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Department ofBotany

No. 381
September 2016

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In This Issue

Invasive Plants Get Boost from too Many Deer

-Adapted from Smithsonian Insider

New results from a long-term Smithsonian study are providing strong evidence of the dramatic impact high numbers of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are having upon temperate forests in the eastern United States. Since 1990, scientists at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute have been monitoring two 10-acre plots in a 63-acre forest just south of Front Royal, Va. One plot is fenced to exclude deer. The other is open.

A white-tailed deer in Shenandoah National Park (Flickr photo by John W. Iwanski)

A white-tailed deer in Shenandoah National Park (Flickr photo by John W. Iwanski)

When the study began, few invasive plant species were recorded in either plot. In the last two decades, however, scientists witnessed the arrival of four Asian plant species: multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), wine raspberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), and Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum).

A survey of the two study plots after 25 years revealed the density of Japanese barberry, wine raspberry and Japanese stiltgrass was much higher in the open plot. The presence or absence of deer, they found, was an excellent predictor of the abundance of exotic plant species.

Interestingly there was one exception. The density of multiflora rose was higher inside the fenced plot. The researchers suggest this may be because this plant's seeds are dispersed primarily by birds which move through the study area unimpeded. The study is published in the journal Plos One.

As a test case for deer's dispersal role, the researchers looked at the native species wild comfrey (Cynoglossum virginianum), a plant with seeds known to be dispersed by deer. This species was almost absent inside the fence after 25 years.

Clearly deer are shifting the composition of plant species in eastern forests, from distributing seeds that cling to their fur and pass through their digestive systems, to selectively browsing on certain native plants rather than exotic species, the study co-authors write.

Wine raspberry (Rubus phoenicolasius) is a non-native invasive plant species in the U.S (Photo by Milo Pyne, courtesy NatureServe)

Wine raspberry (Rubus phoenicolasius) is a non-native invasive plant species in the U.S (Photo by Milo Pyne, courtesy NatureServe)

Deer also exert significant influence on the structure of the forest, reducing the understory which allows more sunlight to reach the forest floor. After 25 years of relief from grazing deer, seedling height was on average 2.25-times greater in the fenced plot than in the unfenced plot. In addition, four times more tree saplings were found inside the fenced plot.

The changes deer bring to the forest often favor non-native plants, but also have cascading effects on an ecosystem whether or not invasive species are present. In fact, the researchers had originally set out to study the influence of white-tailed deer on birds and small mammals, not on invasive plants.

"The plots were set up in 1990, prior to any invasive species issues in our forests," William McShea, an ecologist at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute and one of the authors of the study, explains. "We had no intention of studying invasive plant species, but invasive plants became an important management issue in eastern forests." Over time, as the non-native plants began creeping into their study sites, the researchers realized they were watching an invasion in action. "It is a quirk of science that when you are looking for one thing something else catches your eye."

After having observed firsthand how the presence of deer enables invasive exotic plants to spread in their Virginia study plots, the authors conclude too many deer may be boosting the invasion of exotic plants in similar forests across the Mid-Atlantic region.

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Crouzeilles, R., and Curran, M. 2016. Which landscape size best predicts the influence of forest cover on restoration success? A global meta-analysis on the scale of effect. J. Appl. Ecol. 53(2):440-448.

Cubrinovska, I., Massaro, M., and Hale, M.L. 2016. Assessment of hybridisation between the endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi) and the Chatham Island tomtit (Petroica macrocephala chathamensis). Conserv. Genet. 17(2):259-265.

Cunningham, A.A., Turvey, S.T., Zhou, F., Meredith, H.M.R., Guan, W., Liu, X.L., Sun, C.M., Wang, Z.Q., and Wu, M.Y. 2016. Development of the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus farming industry in Shaanxi Province, China: conservation threats and opportunities. Oryx 50(2):265-273.

Curran, M., de Souza, D.M., Antón, A., Teixeira, R.F.M., Michelsen, O., Vidal-Legaz, B., Sala, S., and Canals, L.M.I. 2016. How well does LCA model land use impacts on biodiversity? A comparison with approaches from ecology and conservation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50(6):2782-2795.

da Silva, M., Pinho, D.B., Pereira, O.L., Fernandes, F.M., and Barreto, R.W. 2016. Naming potentially endangered parasites: foliicolous mycobiota of Dimorphandra wilsonii, a highly threatened Brazilian tree species. PLoS ONE 11(2):e0147895.

da Silva, P.G., and Hernández, M.I.M. 2016. Spatial variation of dung beetle assemblages associated with forest structure in remnants of southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Rev. Bras. Entomol. 60(1):73-81.

Daly, D.C., Silveira, M., Medeiros, H., Castro, W., and Obermüller, F.A. 2016. The white-sand vegetation of Acre, Brazil. Biotropica 48(1):81-89.

Darbyshire, I., and Luke, Q. 2016. Barleria mirabilis (Acanthaceae): a remarkable new tree species from west Tanzania. Kew Bull. 71(1):13.

Davies, G.M., Stoof, C.R., Kettridge, N., and Gray, A. 2016. Comment on: vegetation burning for game management in the UK uplands is increasing and overlaps spatially with soil carbon and protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 195:293-294.

Davoodian, N. 2016. Fungal conservation in the United States: further notes. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(3):609-610.

de Castro, R.A., Fabricante, J.R., and de Siqueira, J.A. 2016. The importance of the palm Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Beec. for the conservation of species richness and diversity of vascular epiphytes in the Caatinga. Rev. Arvore 40(1):1-12.

de Kok, R.P.J. 2016. A revision of Cryptocarya R. Br. (Lauraceae) of Peninsular Malaysia. Kew Bull. 71(1):7.

de Lima, R.F., Maloney, E., Simison, W.B., and Drewes, R. 2016. Reassessing the conservation status of the shrew Crocidura thomensis, endemic to São Tomé Island. Oryx 50(2):360-363.

Dekker, W., and Beaulaton, L. 2016. Climbing back up what slippery slope? Dynamics of the European eel stock and its management in historical perspective. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 73(1):5-13.

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Dias, F.S., Miller, D.L., Marques, T.A., Marcelino, J., Caldeira, M.C., Cerdeira, J.O., and Bugalho, M.N. 2016. Conservation zones promote oak regeneration and shrub diversity in certified Mediterranean oak woodlands. Biol. Conserv. 195:226-234.

Didham, R.K., Leather, S.R., and Basset, Y. 2016. Circle the bandwagons - challenges mount against the theoretical foundations of applied functional trait and ecosystem service research. Insect Conserv. Divers. 9(1):1-3.

Douglas, D.J.T., Buchanan, G.M., Thompson, P., Smith, T., Cole, T., Amar, A., Fielding, D.A., Redpath, S.M., and Wilson, J.D. 2016. Reply to comment on: vgetation burning for game management in the UK uplands is increasing and overlaps spatially with soil carbon and protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 195:295-296.

Drolet, D., and Locke, A. 2016. Relative importance of propagule size and propagule number for establishment of non-indigenous species: a stochastic simulation study. Aquat. Invasions 11(1):101-110.

Drouin, A., McKindsey, C.W., and Johnson, L.E. 2016. Dynamics of recruitment and establishment of the invasive seaweed Codium fragile within an eelgrass habitat. Mar. Biol. 163(3):61.

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Duncan, R.P. 2016. How propagule size and environmental suitability jointly determine establishment success: a test using dung beetle introductions. Biol. Invasions 18(4):985-996.

Dunwiddie, P.W., and Martin, R.A. 2016. Microsites matter: improving the success of rare species reintroductions. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0150417.

Dupras, J., Marull, J., Parcerisas, L., Coll, F., Gonzalez, A., Girard, M., and Tello, E. 2016. The impacts of urban sprawl on ecological connectivity in the Montreal Metropolitan Region. Environ. Sci. Policy 58:61-73.

Eason, P., Rabia, B., and Attum, O. 2016. Hunting of migratory birds in North Sinai, Egypt. Bird Conserv. Int. 26(1):39-51.

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Edworthy, A.B. 2016. Competition and aggression for nest cavities between Striated Pardalotes and endangered Forty-spotted Pardalotes. Condor 118(1):1-11.

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Ernst, C.M., Loboda, S., and Buddle, C.M. 2016. Capturing northern biodiversity: diversity of arctic, subarctic and north boreal beetles and spiders are affected by trap type and habitat. Insect Conserv. Divers. 9(1):63-73.

Espinosa, C.C., Galiano, D., Kubiak, B.B., and Marinho, J.R. 2016. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna. Braz. J. Biol. 76(1):73-79.

Estrada, A., Delgado, M.P., Arroyo, B., Traba, J., and Morales, M.B. 2016. Forecasting large-scale habitat suitability of European bustards under climate change: the role of environmental and geographic variables. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0149810.

Eterovick, P.C., Sloss, B.L., Scalzo, J.A.M., and Alford, R.A. 2016. Isolated. frogs in a crowded world: Effects of human-caused habitat loss on frog heterozygosity and fluctuating asymmetry. Biol. Conserv. 195:52-59.

Fais, A., Lewis, T.P., Zitterbart, D.P., Álvarez, O., Tejedor, A., and Soto, N.A. 2016. Abundance and distribution of sperm whales in the Canary Islands: can sperm whales in the archipelago sustain the current level of ship-strike mortalities? PLoS ONE 11(3):e0150660.

Farasat, H., Akmali, V., and Sharifi, M. 2016. Population genetic structure of the endangered Kaiser's mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Amphibia: Salamandridae). PLoS ONE 11(2):e0149596.

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Faulks, L., and Östman, Ö. 2016. Genetic diversity and hybridization between native and introduced Salmonidae fishes in a Swedish alpine lake. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0152732.

Felton, A., Hedwall, P.O., Lindbladh, M., Nyberg, T., Felton, A.M., Holmström, E., Wallin, I., Lof, M., and Brunet, J. 2016. The biodiversity contribution of wood plantations: contrasting the bird communities of Sweden's protected and production oak forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 365:51-60.

Feng, F.F., Yang, Z.S., Owens, J.R., Hou, R., Zhang, Z.H., and Qi, D.W. 2016. An assessment of endangered species habitat at large scale: chiru distribution across the Tibetan region of Chang Tang. Folia Zool. 65(1):65-71.

Feng, L., Han, X.X., Hu, C.M., and Chen, X.L. 2016. Four decades of wetland changes of the largest freshwater lake in China: possible linkage to the Three Gorges Dam? Remote Sens. Environ. 176:43-55.

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Fine, P.V.A., and Bruna, E.M. 2016. Neotropical white-sand forests: origins, ecology and conservation of a unique rain forest environment. Biotropica 48(1):5-6.

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Fisichelli, N.A., Schuurman, G.W., and Hoffman, C.H. 2016. Is 'resilience' maladaptive? Towards an accurate lexicon for climate change adaptation. Environ. Manage. 57(4):753-758.

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Fragoso-Moura, E.N., Oporto, L.T., Maia-Barbosa, P.M., and Barbosa, F.A.R. 2016. Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species. Braz. J. Biol. 76(1):18-27.

Frankham, R. 2016. Genetic rescue benefits persist to at least the F3 generation, based on a meta-analysis. Biol. Conserv. 195:33-36.

Freeland-Riggert, B.T., Cairns, S.H., Poulton, B.C., and Riggert, C.M. 2016. Differences found in the macroinvertebrate community composition in the presence or absence of the invasive alien crayfish, Orconectes hylas. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0150199.

Frey, D., Arrigo, N., Granereau, G., Sarr, A., Felber, F., and Kozlowski, G. 2016. Parallel declines in species and genetic diversity driven by anthropogenic disturbance: a multispecies approach in a French Atlantic dune system. Evol. Appl. 9(3):479-488.

Fynn, R.W.S., Augustine, D.J., Peel, M.J.S., and de Garine-Wichatitsky, M. 2016. Strategic management of livestock to improve biodiversity conservation in African savannahs: a conceptual basis for wildlife-livestock coexistence. J. Appl. Ecol. 53(2):388-397.

Galaverni, M., Caniglia, R., Fabbri, E., Milanesi, P., and Randi, E. 2016. One, no one, or one hundred thousand: how many wolves are there currently in Italy? Mamm. Res. 61(1):13-24.

Galindon, J.M.M., Ong, P.S., and Fernando, E.S. 2016. Rafflesia consueloae (Rafflesiaceae), the smallest among giants; a new species from Luzon Island, Philippines. PhytoKeys 61:37-46.

García-Carreras, B., Jennings, S., and Le Quesne, W.J.F. 2016. Predicting reference points and associated uncertainty from life histories for risk and status assessment. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 73(2):483-493.

García-Villacorta, R., Dexter, K.G., and Pennington, T. 2016. Amazonian white-sand forests show strong floristic links with surrounding oligotrophic habitats and the Guiana Shield. Biotropica 48(1):47-57.

Garnas, J.R., Auger-Rozenberg, M.A., Roques, A., Bertelsmeier, C., Wingfield, M.J., Saccaggi, D.L., Roy, H.E., and Slippers, B. 2016. Complex patterns of global spread in invasive insects: eco-evolutionary and management consequences. Biol. Invasions 18(4):935-952.

Garnett, S.T., Lawes, M.J., James, R., Bigland, K., and Zander, K.K. 2016. Portrayal of sustainability principles in the mission statements and on home pages of the world's largest organizations. Conserv. Biol. 30(2):297-307.

Garris, H.W., Baldwin, S.A., Van Hamme, J.D., Gardner, W.C., and Fraser, L.H. 2016. Genomics to assist mine reclamation: a review. Restor. Ecol. 24(2):165-173.

Gérard, A., Jourdan, H., Millon, A., and Vidal, E. 2016. Knocking on heaven's door: are novel invaders necessarily facing naive native species on islands? PLoS ONE 11(3):e0151545.

Gerber, L.R. 2016. Conservation triage or injurious neglect in endangered species recovery. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113(13):3563-3566.

Gibert, P., Hill, M., Pascual, M., Plantamp, C., Terblanche, J.S., Yassin, A., and Sgrò, C.M. 2016. Drosophila as models to understand the adaptive process during invasion. Biol. Invasions 18(4):1089-1103.

Giupponi, A.P.D., and de Miranda, G.S. 2016. Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with notes on their conservational status. PLoS ONE 11(2):e0148277.

Gornish, E.S., and dos Santos, P.A. 2016. Invasive species cover, soil type, and grazing interact to predict long-term grassland restoration success. Restor. Ecol. 24(2):222-229.

Gramza, A., Teel, T., VandeWoude, S., and Crooks, K. 2016. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action. Conserv. Biol. 30(2):276-286.

Griffen, B.D. 2016. Scaling the consequences of interactions between invaders from the individual to the population level. Ecol. Evol. 6(6):1769-1777.

Guarnieri, G., Bevilacqua, S., De Leo, F., Farella, G., Maffia, A., Terlizzi, A., and Fraschetti, S. 2016. The challenge of planning conservation strategies in threatened seascapes: understanding the role of fine scale assessments of community response to cumulative human pressures. PLoS ONE 11(2):e0149253.

Gubbi, S., Mukherjee, K., Swaminath, M.H., and Poornesha, H.C. 2016. Providing more protected space for tigers Panthera tigris: a landscape conservation approach in the Western Ghats, southern India. Oryx 50(2):336-343.

Guidugli, M.C., Nazareno, A.G., Feres, J.M., Contel, E.P.B., Mestriner, M.A., and Alzate-Marin, A.L. 2016. Small but not isolated: a population genetic survey of the tropical tree Cariniana estrellensis (Lecythidaceae) in a highly fragmented habitat. Heredity 116(3):339-347.

Gupta, N., Kanagavel, A., Dandekar, P., Dahanukar, N., Sivakumar, K., Mathur, V.B., and Raghavan, R. 2016. God's fishes: religion, culture and freshwater fish conservation in India. Oryx 50(2):244-249.

Gupta, N., Nautiyal, P., Borgohain, A., Sivakumar, K., Mathur, V.B., and Chadwick, M.A. 2016. Catch-and-release angling as a management tool for freshwater fish conservation in India. Oryx 50(2):250-256.

Gustafson, G.T., and Sites, R.W. 2016. A North American biodiversity hotspot gets richer: a new species of whirligig beetle (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) from the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 109(1):42-48.

Güemes, J., Marchal, F., Carrió, E., and Blasco, M.P. 2016. A new gypsophilous species of Chaenorhinum (Antirrhinaceae) from the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Plant Biosyst. 150(1):141-151.

Hajek, A.E., Hurley, B.P., Kenis, M., Garnas, J.R., Bush, S.J., Wingfield, M.J., van Lenteren, J.C., and Cock, M.J.W. 2016. Exotic biological control agents: a solution or contribution to arthropod invasions? Biol. Invasions 18(4):953-969.

Harding, G., Griffiths, R.A., and Pavajeau, L. 2016. Developments in amphibian captive breeding and reintroduction programs. Conserv. Biol. 30(2):340-349.

Hardwick, B., Kaartinen, R., Koponen, M., and Roslin, T. 2016. A rapid assessment of a poorly known insect group. Insect Conserv. Divers. 9(1):49-62.

Harpenslager, S.F., Lamers, L.P.M., van der Heide, T., Roelofs, J.G.M., and Smolders, A.J.P. 2016. Harnessing facilitation: why successful re-introduction of Stratiotes abides requires high densities under high nitrogen loading. Biol. Conserv. 195:17-23.

Harrisson, K.A., Pavlova, A., da Silva, A.G., Rose, R., Bull, J.K., Lancaster, M.L., Murray, N., Quin, B., Menkhorst, P., Magrath, M.J.L., and Sunnucks, P. 2016. Scope for genetic rescue of an endangered subspecies though re-establishing natural gene flow with another subspecies. Mol. Ecol. 25(6):1242-1258.

Hart, K.M., Zawada, D.G., Sartain, A.R., and Fujisaki, I. 2016. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, showhigh fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches. Oryx 50(2):283-288.

Haupt, K.J., and Phelps, Q.E. 2016. Mesohabitat associations in the Mississippi River Basin: a long-term study on the catch rates and physical habitat associations of juvenile silver carp and two native planktivores. Aquat. Invasions 11(1):93-99.

Haurez, B., Tagg, N., Petre, C.A., Vermeulen, C., and Doucet, J.L. 2016. Short term impact of selective logging on a western lowland gorilla population. Forest Ecol. Manag. 364:46-51.

Havemann, C.P., Retief, T.A., Tosh, C.A., and De Bruyn, P.J.N. 2016. Roan antelope Hippotragus equinus in Africa: a review of abundance, threats and ecology. Mamm. Rev. 46(2):144-158.

Havmoller, R.G., Payne, J., Ramono, W., Ellis, S., Yoganand, K., Long, B., Dinerstein, E., Williams, A.C., Putra, R.H., Gawi, J., Talukdar, B.K., and Burgess, N. 2016. Will current conservation responses save the Critically Endangered Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis? Oryx 50(2):355-359.

Hedrick, P.W., Hoeck, P.E.A., Fleischer, R.C., Farabaugh, S., and Masuda, B.M. 2016. The influence of captive breeding management on founder representation and inbreeding in the 'Alalā, the Hawaiian crow. Conserv. Genet. 17(2):369-378.

Hendrick, V.J., Hutchison, Z.L., and Last, K.S. 2016. Sediment burial intolerance of marine macroinvertebrates. PLoS ONE 11(2):e0149114.

Herath, P., Beauseigle, S., Dhillon, B., Ojeda, D.I., Bilodeau, G., Isabel, N., Gros-Louis, M.C., Kope, H., Zeglen, S., Hamelin, R.C., and Feau, N. 2016. Anthropogenic signature in the incidence and distribution of an emerging pathogen of poplars. Biol. Invasions 18(4):1147-1161.

Herdegen, M., Radwan, J., Sobczynska, U., Dabert, M., Konjević, D., Schlichter, J., and Jurczyszyn, M. 2016. Population structure of edible dormouse in Poland: the role of habitat fragmentation and implications for conservation. J. Zool. 298(3):217-224.

Hernández, A., Miranda, M.D., Arellano, E.C., and Dobbs, C. 2016. Landscape trajectories and their effect on fragmentation for a Mediterranean semi-arid ecosystem in Central Chile. J. Arid Environ. 127:74-81.

Hernández, D.L., Vallano, D.M., Zavaleta, E.S., Tzankova, Z., Pasari, J.R., Weiss, S., Selmants, P.C., and Morozumi, C. 2016. Nitrogen pollution is linked to US listed species declines. BioScience 66(3):213-222.

Higuti, J., and Martens, K. 2016. Invasive South American floating plants are a successful substrate for native Central African pleuston. Biol. Invasions 18(4):1191-1201.

Hill, M.P., Bertelsmeier, C., Clusella-Trullas, S., Garnas, J., Robertson, M.P., and Terblanche, J.S. 2016. Predicted decrease in global climate suitability masks regional complexity of invasive fruit fly species response to climate change. Biol. Invasions 18(4):1105-1119.

Hill, M.P., Clusella-Trullas, S., Terblanche, J.S., and Richardson, D.M. 2016. Drivers, impacts, mechanisms and adaptation in insect invasions. Biol. Invasions 18(4):883-891.

Hirsch, P.E., Burkhardt-Holm, P., Töpfer, I., and Fischer, P. 2016. Movement patterns and shelter choice of spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) in a large lake's littoral zone. Aquat. Invasions 11(1):55-65.

Hirsch, P.E., N'Guyen, A., Adrian-Kalchhauser, I., and Burkhardt-Holm, P. 2016. What do we really know about the impacts of one of the 100 worst invaders in Europe? A reality check. Ambio 45(3):267-279.

Hobbs, R.J. 2016. Degraded or just different? Perceptions and value judgements in restoration decisions. Restor. Ecol. 24(2):153-158.

Hollings, T., Jones, M., Mooney, N., and McCallum, H. 2016. Disease-induced decline of an apex predator drives invasive dominated states and threatens biodiversity. Ecology 97(2):394-405.

Holmes, N.D., Howald, G.R., Wegmann, A.S., Donlan, C.J., Finkelstein, M., and Keitt, B. 2016. The potential for biodiversity offsetting to fund invasive species eradications on islands. Conserv. Biol. 30(2):425-427.

Horreo, J.L., Raab, R., Spakovszky, P., and Alonso, J.C. 2016. Genetic structure of the threatened West-Pannonian population of Great Bustard (Otis tarda). PeerJ 4:e1759.

Howlader, M.S.A., Nair, A., and Merilä, J. 2016. A new species of frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) discovered from the mega city of Dhaka. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0149597.

Huang, A.C., Elliott, J.E., Cheng, K.M., Ritland, K., Ritland, C.E., Thomsen, S.K., Hindmarch, S., and Martin, K. 2016. Barn owls (Tyto alba) in western North America: phylogeographic structure, connectivity, and genetic diversity. Conserv. Genet. 17(2):357-367.

Huang, X.Y., Li, F., and Chen, J.K. 2016. Reserve network planning for fishes in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin by systematic conservation approaches. Sci. China Life Sci. 59(3):312-324.

Hubbard, K.A., Chalfoun, A.D., and Gerow, K.G. 2016. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands. J. Herpetol. 50(1):29-36.

Hudson, M.A., Young, R.P., Lopez, J., Martin, L., Fenton, C., McCrea, R., Griffiths, R.A., Adams, S.L., Gray, G., Garcia, G., and Cunningham, A.A. 2016. In-situ itraconazole treatment improves survival rate during an amphibian chytridiomycosis epidemic. Biol. Conserv. 195:37-45.

Hui, C., Richardson, D.M., Landi, P., Minoarivelo, H.O., Garnas, J., and Roy, H.E. 2016. Defining invasiveness and invasibility in ecological networks. Biol. Invasions 18(4):971-983.

Hurd, L.E., Sousa, R.G.C., Siqueira-Souza, F.K., Cooper, G.J., Kahn, J.R., and Freitas, C.E.C. 2016. Amazon floodplain fish communities: habitat connectivity and conservation in a rapidly deteriorating environment. Biol. Conserv. 195:118-127.

Hurley, B.P., Garnas, J., Wingfield, M.J., Branco, M., Richardson, D.M., and Slippers, B. 2016. Increasing numbers and intercontinental spread of invasive insects on eucalypts. Biol. Invasions 18(4):921-933.

Hutter, C.R., Liu, V., Kell, T., Lyons, J.A., and Guayasamin, J.M. 2016. The natural history, distribution, and conservation of lonely rainfrogs, Pristimantis eremitus. Herpetologica 72(1):13-22.

Iles, D.T., Salguero-Gómez, R., Adler, P.B., and Koons, D.N. 2016. Linking transient dynamics and life history to biological invasion success. J. Ecol. 104(2):399-408.

Imbert, C., Caniglia, R., Fabbri, E., Milanesi, P., Randi, E., Serafini, M., Torretta, E., and Meriggi, A. 2016. Why do wolves eat livestock? Factors influencing wolf diet in northern Italy. Biol. Conserv. 195:156-168.

Ingberman, B., Fusco-Costa, R., and Monteiro, E.L.D. 2016. A current perspective on the historical geographic distribution of the endangered muriquis (Brachyteles spp.): implications for conservation. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0150906.

Iverson, L., Knight, K.S., Prasad, A., Herms, D.A., Matthews, S., Peters, M., Smith, A., Hartzler, D.M., Long, R., and Almendinger, J. 2016. Potential species replacements for black ash (Fraxinus nigra) at the confluence of two threats: emerald ash borer and a changing climate. Ecosystems 19(2):248-270.

Jackson, M.C., Woodford, D.J., Bellingan, T.A., Weyl, O.L.F., Potgieter, M.J., Rivers-Moore, N.A., Ellender, B.R., Fourie, H.E., and Chimimba, C.T. 2016. Trophic overlap between fish and riparian spiders: potential impacts of an invasive fish on terrestrial consumers. Ecol. Evol. 6(6):1745-1752.

Jaffé, R., Castilla, A., Pope, N., Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L., Metzger, J.P., Arias, M.C., and Jha, S. 2016. Landscape genetics of a tropical rescue pollinator. Conserv. Genet. 17(2):267-278.

Jager, H.I., Parsley, M.J., Cech, J.J., McLaughlin, R.L., Forsythe, P.S., Elliott, R.F., and Pracheil, B.M. 2016. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers. Fisheries 41(3):140-148.

Januschke, K., and Verdonschot, R.C.M. 2016. Effects of river restoration on riparian ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Europe. Hydrobiologia 769(1):93-104.

Jaramillo, M., Donaghy-Cannon, M., Vargas, F.H., and Parker, P.G. 2016. The diet of the Galapagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) before and after goat eradication. J. Raptor Res. 50(1):33-44.

Jarchow, C.J., Hossack, B.R., Sigafus, B.H., Schwalbe, C.R., and Muths, E. 2016. Modeling habitat connectivity to inform reintroductions: a case study with the Chiricahua leopard frog. J. Herpetol. 50(1):63-69.

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Ječmenica, V., Droissart, V., Noret, N., and Stévart, T. 2016. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) from Gabon and Cameroon. PhytoKeys 61:61-71.

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Walters, K.M., and Babbar-Sebens, M. 2016. Using climate change scenarios to evaluate future effectiveness of potential wetlands in mitigating high flows in a Midwestern US watershed. Ecol. Eng. 89:80-102.

Walters, T.M., Mazzotti, F.J., and Fitz, H.C. 2016. Habitat selection by the invasive species Burmese python in southern Florida. J. Herpetol. 50(1):50-56.

Wan, J.Z., Wang, C.J., Yu, J.H., Nie, S.M., Han, S.J., Liu, J.Z., Zu, Y.G., and Wang, Q.G. 2016. Developing conservation strategies for Pinus koraiensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus by using model-based geographic distributions. J. Forest. Res. 27(2):389-400.

Wang, C.J., Wan, J.Z., Zhang, G.M., Zhang, Z.X., and Zhang, J. 2016. Protected areas may not effectively support conservation of endangered forest plants under climate change. Environ. Earth Sci. 75(6):466.

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Wang, T.M., Feng, L.M., Mou, P., Wu, J.G., Smith, J.L.D., Xiao, W.H., Yang, H.T., Dou, H.L., Zhao, X.D., Cheng, Y.C., Zhou, B., Wu, H.Y., Zhang, L., Tian, Y., Guo, Q.X., Kou, X.J., Han, X.M., Miquelle, D.G., Oliver, C.D., Xu, R.M., and Ge, J.P. 2016. Amur tigers and leopards returning to China: direct evidence and a landscape conservation plan. Landscape Ecol. 31(3):491-503.

Wang, Y.C., and Onal, H. 2016. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species. Conserv. Biol. 30(2):413-424.

Ward-Fear, G., Greenlees, M.J., and Shine, R. 2016. Toads on lava: spatial ecology and habitat use of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Hawai’i. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0151700.

Ware, C., Berge, J., Jelmert, A., Olsen, S.M., Pellissier, L., Wisz, M., Kriticos, D., Semenov, G., Kwaśniewski , S., and Alsos, I.G. 2016. Biological introduction risks from shipping in a warming Arctic. J. Appl. Ecol. 53(2):340-349.

Watson, J.E.M., Darling, E.S., Venter, O., Maron, M., Walston, J., Possingham, H.P., Dudley, N., Hockings, M., Barnes, M., and Brooks, T.M. 2016. Bolder science needed now for protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 30(2):243-248.

Watson, R.T., McClure, C.J.W., Vargas, F.H., and Jenny, J.P. 2016. Trial restoration of the harpy eagle, a large, long-lived, tropical forest raptor, in Panama and Belize. J. Raptor Res. 50(1):3-22.

Watts, K., Vanhala, T., Connolly, T., and Cottrell, J. 2016. Striking the right balance between site and landscape-scale conservation actions for a woodland insect within a highly fragmented landscape: a landscape genetics perspective. Biol. Conserv. 195:146-155.

Weiland, P.S., Glen, A., Meyer, S., Quarles, S., Thornton, R., and Wahlberg, B. 2016. Analysis of data on endangered species consultations reveals nothing regarding their economic impacts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113(12):E1593.

Whittock, P.A., Pendoley, K.L., and Hamann, M. 2016. Flexible foraging: post-nesting flatback turtles on the Australian continental shelf. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 477:112-119.

Whitworth, A., Villacampa, J., Brown, A., Huarcaya, R.P., Downie, R., and MacLeod, R. 2016. Past human disturbance effects upon biodiversity are greatest in the canopy; a case study on rainforest butterflies. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0150520.

Williams, B.K., and Brown, E.D. 2016. Technical challenges in the application of adaptive management. Biol. Conserv. 195:255-263.

Williams, R., Moore, J.E., Gomez-Salazar, C., Trujillo, F., and Burt, L. 2016. Searching for trends in river dolphin abundance: designing surveys for looming threats, and evidence for opposing trends of two species in the Colombian Amazon. Biol. Conserv. 195:136-145.

Wilson, R.R., Parrett, L.S., Joly, K., and Dau, J.R. 2016. Effects of roads on individual caribou movements during migration. Biol. Conserv. 195:2-8.

Wingfield, M.J., Garnas, J.R., Hajek, A., Hurley, B.P., de Beer, Z.W., and Taerum, S.J. 2016. Novel and co-evolved associations between insects and microorganisms as drivers of forest pestilence. Biol. Invasions 18(4):1045-1056.

Wood, K.R., Lorence, D.H., and Kiehn, M. 2016. Coprosma kawaikiniensis (Rubiaceae) a new species from the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland community on Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands. PhytoKeys 60:21-32.

Wynne, J.J., and Shear, W.A. 2016. A new millipede, Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp., (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Conotylidae) from New Mexico, USA, and the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial habitats. Zootaxa 4084(2):285-292.

Xavier, J.C., Raymond, B., Jones, D.C., and Griffiths, H. 2016. Biogeography of cephalopods in the Southern Ocean using habitat suitability prediction models. Ecosystems 19(2):220-247.

Xavier, R.O., Alday, J.G., Marrs, R.H., and Matos, D.M.S. 2016. The role of Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf) on the seed bank of the endangered Brazilian Cerrado. Braz. J. Biol. 76(1):256-267.

Xiao, Y., Ouyang, Z.Y., Xu, W.H., Xiao, Y., Zheng, H., and Xian, C.F. 2016. Optimizing hotspot areas for ecological planning and management based on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Chinese Geogr. Sci. 26(2):256-269.

Xie, N., Chen, L.N., Wong, K.M., Cui, Y.Z., and Yang, H.Q. 2016. Seed set and natural regeneration of Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro after mass and sporadic flowering in Yunnan, China. PLoS ONE 11(4):e0153845.

Xu, Y., Shen, Z.H., Ying, L.X., Ciais, P., Liu, H.Y., Piao, S.L., Wen, C., and Jiang, Y.X. 2016. The exposure, sensitivity and vulnerability of natural vegetation in China to climate thermal variability (1901-2013): An indicator-based approach. Ecol. Indic. 63:258-272.

Yabsley, N.A., Olds, A.D., Connolly, R.M., Martin, T.S.H., Gilby, B.L., Maxwell, P.S., Huijbers, C.M., Schoeman, D.S., and Schlacher, T.A. 2016. Resource type influences the effects of reserves and connectivity on ecological functions. J. Anim. Ecol. 85(2):437-444.

Yannic, G., St-Laurent, M.H., Ortego, J., Taillon, J., Beauchemin, A., Bernatchez, L., Dussault, C., and Côté, S.D. 2016. Integrating ecological and genetic structure to define management units for caribou in Eastern Canada. Conserv. Genet. 17(2):437-453.

Yong, D.L., and Peh, K.S.H. 2016. South-east Asia's forest fires: blazing the policy trail. Oryx 50(2):207-212.

Young, J.C., Searle, K., Butler, A., Simmons, P., Watt, A.D., and Jordan, A. 2016. The role of trust in the resolution of conservation conflicts. Biol. Conserv. 195:196-202.

Yu, B.W., Chao, X.L., Zhang, J.D., Xu, W.H., and Ouyang, Z.Y. 2016. Effectiveness of nature reserves for natural forests protection in tropical Hainan: a 20 year analysis. Chinese Geogr. Sci. 26(2):208-215.

Zenboudji, S., Cheylan, M., Arnal, V., Bertolero, A., Leblois, R., Astruc, G., Bertorelle, G., Pretus, J.L., Lo Valvo, M., Sotgiu, G., and Montgelard, C. 2016. Conservation of the endangered Mediterranean tortoise Testudo hermanni hermanni: the contribution of population genetics and historical demography. Biol. Conserv. 195:279-291.

Zhang, P., Hu, K.J., Yang, B., and Yang, D.H. 2016. Snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus spp.): conservation challenges in the face of environmental uncertainty. Sci. Bull. 61(5):345-348.

Ziółkowska, E., Perzanowski, K., Bleyhl, B., Ostapowicz, K., and Kuemmerle, T. 2016. Understanding unexpected reintroduction outcomes: why aren't European bison colonizing suitable habitat in the Carpathians? Biol. Conserv. 195:106-117.

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