. Environ. Conserv. 43(1):56-68.

Clark, J.L., Nee, M., Bohs, L., and Knapp, S. 2015. A revision of Solanum section Aculeigerum (the Solanum wendlandii group, Solanaceae). Syst. Bot. 40(4):1102-1136.

Cooke, S.L. 2016. Anticipating the spread and ecological effects of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in North America: a review of modeling and other predictive studies. Biol. Invasions 18(2):315-344.

Corliss, C.T., and Sultan, S.E. 2016. Evolutionary potential for increased invasiveness: high-performance Polygonum cespitosum genotypes are competitively superior in full sun. Am. J. Bot. 103(2):348-354.

Côté, I.M., Darling, E.S., and Brown, C.J. 2016. Interactions among ecosystem stressors and their importance in conservation. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 283(1824):20152592.

Coulter, A.A., Bailey, E.J., Keller, D., and Goforth, R.R. 2016. Invasive Silver Carp movement patterns in the predominantly free-flowing Wabash River (Indiana, USA). Biol. Invasions 18(2):471-485.

Croll, D.A., Newton, K.M., McKown, M., Holmes, N., Williams, J.C., Young, H.S., Buckelew, S., Wolf, C.A., Howald, G., Bock, M.F., Curl, J.A., and Tershy, B.R. 2016. Passive recovery of an island bird community after rodent eradication. Biol. Invasions 18(3):703-715.

Cuesta, J.A., Almón, B., Pérez-Dieste, J., Trigo, J.E., and Bañón, R. 2016. Role of ships' hull fouling and tropicalization process on European carcinofauna: new records in Galician waters (NW Spain). Biol. Invasions 18(3):619-630.

D'Anastasi, B.R., van Herwerden, L., Hobbs, J.A., Simpfendorfer, C.A., and Lukoschek, V. 2016. New range and habitat records for threatened Australian sea snakes raise challenges for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 194:66-70.

da Mata, R.A., Roque, F., and Tidon, R. 2015. Measuring the variability of the drosophilid assemblages associated with forests of the Brazilian savanna across temporal and spatial scales. Nat. Conservacao 13(2):166-170.

da Silva, C.R.B., Groom, S.V.C., Stevens, M.I., and Schwarz, M.P. 2016. Current status of the introduced allodapine bee Braunsapis puangensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Fiji. Austral Entomol. 55(1):43-48.

da Silva, M.J., Alonso, A.A., and Sodré, R.C. 2016. Manihot pachycaulis sp. nov. (Euphorbiaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Nord. J. Bot. 34(1):60-65.

Dao, T.H.H., and Hölscher, D. 2015. Red-listed tree species abundance in montane forest areas with differing levels of statutory protection in north-western Vietnam. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(2):479-490.

Darbyshire, I. 2015. The genus Hypoestes (Acanthaceae) in Angola. Kew Bull. 70(4):44.

Dawson, J., Patel, F., Griffiths, R.A., and Young, R.P. 2016. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections. Conserv. Biol. 30(1):82-91.

de Albuquerque, F.S., Benito, B., Beier, P., Assunção-Albuquerque, M.J., and Cayuela, L. 2015. Supporting underrepresented forests in Mesoamerica. Nat. Conservacao 13(2):152-158.

de Almeida, R.F., and Amorim, A.M. 2015. Stigmaphyllon mikanifolium (Malpighiaceae), a new species from Espirito Santo State, Brazil. Kew Bull. 70(4):47.

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Williams, S.T., Williams, K.S., Joubert, C.J., and Hill, R.A. 2016. The impact of land reform on the status of large carnivores in Zimbabwe. PeerJ 4:e1537.

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Yamada, T., Yoshida, S., Hosaka, T., and Okuda, T. 2016. Logging residues conserve small mammalian diversity in a Malaysian production forest. Biol. Conserv. 194:100-104.

Yeboah, D., Chen, H.Y.H., and Kingston, S. 2016. Tree species richness decreases while species evenness increases with disturbance frequency in a natural boreal forest landscape. Ecol. Evol. 6(3):842-850.

Yin, Y.Y., Tang, Q.H., Wang, L.X., and Liu, X.C. 2016. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China. Sci. Rep. 6:20905.

Yokochi, K., Kennington, W.J., and Bencini, R. 2016. An endangered arboreal specialist, the western ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus occidentalis), shows a greater genetic divergence across a narrow artificial waterway than a major road. PLoS ONE 11(1):e0146167.

Young, M.A.L., Foale, S., and Bellwood, D.R. 2016. The last marine wilderness: spearfishing for trophy fishes in the Coral Sea. Environ. Conserv. 43(1):90-95.

Younger, J.L., Emmerson, L.M., and Miller, K.J. 2016. The influence of historical climate changes on Southern Ocean marine predator populations: a comparative analysis. Global Change Biol. 22(2):474-493.

Yuan, W.S., Hoffman, E.A., and Walters, L.J. 2016. Effects of nonnative invertebrates on two life stages of the native eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Biol. Invasions 18(3):689-701.

Zepeda-Paulo, F., Dion, E., Lavandero, B., Mahéo, F., Outreman, Y., Simon, J.C., and Figueroa, C.C. 2016. Signatures of genetic bottleneck and differentiation after the introduction of an exotic parasitoid for classical biological control. Biol. Invasions 18(2):565-581.

Zhang, H.Y., Rutherford, E.S., Mason, D.M., Breck, J.T., Wittmann, M.E., Cooke, R.M., Lodge, D.M., Rothlisberger, J.D., Zhu, X.H., and Johnson, T.B. 2016. Forecasting the impacts of silver and bighead carp on the Lake Erie food web. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 145(1):136-162.

Zhang, W., Luo, Z.H., Zhao, M., and Wu, H. 2015. High genetic diversity in the endangered and narrowly distributed amphibian species Leptobrachium leishanense. Integr. Zool. 10(5):465-481.

Zhao, Q., Silverman, E., Fleming, K., and Boomer, G.S. 2016. Forecasting waterfowl population dynamics under climate change: does the spatial variation of density dependence and environmental effects matter? Biol. Conserv. 194:80-88.

Zhu, H., Yong, C., Zhou, S.S., Wang, H., and Yan, L.C. 2015. Vegetation, floristic composition and species diversity in a tropical mountain nature reserve in southern Yunnan, SW China, with implications for conservation. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 8(2):528-546.

Zinenko, O., Avci, A., Spitzenberger, F., Tupikov, A., Shiryaev, K., Bozkurt, E., Ilgaz, Ç., and Stümpel, N. 2016. Rediscovered and critically endangered: Vipera anatolica EISELT & BARAN, 1970, of the western Taurus Mountains (Turkey), with remarks on its ecology. Herpetozoa 28(3-4):141-148.

Żmihorski, M., Kotowska, D., Berg, Å., and Pärt, T. 2016. Evaluating conservation tools in Polish grasslands: the occurrence of birds in relation to agri-environment schemes and Natura 2000 areas. Biol. Conserv. 194:150-157.


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