Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Advanced Search

Department ofBotany

No. 355
July 2014

[PDF Print Version]

In This Issue

Diverse Forests are Stronger against Deer

Adapted from

In deer-populated forests, tastier plants can avoid being eaten if they are surrounded by less appealing plants. But with deer gone, diverse plots become weaker as plant survival drops, according to a study from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Despite their reputation for destroying plant life, deer can actually make diverse forests stronger. Diverse forests can hide tastier plants by surrounding them with repellant ones. But without deer the benefits of biodiversity drop. (Photo by Steve Hillebrand, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

Despite their reputation for destroying plant life, deer can actually make diverse forests stronger. Diverse forests can hide tastier plants by surrounding them with repellant ones. But without deer the benefits of biodiversity drop. (Photo by Steve Hillebrand, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

Ecologists have long suspected that a diverse forest is a better forest: stronger, healthier and more adept at resisting pests, diseases and environmental stresses like droughts and fires. But few had done experiments to disentangle the effects of biodiversity from other factors like herbivores, because forests are slow growing and hard to manipulate. The Smithsonian study shows that by eating the most dominant plants, deer can dramatically change the pros and cons of diversity.

"Even though forests cover a third of the Earth's land surface and can be incredibly diverse, we know remarkably little about the function of diversity in forests," said Susan Cook-Patton, a Smithsonian postdoctoral fellow and the study's lead author. "Tree seedlings are small, but they will become the forests of the future, so we wanted to track survival at this critical life-history stage."

To uncover whether tree seedling survival hinged on diversity, the research team set up hundreds of experimental plots in a forest, some with 15 seedlings of only a single species, and some with up to 15 different species. Then they put wire cages around half to exclude browsing by deer, which in many areas can be the single most important determinant for tree-species survival. This was a critical step in the research. Without cages it is impossible to disentangle the effects of plant–plant interactions from the effects of plant–herbivore interactions. Both can drive diversity effects, but they have completely different consequences for thinking about managing ecosystems.

The researchers meticulously tracked the plots for three years, recording growth, survival and herbivore damage. They discovered that the dominant species—including red maple, green ash and red oak—all suffered intense deer browsing. Meanwhile, deer shunned most of the least productive species, including hickory. By selectively consuming the dominant species, deer gave suppressed plants a chance to thrive, as even the slow-growing hickories and other species grew bigger in more diverse plots.

These patterns, however, depended on whether tree seedlings were in a diverse or species-poor plot. Where deer browsed, single-species plots suffered 53 percent more damage than mixed plots. "Red maples were heavily browsed when surrounded by other red maples, but survived and thrived when surrounded by less palatable tree seedlings," said Cook-Patton. "By the third year, red maples were roughly three-and-a-half times bigger in more diverse communities."

The authors speculate that deer were first drawn to the mixed plots because those plots all contained species they prefer to eat—red maple, red oak and green ash. However, once there, they were turned off by the more repellant species surrounding them.

But with deer out of the picture, the tables turned. In deer-free plots, plants were less likely to survive in a diverse forest, although these survivors did grow slightly bigger. "We've discovered that ecosystem function depends on diversity at different levels of the food chain," said John Parker, senior ecologist at SERC. "Feedbacks among the different levels can ultimately change the picture of how diversity works, and to better manage forests we need to understand the interactive effects of diversity throughout the food web."

The researchers are now testing their findings on a larger scale in BiodiversiTree, an experimental forest of more than 20,000 trees the team planted in 2013 that is designed to last at least a hundred years. "Forests are increasingly threatened by climate change and invasive pests, and experiments like these will tell us if diverse forests are better poised to weather these future challenges," Cook-Patton said.

Current Literature

Abella, S.R. 2014. Effectiveness of exotic plant treatments on National Park Service lands in the United States. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):147-163.

Adebayo, A.A., Zhan, A.B., Bailey, S.A., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2014. Domestic ships as a potential pathway of nonindigenous species from the Saint Lawrence River to the Great Lakes. Biol. Invasions 16(4):793-801.

Agrawal, A. 2014. Matching and mechanisms in protected area and poverty alleviation research. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(11):3909-3910.

Albert, A., McConkey, K., Savini, T., and Huynen, M.C. 2014. The value of disturbance-tolerant cercopithecine monkeys as seed dispersers in degraded habitats. Biol. Conserv. 170:300-310.

Allen, P.S., and Meyer, S.E. 2014. Community structure affects annual grass weed invasion during restoration of a shrub-steppe ecosystem. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):1-13.

Allendorf, T.D., Brandt, J.S., and Yang, J.M. 2014. Local perceptions of Tibetan village sacred forests in northwest Yunnan. Biol. Conserv. 169:303-310.

Almeda, F., Alvear, M., and Mendoza, H. 2014. Two new species of Graffenrieda (Melastomataceae: Merianieae) from Colombia and Panama. Phytotaxa 163(1):39-47.

Almeida-Gomes, M., Lorini, M.L., Rocha, C.F.D., and Vieira, M.V. 2014. Underestimation of extinction threat to stream-dwelling amphibians due to lack of consideration of narrow area of occupancy. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):616-619.

Aluja, M., Sivinski, J., Van Driesche, R., Anzures-Dadda, A., and Guillén, L. 2014. Pest management through tropical tree conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):831-853.

Alvear, M., and Almeda, F. 2014. Three new species of Monochaetum (Melastomataceae) from Colombia. Phytotaxa 163(1):27-38.

Alves, D.M.C.C., and Brito, D. 2013. Priority mammals for biodiversity conservation in Brazil. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):558-583.

Ambarli, D., and Bilgin, C.C. 2014. Effects of landscape, land use and vegetation on bird community composition and diversity in Inner Anatolian steppes. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 182:37-46.

Ammunét, T., Klemola, T., and Parvinen, K. 2014. Consequences of asymmetric competition between resident and invasive defoliators: a novel empirically based modelling approach. Theor. Popul. Biol. 92:107-117.

Angeloni, F., Vergeer, P., Wagemaker, C.A.M., and Ouborg, N.J. 2014. Within and between population variation in inbreeding depression in the locally threatened perennial Scabiosa columbaria. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):331-342.

Arkle, R.S., Pilliod, D.S., Hanser, S.E., Brooks, M.L., Chambers, J.C., Grace, J.B., Knutson, K.C., Pyke, D.A., Welty, J.L., and Wirth, T.A. 2014. Quantifying restoration effectiveness using multi-scale habitat models: implications for sage-grouse in the Great Basin. Ecosphere 5(3):31.

Aslan, C.E., Pinsky, M.L., Ryan, M.E., Souther, S., and Terrell, K.A. 2014. Cultivating creativity in conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):345-353.

Aslan, C.E., Zavaleta, E.S., Tershy, B., Croll, D., and Robichaux, R.H. 2014. Imperfect replacement of native species by non-native species as pollinators of endemic Hawaiian plants. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):478-488.

Audino, L.D., Louzada, J., and Comita, L. 2014. Dung beetles as indicators of tropical forest restoration success: is it possible to recover species and functional diversity? Biol. Conserv. 169:248-257.

Awad, L., Fady, B., Khater, C., Roig, A., and Cheddadi, R. 2014. Genetic structure and diversity of the endangered fir tree of Lebanon (Abies cilicica Carr.): implications for conservation. PLoS ONE 9(2):e90086.

Aymerich, P., López-Alvarado, J., and Sáez, L. 2014. Primula subpyrenaica (Primulaceae) a new species from the Pyrenean range (south-western Europe). Phytotaxa 163(2):77-90.

Bajpai, D., and Inderjit. 2013. Impact of nitrogen availability and soil communities on biomass accumulation of an invasive species. AoB Plants 5:plt045.

Barea-Azcón, J.M., Benito, B.M., Olivares, F.J., Ruiz, H., Martín, J., García, A.L., and López, R. 2014. Distribution and conservation of the relict interaction between the butterfly Agriades zullichi and its larval foodplant (Androsace vitaliana nevadensis). Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):927-944.

Barnes, A.D., Emberson, R.M., Chapman, H.M., Krell, F.T., and Didham, R.K. 2014. Matrix habitat restoration alters dung beetle species responses across tropical forest edges. Biol. Conserv. 170:28-37.

Bassett, I.E. 2014. Impacts on invertebrate fungivores: a predictable consequence of ground-cover weed invasion? Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):791-810.

Baudron, F., and Giller, K.E. 2014. Agriculture and nature: trouble and strife? Biol. Conserv. 170:232-245.

Baulch, S., and Perry, C. 2014. Evaluating the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 80(1-2):210-221.

Bazin, É., Mathé-Hubert, H., Facon, B., Carlier, J., and Ravigné, V. 2014. The effect of mating system on invasiveness: some genetic load may be advantageous when invading new environments. Biol. Invasions 16(4):875-886.

Beever, E.A., Mattsson, B.J., Germino, M.J., Van Der Burg, M.P., Bradford, J.B., and Brunson, M.W. 2014. Successes and challenges from formation to implementation of eleven broad-extent conservation programs. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):302-314.

Belaire, J.A., Kreakie, B.J., Keitt, T., and Minor, E. 2014. Predicting and mapping potential whooping crane stopover habitat to guide site selection for wind energy projects. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):541-550.

Bell, J.J., Smith, D., Hannan, D., Haris, A., Jompa, J., and Thomas, L. 2014. Resilience to disturbance despite limited dispersal and self-recruitment in tropical barrel sponges: implications for conservation and management. PLoS ONE 9(3):e91635.

Bendell, L.I. 2014. Evidence for declines in the native Leukoma staminea as a result of the intentional introduction of the non-native Venerupis philippinarum in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Estuaries Coasts 37(2):369-380.

Benson, J.F., Patterson, B.R., and Mahoney, P.J. 2014. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone. Ecology 95(2):254-264.

Bergstrom, B.J., Arias, L.C., Davidson, A.D., Ferguson, A.W., Randa, L.A., and Sheffield, S.R. 2014. License to kill: reforming federal wildlife control to restore biodiversity and ecosystem function. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):131-142.

Bettigole, C.A., Donovan, T.M., Manning, R., and Austin, J. 2014. Normative standards for land use in Vermont: implications for biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 169:392-400.

Bettigole, C.A., Donovan, T.M., Manning, R., Austin, J., and Long, R. 2014. Acceptability of residential development in a regional landscape: potential effects on wildlife occupancy patterns. Biol. Conserv. 169:401-409.

Bhagabati, N.K., Ricketts, T., Sulistyawan, T.B.S., Conte, M., Ennaanay, D., Hadian, O., McKenzie, E., Olwero, N., Rosenthal, A., Tallis, H., and Wolny, S. 2014. Ecosystem services reinforce Sumatran tiger conservation in land use plans. Biol. Conserv. 169:147-156.

Bieber, A.G.D., Silva, P.S.D., Sendoya, S.F., and Oliveira, P.S. 2014. Assessing the impact of deforestation of the Atlantic rainforest on ant-fruit interactions: a field experiment using synthetic fruits. PLoS ONE 9(2):e90369.

Blaisdell, G.K., and Roy, B.A. 2014. Two tests of enemy release of commonly co-occurring bunchgrasses native in Europe and introduced in the United States. Biol. Invasions 16(4):833-842.

Blanco, M.A. 2014. Four new species of Lockhartia (Orchidaceae, Oncidiinae). Phytotaxa 162(3):134-146.

Blumenthal, D.M., Resco, V., Morgan, J.A., Williams, D.G., LeCain, D.R., Hardy, E.M., Pendall, E., and Bladyka, E. 2013. Invasive forb benefits from water savings by native plants and carbon fertilization under elevated CO2 and warming. New Phytol. 200(4):1156-1165.

Boessenkool, S., McGlynn, G., Epp, L.S., Taylor, D., Pimentel, M., Gizaw, A., Nemomissa, S., Brochmann, C., and Popp, M. 2014. Use of ancient sedimentary DNA as a novel conservation tool for high-altitude tropical biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):446-455.

Bogdanova, M.I., Wanless, S., Harris, M.P., Lindström, J., Butler, A., Newell, M.A., Sato, K., Watanuki, Y., Parsons, M., and Daunt, F. 2014. Among-year and within-population variation in foraging distribution of European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis over two decades: implications for marine spatial planning. Biol. Conserv. 170:292-299.

Bonnet, X., Brischoux, F., Bonnet, C., Plichon, P., and Fauvel, T. 2014. Coastal nurseries and their importance for conservation of sea kraits. PLoS ONE 9(3):e90246.

Boutilier, S.T., Taylor, S.A., Morris-Pocock, J.A., Lavoie, R.A., and Friesen, V.L. 2014. Evidence for genetic differentiation among Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) populations in North America. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):275-281.

Bowkett, A.E. 2014. Ex situ conservation planning is more complicated than prioritizing the keeping of threatened species in zoos. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):101-103.

Bowler, M., Anderson, M., Montes, D., Pérez, P., and Mayor, P. 2014. Refining reproductive parameters for modelling sustainability and extinction in hunted primate populations in the Amazon. PLoS ONE 9(4):e93625.

Braby, M.F., Bertelsmeier, C., Sanderson, C., and Thistleton, B.M. 2014. Spatial distribution and range expansion of the Tawny Coster butterfly, Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in South- East Asia and Australia. Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(2):132-143.

Brandt, P., Abson, D.J., DellaSala, D.A., Feller, R., and von Wehrden, H. 2014. Multifunctionality and biodiversity: ecosystem services in temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Biol. Conserv. 169:362-371.

Bregman, T.P., Sekercioglu, C.H., and Tobias, J.A. 2014. Global patterns and predictors of bird species responses to forest fragmentation: implications for ecosystem function and conservation. Biol. Conserv. 169:372-383.

Brickner, K.M., Grenier, M.B., Crosier, A.E., and Pauli, J.N. 2014. Foraging plasticity in a highly specialized carnivore, the endangered black-footed ferret. Biol. Conserv. 169:1-5.

Brown, M.L., Donovan, T.M., Schwenk, W.S., and Theobald, D.M. 2014. Predicting impacts of future human population growth and development on occupancy rates of forest-dependent birds. Biol. Conserv. 170:311-320.

Bruno, J.F., Precht, W.F., Vroom, P.S., and Aronson, R.B. 2014. Coral reef baselines: how much macroalgae is natural? Mar. Pollut. Bull. 80(1-2):24-29.

Bucklin, D.N., Watling, J.I., Speroterra, C., Brandt, L.A., Mazzotti, F.J., and Romanach, S.S. 2013. Climate downscaling effects on predictive ecological models: a case study for threatened and endangered vertebrates in the southeastern United States. Reg. Environ. Change 13:S57-S68.

Burch, S., Berry, P., and Sanders, M. 2014. Embedding climate change adaptation in biodiversity conservation: a case study of England. Environ. Sci. Policy 37:79-90.

Burgman, M.A., Regan, H.M., Maguire, L.A., Colyvan, M., Justus, J., Martin, T.G., and Rothley, K. 2014. Voting systems for environmental decisions. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):322-332.

Burrows, M.T., Schoeman, D.S., Richardson, A.J., Molinos, J.G., Hoffmann, A., Buckley, L.B., Moore, P.J., Brown, C.J., Bruno, J.F., Duarte, C.M., Halpern, B.S., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Kappel, C.V., Kiessling, W., O'Connor, M.I., Pandolfi, J.M., Parmesan, C., Sydeman, W., Ferrier, S., Williams, K.J., and Poloczanska, E.S. 2014. Geographical limits to species-range shifts are suggested by climate velocity. Nature 507(7493):492-495.

Büttger, H., Nehls, G., and Stoddard, P. 2014. The history of intertidal blue mussel beds in the North Frisian Wadden Sea in the 20th century: can we define reference conditions for conservation targets by analysing aerial photographs? J. Sea Res. 87:91-102.

Buxton, R.T., Jones, C., Moller, H., and Towns, D.R. 2014. Drivers of seabird population recovery on New Zealand islands after predator eradication. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):333-344.

Büyüktahtakin, I.E., Feng, Z., Olsson, A.D., Frisvold, G., and Szidarovszky, F. 2014. Invasive species control optimization as a dynamic spatial process: an application to buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) in Arizona. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):132-146.

Cadima, X., van Zonneveld, M., Scheldeman, X., Castaneda, N., Patino, F., Beltran, M., and Van Damme, P. 2014. Endemic wild potato (Solanum spp.) biodiversity status in Bolivia: reasons for conservation concerns. J. Nature Conserv. 22(2):113-131.

Cafaro, P., and Primack, R. 2014. Species extinction is a great moral wrong. Biol. Conserv. 170:1-2.

Cain, B., Wandera, A.B., Shawcross, S.G., Harris, W.E., Stevens-Wood, B., Kemp, S.J., Okita-Ouma, B., and Watts, P.C. 2014. Sex-biased inbreeding effects on reproductive success and home range size of the critically endangered black rhinoceros. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):594-603.

Cañadas, E.M., Fenu, G., Peñas, J., Lorite, J., Mattana, E., and Bacchetta, G. 2014. Hotspots within hotspots: endemic plant richness, environmental drivers, and implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 170:282-291.

Carnevali, G., Cetzal-Ix, W., and Balam, R. 2014. A new species of mule-ear oncidium with straw-yellow flowers (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae, Lophiaris) from central Panama. Phytotaxa 162(3):165-173.

Carson, E.W., De la Maza-Benignos, M., Lozano-Vilano, M.D., Vela-Valladares, L., Banda-Villanueva, I., and Turner, T.F. 2014. Conservation genetic assessment of the critically endangered Julimes pupfish, Cyprinodon julimes. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):483-488.

Carvalho-Sobrinho, J.G., Alverson, W.S., Mota, A.C., Machado, M.C., and Baum, D.A. 2014. A new deciduous species of Pachira (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae) from a seasonally dry tropical forest in northeastern Brazil. Syst. Bot. 39(1):260-267.

Casale, P., and Mariani, P. 2014. The first 'lost year' of Mediterranean sea turtles: dispersal patterns indicate subregional management units for conservation. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 498:263-274.

Casey, M.M., Dietl, G.P., Post, D.M., and Briggs, D.E.G. 2014. The impact of eutrophication and commercial fishing on molluscan communities in Long Island Sound, USA. Biol. Conserv. 170:137-144.

Cassano, C.R., Barlow, J., and Pardini, R. 2014. Forest loss or management intensification? Identifying causes of mammal decline in cacao agroforests. Biol. Conserv. 169:14-22.

Catenazzi, A., Lehr, E., and von May, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4):269-283.

Catenazzi, A., Lehr, E., and Vredenburg, V.T. 2014. Thermal physiology, disease, and amphibian declines on the eastern slopes of the Andes. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):509-517.

Cent, J., Grodzińska-Jurczak, M., and Pietrzyk-Kaszyńska, A. 2014. Emerging multilevel environmental governance - a case of public participation in Poland. J. Nature Conserv. 22(2):93-102.

Chambers, J.C., Eldredge, E.P., Snyder, K.A., Board, D.I., de Queiroz, T.F., and Hubbard, V. 2014. Restoring abandoned agricultural lands in cold desert shrublands: tradeoffs between water availability and invasive species. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):176-189.

Chan, H.K., Shoemaker, K.T., and Karraker, N.E. 2014. Demography of Quasipaa frogs in China reveals high vulnerability to widespread harvest pressure. Biol. Conserv. 170:3-9.

Chavarro, S.B., Mumby, P.J., and Golbuu, Y. 2014. Changes in the spear fishery of herbivores associated with closed grouper season in Palau, Micronesia. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):133-143.

Chen, L., Minter, D.W., Wang, S.J., and Lin, Y.R. 2013. Two new species of Rhytismataceae on fagaceous trees from Anhui, China. Mycotaxon 126:109-120.

Chetana, H.C., and Ganesh, T. 2013. Reconciling natural history and species ecology: Myristica beddomei (Myristicaceae) in the Western Ghats, India. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(5):663-673.

Chiatante, G., Brambilla, M., and Bogliani, G. 2014. Spatially explicit conservation issues for threatened bird species in Mediterranean farmland landscapes. J. Nature Conserv. 22(2):103-112.

Christianen, M.J.A., Herman, P.M.J., Bouma, T.J., Lamers, L.P.M., van Katwijk, M.M., van der Heide, T., Mumby, P.J., Silliman, B.R., Engelhard, S.L., de Kerk, M.V., Kiswara, W., and van de Koppel, J. 2014. Habitat collapse due to overgrazing threatens turtle conservation in marine protected areas. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1777):20132890.

Chung, M.Y., Nason, J.D., López-Pujol, J., Yamashiro, T., Yang, B.Y., Luo, Y.B., and Chung, M.G. 2014. Genetic consequences of fragmentation on populations of the terrestrial orchid Cymbidium goeringii. Biol. Conserv. 170:222-231.

Clavijo, L., and Clark, J.L. 2014. Drymonia crispa (Gesneriaceae), a new species from northwestern Colombia. Brittonia 66(1):65-69.

Coeurdassier, M., Riols, R., Decors, A., Mionnet, A., David, F., Quintaine, T., Truchetet, D., Scheifler, R., and Giraudoux, P. 2014. Unintentional wildlife poisoning and proposals for sustainable management of rodents. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):315-321.

Cook-Patton, S.C., LaForgia, M., and Parker, J.D. 2014. Positive interactions between herbivores and plant diversity shape forest regeneration. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1783):20140261.

Costa, K.G., and Netto, S.A. 2014. Effects of small-scale trawling on benthic communities of estuarine vegetated and non-vegetated habitats. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):1041-1055.

Courchamp, F., Hoffmann, B.D., Russell, J.C., Leclerc, C., and Bellard, C. 2014. Climate change, sea-level rise, and conservation: keeping island biodiversity afloat. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29(3):127-130.

Couto, R.S., Lopes, R.C., and Braga, J.M.A. 2014. Dioscorea sphaeroidea (Dioscoreaceae), a threatened new species from the high-altitude grasslands of southeastern Brazil with wingless seeds. Phytotaxa 163(4):229-234.

Couturier, T., Besnard, A., Bertolero, A., Bosc, V., Astruc, G., and Cheylan, M. 2014. Factors determining the abundance and occurrence of Hermann's tortoise Testudo hermanni in France and Spain: fire regime and landscape changes as the main drivers. Biol. Conserv. 170:177-187.

Crego, R.D., Didier, K.A., and Nielsen, C.K. 2014. Modeling meadow distribution for conservation action in arid and semi-arid Patagonia, Argentina. J. Arid Environ. 102:68-75.

Crous, C.J., Samways, M.J., and Pryke, J.S. 2014. Grasshopper assemblage response to surface rockiness in Afro-montane grasslands. Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(2):185-194.

Cuddington, K., Currie, W.J.S., and Koops, M.A. 2014. Could an Asian carp population establish in the Great Lakes from a small introduction? Biol. Invasions 16(4):903-917.

Czekes, Z., Markó, B., Nash, D.R., Ferencz, M., Lázár, B., and Rákosy, L. 2014. Differences in oviposition strategies between two ecotypes of the endangered myrmecophilous butterfly Maculinea alcon (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) under unique syntopic conditions. Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(2):122-131.

Czerepko, J., Gawryś, R., and Cieśla, A. 2014. Influence of forest management on protection status of spreading anemone Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. Sylwan 158(1):26-33.

da Silva, M.J., Sodré, R.C., and de Sales, M.F. 2014. A new species of Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Syst. Bot. 39(1):216-221.

Dainese, M., Kühn, I., and Bragazza, L. 2014. Alien plant species distribution in the European Alps: influence of species' climatic requirements. Biol. Invasions 16(4):815-831.

Dallimer, M., Tinch, D., Hanley, N., Irvine, K.N., Rouquette, J.R., Warren, P.H., Maltby, L., Gaston, K.J., and Armsworth, P.R. 2014. Quantifying preferences for the natural world using monetary and nonmonetary assessments of value. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):404-413.

Damschen, E.I., Baker, D.V., Bohrer, G., Nathan, R., Orrock, J.L., Turner, J.R., Brudvig, L.A., Haddad, N.M., Levey, D.J., and Tewksbury, J.J. 2014. How fragmentation and corridors affect wind dynamics and seed dispersal in open habitats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(9):3484-3489.

Danielsen, F., Jensen, P.M., Burgess, N.D., Altamirano, R., Alviola, P.A., Andrianandrasana, H., Brashares, J.S., Burton, A.C., Coronado, I., Corpuz, N., Enghoff, M., Fjeldså, J., Funder, M., Holt, S., Hübertz, H., Jensen, A.E., Lewis, R., Massao, J., Mendoza, M.M., Ngaga, Y., Pipper, C.B., Poulsen, M.K., Rueda, R.M., Sam, M.K., Skielboe, T., Sørensen, M., and Young, R. 2014. A multicountry assessment of tropical resource monitoring by local communities. BioScience 64(3):236-251.

Dávalos, L.M., Holmes, J.S., Rodríguez, N., and Armenteras, D. 2014. Demand for beef is unrelated to pasture expansion in northwestern Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 170:64-73.

Davy, C.M., Bernardo, P.H., and Murphy, R.W. 2014. A Bayesian approach to conservation genetics of Blanding's turtle (Emys blandingii) in Ontario, Canada. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):319-330.

De Barros, A.E., Macdonald, E.A., Matsumoto, M.H., Paula, R.C., Nijhawan, S., Malhi, Y., and Macdonald, D.W. 2014. Identification of areas in Brazil that optimize conservation of forest carbon, jaguars, and biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):580-593.

De Fraga, C.N., Fontana, A.P., and Kollmann, L.J.C. 2014. A new species of Prepusa (Helieae, Gentianaceae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, with an emended key for the genus. Phytotaxa 163(5):287-294.

De la Cruz, S.E.W., Eadie, J.M., Miles, A.K., Yee, J., Spragens, K.A., Palm, E.C., and Takekawa, J.Y. 2014. Resource selection and space use by sea ducks during the non-breeding season: implications for habitat conservation planning in urbanized estuaries. Biol. Conserv. 169:68-78.

Dee, L.E., Horii, S.S., and Thornhill, D.J. 2014. Conservation and management of ornamental coral reef wildlife: successes, shortcomings, and future directions. Biol. Conserv. 169:225-237.

Deikumah, J.P., McAlpine, C.A., and Maron, M. 2014. Mining matrix effects on West African rainforest birds. Biol. Conserv. 169:334-343.

Dibble, K.L., and Meyerson, L.A. 2014. The effects of plant invasion and ecosystem restoration on energy flow through salt marsh food webs. Estuaries Coasts 37(2):339-353.

Dick, J.T.A., Alexander, M.E., Jeschke, J.M., Ricciardi, A., MacIsaac, H.J., Robinson, T.B., Kumschick, S., Weyl, O.L.F., Dunn, A.M., Hatcher, M.J., Paterson, R.A., Farnsworth, K.D., and Richardson, D.M. 2014. Advancing impact prediction and hypothesis testing in invasion ecology using a comparative functional response approach. Biol. Invasions 16(4):735-753.

Dicks, L.V., Hodge, I., Randall, N.P., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Siriwardena, G.M., Smith, H.G., Smith, R.K., and Sutherland, W.J. 2014. A transparent process for "evidence-informed" policy making. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):119-125.

Doak, D.F., Bakker, V.J., Goldstein, B.E., and Hale, B. 2014. Moving forward with effective goals and methods for conservation: a reply to Marvier and Kareiva. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29(3):132-133.

Doak, D.F., Bakker, V.J., Goldstein, B.E., and Hale, B. 2014. What is the future of conservation? Trends Ecol. Evol. 29(2):77-81.

dos Santos, L.A.H., Ribeiro, F.V., and Creed, J.C. 2013. Antagonism between invasive pest corals Tubastraea spp. and the native reef-builder Mussismilia hispida in the southwest Atlantic. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 449:69-76.

Dougherty, R.F., Quinn, L.D., Endres, A.B., Voigt, T.B., and Barney, J.N. 2014. Natural history survey of the ornamental grass Miscanthus sinensis in the introduced range. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):113-120.

Douglas, L.R., and Winkel, G. 2014. The flipside of the flagship. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):979-997.

Durrant, H.M.S., Burridge, C.P., Kelaher, B.P., Barrett, N.S., Edgar, G.J., and Coleman, M.A. 2014. Implications of macroalgal isolation by distance for networks of marine protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):438-445.

Edwards, C.B., Friedlander, A.M., Green, A.G., Hardt, M.J., Sala, E., Sweatman, H.P., Williams, I.D., Zgliczynski, B., Sandin, S.A., and Smith, J.E. 2014. Global assessment of the status of coral reef herbivorous fishes: evidence for fishing effects. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1774):20131835.

Edwards, C.E., Lindsay, D.L., Bailey, P., and Lance, R.F. 2014. Patterns of genetic diversity in the rare Erigeron lemmoni and comparison with its more widespread congener, Erigeron arisolius (Asteraceae). Conserv. Genet. 15(2):419-428.

Edwards, F.A., Edwards, D.P., Larsen, T.H., Hsu, W.W., Benedick, S., Chung, A., Khen, C.V., Wilcove, D.S., and Hamer, K.C. 2014. Does logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture alter functional diversity in a biodiversity hotspot? Anim. Conserv. 17(2):163-173.

Eldridge, M.D.B., Meek, P.D., and Johnson, R.N. 2014. Taxonomic uncertainty and the loss of biodiversity on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):572-579.

Elkins, D., and Grossman, G.D. 2014. Invasive rainbow trout affect habitat use, feeding efficiency, and spatial organization of warpaint shiners. Biol. Invasions 16(4):919-933.

Estes, L.D., Paroz, L.L., Bradley, B.A., Green, J.M.H., Hole, D.G., Holness, S., Ziv, G., Oppenheimer, M.G., and Wilcove, D.S. 2014. Using changes in agricultural utility to quantify future climate-induced risk to conservation. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):427-437.

Estrada, A., and Butler, R. 2013. Multiple approaches to tropical conservation. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):I-II.

Fa, J.E., Gusset, M., Flesness, N., and Conde, D.A. 2014. Zoos have yet to unveil their full conservation potential. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):97-100.

Faist, A.M., Ferrenberg, S., and Collinge, S.K. 2013. Banking on the past: seed banks as a reservoir for rare and native species in restored vernal pools. AoB Plants 5:plt043.

Fattorini, S. 2014. Tenebrionid beetle distributional patterns in Italy: multiple colonisation trajectories in a biogeographical crossroad. Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(2):144-160.

Federman, S., Hyseni, C., Clement, W., Oatham, M.P., and Caccone, A. 2014. Habitat fragmentation and the genetic structure of the Amazonian palm Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (Arecaceae) on the island of Trinidad. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):355-362.

Feindt, W., Fincke, O., and Hadrys, H. 2014. Still a one species genus? Strong genetic diversification in the world's largest living odonate, the Neotropical damselfly Megaloprepus caerulatus. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):469-481.

Ferrari, J.R., Preisser, E.L., and Fitzpatrick, M.C. 2014. Modeling the spread of invasive species using dynamic network models. Biol. Invasions 16(4):949-960.

Ferraro, P.J., and Hanauer, M.M. 2014. Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(11):4332-4337.

Filardi, F.L.R., and de Lima, H.C. 2014. The diversity of Machaerium (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) in the Atlantic Forest: three new species, nomenclatural updates, and a revised key. Syst. Bot. 39(1):145-159.

Fisch, K.M., Mahardja, B., Burton, R.S., and May, B. 2014. Hybridization between delta smelt and two other species within the family Osmeridae in the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):489-494.

Frankham, R., Bradshaw, C.J.A., and Brook, B.W. 2014. Genetics in conservation management: revised recommendations for the 50/500 rules, Red List criteria and population viability analyses. Biol. Conserv. 170:56-63.

Frankham, R., Lacy, R.C., Ballou, J.D., Dudash, M.R., Eldridge, M.D.B., Fenster, C.B., Mendelson, J.R., Porton, I.J., Ralls, K., and Ryder, O.A. 2014. Species concepts for conservation - reply to Russello and Amato. Biol. Conserv. 170:334-335.

Freeman, B.G., and Freeman, A.M.C. 2014. Rapid upslope shifts in New Guinean birds illustrate strong distributional responses of tropical montane species to global warming. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(12):4490-4494.

Fujioka, E., Kot, C.Y., Wallace, B.P., Best, B.D., Moxley, J., Cleary, J., Donnelly, B., and Halpin, P.N. 2014. Data integration for conservation: Leveraging multiple data types to advance ecological assessments and habitat modeling for marine megavertebrates using OBIS-SEAMAP. Ecol. Inform. 20:13-26.

Furnell, J., and Hull, S.L. 2014. Cliff top habitats provide important alternative feeding resources for wading birds of conservation importance wintering on non-estuarine coasts. Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 139:119-126.

Gandiwa, E. 2013. Top-down and bottom-up control of large herbivore populations: a review of natural and human-induced influences. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):493-505.

García-Madrid, A.S., Molina, J.A., and Cantó, P. 2014. Classification of habitats highlights priorities for conservation policies: the case of Spanish Mediterranean tall humid herb grasslands. J. Nature Conserv. 22(2):142-156.

García-Marmolejo, G., Chapa-Vargas, L., Huber-Sannwald, E., Weber, M., Rosas-Rosas, O.C., and Martínez-Calderas, J. 2013. Potential distributional patterns of three wild ungulate species in a fragmented tropical region of northeastern Mexico. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):539-557.

Garratt, M.P.D., Coston, D.J., Truslove, C.L., Lappage, M.G., Polce, C., Dean, R., Biesmeijer, J.C., and Potts, S.G. 2014. The identity of crop pollinators helps target conservation for improved ecosystem services. Biol. Conserv. 169:128-135.

Gautier, L., Naciri, Y., Anderberg, A.A., Smedmark, J.E.E., Randrianaivo, R., and Swenson, U. 2013. A new species, genus and tribe of Sapotaceae, endemic to Madagascar. Taxon 62(5):972-983.

Gebiola, M., Lopez-Vaamonde, C., Nappo, A.G., and Bernardo, U. 2014. Did the parasitoid Pnigalio mediterraneus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) track the invasion of the horse chestnut leafminer? Biol. Invasions 16(4):843-857.

Gerber, L.R., Mancha-Cisneros, M.D., O'Connor, M.I., and Selig, E.R. 2014. Climate change impacts on connectivity in the ocean: implications for conservation. Ecosphere 5(3):33.

Giaretta, A., and De Fraga, C.N. 2014. Two new Eugenia species (Myrtaceae) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Phytotaxa 163(2):113-120.

Gill, A.M., Sharples, J., and Johnstone, G. 2014. Edge effects on between-fire interval in landscape fragments such as fire-prone terrestrial conservation reserves. Biol. Conserv. 169:54-59.

Gilpin, A.M., Ayre, D.J., and Denham, A.J. 2014. Can the pollination biology and floral ontogeny of the threatened Acacia carneorum explain its lack of reproductive success? Ecol. Res. 29(2):225-235.

Giordano, L., Gonthier, P., Lione, G., Capretti, P., and Garbelotto, M. 2014. The saprobic and fruiting abilities of the exotic forest pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare may explain its invasiveness. Biol. Invasions 16(4):803-814.

Glennon, M.J. 2014. Dynamics of boreal birds at the edge of their range in the Adirondack Park, NY. Northeastern Nat. 21(1):51-71.

Goldstein, L.J., and Suding, K.N. 2014. Intra-annual rainfall regime shifts competitive interactions between coastal sage scrub and invasive grasses. Ecology 95(2):425-435.

Gollan, J.R., Ramp, D., and Ashcroft, M.B. 2014. Assessing the distribution and protection status of two types of cool environment to facilitate their conservation under climate change. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):456-466.

Gonthier, D.J., and Castañeda , F.E. 2013. Large- and medium-sized mammal survey using camera traps in the Sikre River in the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve, Honduras. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):584-591.

González, B.A., Orozco-terWengel, P., von Borries, R., Johnson, W.E., Franklin, W.L., and Marín, J.C. 2014. Maintenance of genetic diversity in an introduced island population of guanacos after seven decades and two severe demographic bottlenecks: implications for camelid conservation. PLoS ONE 9(3):e91714.

González-Suárez, M., and Revilla, E. 2014. Generalized drivers in the mammalian endangerment process. PLoS ONE 9(2):e90292.

Gossner, M.M., Fonseca, C., Pašalić, E., Türke, M., Lange, M., and Weisser, W.W. 2014. Limitations to the use of arthropods as temperate forests indicators. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):945-962.

Graening, G.O., Shcherbanyuk, Y., and Arghandiwal, M. 2014. Annotated checklist of the Diplura (Hexapoda: Entognatha) of California. Zootaxa 3780(2):297-322.

Grange, Z.L., Van Andel, M., French, N.P., and Gartrell, B.D. 2014. Network analysis of translocated Takahe populations to identify disease surveillance targets. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):518-528.

Grayson, K.L., Mitchell, N.J., Monks, J.M., Keall, S.N., Wilson, J.N., and Nelson, N.J. 2014. Sex ratio bias and extinction risk in an isolated population of tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). PLoS ONE 9(4):e94214.

Hacking, J., Abom, R., and Schwarzkopf, L. 2014. Why do lizards avoid weeds? Biol. Invasions 16(4):935-947.

Halstead, B.J., Wylie, G.D., and Casazza, M.L. 2014. Ghost of habitat past: historic habitat affects the contemporary distribution of giant garter snakes in a modified landscape. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):144-153.

Hammond, P.S., Gillespie, D., Lovell, P., Samarra, F., Swift, R., Macleod, K., Tasker, M.L., Berggren, P., Borchers, D.L., Burt, L., Paxton, C.G.M., Cañadas, A., Desportes, G., Donovan, G.P., Gilles, A., Lehnert, K., Siebert, U., Gordon, J., Leaper, R., Leopold, M., Scheidat, M., Øien, N., Ridoux, V., Rogan, E., Skov, H., Teilmann, J., Van Canneyt, O., and Vázquez, J.A. 2014. Large scale surveys for cetaceans: line transect assumptions, reliability of abundance estimates and improving survey efficiency - a response to MacLeod. Biol. Conserv. 170:338-339.

Hanspach, J., Schweiger, O., Kühn, I., Plattner, M., Pearman, P.B., Zimmermann, N.E., and Settele, J. 2014. Host plant availability potentially limits butterfly distributions under cold environmental conditions. Ecography 37(3):301-308.

Hardy, P.B., Sparks, T.H., and Dennis, R.L.H. 2014. The impact of climatic change on butterfly geography: does climatic change produce coincident trends in populations, distributions and ranges? Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):855-876.

Harihar, A., Ghosh-Harihar, M., and MacMillan, D.C. 2014. Human resettlement and tiger conservation - socio-economic assessment of pastoralists reveals a rare conservation opportunity in a human-dominated landscape. Biol. Conserv. 169:167-175.

Hart, L.A., Bowker, M.B., Tarboton, W., and Downs, C.T. 2014. Species composition, distribution and habitat types of Odonata in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the associated conservation implications. PLoS ONE 9(3):e92588.

Harvey, C.A., Chacón, M., Donatti, C.I., Garen, E., Hannah, L., Andrade, A., Bede, L., Brown, D., Calle, A., Chará, J., Clement, C., Gray, E., Hoang, M.H., Minang, P., Rodríguez, A.M., Seeberg-Elverfeldt, C., Semroc, B., Shames, S., Smukler, S., Somarriba, E., Torquebiau, E., van Etten, J., and Wollenberg, E. 2014. Climate-smart landscapes: opportunities and challenges for integrating adaptation and mitigation in tropical agriculture. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):77-90.

Hawthorne, W.D. 2014. A new, endangered species of canopy tree from the evergreen forests of Ghana and Liberia, Synsepalum ntimii (Sapotaceae). Plant Ecol. Evol. 147(1):141-148.

Hedrick, P.W. 2014. Conservation genetics and the persistence and translocation of small populations: bighorn sheep populations as examples. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):106-114.

Heiden, G., Leoni, L.D., and Nakajima, J.N. 2014. Baccharis magnifica (Asteraceae, Astereae): a striking new species endemic to the summits of Serra do Caparaó, southeastern Brazil. Phytotaxa 162(4):211-216.

Hess, J.E., and Matala, A.P. 2014. Archival genetic analysis suggests recent immigration has altered a population of Chinook salmon in an unsupplemented wilderness area. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):387-403.

Hill, M.P., and Terblanche, J.S. 2014. Niche overlap of congeneric invaders supports a single-species hypothesis and provides insight into future invasion risk: implications for global management of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex. PLoS ONE 9(2):e90121.

Hôrková, K., and Kováč, V. 2014. Different life-histories of native and invasive Neogobius melanostomus and the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in the species' invasion success. Knowl. Manag. Aquat. Ecosyst. 412:01.

Iftekhar, M.S., Tisdell, J.G., and Gilfedder, L. 2014. Private lands for biodiversity conservation: review of conservation covenanting programs in Tasmania, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 169:176-184.

Isaac, B., White, J., Ierodiaconou, D., and Cooke, R. 2014. Simplification of arboreal marsupial assemblages in response to increasing urbanization. PLoS ONE 9(3):e91049.

James, E.A., and Jordan, R. 2014. Limited structure and widespread diversity suggest potential buffers to genetic erosion in a threatened grassland shrub Pimelea spinescens (Thymelaeaceae). Conserv. Genet. 15(2):305-317.

Janecka, J.E., Tewes, M.E., Laack, L., Caso, A., Grassman, L.I., and Honeycutt, R.L. 2014. Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions. PLoS ONE 9(2):e89384.

Jellinek, S., Rumpff, L., Driscoll, D.A., Parris, K.M., and Wintle, B.A. 2014. Modelling the benefits of habitat restoration in socio-ecological systems. Biol. Conserv. 169:60-67.

Jensen, E.L., Govindarajulu, P., and Russello, M.A. 2014. When the shoe doesn't fit: applying conservation unit concepts to western painted turtles at their northern periphery. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):261-274.

Jiménez, J.E., Crego, R.D., Soto, G.E., Román, I., Rozzi, R., and Vergara, P.M. 2014. Potential impact of the Alien American Mink (Neovison vison) on Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) in Navarino Island, Southern Chile. Biol. Invasions 16(4):961-966.

Juárez, L., Montaña, C., and Franco, M. 2014. The viability of two populations of the terrestrial orchid Cyclopogon luteoalbus in a fragmented tropical mountain cloud forest: dormancy delays extinction. Biol. Conserv. 170:162-168.

Jusu, A., and Sanchez, A.C. 2014. Medicinal plant trade in Sierra Leone: threats and opportunities for conservation. Econ. Bot. 68(1):16-29.

Kaczensky, P., Adiya, Y., von Wehrden, H., Mijiddorj, B., Walzer, C., Guthlin, D., Enkhbileg, D., and Reading, R.P. 2014. Space and habitat use by wild Bactrian camels in the Transaltai Gobi of southern Mongolia. Biol. Conserv. 169:311-318.

Kaeriyama, M., Seo, H., and Qin, Y.X. 2014. Effect of global warming on the life history and population dynamics of Japanese chum salmon. Fish. Sci. 80(2):251-260.

Kajiki, L.N., Togura, C.M., and Michalski, F. 2013. First record of Tigrisoma fasciatum (Such, 1825) (Aves: Ardeidae) in the State of Amapá, Brazil and updated species distribution in Central and South America. Biota Neotrop. 13(4):385-390.

Kalisz, S., Spigler, R.B., and Horvitz, C.C. 2014. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(12):4501-4506.

Kelm, D.H. 2014. Not every box makes a suitable bat roost for supporting forest recovery - reply to Reid et al. 2013. Biol. Conserv. 170:329.

Kilburn, S.L., Taylor, C.A., and Schuster, G.A. 2014. Conservation assessment and habitat notes for three rare Alabama crayfishes: Cambarus cracens, Cambarus scotti, and Cambarus unestami. Southeast. Nat. 13(1):108-118.

Kitamura, S., and Poonswad, P. 2013. Nutmeg-vertebrate interactions in the Asia-Pacific region: importance of frugivores for seed dispersal in Myristicaceae. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(5):608-636.

Kleist, A., Herrera-Reddy, A.M., Sforza, R., and Jasieniuk, M. 2014. Inferring the complex origins of horticultural invasives: French broom in California. Biol. Invasions 16(4):887-901.

Klooster, W.S., Herms, D.A., Knight, K.S., Herms, C.P., McCullough, D.G., Smith, A., Gandhi, K.J.K., and Cardina, J. 2014. Ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality, regeneration, and seed bank dynamics in mixed hardwood forests following invasion by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis). Biol. Invasions 16(4):859-873.

Kolby, J.E. 2014. Presence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native amphibians exported from Madagascar. PLoS ONE 9(3):e89660.

Kormos, C.F., and Zimmerman, B.L. 2014. Response to: Putz et al., Sustaining conservation values in selectively logged tropical forests: the attained and the attainable. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):143-144.

Krigas, N., Menteli, V., and Vokou, D. 2014. The electronic trade in Greek endemic plants: biodiversity, commercial and legal aspects. Econ. Bot. 68(1):85-95.

Kueffer, C., and Kaiser-Bunbury, C.N. 2014. Reconciling conflicting perspectives for biodiversity conservation in the Anthropocene. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12(2):131-137.

Kuiper, T.R., and Parker, D.M. 2014. Elephants in Africa: big, grey biodiversity thieves? S. Afr. J. Sci. 110(3-4):7-9.

Kunz, M., Buchanan, M.F., Randall, J.L., Wall, W.A., and Hohmann, M.G. 2014. Life cycle, vegetative propagation, and reintroduction of federally endangered rough-leaved loosestrife, Lysimachia asperulifolia. Castanea 79(1):18-26.

Kurz, D.J., Nowakowski, A.J., Tingley, M.W., Donnelly, M.A., and Wilcove, D.S. 2014. Forest-land use complementarity modifies community structure of a tropical herpetofauna. Biol. Conserv. 170:246-255.

La Porte, N., Koper, N., and Leston, L. 2014. Assessing the breeding success of the western grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) after 40 years of environmental changes at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Waterbirds 37(1):30-42.

Lacroix, G.L. 2014. Large pelagic predators could jeopardize the recovery of endangered Atlantic salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 71(3):343-350.

Lambertucci, S.A., Alarcón, P.A.E., Hiraldo, F., Sanchez-Zapata, J.A., Blanco, G., and Donázar, J.A. 2014. Apex scavenger movements call for transboundary conservation policies. Biol. Conserv. 170:145-150.

Lambrick, F.H., Brown, N.D., Lawrence, A., and Bebber, D.P. 2014. Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long forest, Cambodia. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):372-381.

Larson, W.A., Seeb, L.W., Everett, M.V., Waples, R.K., Templin, W.D., and Seeb, J.E. 2014. Genotyping by sequencing resolves shallow population structure to inform conservation of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Evol. Appl. 7(3):355-369.

Laurance, W.F., Sayer, J., and Cassman, K.G. 2014. Agricultural expansion and its impacts on tropical nature. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29(2):107-116.

Lawson, C.R., Bennie, J.J., Thomas, C.D., Hodgson, J.A., and Wilson, R.J. 2014. Active management of protected areas enhances metapopulation expansion under climate change. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):111-118.

Le, H.D., Smith, C., and Herbohn, J. 2014. What drives the success of reforestation projects in tropical developing countries? The case of the Philippines. Global Environ. Change 24:334-348.

Leffler, A.J., James, J.J., Monaco, T.A., and Sheley, R.L. 2014. A new perspective on trait differences between native and invasive exotic plants. Ecology 95(2):298-305.

Leger, E.A., Goergen, E.M., and de Queiroz, T.F. 2014. Can native annual forbs reduce Bromus tectorum biomass and indirectly facilitate establishment of a native perennial grass? J. Arid Environ. 102:9-16.

Lembrechts, J.J., Milbau, A., and Nijs, I. 2014. Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. PLoS ONE 9(2):e89664.

Lesbarrères, D., Ashpole, S.L., Bishop, C.A., Blouin-Demers, G., Brooks, R.J., Echaubard, P., Govindarajulu, P., Green, D.M., Hecnar, S.J., Herman, T., Houlahan, J., Litzgus, J.D., Mazerolle, M.J., Paszkowski, C.A., Rutherford, P., Schock, D.M., Storey, K.B., and Lougheed, S.C. 2014. Conservation of herpetofauna in northern landscapes: threats and challenges from a Canadian perspective. Biol. Conserv. 170:48-55.

Levri, E.P., Krist, A.C., Bilka, R., and Dybdahl, M.F. 2014. Phenotypic plasticity of the introduced New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, compared to sympatric native snails. PLoS ONE 9(4):e93985.

Li, A.Y., Williams, N., Fenwick, S.G., Hardy, G.E.S., and Adams, P.J. 2014. Potential for dissemination of Phytophthora cinnamomi by feral pigs via ingestion of infected plant material. Biol. Invasions 16(4):765-774.

Li, F., Kwon, Y.S., Bae, M.J., Chung, N., Kwon, T.S., and Park, Y.S. 2014. Potential impacts of global warming on the diversity and distribution of stream insects in South Korea. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):498-508.

Li, L.L., and Jiang, Z.G. 2014. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China. PLoS ONE 9(2):e85012.

Liao, S.X., Cui, K., Wan, Y.M., Zhou, Z.S., Li, Z.H., Cui, Y.Z., and Zhang, P. 2014. Reproductive biology of the endangered cypress Calocedrus macrolepis. Nord. J. Bot. 32(1):98-105.

Liira, J., Jürjendal, I., and Paal, J. 2014. Do forest plants conform to the theory of island biogeography: the case study of bog islands. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):1019-1039.

Lindborg, R., Plue, J., Andersson, K., and Cousins, S.A.O. 2014. Function of small habitat elements for enhancing plant diversity in different agricultural landscapes. Biol. Conserv. 169:206-213.

Lindfield, S.J., McIlwain, J.L., and Harvey, E.S. 2014. Depth refuge and the impacts of SCUBA spearfishing on coral reef fishes. PLoS ONE 9(3):e92628.

Lisein, J., Linchant, J., Lejeune, P., Bouché, P., and Vermeulen, C. 2013. Aerial surveys using an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS): comparison of different methods for estimating the surface area of sampling strips. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):506-520.

Litkowiec, M., Plitta, B.P., and Lewandowski, A. 2013. Importance of genetic variation for conservation of English yew genetic resources in Europe. Sylwan 157(10):754-760.

Lõhmus, A., and Runnel, K. 2014. Ash dieback can rapidly eradicate isolated epiphyte populations in production forests: a case study. Biol. Conserv. 169:185-188.

Lohr, C.A., and Lepczyk, C.A. 2014. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):392-403.

Lorence, D.H., Wood, K.R., and Aguraiuja, R. 2013. Taxonomic reassessment and conservation status of three Kaua'i species of Asplenium in the Diellia alliance. Am. Fern J. 103(3):166-174.

Lovich, J.E., Yackulic, C.B., Freilich, J., Agha, M., Austin, M., Meyer, K.P., Arundel, T.R., Hansen, J., Vamstad, M.S., and Root, S.A. 2014. Climatic variation and tortoise survival: has a desert species met its match? Biol. Conserv. 169:214-224.

Lucardi, R.D., Wallace, L.E., and Ervin, G.N. 2014. Invasion success in cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica): a population genetic approach exploring genetic diversity and historical introductions. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):59-75.

Lucey, J.M., Tawatao, N., Senior, M.J.M., Khen, C.V., Benedick, S., Hamer, K.C., Woodcock, P., Newton, R.J., Bottrell, S.H., and Hill, J.K. 2014. Tropical forest fragments contribute to species richness in adjacent oil palm plantations. Biol. Conserv. 169:268-276.

Lund, H.G. 2014. What is a forest? Definitions do make a difference - An example from Turkey. Avrasya Terim Dergisi 2(1):1-8.

Lusini, I., Velichkov, I., Pollegioni, P., Chiocchini, F., Hinkov, G., Zlatanov, T., Cherubini, M., and Mattioni, C. 2014. Estimating the genetic diversity and spatial structure of Bulgarian Castanea sativa populations by SSRs: implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):283-293.

MacKay, A., Allard, M., and Villard, M.A. 2014. Capacity of older plantations to host bird assemblages of naturally-regenerated conifer forests: a test at stand and landscape levels. Biol. Conserv. 170:110-119.

MacLeod, C.D. 2014. One size does not necessarily fit all for cetacean abundance estimate survey design - reply to Hammond. Biol. Conserv. 170:336-337.

Magris, R.A., Pressey, R.L., Weeks, R., and Ban, N.C. 2014. Integrating connectivity and climate change into marine conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 170:207-221.

Marceniuk, A.P., Caires, R.A., Wosiacki, W.B., and Di Dario, F. 2013. Knowledge and conservation of the marine and estuarine fishes (Chondrichthyes and Teleostei) of the north coast of Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 13(4):251-259.

Marioni, B., Botero-Arias, R., and Fonseca-Junior, S.F. 2013. Local community involvement as a basis for sustainable crocodilian management in Protected Areas of Central Amazonia: problem or solution? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):484-492.

Marlor, K.M., Webster, C.R., and Chimner, R.A. 2014. Disturbance and wetland type alter reed canarygrass cover in northern Michigan. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):121-131.

Martin, T.E., and Blackburn, G.A. 2014. Conservation value of secondary forest habitats for endemic birds, a perspective from two widely separated tropical ecosystems. Ecography 37(3):250-260.

Martin, T.E., Lurbiecki, H., Joy, J.B., and Mooers, A.O. 2014. Mammal and bird species held in zoos are less endemic and less threatened than their close relatives not held in zoos. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):89-96.

Martin, T.E., Lurbiecki, H., and Mooers, A.O. 2014. The economic geography of ex situ conservation. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):104-105.

Marvier, M., and Kareiva, P. 2014. The evidence and values underlying 'new conservation'. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29(3):131-132.

Mascia, M.B., Pallier, S., Krithivasan, R., Roshchanka, V., Burns, D., Mlotha, M.J., Murray, D.R., and Peng, N.Y. 2014. Protected area downgrading; downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, 1900-2010. Biol. Conserv. 169:355-361.

Mascia, M.B., Pallier, S., Thieme, M.L., Rowe, A., Bottrill, M.C., Danielsen, F., Geldmann, J., Naidoo, R., Pullin, A.S., and Burgess, N.D. 2014. Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation. Biol. Conserv. 169:258-267.

Mashayekhi, M., MacPherson, B., and Gras, R. 2014. A machine learning approach to investigate the reasons behind species extinction. Ecol. Inform. 20:58-66.

Mastrangelo, M.E., Gavin, M.C., Laterra, P., Linklater, W.L., and Milfont, T.L. 2014. Psycho-social factors influencing forest conservation intentions on the agricultural frontier. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):103-110.

Mayaka, T.B., Awah, H.C., and Ajonina, G. 2013. Conservation status of manatee (Trichechus senegalensis Link 1795) in Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon: an ethnobiological assessment. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):521-538.

McCaffery, R.M., Eby, L.A., Maxell, B.A., and Corn, P.S. 2014. Breeding site heterogeneity reduces variability in frog recruitment and population dynamics. Biol. Conserv. 170:169-176.

McCallum, J.W., Rowcliffe, J.M., and Cuthill, I.C. 2014. Conservation on international boundaries: the impact of security barriers on selected terrestrial mammals in four protected areas in Arizona, USA. PLoS ONE 9(4):e93679.

McCallum, M.L., and Bury, G.W. 2014. Public interest in the environment is falling: a response to Ficetola (2013). Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):1057-1062.

McClanahan, T.R., Ateweberhan, M., Darling, E.S., Graham, N.A.J., and Muthiga, N.A. 2014. Biogeography and change among regional coral communities across the western Indian Ocean. PLoS ONE 9(4):e93385.

McCleery, R., Hostetler, J.A., and Oli, M.K. 2014. Better off in the wild? Evaluating a captive breeding and release program for the recovery of an endangered rodent. Biol. Conserv. 169:198-205.

McClellan, C.M., Brereton, T., Dell'Amico, F., Johns, D.G., Cucknell, A.C., Patrick, S.C., Penrose, R., Ridoux, V., Solandt, J.L., Stephan, E., Votier, S.C., Williams, R., and Godley, B.J. 2014. Understanding the distribution of marine megafauna in the English Channel region: identifying key habitats for conservation within the busiest seaway on earth. PLoS ONE 9(2):e89720.

McCusker, M.R., Mandrak, N.E., Egeh, B., and Lovejoy, N.R. 2014. Population structure and conservation genetic assessment of the endangered Pugnose Shiner, Notropis anogenus. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):343-353.

Ménard, N., Foulquier, A., Vallet, D., Qarro, M., Le Gouar, P., and Pierre, J.S. 2014. How tourism and pastoralism influence population demographic changes in a threatened large mammal species. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):115-124.

Mendoza, A.M., and Arita, H.T. 2014. Priority setting by sites and by species using rarity, richness and phylogenetic diversity: the case of neotropical glassfrogs (Anura: Centrolenidae). Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):909-926.

Miller, C.S., Hebblewhite, M., Petrunenko, Y.K., Seryodkin, I.V., Goodrich, J.M., and Miquelle, D.G. 2014. Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) energetic requirements: implications for conserving wild tigers. Biol. Conserv. 170:120-129.

Miller, D.L., Thetford, M., Dupree, J., and Atwood, L. 2014. Influence of seasonal changes and shifting substrate on survival of restoration plantings of Schizachyrium maritimum (Gulf bluestem) on Santa Rosa Island, Florida. J. Coastal Res. 30(2):237-247.

Miller, N.A., Chen, X., and Stillman, J.H. 2014. Metabolic physiology of the invasive clam, Potamocorbula amurensis: the interactive role of temperature, salinity, and food availability. PLoS ONE 9(3):e91064.

Mills, M., Álvarez-Romero, J.G., Vance-Borland, K., Cohen, P., Pressey, R.L., Guerrero, A.M., and Ernstson, H. 2014. Linking regional planning and local action: towards using social network analysis in systematic conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 169:6-13.

Miranda, N.A.F., and Perissinotto, R. 2014. Benthic assemblages of wetlands invaded by Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) (Caenogastropoda: Thiaridae) in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa. Moll. Res. 34(1):40-48.

Moilanen, A., Laitila, J., Vaahtoranta, T., Dicks, L.V., and Sutherland, W.J. 2014. Structured analysis of conservation strategies applied to temporary conservation. Biol. Conserv. 170:188-197.

Molnár, A., Popiela, A., and Lukács, B.A. 2014. Elatine gussonei (Sommier) Brullo et al. (Elatinaceae) in Sicily. Plant Biosyst. 148(1):27-30.

Moran, C., and Catterall, C.P. 2014. Responses of seed-dispersing birds to amount of rainforest in the landscape around fragments. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):551-560.

Morato, R.G., Ferraz, K.M.P.M.D., de Paula, R.C., and de Campos, C.B. 2014. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil. PLoS ONE 9(4):e92950.

Moroń, D., Szentgyörgyi, H., Skórka, P., Potts, S.G., and Woyciechowski, M. 2014. Survival, reproduction and population growth of the bee pollinator, Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), along gradients of heavy metal pollution. Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(2):113-121.

Moser, B., and Thompson, K. 2014. Self-incompatibility will slow climate driven northward shift of two dominants of calcareous grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 169:297-302.

Mota, N.F.O., and Wanderley, M.G.L. 2014. Three new species of Xyris (Xyridaceae) from Diamantina Plateau in Brazil, Minas Gerais. Brittonia 66(1):42-50.

Moulherat, S., Delmas, V., Slimani, T., El Mouden, E., Louzizi, T., Lagarde, F., and Bonnet, X. 2014. How far can a tortoise walk in open habitat before overheating? Implications for conservation. J. Nature Conserv. 22(2):186-192.

Moura, A.E., Tsingarska, E., Dąbrowski, M.J., Czarnomska, S.D., Jędrzejewska, B., and Pilot, M. 2014. Unregulated hunting and genetic recovery from a severe population decline: the cautionary case of Bulgarian wolves. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):405-417.

Muller, J., Jarzabek-Müller, A., Bussler, H., and Gossner, M.M. 2014. Hollow beech trees identified as keystone structures for saproxylic beetles by analyses of functional and phylogenetic diversity. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):154-162.

Muster, C., Meyer, M., and Sattler, T. 2014. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen. PLoS ONE 9(3):e90474.

Nackoney, J., Molinario, G., Potapov, P., Turubanova, S., Hansen, M.C., and Furuichi, T. 2014. Impacts of civil conflict on primary forest habitat in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1990-2010. Biol. Conserv. 170:321-328.

Nawaz, M.A., Martin, J., and Swenson, J.E. 2014. Identifying key habitats to conserve the threatened brown bear in the Himalaya. Biol. Conserv. 170:198-206.

Nazareno, A.G., and dos Reis, M.S. 2014. Where did they come from? Genetic diversity and forensic investigation of the threatened palm species Butia eriospatha. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):441-452.

Negrete, L., Colpo, K.D., and Brusa, F. 2014. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior Atlantic Forest: implications for conservation. PLoS ONE 9(3):e90513.

Ng, C.F., Possingham, H.P., McAlpine, C.A., de Villiers, D.L., Preece, H.J., and Rhodes, J.R. 2014. Impediments to the success of management actions for species recovery. PLoS ONE 9(4):e92430.

Ng, J., Clemann, N., Chapple, S.N.J., and Melville, J. 2014. Phylogeographic evidence links the threatened 'Grampians' Mountain Dragon (Rankinia diemensis Grampians) with Tasmanian populations: conservation implications in south-eastern Australia. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):363-373.

Nguyen, T.T., Koellner, T., Le, Q.B., Lambini, C.K., Choi, I., Shin, H.J., and Pham, V.D. 2014. An economic analysis of reforestation with a native tree species: the case of Vietnamese farmers. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):811-830.

Nielsen, M.R., Jacobsen, J.B., and Thorsen, B.J. 2014. Factors determining the choice of hunting and trading bushmeat in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):382-391.

Nitzu, E., Nae, A., Băncilă, R., Popa, I., Giurginca, A., and Plăiaşu, R. 2014. Scree habitats: ecological function, species conservation and spatial-temporal variation in the arthropod community. Syst. Biodivers. 12(1):65-75.

Noga, T., Peszek, Stanek-Tarkowska, J., and Pajączek, A. 2014. The Pinnularia genus in south-eastern Poland with consideration of rare and new taxa to Poland. Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 43(1):77-99.

Novaes, R.L.M., and Souza, R.D. 2013. Legalizing environmental exploitation in Brazil: the retreat of public policies for biodiversity protection. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):477-483.

Odman, A.M., and Olsson, P.A. 2014. Conservation of sandy calcareous grassland: what can be learned from the land use history? PLoS ONE 9(3):e90998.

Odom, R.L., Solomon, J.A., and Walters, L.J. 2014. Alternatives to release: efficient methods for disposal of excess or unwanted aquarium macro algae in the genus Chaetomorpha. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):76-83.

Oduor, A.M.O. 2013. Evolutionary responses of native plant species to invasive plants: a review. New Phytol. 200(4):986-992.

Olah, G., Vigo, G., Heinsohn, R., and Brightsmith, D.J. 2014. Nest site selection and efficacy of artificial nests for breeding success of Scarlet Macaws Ara macao macao in lowland Peru. J. Nature Conserv. 22(2):176-185.

Olmedo-Cobo, J.A., and Gómez-Zotano, J. 2014. The yew in southern Spain: geo-ecological analysis and proposal of conservation of a critically endangered Mediterranean population. Bosque 35(1):23-36.

Olson, L.E., Sauder, J.D., Albrecht, N.M., Vinkey, R.S., Cushman, S.A., and Schwartz, M.K. 2014. Modeling the effects of dispersal and patch size on predicted fisher (Pekania [Martes] pennanti) distribution in the US Rocky Mountains. Biol. Conserv. 169:89-98.

Ortega, Y.K., Benson, A., and Greene, E. 2014. Invasive plant erodes local song diversity in a migratory passerine. Ecology 95(2):458-465.

Otto, C.R.V., Roloff, G.J., and Thames, R.E. 2014. Comparing population patterns to processes: abundance and survival of a forest salamander following habitat degradation. PLoS ONE 9(4):e93859.

Palomo, I., Montes, C., Martín-López, B., González, J.A., García-Llorente, M., Alcorlo, P., and Mora, M.R.G. 2014. Incorporating the social-ecological approach in protected areas in the Anthropocene. BioScience 64(3):181-191.

Pan, D., Song, Y.L., Zeng, Z.G., and Bravery, B.D. 2014. Habitat selection by Eld's deer following relocation to a patchy landscape. PLoS ONE 9(3):e91158.

Papavlasopoulou, I., Vardakas, L., Perdikaris, C., Kommatas, D., and Paschos, I. 2014. Ornamental fish in pet stores in Greece: a threat to biodiversity? Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 15(1):126-134.

Parepa, M., Fischer, M., Krebs, C., and Bossdorf, O. 2014. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success. Evol. Appl. 7(3):413-420.

Parsons, E.C.M., Shiffman, D.S., Darling, E.S., Spillman, N., and Wright, A.J. 2014. How twitter literacy can benefit conservation scientists. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):299-301.

Pe'er, G., Tsianou, M.A., Franz, K.W., Matsinos, Y.G., Mazaris, A.D., Storch, D., Kopsova, L., Verboom, J., Baguette, M., Stevens, V.M., and Henle, K. 2014. Toward better application of minimum area requirements in conservation planning. Biol. Conserv. 170:92-102.

Pena, J.C.D., Kamino, L.H.Y., Rodrigues, M., Mariano-Neto, E., and de Siqueira, M.F. 2014. Assessing the conservation status of species with limited available data and disjunct distribution. Biol. Conserv. 170:130-136.

Pereira-Garbero, R., Barreneche, J.M., Laufer, G., Achaval, F., and Arim, M. 2013. Invasive mammals in Uruguay, history, perspectives and consequences. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 86(4):403-421.

Peters, J.A., Cooper, M.J., Creque, S.M., Kornis, M.S., Maxted, J.T., Perry, W.L., Schueler, F.W., Simon, T.P., Taylor, C.A., Thoma, R.F., Uzarski, D.G., and Lodge, D.M. 2014. Historical changes and current status of crayfish diversity and distribution in the Laurentian Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes Res. 40(1):35-46.

Peters, V.E. 2014. Intercropping with shrub species that display a 'steady-state' flowering phenology as a strategy for biodiversity conservation in tropical agroecosystems. PLoS ONE 9(3):e90510.

Phillips, R.D., Peakall, R., Hutchinson, M.F., Linde, C.C., Xu, T.B., Dixon, K.W., and Hopper, S.D. 2014. Specialized ecological interactions and plant species rarity: the role of pollinators and mycorrhizal fungi across multiple spatial scales. Biol. Conserv. 169:285-295.

Pittman, S.E., Hart, K.M., Cherkiss, M.S., Snow, R.W., Fujisaki, I., Smith, B.J., Mazzotti, F.J., and Dorcas, M.E. 2014. Homing of invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida: evidence for map and compass senses in snakes. Biol. Lett. 10(3):20140040.

Pittman, S.E., Osbourn, M.S., and Semlitsch, R.D. 2014. Movement ecology of amphibians: a missing component for understanding population declines. Biol. Conserv. 169:44-53.

Pool, D.B., Panjabi, A.O., Macias-Duarte, A., and Solhjem, D.M. 2014. Rapid expansion of croplands in Chihuahua, Mexico threatens declining North American grassland bird species. Biol. Conserv. 170:274-281.

Porolak, G., Dabek, L., and Krockenberger, A.K. 2014. Spatial requirements of free-ranging Huon tree kangaroos, Dendrolagus matschiei (Macropodidae), in upper montane forest. PLoS ONE 9(3):e91870.

Porter, K.M., DePerno, C.S., Krings, A., Krachey, M., and Braham, R. 2014. Vegetative impact of feral horses, feral pigs, and white-tailed deer on the Currituck National Wildlife Refuge, North Carolina. Castanea 79(1):8-17.

Prunier, J.G., Kaufmann, B., Léna, J.P., Fenet, S., Pompanon, F., and Joly, P. 2014. A 40-year-old divided highway does not prevent gene flow in the alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):453-468.

Putz, F.E., Zuidema, P.A., Synnott, T., Peña-Claros, M., Pinard, M.A., Sheil, D., Vanclay, J.K., Sist, P., Gourlet-Fleury, S., Palmer, J., Zagt, R., and Griscom, B. 2014. A more realistic portrayal of tropical forestry: response to Kormos and Zimmerman. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):145-146.

Puyravaud, J.P., and Davidar, P. 2013. The Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve: an unrealized vision for conservation. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(4):468-476.

Queenborough, S.A., Humphreys, A.M., and Valencia, R. 2013. Sex-specific flowering patterns and demography of the understorey rain forest tree Iryanthera hostmannii (Myristicaceae). Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(5):637-652.

Radchuk, V., Johst, K., Groeneveld, J., Turlure, C., Grimm, V., and Schtickzelle, N. 2014. Appropriate resolution in time and model structure for population viability analysis: insights from a butterfly metapopulation. Biol. Conserv. 169:345-354.

Radespiel, U., and Bruford, M.W. 2014. Fragmentation genetics of rainforest animals: insights from recent studies. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):245-260.

Radford, I.J., Dickman, C.R., Start, A.N., Palmer, C., Carnes, K., Everitt, C., Fairman, R., Graham, G., Partridge, T., and Thomson, A. 2014. Mammals of Australia's tropical savannas: a conceptual model of assemblage structure and regulatory factors in the Kimberley region. PLoS ONE 9(3):e92341.

Ranius, T., Caruso, A., Jonsell, M., Juutinen, A., Thor, G., and Rudolphi, J. 2014. Dead wood creation to compensate for habitat loss from intensive forestry. Biol. Conserv. 169:277-284.

Rédei, T., Szitár, K., Czúcz, B., Barabás, S., Lellei-Kovács, E., Pándi, I., Somay, L., and Csecserits, A. 2014. Weak evidence of long-term extinction debt in Pannonian dry sand grasslands. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 182:137-143.

Redford, K.H. 2014. Augury and the ambassadors from the near edge of tomorrow. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):75-76.

Reid, D.G. 2014. The genus Cerithidea Swainson, 1840 (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in the Indo-West Pacific region. Zootaxa 3775(1):1-65.

Reid, D.G., and Claremont, M. 2014. The genus Cerithideopsis Thiele, 1929 (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in the Indo-West Pacific region. Zootaxa 3779(1):61-80.

Reid, J.L., Holste, E.K., Holl, K.D., and Zahawi, R.A. 2014. Does any bat box facilitate forest recovery? - reply to Kelm. Biol. Conserv. 170:330-331.

Reid, J.L., Mendenhall, C.D., Rosales, J.A., Zahawi, R.A., and Holl, K.D. 2014. Landscape context mediates avian habitat choice in tropical forest restoration. PLoS ONE 9(3):e90573.

Rendall, A.R., Sutherland, D.R., Cooke, R., and White, J. 2014. Camera trapping: a contemporary approach to monitoring invasive rodents in high conservation priority ecosystems. PLoS ONE 9(3):e86592.

Richards, M.B., and Méndez, V.E. 2014. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):489-497.

Rico, Y., Boehmer, H.J., and Wagner, H.H. 2014. Effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland plants. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):467-477.

Rija, A.A., Said, A., Mwamende, K.A., Hassan, S.N., and Madoffe, S.S. 2014. Urban sprawl and species movement may decimate natural plant diversity in an Afro-tropical city. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):963-978.

Robertson, G., Moreno, C., Arata, J.A., Candy, S.G., Lawton, K., Valencia, J., Wienecke, B., Kirkwood, R., Taylor, P., and Suazo, C.G. 2014. Black-browed albatross numbers in Chile increase in response to reduced mortality in fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 169:319-333.

Rodríguez, V., Brown, R.P., Terrasa, B., Pérez-Mellado, V., Picornell, A., Castro, J.A., and Ramon, C. 2014. Genetic diversity and historical biogeography of the Maltese wall lizard, Podarcis filfolensis (Squamata: Lacertidae). Conserv. Genet. 15(2):295-304.

Roe, J.H., Morreale, S.J., Paladino, F.V., Shillinger, G.L., Benson, S.R., Eckert, S.A., Bailey, H., Tomillo, P.S., Bograd, S.J., Eguchi, T., Dutton, P.H., Seminoff, J.A., Block, B.A., and Spotila, J.R. 2014. Predicting bycatch hotspots for endangered leatherback turtles on longlines in the Pacific Ocean. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1777):20132559.

Rojas-Sandoval, J., and Meléndez-Ackerman, E.J. 2013. Spatial patterns of distribution and abundance of Harrisia portoricensis, an endangered Caribbean cactus. J. Plant Ecol. 6(6):489-498.

Rollinson, N., Keith, D.M., Houde, A.L.S., Debes, P.V., McBride, M.C., and Hutchings, J.A. 2014. Risk assessment of inbreeding and outbreeding depression in a captive-breeding program. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):529-540.

Romero, F.I., Cozano, M.A., Gangas, R.A., and Naulin, P.I. 2014. Riparian zones: protection, restoration and legal context in Chile. Bosque 35(1):3-12.

Rondinini, C., Di Marco, M., Visconti, P., Butchart, S.H.M., and Boitani, L. 2014. Update or outdate: long-term viability of the IUCN Red List. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):126-130.

Rose, C.L., Turk, P.J., Selego, S.M., and Anderson, J.T. 2014. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) select fruits of native species over invasive honeysuckle fruits. J. Mammal. 95(1):108-116.

Rosenbaum, H.C., Maxwell, S.M., Kershaw, F., and Mate, B. 2014. Long-range movement of humpback whales and their overlap with anthropogenic activity in the south Atlantic Ocean. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):604-615.

Rout, T.M., Kirkwood, R., Sutherland, D.R., Murphy, S., and McCarthy, M.A. 2014. When to declare successful eradication of an invasive predator? Anim. Conserv. 17(2):125-132.

Ruiz-Sanchez, E., Mejía-Saulés, T., and Clark, L.G. 2014. A new endangered species of Chusquea (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) from the Acatlan volcano in central Veracruz, Mexico, and keys to the Mexican Chusquea species. Phytotaxa 163(1):16-26.

Russello, M.A., and Amato, G. 2014. Operationalism matters in conservation: comments on Frankham et al. (2012). Biol. Conserv. 170:332-333.

Samain, M.S., Najarro, F.H., and Salas, E.M.M. 2014. First record of the critically endangered Hydrangea steyermarkii Standl. (Hydrangeaceae) in Mexico, and description of a new widespread Hydrangea species of Mesoamerica. Phytotaxa 162(4):181-197.

Sanchirico, J.N., Springborn, M.R., Schwartz, M.W., and Doerr, A.N. 2014. Investment and the policy process in conservation monitoring. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):361-371.

Sandler, R. 2014. The ethics of reviving long extinct species. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):354-360.

Sanín, D. 2014. Serpocaulon obscurinervium (Polypodiaceae), a new fern species from Colombia and Ecuador. Plant Ecol. Evol. 147(1):127-133.

Sartori, A.F., Gargominy, O., and Fontaine, B. 2014. Radiation and decline of endodontid land snails in Makatea, French Polynesia. Zootaxa 3772(1):1-68.

Sattler, T., Pezzatti, G.B., Nobis, M.P., Obrist, M.K., Roth, T., and Moretti, M. 2014. Selection of multiple umbrella species for functional and taxonomic diversity to represent urban biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):414-426.

Saure, H.I., Vandvik, V., Hassel, K., and Vetaas, O.R. 2014. Do vascular plants and bryophytes respond differently to coniferous invasion of coastal heathlands? Biol. Invasions 16(4):775-791.

Savaria, M.C., and O'Connor, N.J. 2013. Predation of the non-native Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus by a native fish species, the cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus). J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 449:335-339.

Scheele, B., Guarino, F., Osborne, W., Hunter, D.A., Skerratt, L.F., and Driscoll, D.A. 2014. Decline and re-expansion of an amphibian with high prevalence of chytrid fungus. Biol. Conserv. 170:86-91.

Scherer, A.E., and Santangelo, N. 2014. Assessment of reproductive requirements in habitat conservation efforts: a case study on blackside dace (Chrosomus cumberlandensis), a federally listed threatened species. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 71(3):408-415.

Scherson, R.A., Albornoz, A.A., Moreira-Muñoz, A.S., and Urbina-Casanova, R. 2014. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera. Ecol. Evol. 4(6):806-816.

Seddon, P.J., Moehrenschlager, A., and Ewen, J. 2014. Reintroducing resurrected species: selecting DeExtinction candidates. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29(3):140-147.

Segura, L.N., Depino, E.A., Gandoy, F., Di Sallo, F.G., and Arturi, M.F. 2014. Distance between forest patches and individual tree canopy size influence the abundance of red-crested cardinals (Paroaria coronata) in natural forests of Argentina. Interciencia 39(1):54-59.

Senko, J., Mancini, A., Seminoff, J.A., and Koch, V. 2014. Bycatch and directed harvest drive high green turtle mortality at Baja California Sur, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 169:24-30.

Sharma, M.V., and Armstrong, J.E. 2013. Pollination of Myristica and other nutmegs in natural populations. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(5):595-607.

Siler, C.D., Lira-Noriega, A., and Brown, R.M. 2014. Conservation genetics of Australasian sailfin lizards: flagship species threatened by coastal development and insufficient protected area coverage. Biol. Conserv. 169:100-108.

Silva, J.P., Palmeirim, J.M., Alcazar, R., Correia, R., Delgado, A., and Moreira, F. 2014. A spatially explicit approach to assess the collision risk between birds and overhead power lines: a case study with the little bustard. Biol. Conserv. 170:256-263.

Sinu, P.A., and Sharma, M.V. 2013. Insect functional guilds in the flowering canopy of Myristica fatua in a lowland swamp, central Western Ghats, India. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 6(5):653-662.

Smith, D.A.E. 2014. The effects of land-use policies on the conservation of Borneo's endemic Presbytis monkeys. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):891-908.

Smith, L.L., and Barney, J.N. 2014. The relative risk of invasion: evaluation of Miscanthus × giganteus seed establishment. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):93-106.

Snäll, T., Forslund, P., Jeppsson, T., Lindhe, A., and O'Hara, R.B. 2014. Evaluating temporal variation in Citizen Science Data against temporal variation in the environment. Ecography 37(3):293-300.

Soh, Y.H., Carrasco, L.R., Miquelle, D.G., Jiang, J.S., Yang, J., Stokes, E.J., Tang, J.R., Kang, A.L., Liu, P.Q., and Rao, M. 2014. Spatial correlates of livestock depredation by Amur tigers in Hunchun, China: relevance of prey density and implications for protected area management. Biol. Conserv. 169:117-127.

Stapleton, S., Atkinson, S., Hedman, D., and Garshelis, D. 2014. Revisiting Western Hudson Bay: using aerial surveys to update polar bear abundance in a sentinel population. Biol. Conserv. 170:38-47.

Staunton, K.M., Robson, S.K.A., Burwell, C.J., Reside, A.E., and Williams, S.E. 2014. Projected distributions and diversity of flightless ground beetles within the Australian wet tropics and their environmental correlates. PLoS ONE 9(2):e88635.

Stelkens, R.B., Pompini, M., and Wedekind, C. 2014. Testing the effects of genetic crossing distance on embryo survival within a metapopulation of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Conserv. Genet. 15(2):375-386.

Stockan, J.A., Baird, J., Langan, S.J., Young, M.R., and Iason, G.R. 2014. Effects of riparian buffer strips on ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) within an agricultural landscape. Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(2):172-184.

Stokes, D.L., Boersma, P.D., de Casenave, J.L., and García-Borboroglu, P. 2014. Conservation of migratory Magellanic penguins requires marine zoning. Biol. Conserv. 170:151-161.

Strubbe, D., and Matthysen, E. 2014. Patterns of niche conservatism among non-native birds in Europe are dependent on introduction history and selection of variables. Biol. Invasions 16(4):759-764.

Sullivan, B.L., Aycrigg, J.L., Barry, J.H., Bonney, R.E., Bruns, N., Cooper, C.B., Damoulas, T., Dhondt, A.A., Dietterich, T., Farnsworth, A., Fink, D., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Fredericks, T., Gerbracht, J., Gomes, C., Hochachka, W.M., Iliff, M.J., Lagoze, C., La Sorte, F.A., Merrifield, M., Morris, W., Phillips, T.B., Reynolds, M., Rodewald, A.D., Rosenberg, K.V., Trautmann, N.M., Wiggins, A., Winkler, D.W., Wong, W.K., Wood, C.L., Yu, J., and Kelling, S. 2014. The eBird enterprise: an integrated approach to development and application of citizen science. Biol. Conserv. 169:31-40.

Suurkuukka, H., Virtanen, R., Suorsa, V., Soininen, J., Paasivirta, L., and Muotka, T. 2014. Woodland key habitats and stream biodiversity: does small-scale terrestrial conservation enhance the protection of stream biota? Biol. Conserv. 170:10-19.

Swanson, K.M., Drexler, J.Z., Schoellhamer, D.H., Thorne, K.M., Casazza, M.L., Overton, C.T., Callaway, J.C., and Takekawa, J.Y. 2014. Wetland Accretion Rate Model of Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER) and its application to habitat sustainability for endangered species in the San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries Coasts 37(2):476-492.

Tadesse, G., Zavaleta, E., and Shennan, C. 2014. Coffee landscapes as refugia for native woody biodiversity as forest loss continues in southwest Ethiopia. Biol. Conserv. 169:384-391.

Tamayo, M., and Olden, J.D. 2014. Forecasting the vulnerability of lakes to aquatic plant invasions. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(1):32-45.

Thiers, L., Delord, K., Barbraud, C., Phillips, R.A., Pinaud, D., and Weimerskirch, H. 2014. Foraging zones of the two sibling species of giant petrels in the Indian Ocean throughout the annual cycle: implication for their conservation. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 499:233-248.

Thogmartin, W.E., and McKann, P.C. 2014. Large-scale climate variation modifies the winter grouping behavior of endangered Indiana bats. J. Mammal. 95(1):117-127.

Thomaes, A., De Keersmaeker, L., Verschelde, P., Vandekerkhove, K., and Verheyen, K. 2014. Tree species determine the colonisation success of forest herbs in post-agricultural forests: results from a 9 yr introduction experiment. Biol. Conserv. 169:238-247.

Thompson, C., Sweitzer, R., Gabriel, M., Purcell, K., Barrett, R., and Poppenga, R. 2014. Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation sites on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National Forest, California. Conserv. Lett. 7(2):91-102.

Torres, I., and Arizaga, S. 2014. Notes on new localities of wild populations of black sapote (Diospyros xolocotzii, Ebenaceae), threatened species of western Mexico. Acta Bot. Mex. 107:19-26.

Toth, A.B., Lyons, S.K., and Behrensmeyer, A.K. 2014. A century of change in Kenya's mammal communities: increased richness and decreased uniqueness in six protected areas. PLoS ONE 9(4):e93092.

Trivellone, V., Schoenenberger, N., Bellosi, B., Jermini, M., de Bello, F., Mitchell, E.A.D., and Moretti, M. 2014. Indicators for taxonomic and functional aspects of biodiversity in the vineyard agroecosystem of Southern Switzerland. Biol. Conserv. 170:103-109.

Troupin, D., and Carmel, Y. 2014. Can agro-ecosystems efficiently complement protected area networks? Biol. Conserv. 169:158-166.

Turvey, S.T., Fernández-Secades, C., Nuñez-Miño, J.M., Hart, T., Martinez, P., Brocca, J.L., and Young, R.P. 2014. Is local ecological knowledge a useful conservation tool for small mammals in a Caribbean multicultural landscape? Biol. Conserv. 169:189-197.

Tyrrell, M., and Clark, D.A. 2014. What happened to climate change? CITES and the reconfiguration of polar bear conservation discourse. Global Environ. Change 24:363-372.

Valle, M., Chust, G., del Campo, A., Wisz, M.S., Olsen, S.M., Garmendia, J.M., and Borja, Á. 2014. Projecting future distribution of the seagrass Zostera noltii under global warming and sea level rise. Biol. Conserv. 170:74-85.

Van Colen, C., Verbelen, D., Devos, K., Agten, L., Van Tomme, J., Vincx, M., and Degraer, S. 2014. Sediment-benthos relationships as a tool to assist in conservation practices in a coastal lagoon subjected to sediment change. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):877-889.

Van Houtan, K.S., and Kittinger, J.N. 2014. Historical commercial exploitation and the current status of Hawaiian green turtles. Biol. Conserv. 170:20-27.

Vanderplank, S.E., Mata, S., and Ezcurra, E. 2014. Biodiversity and archeological conservation connected: aragonite shell middens increase plant diversity. BioScience 64(3):202-209.

VanderWaal, K.L., Atwill, E.R., Isbell, L.A., and McCowan, B. 2014. Quantifying microbe transmission networks for wild and domestic ungulates in Kenya. Biol. Conserv. 169:136-146.

VanZandt, M., Delparte, D., Hart, P., Duvall, F., and Penniman, J. 2014. Nesting characteristics and habitat use of the endangered Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) on the island of Lana'i. Waterbirds 37(1):43-51.

Velevski, M., Grubac, B., and Tomović, L. 2014. Population viability analysis of the Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus in Macedonia and implications for its conservation. Acta Zool. Bulgar. 66(1):43-58.

Venter, J.A., Prins, H.H.T., Balfour, D.A., and Slotow, R. 2014. Reconstructing grazer assemblages for protected area restoration. PLoS ONE 9(3):e90900.

Verdiell-Cubedo, D., Ruiz-Navarro, A., Torralva, M., Moreno-Valcárcel, R., and Oliva-Paterna, F.J. 2014. Habitat use of an endangered cyprinodontid fish in a saline wetland of the Iberian Peninsula (SW Mediterranean Sea). Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 15(1):27-36.

Vihotogbé, R., Kakaï, R.G., Bongers, F., van Andel, T., van den Berg, R.G., Sinsin, B., and Sosef, M.S.M. 2014. Impacts of the diversity of traditional uses and potential economic value on food tree species conservation status: case study of African bush mango trees (Irvingiaceae) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa). Plant Ecol. Evol. 147(1):109-125.

Vit, P., Wolfová, K., Urfus, T., Tájek, P., and Suda, J. 2014. Interspecific hybridization between rare and common plant congeners inferred from genome size data: assessing the threat to the Czech serpentine endemic Cerastium alsinifolium. Preslia 86(1):95-117.

Volkmann, L., Martyn, I., Moulton, V., Spillner, A., and Mooers, A.O. 2014. Prioritizing populations for conservation using phylogenetic networks. PLoS ONE 9(2):e88945.

Wang, W.J., He, H.S., Fraser, J.S., Thompson, F.R., Shifley, S.R., and Spetich, M.A. 2014. LANDIS PRO: a landscape model that predicts forest composition and structure changes at regional scales. Ecography 37(3):225-229.

Webb, E.L., Jachowski, N.R.A., Phelps, J., Friess, D.A., Than, M.M., and Ziegler, A.D. 2014. Deforestation in the Ayeyarwady Delta and the conservation implications of an internationally-engaged Myanmar. Global Environ. Change 24:321-333.

Wen, J., Ree, R.H., Ickert-Bond, S.M., Nie, Z.L., and Funk, V. 2013. Biogeography: where do we go from here? Taxon 62(5):912-927.

Westermann, F.L., Suckling, D.M., and Lester, P.J. 2014. Disruption of foraging by a dominant invasive species to decrease its competitive ability. PLoS ONE 9(3):e90173.

Wetterer, J.K. 2014. A South American fire ant, Solenopsis nr. saevissima, in Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Biol. Invasions 16(4):755-758.

Whitehead, A.L., Lyver, P.O., Jones, C.J., Bellingham, P.J., MacLeod, C.J., Coleman, M., Karl, B.J., Drew, K., Pairman, D., Gormley, A.M., and Duncan, R.P. 2014. Establishing accurate baseline estimates of breeding populations of a burrowing seabird, the grey-faced petrel (Pterodroma macroptera gouldi) in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 169:109-116.

Wilder, B.T., Betancourt, J.L., Epps, C.W., Crowhurst, R.S., Mead, J.I., and Ezcurra, E. 2014. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island. PLoS ONE 9(3):e91358.

Williams, R., Clark, C.W., Ponirakis, D., and Ashe, E. 2014. Acoustic quality of critical habitats for three threatened whale populations. Anim. Conserv. 17(2):174-185.

Williams, R., Grand, J., Hooker, S.K., Buckland, S.T., Reeves, R.R., Rojas-Bracho, L., Sandilands, D., and Kaschner, K. 2014. Prioritizing global marine mammal habitats using density maps in place of range maps. Ecography 37(3):212-220.

Williams, W.I., Friedman, J.M., Gaskin, J.F., and Norton, A.P. 2014. Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent. Evol. Appl. 7(3):381-393.

Wilsey, C.B., Lawler, J.J., Cimprich, D., and Schumaker, N.H. 2014. Dependence of the endangered black-capped vireo on sustained cowbird management. Conserv. Biol. 28(2):561-571.

Winiarski, K.J., Miller, D.L., Paton, P.W.C., and McWilliams, S.R. 2014. A spatial conservation prioritization approach for protecting marine birds given proposed offshore wind energy development. Biol. Conserv. 169:79-88.

Woziwoda, B., Kopeć, D., and Witkowski, J. 2014. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 83(1):39-49.

Wuczyński, A., Dajdok, Z., Wierzcholska, S., and Kujawa, K. 2014. Applying red lists to the evaluation of agricultural habitat: regular occurrence of threatened birds, vascular plants, and bryophytes in field margins of Poland. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(4):999-1017.

Yineger, H., Schmidt, D.J., and Hughes, J.M. 2014. Genetic structuring of remnant forest patches in an endangered medicinal tree in North-western Ethiopia. BMC Genet. 15:31.

Zaccara, S., Crosa, G., Vanetti, I., Binelli, G., Harper, D.M., Mavuti, K.M., Balarin, J.D., and Britton, J.R. 2014. Genetic and morphological analyses indicate high population mixing in the endangered cichlid Alcolapia flock of East Africa. Conserv. Genet. 15(2):429-440.

Zachos, F.E., Mattioli, S., Ferretti, F., and Lorenzini, R. 2014. The unique Mesola red deer of Italy: taxonomic recognition (Cervus elaphus italicus nova ssp., Cervidae) would endorse conservation. Italian J. Zool. 81(1):136-143.

Zakkak, S., Kakalis, E., Radović, A., Halley, J.M., and Kati, V. 2014. The impact of forest encroachment after agricultural land abandonment on passerine bird communities: the case of Greece. J. Nature Conserv. 22(2):157-165.

Zapata, V.M., and Robledano, F. 2014. Assessing biodiversity and conservation value of forest patches secondarily fragmented by urbanisation in semiarid southeastern Spain. J. Nature Conserv. 22(2):166-175.

Zhang, R., Liu, J.L., Mo, L.C., and Zhang, Z.M. 2014. Environmental and human factors influencing invasive plant species in Songshan National Nature Reserve. Forest Chron. 90(2):197-201.

Zheng, Y.L., and Deng, Y.F. 2014. A new species of Primulina (Gesneriaceae) from Guangdong, China. Phytotaxa 163(1):48-53.

Zomer, R.J., Trabucco, A., Wang, M.C., Lang, R., Chen, H.F., Metzger, M.J., Smajgl, A., Beckschafer, P., and Xu, J.C. 2014. Environmental stratification to model climate change impacts on biodiversity and rubber production in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Biol. Conserv. 170:264-273.

Zou, Y., Sang, W.G., Zhou, H.C., Huang, L.Y., and Axmacher, J.C. 2014. Altitudinal diversity patterns of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the forests of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China. Insect Conserv. Divers. 7(2):161-171.

Zulka, K.P., Abensperg-Traun, M., Milasowszky, N., Bieringer, G., Gereben-Krenn, B.A., Holzinger, W., Hölzler, G., Rabitsch, W., Reischütz, A., Querner, P., Sauberer, N., Schmitzberger, I., Willner, W., Wrbka, T., and Zechmeister, H. 2014. Species richness in dry grassland patches of eastern Austria: A multi-taxon study on the role of local, landscape and habitat quality variables. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 182:25-36.

**To read and print the pdf of the newsletter,
you must download Adobe Acrobat (free)**
Get Acrobat Reader here.

[ TOP ]