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Department ofBotany



No. 369
September 2015


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In This Issue


Preserving Plant Genomic Diversity


By Vicki Funk

-Adapted from Natural History Unearthed

Did you know that half of the families of flowering plants, conifers, and ferns can be found in the Washington D.C., area? Did you know that you can see plants that are from an African desert environment, the hardened surface of a cooled Hawaiian lava flow, and a tropical rain forest, all within a few feet of each other in the nation's capital?

Vicki Funk (right) leads a team of collectors, including two Smithsonian undergraduate interns from the University of Delaware, Kristen Van Neste (second from left) and Sarah Gabler, for the Global Genome Initiative-Gardens project. (photo by U.S. Botanic Garden)

Vicki Funk (right) leads a team of collectors, including two Smithsonian undergraduate interns from the University of Delaware, Kristen Van Neste (second from left) and Sarah Gabler, for the Global Genome Initiative-Gardens project. (photo by U.S. Botanic Garden)

It's true and it is all free for you to enjoy right now at the U.S. Botanic Garden. We're working with our partners at the Botanic Garden to gather a diverse array of plants. This summer marks the beginning of a collecting program called Global Genome Initiative-Gardens. It is part of the National Museum of Natural History's Global Genome Initiative. The goal of this new collecting program is to sample the global genomic diversity of plants for preservation in the world's biorepositories. Through partnerships with Smithsonian Gardens, the U.S. Botanic Garden and the U.S. National Arboretum, we will preserve samples of half the families of living plants around the world by the end of summer 2015.

Over the next two years, through growing partnerships with other botanical gardens, we hope to preserve samples of half the genera of living plants!

Each day, our team travels to one of the partner gardens or their production facilities and collects 20-30 plants in three ways: a pressed specimen to serve as a permanent voucher that will be stored in the museum's U.S. National Herbarium; tissue dried in silica gel; and liquid nitrogen preserved at the Smithsonian's biorepository at the Museum Support Center (MSC) in Suitland, Maryland.

Some recent collections from the U.S. Botanic Garden include:

Sida fallax Walp. ('Ilima) from the hibiscus family is known only from Hawaii. This plant grows on volcanic rock and is an important colonizer, meaning that it helps establish an environment for other plants and life forms to thrive in. Its flowers are so beautiful that they are used to make Hawaiian leis and have been said to have been favored by Queen Emma.

Aloe rauhii Reynolds (snowflake aloe) is a rare succulent from Madagascar. It is a beautiful desert plant with striped leaves and coral colored flowers, and is important in the horticultural industry where it has been used to make many cultivated plants. This species—and the diverse plant life of Madagascar, more generally—is under threat and becoming increasingly hard to find. 

Vicki Funk preparing the pressed specimen of Aloe rauhii Reynolds (snowflake aloe) at the U.S. Botanic Garden. (photo by Hilary-Morgan Watt)

Vicki Funk preparing the pressed specimen of Aloe rauhii Reynolds (snowflake aloe) at the U.S. Botanic Garden. (photo by Hilary-Morgan Watt)

Theobroma cacao L. (chocolate or cacao) is a small tree native to Central and South America. While pollinated in the wild by tiny flies, the tree in the Botanic Garden is pollinated by hand. This tropical plant was long used by indigenous people throughout its range and was later exported to Europe by the Spaniards. Chocolate is now one of our favorite foods! Because of its economic importance, the whole genome of this species has been sequenced, but a voucher sample to pair with that sequence was never saved. Vouchers are important because they document what the sequenced genome actually did in life on Earth at one point in time. Genomes may be the "blueprint of Life," but if you only save the blueprint but not the "Life," you are clearly missing part of the story.

Sarah Gabler, Vicki Funk, and Asia Hall prepare the cacao sample with Plant Curator of the U.S. Botanic Garden, Bill McLaughlin. (photo by Hilary-Morgan Watt)

Sarah Gabler, Vicki Funk, and Asia Hall prepare the cacao sample with Plant Curator of the U.S. Botanic Garden, Bill McLaughlin. (photo by Hilary-Morgan Watt)

Sabatia kennedyuana Fernald (Plymouth rose gentian), is a bog plant that is native to the east coast of North America but is only found in two widely separated areas: in the northeast in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and again in the south in North Carolina. In all locations it is endangered, threatened, or of special concern. The northern populations are adapted to bogs that were once under glaciers and the southern population live in fire adapted communities. Some scientists are considering recognizing these as two different species. Here we found the North Carolina population growing with pitcher plants (carnivorous).

Gardens such as this one are excellent places to see rare, beautiful and important plants that have their own story to share. We hope to help preserve part of that story through the preservation of the world's plant genomes in biorepositories worldwide. Stay tuned and follow along with #SmithsonianGGI.


Current Literature


Aarif, K.M., Prasadan, P.K., Basheer, P.M., and Hameed, S.V.A. 2015. Population trend of wintering gulls in Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu Community Reserve, Southern India. J. Environ. Biol. 36(3):597-600.

Abella, S.R., Crouse, J.E., Covington, W.W., and Springer, J.D. 2015. Diverse responses across soil parent materials during ecological restoration. Restor. Ecol. 23(2):113-121.

Agostini, I., Pizzio, E., De Angelo, C., and Di Bitetti, M.S. 2015. Population status of primates in the Atlantic Forest of Argentina. Int. J. Primatol. 36(2):244-258.

Ahmed, M., Siddiqui, M.F., Ahmed, A., Sarangzai, A.M., Abbas, T., and Hussain, M.I. 2015. Present state and multivariate analysis of a few Juniper forests of Baluchistan, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Bot. 47(1):135-140.

Anderson, L.C., Powell, L.A., Schacht, W.H., Lusk, J.J., and Vodehnal, W.L. 2015. Greater prairie-chicken brood-site selection and survival in the Nebraska Sandhills. J. Wildlife Manag. 79(4):559-569.

Anic, V., Henríquez, C.A., Abades, S.R., and Bustamante, R.O. 2015. Number of conspecifics and reproduction in the invasive plant Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae): is there a pollinator-mediated Allee effect? Plant Biol. 17(3):720-727.

Arellano, G., Loza, M.I., Tello, J.S., and Macía, M.J. 2015. Commonness and rarity determinants of woody plants in different types of tropical forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(5):1073-1087.

Artero, C., Koenig, C.C., Richard, P., Berzins, R., Guillou, G., Bouchon, C., and Lampert, L. 2015. Ontogenetic dietary and habitat shifts in goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara from French Guiana. Endang. Species Res. 27(2):155-168.

Aryal, S., Cockfield, G., and Maraseni, T.N. 2015. Effect of summer livestock grazing on plant species richness and composition in the Himalayan rangelands. Rangeland J. 37(3):309-321.

Badalamenti, E., La Mantia, T., and Quatrini, P. 2015. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi positively affect growth of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle seedlings and show a strong association with this invasive species in Mediterranean woodlands. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 142(2):127-139.

Bajec, S.S., Pustovrh, G., Jesenšek, D., and Snoj, A. 2015. Population genetic SNP analysis of marble and brown trout in a hybridization zone of the Adriatic watershed in Slovenia. Biol. Conserv. 184:239-250.

Barej, M.F., Penner, J., Schmitz, A., and Rödel, M.O. 2015. Multiple genetic lineages challenge the monospecific status of the West African endemic frog family Odontobatrachidae. BMC Evol. Biol. 15:67.

Barr, K.R., Kus, B.E., Preston, K.L., Howell, S., Perkins, E., and Vandergast, A.G. 2015. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Mol. Ecol. 24(10):2349-2363.

Battisti, C., Di Gennaro, A., and Gippoliti, S. 2015. Schematizing a historical demographic collapse on a large time span using local, secondary and grey data: the case of Italian roe deer Capreolus capreolus italicus in Central Italy. J. Nature Conserv. 24:63-67.

Battisti, C., and Fanelli, G. 2015. Don't think local! Scale in conservation, parochialism, dogmatic bureaucracy and the implementing of the European Directives. J. Nature Conserv. 24:24-30.

Baudouin, M., de Thoisy, B., Chambault, P., Berzins, R., Entraygues, M., Kelle, L., Turny, A., Le Maho, Y., and Chevallier, D. 2015. Identification of key marine areas for conservation based on satellite tracking of post-nesting migrating green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Biol. Conserv. 184:36-41.

Bazin, L.A., and Edge, D.A. 2015. The ecology and conservation of Thestor brachycerus brachycerus (Trimen, 1883): an aphytophagous miletine butterfly from South Africa. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):349-357.

Bebawi, F.F., Campbell, S.D., and Mayer, R.J. 2015. Seed bank longevity and age to reproductive maturity of Calotropis procera (Aiton) WT Aiton in the dry tropics of northern Queensland. Rangeland J. 37(3):239-247.

Beninde, J., Veith, M., and Hochkirch, A. 2015. Biodiversity in cities needs space: a meta-analysis of factors determining intra-urban biodiversity variation. Ecol. Lett. 18(6):581-592.

Bercovitch, F.B., and Deacon, F. 2015. Gazing at a giraffe gyroscope: where are we going? Afr. J. Ecol. 53(2):135-146.

Bernard, E.C., Soto-Adames, F.N., and Wynne, J.J. 2015. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species. Zootaxa 3949(2):239-267.

Bessa, J., Sousa, C., and Hockings, K.J. 2015. Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. Am. J. Primatol. 77(6):651-665.

Bichuette, M.E., and Trajano, E. 2015. Population density and habitat of an endangered cave fish Eigenmannia vicentespelaea Triques, 1996 (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes) from a karst area in central Brazil. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 13(1):113-122.

Blanchet, É., Penone, C., Maurel, N., Billot, C., Rivallan, R., Risterucci, A.M., Maurice, S., Justy, F., Machon, N., and Noël, F. 2015. Multivariate analysis of polyploid data reveals the role of railways in the spread of the invasive South African Ragwort (Senecio inaequidens). Conserv. Genet. 16(3):523-533.

Blythe, R.M., Smyser, T.J., Johnson, S.A., and Swihart, R.K. 2015. Post-release survival of captive-reared Allegheny woodrats. Anim. Conserv. 18(2):186-195.

Bogdanović, S., Rešetnik, I., Brullo, S., and Shuka, L. 2015. Campanula aureliana (Campanulaceae), a new species from Albania. Plant Syst. Evol. 301(6):1555-1567.

Bohling, J.H., and Waits, L.P. 2015. Factors influencing red wolf-coyote hybridization in eastern North Carolina, USA. Biol. Conserv. 184:108-116.

Boitani, L., Mace, G.M., and Rondinini, C. 2015. Challenging the scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. Conserv. Lett. 8(2):125-131.

Bosa, D.M., Pacheco, D., Pasetto, M.R., and Santos, R. 2015. Floristic and structure of the tree component of an Atlantic rainforest in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Rev. Arvore 39(1):49-58.

Botello, F., Sarkar, S., and Sánchez-Cordero, V. 2015. Impact of habitat loss on distributions of terrestrial vertebrates in a high-biodiversity region in Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 184:59-65.

Botham, M.S., Fernandez-Ploquin, E.C., Brereton, T., Harrower, C.A., Roy, D.B., and Heard, M.S. 2015. Lepidoptera communities across an agricultural gradient: how important are habitat area and habitat diversity in supporting high diversity? J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):403-420.

Braaten, P.J., Elliott, C.M., Rhoten, J.C., Fuller, D.B., and McElroy, B.J. 2015. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River. Restor. Ecol. 23(2):186-195.

Bragina, E.V., Radeloff, V.C., Baumann, M., Wendland, K., Kuemmerle, T., and Pidgeon, A.M. 2015. Effectiveness of protected areas in the Western Caucasus before and after the transition to post-socialism. Biol. Conserv. 184:456-464.

Braunisch, V., Coppes, J., Bächle, S., and Suchant, R. 2015. Underpinning the precautionary principle with evidence: a spatial concept for guiding wind power development in endangered species' habitats. J. Nature Conserv. 24:31-40.

Bridges, A.S., Sanchez, J.N., and Biteman, D.S. 2015. Spatial ecology of invasive feral cats on San Clemente Island: implications for control and management. J. Mammal. 96(1):81-89.

Brillant, S.W., Vanderlaan, A.S.M., Rangeley, R.W., and Taggart, C.T. 2015. Quantitative estimates of the movement and distribution of North Atlantic right whales along the northeast coast of North America. Endang. Species Res. 27(2):141-154.

Brose, P.H., Guyette, R.P., Marschall, J.M., and Stambaugh, M.C. 2015. Fire history reflects human history in the Pine Creek Gorge of north-central Pennsylvania. Nat. Areas J. 35(2):214-223.

Buchalski, M.R., Navarro, A.Y., Boyce, W.M., Vickers, T.W., Tobler, M.W., Nordstrom, L.A., García, J.A., Gille, D.A., Penedo, M.C.T., Ryder, O.A., and Ernest, H.B. 2015. Genetic population structure of Peninsular bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) indicates substantial gene flow across US-Mexico border. Biol. Conserv. 184:218-228.

Buckley, R., and Mossaz, A. 2015. Hunting tourism and animal conservation. Anim. Conserv. 18(2):133-135.

Buczyńska, E., Czachorowski, S., and Buczyński, P. 2015. Issues concerning the conservation of the rare caddis Erotesis baltica McLachlan, 1877 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) in Poland. J. Entomol. Res. Soc. 17:87-95.

Burnett, R.D., and Roberts, L.J. 2015. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada. PLoS ONE 10(4):e0123778.

Burrell, A.M., Pepper, A.E., Hodnett, G., Goolsby, J.A., Overholt, W.A., Racelis, A.E., Diaz, R., and Klein, P.E. 2015. Exploring origins, invasion history and genetic diversity of Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. (Cogongrass) in the United States using genotyping by sequencing. Mol. Ecol. 24(9):2177-2193.

Cacciapaglia, C., and van Woesik, R. 2015. Reef-coral refugia in a rapidly changing ocean. Global Change Biol. 21(6):2272-2282.

Cacciatori, C., Garcia, C., and Sérgio, C. 2015. Check-list of the bryophytes of the Serra de Sintra (Portugal). Cryptogamie Bryol. 36(2):177-202.

Campbell, K.J., Beek, J., Eason, C.T., Glen, A.S., Godwin, J., Gould, F., Holmes, N.D., Howald, G.R., Madden, F.M., Ponder, J.B., Threadgill, D.W., Wegmann, A.S., and Baxter, G.S. 2015. The next generation of rodent eradications: Innovative technologies and tools to improve species specificity and increase their feasibility on islands. Biol. Conserv. 185:47-58.

Carbonell, R. 2015. Managing Spanish European mink populations: moving from a precautionary approach towards knowledge-based management. J. Nature Conserv. 25:58-61.

Carrara, E., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Vega-Rivera, J.H., Schondube, J.E., de Freitas, S.M., and Fahrig, L. 2015. Impact of landscape composition and configuration on forest specialist and generalist bird species in the fragmented Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 184:117-126.

Carroll, C., Rohlf, D.J., Li, Y.W., Hartl, B., Phillips, M.K., and Noss, R.F. 2015. Connectivity conservation and endangered species recovery: a study in the challenges of defining conservation-reliant species. Conserv. Lett. 8(2):132-138.

Carvajal-Cogollo, J.E., and Urbina-Cardona, N. 2015. Ecological grouping and edge effects in tropical dry forest: reptile-microenvironment relationships. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(5):1109-1130.

Carvalho, M., Palmeirim, J.M., Rego, F.C., Sole, N., Santana, A., and Fa, J.E. 2015. What motivates hunters to target exotic or endemic species on the island of São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea? Oryx 49(2):278-286.

Casacci, L.P., Cerrato, C., Barbero, F., Bosso, L., Ghidotti, S., Paveto, M., Pesce, M., Plazio, E., Panizza, G., Balletto, E., Viterbi, R., and Bonelli, S. 2015. Dispersal and connectivity effects at different altitudes in the Euphydryas aurinia complex. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):265-277.

Casado, M.A., Acosta-Gallo, B., Sánchez-Jardón, L., Martín-Forés, I., Castro, I., Ovalle, C., del Pozo, A., and de Miguel, J.M. 2015. Interactive effects of source and recipient habitats on plant invasions: distribution of exotic species in Chile. Divers. Distrib. 21(6):609-619.

Catelotti, K., Kingsford, R.T., Bino, G., and Bacon, P. 2015. Inundation requirements for persistence and recovery of river red gums (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in semi-arid Australia. Biol. Conserv. 184:346-356.

Catsadorakis, G., Onmuş, O., Bugariu, S., Gül, O., Hatzilacou, D., Hatzofe, O., Malakou, M., Michev, T., Naziridis, T., Nikolaou, H., Rudenko, A., Saveljic, D., Shumka, S., Siki, M., and Crivelli, A.J. 2015. Current status of the Dalmatian pelican and the great white pelican populations of the Black Sea/Mediterranean flyway. Endang. Species Res. 27(2):119-130.

Čelik, T., Bräu, M., Bonelli, S., Cerrato, C., Vreš, B., Balletto, E., Stettmer, C., and Dolek, M. 2015. Winter-green host-plants, litter quantity and vegetation structure are key determinants of habitat quality for Coenonympha oedippus in Europe. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):359-375.

Charbonnel, A., Buisson, L., Biffi, M., D'Amico, F., Besnard, A., Aulagnier, S., Blanc, F., Gillet, F., Lacaze, V., Michaux, J.R., Némoz, M., Pagé, C., Sanchez-Perez, J.M., Sauvage, S., and Laffaille, P. 2015. Integrating hydrological features and genetically validated occurrence data in occupancy modelling of an endemic and endangered semi-aquatic mammal, Galemys pyrenaicus, in a Pyrenean catchment. Biol. Conserv. 184:182-192.

Chavanich, S., Soong, K., Zvuloni, A., Rinkevich, B., and Alino, P. 2015. Conservation, management, and restoration of coral reefs. Zoology 118(2):132-134.

Chaves, R. 2015. A critically endangered new species of Aralia (Araliaceae) from Cuba. Willdenowia 45(1):35-43.

Chen, J.M., Zhao, S.Y., Liao, Y.Y., Gichira, A.W., Gituru, R.W., and Wang, Q.F. 2015. Chloroplast DNA phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of the relictual tree Davidia involucrata (Davidiaceae). Conserv. Genet. 16(3):583-593.

Chiang, P.J., Pei, K.J.C., Vaughan, M.R., Li, C.F., Chen, M.T., Liu, J.N., Lin, C.Y., Lin, L.K., and Lai, Y.C. 2015. Is the clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa extinct in Taiwan, and could it be reintroduced? An assessment of prey and habitat. Oryx 49(2):261-269.

Clarke, S.J. 2015. Conserving freshwater biodiversity: the value, status and management of high quality ditch systems. J. Nature Conserv. 24:93-100.

Cleguer, C., Grech, A., Garrigue, C., and Marsh, H. 2015. Spatial mismatch between marine protected areas and dugongs in New Caledonia. Biol. Conserv. 184:154-162.

Cockle, K.L., Bodrati, A., Lammertink, M., and Martin, K. 2015. Cavity characteristics, but not habitat, influence nest survival of cavity-nesting birds along a gradient of human impact in the subtropical Atlantic Forest. Biol. Conserv. 184:193-200.

Commock, T., Campbell, K.C.S., Meikle, J., Francisco-Ortega, J., and Jestrow, B. 2015. Conservation and taxonomic updates for the Jamaican endemic genus Dendrocousinsia (Euphorbiaceae). Brittonia 67(2):87-95.

Conser, C., Seebacher, L., Fujino, D.W., Reichard, S., and DiTomaso, J.M. 2015. The development of a Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) tool for assessing the invasive potential of ornamental plants. PLoS ONE 10(3):e0121053.

Conti, L., Comte, L., Hugueny, B., and Grenouillet, G. 2015. Drivers of freshwater fish colonisations and extirpations under climate change. Ecography 38(5):510-519.

Craves, J.A. 2015. Birds that eat nonnative buckthorn fruit (Rhamnus cathartica and Frangula alnus, Rhamnaceae) in eastern North America. Nat. Areas J. 35(2):279-287.

Crosmary, W.G., Côté, S.D., and Fritz, H. 2015. The assessment of the role of trophy hunting in wildlife conservation. Anim. Conserv. 18(2):136-137.

Crosmary, W.G., Côté, S.D., and Fritz, H. 2015. Does trophy hunting matter to long-term population trends in African herbivores of different dietary guilds? Anim. Conserv. 18(2):117-130.

Cserkész, T., Aczél-Fridrich, Z., Hegyeli, Z., Sugár, S., Czabán, D., Horváth, O., and Sramkó, G. 2015. Rediscovery of the Hungarian birch mouse (Sicista subtilis trizona) in Transylvania (Romania) with molecular characterisation of its phylogenetic affinities. Mammalia 79(2):215-224.

Curtis, R.J., Botham, M.S., Brereton, T.M., and Isaac, N.J.B. 2015. The rise and demise of the Glanville fritillary on the Isle of Wight. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):305-311.

Curtis, R.J., and Isaac, N.J.B. 2015. The effect of temperature and habitat quality on abundance of the Glanville fritillary on the Isle of Wight: implications for conservation management in a warming climate. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):217-225.

Cusack, J.J., Wearn, O.R., Bernard, H., and Ewers, R.M. 2015. Influence of microhabitat structure and disturbance on detection of native and non-native murids in logged and unlogged forests of northern Borneo. J. Trop. Ecol. 31:25-35.

D'Elia, J., Haig, S.M., Johnson, M., Marcot, B.G., and Young, R. 2015. Activity-specific ecological niche models for planning reintroductions of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Biol. Conserv. 184:90-99.

d'Eon-Eggertson, F., Dulvy, N.K., and Peterman, R.M. 2015. Reliable identification of declining populations in an uncertain world. Conserv. Lett. 8(2):86-96.

Davidson, A.D., Campbell, M.L., Hewitt, C.L., and Schaffelke, B. 2015. Assessing the impacts of nonindigenous marine macroalgae: an update of current knowledge. Bot. Mar. 58(2):55-79.

de Flamingh, A., Sole, C.L., and van Aarde, R.J. 2015. Genetic evidence for spatial structuring in a continuous African elephant (Loxodonta africana) population. Conserv. Genet. 16(3):613-623.

de Moraes, M.C.P., de Mello, K., and Toppa, R.H. 2015. Landscape analysis of a buffer zone to planning and management of protected aress. Rev. Arvore 39(1):1-8.

de Oliveira, S.L., Souza, L.A.S., Silva, H.K., and Faria, K.D. 2015. Spatial configuration of the occurrence of bat species (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 15(1):8.

Debeljak, M., Ficko, A., and Brus, R. 2015. The use of habitat and dispersal models in protecting European black poplar (Populus nigra L.) from genetic introgression in Slovenia. Biol. Conserv. 184:310-319.

DeBruyne, R.L., and Roseman, E.F. 2015. The renaissance of North American large rivers: synthesis of the special section. Restor. Ecol. 23(2):139-142.

Dennhardt, A.J., Duerr, A.E., Brandes, D., and Katzner, T.E. 2015. Integrating citizen-science data with movement models to estimate the size of a migratory golden eagle population. Biol. Conserv. 184:68-78.

Dennhardt, A.J., Duerr, A.E., Brandes, D., and Katzner, T.E. 2015. Modeling autumn migration of a rare soaring raptor identifies new movement corridors in central Appalachia. Ecol. Model. 303:19-29.

Di Marco, M., and Santini, L. 2015. Human pressures predict species' geographic range size better than biological traits. Global Change Biol. 21(6):2169-2178.

Dietz, M.S., Belote, R.T., Aplet, G.H., and Aycrigg, J.L. 2015. The world's largest wilderness protection network after 50 years: an assessment of ecological system representation in the US National Wilderness Preservation System. Biol. Conserv. 184:431-438.

Dogan, B., Behçet, L., Duran, A., and Avlamaz, D. 2015. Psephellus vanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from east Turkey. PhytoKeys 48:11-19.

Dong, L.J., Wang, D., Wang, K.X., Li, S.H., Mei, Z.G., Wang, S.Y., Akamatsu, T., and Kimura, S. 2015. Yangtze finless porpoises along the main channel of Poyang Lake, China: imlications for conservation. Mar. Mammal Sci. 31(2):612-628.

Dover, J.W., Bourn, N.A.D., Lewis, O.T., and Shreeve, T.G. 2015. The ecology and conservation of butterflies and moths. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):183-184.

Echternacht, L., and Trovó, M. 2015. Paepalanthus serpens, a new microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PhytoKeys 48:43-49.

Edelaar, P., Roques, S., Hobson, E.A., Da Silva, A.G., Avery, M.L., Russello, M.A., Senar, J.C., Wright, T.F., Carrete, M., and Tella, J.L. 2015. Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection. Mol. Ecol. 24(9):2164-2176.

Edge, D.A., and Mecenero, S. 2015. Butterfly conservation in Southern Africa. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):325-339.

Egan, A.T., Ferrington, L.C., Lafrançois, T., Edlund, M.B., and McCullough, J. 2015. Spatial arrangement and metrics of freshwater coastal rock pools applied to amphibian conservation. Limnologica 51:101-109.

Eiler, J.H., Evans, A.N., and Schreck, C.B. 2015. Migratory patterns of wild chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to a large, free-flowing river basin. PLoS ONE 10(4):e0123127.

Ercoli, F., Ruokonen, T.J., Erkamo, E., Jones, R.I., and Hämäläinen, H. 2015. Comparing the effects of introduced signal crayfish and native noble crayfish on the littoral invertebrate assemblages of boreal lakes. Freshwater Sci. 34(2):555-563.

Eriksson, H., and Clarke, S. 2015. Chinese market responses to overexploitation of sharks and sea cucumbers. Biol. Conserv. 184:163-173.

Eriksson, O., Bolmgren, K., Westin, A., and Lennartsson, T. 2015. Historic hay cutting dates from Sweden 1873-1951 and their implications for conservation management of species-rich meadows. Biol. Conserv. 184:100-107.

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Hunter, M., and Cresswell, W. 2015. Factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the Endangered volcano rabbit Romerolagus diazi on the Iztaccihuatl volcano, Mexico. Oryx 49(2):366-375.

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Johnston, M.W., and Purkis, S.J. 2015. Hurricanes accelerated the Florida-Bahamas lionfish invasion. Global Change Biol. 21(6):2249-2260.

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Kilshaw, K., Johnson, P.J., Kitchener, A.C., and Macdonald, D.W. 2015. Detecting the elusive Scottish wildcat Felis silvestris silvestris using camera trapping. Oryx 49(2):207-215.

Kimanzi, J.K., Sanderson, R.A., Rushton, S.P., and Mugo, M.J. 2015. Spatial distribution of snares in Ruma National Park, Kenya, with implications for management of the roan antelope Hippotragus equinus langheldi and other wildlife. Oryx 49(2):295-302.

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Shanee, N., Shanee, S., and Horwich, R.H. 2015. Effectiveness of locally run conservation initiatives in north-east Peru. Oryx 49(2):239-247.

Shapcott, A., Forster, P.I., Guymer, G.P., McDonald, W.J.F., Faith, D.P., Erickson, D., and Kress, W.J. 2015. Mapping biodiversity and setting conservation priorities for SE Queensland's rainforests using DNA barcoding. PLoS ONE 10(3):e0122164.

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Silva, J.L., Mejías, J.A., and García, M.B. 2015. Demographic vulnerability in cliff-dwelling Sonchus species endemic to the western Mediterranean. Basic Appl. Ecol. 16(4):316-324.

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Stevens, J.T., and Latimer, A.M. 2015. Snowpack, fire, and forest disturbance: interactions affect montane invasions by non-native shrubs. Global Change Biol. 21(6):2379-2393.

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Stokes, K.L., Broderick, A.C., Canbolat, A.F., Candan, O., Fuller, W.J., Glen, F., Levy, Y., Rees, A.F., Rilov, G., Snape, R.T., Stott, I., Tchernov, D., and Godley, B.J. 2015. Migratory corridors and foraging hotspots: critical habitats identified for Mediterranean green turtles. Divers. Distrib. 21(6):665-674.

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Sun, Z.G., Sun, W.G., Tong, C., Zeng, C.S., Yu, X., and Mou, X.J. 2015. China's coastal wetlands: conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement. Environ. Int. 79:25-41.

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Swengel, S.R., and Swengel, A.B. 2015. Assessing abundance patterns of specialized bog butterflies over 12 years in northern Wisconsin USA. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):293-304.

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Tavares, W.C., Pessôa, L.M., and Seuánez, H.N. 2015. Plio-Pleistocene history of the endangered spiny rat Trinomys eliasi (Echimyidae) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J. Mammal. 96(1):94-106.

Thakur, M.L., and Negi, V. 2015. Status and phylogenetic analyses of endemic birds of the Himalayan region. Pakistan J. Zool. 47(2):417-426.

Theiling, C.H., Janvrin, J.A., and Hendrickson, J. 2015. Upper Mississippi River restoration: implementation, monitoring, and learning since 1986. Restor. Ecol. 23(2):157-166.

Thorburn, J., Neat, F., Bailey, D.M., Noble, L.R., and Jones, C.S. 2015. Winter residency and site association in the Critically Endangered North East Atlantic spurdog Squalus acanthias. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 526:113-124.

Thorn, M., Green, M., Marnewick, K., and Scott, D.M. 2015. Determinants of attitudes to carnivores: implications for mitigating human-carnivore conflict on South African farmland. Oryx 49(2):270-277.

Tinsley, R.C., Coxhead, P.G., Stott, L.C., Tinsley, M.C., Piccinni, M.Z., and Guille, M.J. 2015. Chytrid fungus infections in laboratory and introduced Xenopus laevis populations: assessing the risks for UK native amphibians. Biol. Conserv. 184:380-388.

Tiple, A.D., and Koparde, P. 2015. Odonata of Maharashtra, India with notes on species distribution. J. Insect Sci. 15:47.

Tixier, P., Authier, M., Gasco, N., and Guinet, C. 2015. Influence of artificial food provisioning from fisheries on killer whale reproductive output. Anim. Conserv. 18(2):207-218.

Tjørnløv, R.S., Kissling, W.D., Barnagaud, J.Y., Bøcher, P.K., and Høye, T.T. 2015. Oviposition site selection of an endangered butterfly at local spatial scales. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):377-391.

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Trip, N.V., and Wiersma, Y.F. 2015. A comparison of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) trail impacts on boreal habitats across scales. Nat. Areas J. 35(2):266-278.

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Valadares, R.T., and Sakuragui, C.M. 2015. Anthurium viridivinosum sp. nov. (Araceae; A. sect. Urospadix subsect. Flaviscentiviridia) from a sedimentary coastal plain in southeastern Brazil. Nord. J. Bot. 33(2):170-174.

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Veale, A.J., Holland, O.J., McDonald, R.A., Clout, M.N., and Gleeson, D.M. 2015. An invasive non-native mammal population conserves genetic diversity lost from its native range. Mol. Ecol. 24(9):2156-2163.

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Walsh, A., Finn, J., Jebb, M., Waldren, S., and Sullivan, C. 2015. The distribution of vascular plant species of conservation concern in Ireland, and their coincidence with designated areas. J. Nature Conserv. 24:56-62.

Wanderley, M.G.L., and Mota, N.F.O. 2015. Three new species of Xyris (Xyridaceae) from the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. Phytotaxa 204(3):213-222.

Waples, R.S., Adams, P.B., Bohnsack, J.A., and Taylor, B.L. 2015. When is a species at risk in 'all or a significant portion of its range'? Endang. Species Res. 27(2):189-192.

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Weng, K.C., Pedersen, M.W., Del Raye, G.A., Caselle, J.E., and Gray, A.E. 2015. Umbrella species in marine systems: using the endangered humphead wrasse to conserve coral reefs. Endang. Species Res. 27(3):251-263.

Whitehead, H., and Gero, S. 2015. Conflicting rates of increase in the sperm whale population of the eastern Caribbean: positive observed rates do not reflect a healthy population. Endang. Species Res. 27(3):207-218.

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Wilkin, P., and Muasya, A.M. 2015. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa. PhytoKeys 48:51-72.

Wilson, R.J., Bennie, J., Lawson, C.R., Pearson, D., Ortuzar-Ugarte, G., and Gutierrez, D. 2015. Population turnover, habitat use and microclimate at the contracting range margin of a butterfly. J. Insect Conserv. 19(2):205-216.

Winters, J.M., Avery, H.W., Standora, E.A., and Spotila, J.R. 2015. Between the bay and a hard place: altered diamondback terrapin nesting movements demonstrate the effects of coastal barriers upon estuarine wildlife. J. Wildlife Manag. 79(4):682-688.

Wommack, E.A., Dawson, R.D., Shrimpton, J.M., and Bowie, R.C.K. 2015. Changes in population size and genetic diversity of a raptor species occurring in the boreal forest of Saskatchewan. Conserv. Genet. 16(3):535-547.

Wright, D., Bishop, J.M., Matthee, C.A., and von der Heyden, S. 2015. Genetic isolation by distance reveals restricted dispersal across a range of life histories: implications for biodiversity conservation planning across highly variable marine environments. Divers. Distrib. 21(6):698-710.

Wuest, R.O., Antonelli, A., Zimmermann, N.E., and Linder, H.P. 2015. Available climate regimes drive niche diversification during range expansion. Am. Nat. 185(5):640-652.

Yao, G., Wang, B.B., Zhu, Y., Wan, Q.H., and Fang, S.G. 2015. Low population density of the endangered forest musk deer, Moschus berezovskii, in China. Pakistan J. Zool. 47(2):325-333.

Yasué, M., Nellas, A., Panes, H., and Vincent, A.C.J. 2015. Monitoring landed seahorse catch in a changing policy environment. Endang. Species Res. 27(2):95-111.

Zehetmair, T., Müller, J., Zharov, A., and Gruppe, A. 2015. Effects of Natura 2000 and habitat variables used for habitat assessment on beetle assemblages in European beech forests. Insect Conserv. Divers. 8(3):193-204.

Zehnsdorf, A., Hussner, A., Eismann, F., Rönicke, H., and Melzer, A. 2015. Management options of invasive Elodea nuttallii and Elodea canadensis. Limnologica 51:110-117.

Zemanová, B., Hájková, P., Hájek, B., Martínková, N., Mikulíček, P., Zima, J., and Bryja, J. 2015. Extremely low genetic variation in endangered Tatra chamois and evidence for hybridization with an introduced Alpine population. Conserv. Genet. 16(3):729-741.

Zhan, A.B., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2015. Rare biosphere exploration using high-throughput sequencing: research progress and perspectives. Conserv. Genet. 16(3):513-522.

Zhang, F., Zhao, J., Zhang, Y.J., Messenger, K., and Wang, Y. 2015. Antipredator behavioral responses of native and exotic tadpoles to novel predator. Asian Herpetol. Res. 6(1):51-58.

Zhao, M.L., Pan, B., Tan, Y.H., and Corlett, R.T. 2015. Winners and losers among tree species in Xishuangbanna: which traits are most important? Sci. Bull. 60(10):916-924.

Zhu, B., Kopco, J., and Rudstam, L.G. 2015. Effects of invasive European frogbit and its two physical control methods on macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Sci. 34(2):497-507.

Zielinski, W.J., Schlexer, F.V., Dunk, J.R., Lau, M.J., and Graham, J.J. 2015. A range-wide occupancy estimate and habitat model for the endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra). J. Mammal. 96(2):380-393.

Zisenis, M. 2015. Alien plant species: a real fear for urban ecosystems in Europe? Urban Ecosyst. 18(2):355-370.

Zomer, R.J., Xu, J.C., Wang, M.C., Trabucco, A., and Li, Z.Q. 2015. Projected impact of climate change on the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for biodiversity conservation within Yunnan Province, China. Biol. Conserv. 184:335-345.

Zuleta, G., Rovere, A.E., Pérez, D., Campanello, P.I., Johnson, B.G., Escartín, C., Dalmasso, A., Renison, D., Ciano, N., and Aronson, J. 2015. Establishing the ecological restoration network in Argentina: from Rio1992 to SIACRE2015. Restor. Ecol. 23(2):95-103.


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