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Department ofBotany



No. 383
November 2016


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In This Issue


Rising CO2 Depletes Pollen's Nutritional Potency, Bees Suffer


-Adapted from Smithsonian Insider

Unless you've been living under a rock for the last few years, you've doubtless caught at least a passing reference to the plight of the beleaguered bee. Bees of all types pollinate an estimated 75 percent of our fruit, nut and vegetable crops, and they've been suffering population declines in recent years from a variety of suspected sources. These die-offs are a major concern to farmers and hobby beekeepers, as well as anyone who likes to eat.

A honeybee getting nectar and pollen from goldenrod in southern Michigan. The pollen is the orange substance attached to the bee's leg. (Flickr image by Steve Burt)

A honeybee getting nectar and pollen from goldenrod in southern Michigan. The pollen is the orange substance attached to the bee's leg. (Flickr image by Steve Burt)

Bees like food, too, but a new study led by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service has found that recent increases in carbon dioxide emissions over the last several decades have made a key autumnal food source less nutritious than in the past. This adds one more potential factor to the cocktail of stressors making bees vulnerable to attack by pests, pathogens and pesticides.

USDA Agricultural Research Service plant physiologist Lewis Ziska, together with colleagues from Purdue University, Williams College and the Smithsonian compared the protein content of pollen from historic specimens of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) from the U.S. National Herbarium collection at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History with pollen from field trials simulating varying levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. They found that as CO2 levels increased, the protein content of the pollen decreased. The study was published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B (283: 20160414; 2016).

Goldenrod, which blooms from July through October across most of North America, is one of the most widely available sources of pollen for late-year foraging. Though nectar is bees' main food source during the warmer months, bees need the fats, vitamins and minerals from pollen protein to make it through the winter. Because they only store small amounts of it, fluctuations in the amount or quality of the pollen itself can directly affect bee health.

"Goldenrod was the focus because it's the last source of pollen for bees before they overwinter," Ziska says. "Whatever happens to goldenrod in the fall can be a harbinger of overall bee health and their ability to survive until spring."

Three of the many historical goldenrod records kept in the U.S. National Herbarium at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. These plants were collected in Arizona, Florida and Alabama (left to right). Goldenrod samples in this herbarium were used to measure how rising atmospheric CO2 has impacted protein in pollen. (Photo courtesy Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History)

Three of the many historical goldenrod records kept in the U.S. National Herbarium at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. These plants were collected in Arizona, Florida and Alabama (left to right). Goldenrod samples in this herbarium were used to measure how rising atmospheric CO2 has impacted protein in pollen. (Photo courtesy Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History)

How rising CO2 affects insects' food sources has never been investigated in much depth, despite more than 100 such studies on human food sources suggesting the same kind of impact, Ziska said. Using Smithsonian herbarium samples dating from 1842 through to 1998, as well as more recently collected samples from other sources, Ziska found that pollen protein content has declined by about one third since 1960, from 18 to 12 percent.

A field experiment that simulated a similar range of CO2 exposures, but included future CO2 concentrations up to 500 parts per million (ppm) confirmed the herbarium results.  Still, as Ziska pointed out, it's not clear if there's an upper limit to the effect, or if the protein content will eventually stabilize regardless of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

The silver lining to the study, he said, is that commercial and hobby honeybee keepers may be able to counteract any nutritional deficiencies by supplying additional protein late in the fall. How to ameliorate the impact on wild, solitary bees is, however, unclear.

"We wanted to conduct a robust study by looking at both the historical record and field experiments," Ziska says.  Though he started out by visiting herbariums around the world, including in Australia, the Smithsonian's herbarium "has by far the best and most diverse set of herbarium samples for studying long term climate effects," he adds.

Andrew Clark, who now works for the USDA but at the time of the study was an Smithsonian herbarium collections specialist guiding Ziska through the Solidago specimens, says that the use of goldenrod in this way is a fairly novel approach to the kinds of research typically conducted with herbariums. Pollen studies, for example, aren't done very often any more, and typically focus on the structure of the pollen itself to aid in plant family classification.

"The Smithsonian herbarium goes right to the heart of America's past, because when it started our first collections were from people like Lewis and Clark, frontiersmen who were identifying what was unique to America. No European had seen what was there," Clark said. "It's a very clear snapshot of what our natural environment looked like at that time."

Whether or not the bees will be able to adjust to a degraded pollen source is still in unclear.

"As with most biological organisms, there is some capacity for adaptation, but how much is an open question," Ziska paused, then continued. "I often read where 'CO2 is plant food', but that simple meme falls short of understanding the complexity of CO2 in plant biology. I suspect that plant pollinators are just the tip of the iceberg—or flower."


Biodiversity Shields Fish Communities from Warming


-Adapted from Smithsonian Insider

In a recently completed survey of more than 3,000 fish species in 44 countries around the world marine biologists have discovered that communities with a high diversity of fish species are more resilient to rising temperatures and temperature swings, and are more productive.

A Reef Life Survey diver surveys reef fishes in Raja Ampat, West Papua. (Photo by Rick Stuart-Smith)

A Reef Life Survey diver surveys reef fishes in Raja Ampat, West Papua. (Photo by Rick Stuart-Smith)

Armed with a comprehensive global dataset on marine biodiversity involving standardized counts compiled under the Reef Life Survey, researchers tracked how 11 different environmental factors influenced total fish biomass on coral and rocky reefs around the world. Remarkably biodiversity was one of the strongest indicators of ecosystem resilience. Species richness and functional diversity—how fish use their environment—enhance fish biomass and the ability of a fish community to tolerate warm temperatures.

"Biodiversity is not just an aesthetic or spiritual issue—it's critical to the healthy functioning of ecosystems and the important services they provide to humans, like seafood," says Emmett Duffy, director of the Tennenbaum Marine Observatories Network and senior scientist at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Duffy is lead author of a study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offering strong proof that preserving marine biodiversity benefits the oceans, and with it humans.

The discovery came out of the Reef Life Survey, a global study "based on more than 4,000 underwater surveys," said co-author Rick Stuart-Smith of the University of Tasmania. The large survey "was only possible with the enthusiastic contributions of highly trained volunteer divers in the Reef Life Survey program, which allowed us to achieve this comprehensive coverage of the world's reefs, from tropical to polar waters."

A reef diver surveys fish on a transect in Isla Pastores, on the Caribbean coast of Panama. (Photo by Emmett Duffy)

A reef diver surveys fish on a transect in Isla Pastores, on the Caribbean coast of Panama. (Photo by Emmett Duffy)

Warmer ocean temperatures tend to boost fish biomass on average, the scientists found, while wide temperature fluctuations hinder it. Overall, biodiversity made fish communities more resilient to a changing climate. In communities with only a few species, fish biomass tended to increase with rising temperatures until seas warmed above 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit)—at which point biomass started to fall. Communities with many species remained stable at these higher temperatures.

Diversity had a similar buffering effect against temperature swings, the researchers found. While both high- and low-diversity communities were less productive under fluctuating temperatures, high-diversity communities suffered half as much as low-diversity ones. Communities with more species are better equipped to handle temperature changes because they have more of their bases covered, the researchers suspect. When temperatures fluctuate, a community with numerous species has better odds that at least a few species can thrive in the new normal.

"Biodiversity is paramount to how natural systems work," says co-author Jonathan Lefcheck of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. This study "shows that experimental ecologists have in fact been on the right track for 20 years."

"Preserving local biodiversity is not only an ethical directive with aesthetical and genetic insurance value," co-author Sergio Navarrete of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile says. "It is an imperative for human life because of the critical role it plays in providing an essential ecosystem function."


Current Literature


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Abeli, T., Cauzzi, P., Rossi, G., Adorni, M., Vagge, I., Parolo, G., and Orsenigo, S. 2016. Restoring population structure and dynamics in translocated species: learning from wild populations. Plant Ecol. 217(2):183-192.

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Ahrens, C.W., and James, E.A. 2016. Regional genetic structure and environmental variables influence our conservation approach for feather heads (Ptilotus macrocephalus). J. Heredity 107(3):238-247.

Alba, C., Moravcová, L., and Pyšek, P. 2016. Geographic structuring and transgenerational maternal effects shape germination in native, but not introduced, populations of a widespread plant invader. Am. J. Bot. 103(5):837-844.

Albertson, L.K., and Daniels, M.D. 2016. Effects of invasive crayfish on fine sediment accumulation, gravel movement, and macroinvertebrate communities. Freshwater Sci. 35(2):644-653.

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AlHirsh, I., Battisti, C., and Schirone, B. 2016. Threat analysis for a network of sites in West Bank (Palestine): an expert-based evaluation supported by grey literature and local knowledge. J. Nature Conserv. 31:61-70.

Allen, B.E., Anderson, M.L., Mee, J.A., Coombs, M., and Rogers, S.M. 2016. Role of genetic background in the introgressive hybridization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi). Conserv. Genet. 17(3):521-531.

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Ansell, D., Freudenberger, D., Munro, N., and Gibbons, P. 2016. The cost-effectiveness of agri-environment schemes for biodiversity conservation: a quantitative review. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 225:184-191.

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Bartlett, M., Hale, R., and Hale, M. 2016. Habitat quality limits gene flow between populations of Bombus ruderatus in the South Island, New Zealand. Conserv. Genet. 17(3):703-713.

Beastall, C., Shepherd, C.R., Hadiprakarsa, Y., and Martyr, D. 2016. Trade in the Helmeted Hornbill Rhinoplax vigil: the ivory hornbill'. Bird Conserv. Int. 26(2):137-146.

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Bellard, C., Genovesi, P., and Jeschke, J.M. 2016. Global patterns in threats to vertebrates by biological invasions. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 283(1823):20152454.

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Benade, P.C., Dreyer, L.L., and Roets, F. 2016. The importance of maintaining a mosaic of different plant communities for arthropod biodiversity conservation at the Vaalputs radioactive waste-disposal site, Bushmanland, South Africa. Afr. Entomol. 24(1):1-15.

Benjamin, A., May, B., O'Brien, J., and Finger, A.J. 2016. Conservation genetics of an urban desert fish, the Arroyo Chub. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 145(2):277-286.

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Bertelsmeier, C., Blight, O., and Courchamp, F. 2016. Invasions of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in light of global climate change. Myrmecol. News 22:25-42.

Bevan, E., Wibbels, T., Najera, B.M.Z., Sarti, L., Martinez, F.I., Cuevas, J.M., Gallaway, B.J., Pena, L.J., and Burchfield, P.M. 2016. Estimating the historic size and current status of the Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) population. Ecosphere 7(3):e01244.

Bhatt, J.P., Manish, K., Mehta, R., and Pandit, M.K. 2016. Assessing potential conservation and restoration areas of freshwater fish fauna in the Indian River basins. Environ. Manage. 57(5):1098-1111.

Bierbach, D., Laskowski, K.L., Brandt, A.L., Chen, W., Jourdan, J., Streit, B., and Plath, M. 2016. Highly variable, unpredictable activity patterns in invasive, but not native amphipod species. Aquat. Ecol. 50(2):261-271.

Bilkovic, D.M., Mitchell, M., Mason, P., and Duhring, K. 2016. The role of living shorelines as estuarine habitat conservation strategies. Coast. Manage. 44(3):161-174.

Blackhawk, N.C., Germano, D.J., and Smith, P.T. 2016. Genetic variation among populations of the endangered giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens, in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Am. Midl. Nat. 175(2):261-274.

Bleich, V.C. 2016. Wildlife conservation and wilderness: wishful thinking? Nat. Areas J. 36(2):202-206.

Boets, P., Brosens, D., Lock, K., Adriaens, T., Aelterman, B., Mertens, J., and Goethals, P.L.M. 2016. Alien macroinvertebrates in Flanders (Belgium). Aquat. Invasions 11(2):131-144.

Bolton, N.M., van Oosterhout, C., Collar, N.J., and Bell, D.J. 2016. Population constraints on the Grenada Dove Leptotila wellsi: preliminary findings and proposals from south-west Grenada. Bird Conserv. Int. 26(2):205-213.

Bonifácio, K.M., Freire, E.M.X., and Schiavetti, A. 2016. Cultural keystone species of fauna as a method for assessing conservation priorities in a Protected Area of the Brazilian semiarid. Biota Neotrop. 16(2):e20140106.

Borgerson, C., McKean, M.A., Sutherland, M.R., and Godfrey, L.R. 2016. Who hunts lemurs and why they hunt them. Biol. Conserv. 197:124-130.

Borges, S.H., Cornelius, C., Ribas, C., Almeida, R., Guilherme, E., Aleixo, A., Dantas, S., dos Santos, M.P., and Moreira, M. 2016. What is the avifauna of Amazonian white-sand vegetation? Bird Conserv. Int. 26(2):192-204.

Boron, V., Tzanopoulos, J., Gallo, J., Barragan, J., Jaimes-Rodriguez, L., Schaller, G., and Payán, E. 2016. Jaguar densities across human-dominated landscapes in Colombia: the contribution of unprotected areas to long term conservation. PLoS ONE 11(5):e0153973.

Bosso, L., Di Febbraro, M., Cristinzio, G., Zoina, A., and Russo, D. 2016. Shedding light on the effects of climate change on the potential distribution of Xylella fastidiosa in the Mediterranean basin. Biol. Invasions 18(6):1759-1768.

Bouchemousse, S., Bishop, J.D.D., and Viard, F. 2016. Contrasting global genetic patterns in two biologically similar, widespread and invasive Ciona species (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Sci. Rep. 6:24875.

Bouvet, A., Paillet, Y., Archaux, F., Tillon, L., Denis, P., Gilg, O., and Gosselin, F. 2016. Effects of forest structure, management and landscape on bird and bat communities. Environ. Conserv. 43(2):148-160.

Bowen, B.W. 2016. The three domains of conservation genetics: case histories from Hawaiian waters. J. Heredity 107(4):309-317.

Braun, A.P., and Phelps, Q.E. 2016. Habitat use by five turtle species in the middle Mississippi River. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 15(1):62-68.

Brinkman, L.C., Ray, J.M., Mathis, A., and Greene, B.D. 2016. Filling in the gaps: natural history and conservation of bolitoglossine salamanders in central Panama. Copeia 104(1):140-148.

Bruckman, D., and Campbell, D.R. 2016. Timing of invasive pollen deposition influences pollen tube growth and seed set in a native plant. Biol. Invasions 18(6):1701-1711.

Burney, D.A., and Burney, L.P. 2016. Monitoring results from a decade of native plant translocations at Makauwahi Cave Reserve, Kaua'i. Plant Ecol. 217(2):139-153.

Caballero-Serrano, V., Onaindia, M., Alday, J.G., Caballero, D., Carrasco, J.C., McLaren, B., and Amigo, J. 2016. Plant diversity and ecosystem services in Amazonian homegardens of Ecuador. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 225:116-125.

Caldwell, M.L., Zanatta, D.T., and Woolnough, D.A. 2016. A multi-basin approach determines variability in host fish suitability for unionids in tributaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Freshwater Biol. 61(7):1035-1048.

Camp, R.J., Brinck, K.W., Gorresen, P.M., and Paxton, E.H. 2016. Evaluating abundance and trends in a Hawaiian avian community using state-space analysis. Bird Conserv. Int. 26(2):225-242.

Caño, L., Fuertes-Mendizabal, T., García-Baquero, G., Herrera, M., and González-Moro, M.B. 2016. Plasticity to salinity and transgenerational effects in the nonnative shrub Baccharis halimifolia: insights into an estuarine invasion. Am. J. Bot. 103(5):808-820.

Cardador, L., Carrete, M., Gallardo, B., and Tella, J.L. 2016. Combining trade data and niche modelling improves predictions of the origin and distribution of non-native European populations of a globally invasive species. J. Biogeogr. 43(5):967-978.

Carter, A., Barr, S., Bond, C., Paske, G., Peters, D., and van Dam, R. 2016. Controlling sympatric pest mammal populations in New Zealand with self-resetting, toxicant-free traps: a promising tool for invasive species management. Biol. Invasions 18(6):1723-1736.

Carvalho, F.A., Braga, J.M.A., and Nascimento, M.T. 2016. Tree structure and diversity of lowland Atlantic forest fragments: comparison of disturbed and undisturbed remnants. J. Forest. Res. 27(3):605-609.

Caspary, M., and Rickard, J. 2016. Assessing conserved populations of the rare relict trillium (Trillium reliquum). Nat. Areas J. 36(1):59-67.

Cassin, C.M., and Kotanen, P.M. 2016. Invasive earthworms as seed predators of temperate forest plants. Biol. Invasions 18(6):1567-1580.

Castro, A., and Fernández, J. 2016. Tree selection by the endangered beetle Rosalia alpina in a lapsed pollard beech forest. J. Insect Conserv. 20(2):201-214.

Catenacci, L.S., Pessoa, M.S., Nogueira, S.L.G., and De Vleeschouwer, K.M. 2016. Diet and feeding behavior of Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callitrichidae) in degraded areas of the Atlantic Forest of South-Bahia, Brazil. Int. J. Primatol. 37(2):136-157.

Cattarino, L., Hermoso, V., Bradford, L.W., Carwardine, J., Wilson, K.A., Kennard, M.J., and Linke, S. 2016. Accounting for continuous species' responses to management effort enhances cost-effectiveness of conservation decisions. Biol. Conserv. 197:116-123.

Cayuela, H., Arsovski, D., Bonnaire, E., Duguet, R., Joly, P., and Besnard, A. 2016. The impact of severe drought on survival, fecundity, and population persistence in an endangered amphibian. Ecosphere 7(2):e01246.

Chabot, H., Farrow, D., York, D., Harris, J., Cosentino-Manning, N., Watson, L., Hum, K., and Wiggins, C. 2016. Thinking big: lessons learned from a landscape-scale approach to coastal habitat conservation. Coast. Manage. 44(3):175-192.

Chai, Z.Z., and Wang, D.X. 2016. A comparison of species composition and community assemblage of secondary forests between the birch and pine-oak belts in the mid-altitude zone of the Qinling Mountains, China. PeerJ 4:e1900.

Chapron, G., and Treves, A. 2016. Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 283(1830):20152939.

Chen, P.J., Gao, Y.F., Lee, A.T.L., Cering, L., Shi, K., and Clark, S.G. 2016. Human-carnivore coexistence in Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Nature Reserve, China: Patterns and compensation. Biol. Conserv. 197:18-26.

Chen, X.D., De la Rosa, J., Peterson, M.N., Zhong, Y., and Lu, C.T. 2016. Sympathy for the environment predicts green consumerism but not more important environmental behaviours related to domestic energy use. Environ. Conserv. 43(2):140-147.

Cheng, B.S., and Grosholz, E.D. 2016. Environmental stress mediates trophic cascade strength and resistance to invasion. Ecosphere 7(4):e01247.

Chundawat, R.S., Sharma, K., Gogate, N., Malik, P.K., and Vanak, A.T. 2016. Size matters: scale mismatch between space use patterns of tigers and protected area size in a Tropical Dry Forest. Biol. Conserv. 197:146-153.

Clark, M.K., and Dodd, H.R. 2016. Influence of a spring on fish communities and habitat in an Ozark stream. Nat. Areas J. 36(1):72-80.

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Coates, P.S., Brussee, B.E., Howe, K.B., Gustafson, K.B., Casazza, M.L., and Delehanty, D.J. 2016. Landscape characteristics and livestock presence influence common ravens: relevance to greater sage-grouse conservation. Ecosphere 7(2):e01203.

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Hammond, K.R., O'Keefe, J.M., Aldrich, S.P., and Loeb, S.C. 2016. A presence-only model of suitable roosting habitat for the endangered Indiana bat in the southern Appalachians. PLoS ONE 11(4):e0154464.

Hansen, B.K., Krist, A.C., and Tibbets, T.M. 2016. Foraging differences between the native snail, Fossaria sp. and the invasive New Zealand mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in response to phosphorus limitation. Aquat. Ecol. 50(2):297-306.

Hanson, C.T., and Odion, D.C. 2016. Historical forest conditions within the range of the Pacific Fisher and Spotted Owl in the central and southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Nat. Areas J. 36(1):8-19.

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Hawkins, T.S., Schiff, N., Wilson, A.D., Leininger, T.D., and Devall, M.S. 2016. Growth and competitive abilities of the federally endangered Lindera melissifolia and the potentially invasive Brunnichia ovata in varying densities, hydrologic regimes, and light availabilities. Botany 94(4):269-276.

Heiss, M. 2016. Migratory behaviour of bird species occurring in critical numbers at Besh Barmag bottleneck in Azerbaijan. Bird Conserv. Int. 26(2):243-255.

Hempel, M., Neukamm, R., and Thiel, R. 2016. Effects of introduced round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) on diet composition and growth of zander (Sander lucioperca), a main predator in European brackish waters. Aquat. Invasions 11(2):167-178.

Henn, J.J., Anderson, C.B., and Pastur, G.M. 2016. Landscape-level impact and habitat factors associated with invasive beaver distribution in Tierra del Fuego. Biol. Invasions 18(6):1679-1688.

Herbert, D.G., and Moussalli, A. 2016. Revision of the dwarf cannibal snails (Nata s.l.) of southern Africa-Nata s.s. and Natella (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rhytididae), with description of three new species. Zootaxa 4094(1):1-67.

Herriman, K.R., Davis, A.S., Apostol, K.G., Kildisheva, O.A., Ross-Davis, A.L., and Dumroese, R.K. 2016. Do container volume, site preparation, and field fertilization affect restoration potential of Wyoming big sagebrush? Nat. Areas J. 36(2):194-201.

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Hinkson, K.M., and Richter, S.C. 2016. Temporal trends in genetic data and effective population size support efficacy of management practices in critically endangered dusky gopher frogs (Lithobates sevosus). Ecol. Evol. 6(9):2667-2678.

Hintz, W.D., Glover, D.C., Garvey, J.E., Killgore, K.J., Herzog, D.P., Spier, T.W., Colombo, R.E., and Hrabik, R.A. 2016. Status and habitat use of Scaphirhynchus sturgeons in an important fluvial corridor: implications for river habitat enhancement. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 145(2):386-399.

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Holzapfel, S.A., Dodgson, J., and Rohan, M. 2016. Successful translocation of the threatened New Zealand root-holoparasite Dactylanthus taylorii (Mystropetalaceae). Plant Ecol. 217(2):127-138.

Honarvar, S., Fitzgerald, D.B., Weitzman, C.L., Sinclair, E.M., Echube, J.M.E., O'Connor, M., and Hearn, G.W. 2016. Assessment of important marine turtle nesting populations on the southern coast of Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 15(1):79-89.

Hong, M.S., Wei, W., Yang, Z.S., Yuan, S.B., Yang, X.Y., Gu, X.D., Huang, F., and Zhang, Z.J. 2016. Effects of timber harvesting on Arundinaria spanostachya bamboo and feeding-site selection by giant pandas in Liziping Nature Reserve, China. Forest Ecol. Manag. 373:74-80.

Honsey, A.E., Donabauer, S.B., and Höök, T.O. 2016. An analysis of lake morphometric and land-use characteristics that promote persistence of Cisco in Indiana. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 145(2):363-373.

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Huang, F.F., and Peng, S.L. 2016. Intraspecific competitive ability declines towards the edge of the expanding range of the invasive vine Mikania micrantha. Oecologia 181(1):115-123.

Hughes, K.A., López-Martínez, J., Francis, J.E., Crame, J.A., Carcavilla, L., Shiraishi, K., Hokada, T., and Yamaguchi, A. 2016. Antarctic geoconservation: a review of current systems and practices. Environ. Conserv. 43(2):97-108.

Huijser, M.P., Fairbank, E.R., Camel-Means, W., Graham, J., Watson, V., Basting, P., and Becker, D. 2016. Effectiveness of short sections of wildlife fencing and crossing structures along highways in reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions and providing safe crossing opportunities for large mammals. Biol. Conserv. 197:61-68.

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Zhang, Y.B., Liu, Y.L., Fu, J.X., Phillips, N., Zhang, M.G., and Zhang, F. 2016. Bridging the "gap" in systematic conservation planning. J. Nature Conserv. 31:43-50.

Ziegler, S., Merker, S., Streit, B., Boner, M., and Jacob, D.E. 2016. Towards understanding isotope variability in elephant ivory to establish isotopic profiling and source-area determination. Biol. Conserv. 197:154-163.

Ziemba, J.L., Hickerson, C.A.M., and Anthony, C.D. 2016. Invasive Asian earthworms negatively impact keystone terrestrial salamanders. PLoS ONE 11(5):e0151591.

Ziska, L.H., Pettis, J.S., Edwards, J., Hancock, J.E., Tomecek, M.B., Clark, A., Dukes, J.S., Loladze, I., and Polley, H.W. 2016. Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 283(1828):20160414.

Zolotarjova, V., Kraut, A., and Lõhmus, A. 2016. Slash harvesting does not undermine beetle diversity on small clear-cuts containing sufficient legacies. J. Insect Conserv. 20(2):285-294.


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