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Department ofBotany



No. 384
December 2016


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In This Issue


First Marine Reserve Network is Designed to Deliberately Balance Fishing Benefits with Species Protection


-Adapted from Smithsonian Newsdesk

For the first time, Smithsonian researchers and collaborators have designed a marine reserve network to protect species threatened by overfishing while boosting fishing yields on nearby fishing grounds, resolving a long-standing global "conserve or catch" conflict in marine conservation efforts.

Caribbean spiny lobster on a sea fan in the Honduran Caribbean. (photo by Claudio Contreras-Koob, International League of Conservation Photographers)

Caribbean spiny lobster on a sea fan in the Honduran Caribbean. (photo by Claudio Contreras-Koob, International League of Conservation Photographers)

A team led by scientists from the Smithsonian's Marine Conservation Program report in an upcoming article in the journal Conservation Letters that they have designed a model network of marine reserves off the Caribbean coast of Honduras, which can support the long-term preservation of spiny lobsters within the country's waters while also increasing fishing yields of the species in fishing areas outside the reserves' borders.

"Placing marine reserves across existing fishing grounds can often be very contentious," said Stephen Box, senior author on the study and lead marine biologist of the Marine Conservation Program at the Smithsonian Marine Station in Fort Pierce, Fla., a marine biodiversity and ecosystem research center of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. "Fishers may oppose plans they see as taking away a large proportion of their fishing area, which could threaten their income without clear benefits being apparent. Our design approach resolves this point of tension showing that it is possible to design reserve networks that provide measurable benefits to fishers, improving catches while sustaining the target population. This really is important as it can help align fisheries stakeholders and conservation practitioners behind a joint plan, removing a key obstacle to reaching sustainable conservation successes with economically important marine species."

Fully protected marine reserves are an important tool for managing the ocean's resources. By protecting the plants and animals that live within them, reserves protect a portion of exploited populations to recover and persist for future generations. But increasingly, researchers and conservationists are recognizing that for these reserves to succeed, they must balance their long-term conservation goals with the more immediate needs of local communities. Economic and sustainability objectives are often seen as being in conflict with one another, but according to the authors of the new study, both can and should be considered during the initial planning of a new reserve network and can be balanced effectively.

"We want to protect [the ocean's resources] so they will be available in the future, but we also want to let people keep using them," said Iliana Chollett, the lead author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow in the Marine Conservation Program and at the University of California, Davis.

Designing a reserve that will benefit local fisheries requires deep knowledge of the ecosystem and the species the reserve is designed to protect. With reliable data about animal behavior and ocean currents, computer models can calculate how a reserve will affect the abundance of a particular species in fishing areas outside its boundaries, as well as the reserve's impact on long-term sustainability. Such models have been used to assess existing or proposed reserves, but because they require massive amounts of data and intense computer processing, they have been considered impractical for use in the design phase to identify the best locations to place a new reserve network.

Chollett, whose research aims to find alternatives to dangerous and unsustainable fishing practices that are currently used in Latin America and the Caribbean, knew it would take a lot of time and effort to use this approach to design a new reserve—but she believed it could be done. She and her colleagues set out to design a network of reserves to restore and preserve populations of spiny lobsters in the waters off the northeastern coast of Honduras. The spiny lobster is the most economically valuable marine resource in the Caribbean and a key component of the commercial fishery in Honduras, but its numbers are believed to be threatened due to overfishing.

Researchers from the Smithsonian Marine Station, Florida Atlantic University, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, the University of California, Davis and the University of Queensland worked together to collect and analyze the relevant biological and oceanographic data. Their analysis incorporated marine biologists' findings about how spiny lobsters grow, reproduce and die and how adult lobsters move across the ocean floor. Data about ocean currents, which can carry and distribute tiny lobster larvae far from the places where they hatch, and habitat maps of the seafloor were also essential.

The team used these data to determine where in the ocean lobster populations would increase if particular patches were protected by reserves and how these areas would seed and spill over into fished areas. They ran the model repeatedly, using the Smithsonian's high-performance computer to predict the effect of numerous reserve networks in order to optimize the design. They found that by protecting 20 percent of the fishing grounds, they could ensure the long-term survival of the lobster population while also increasing the numbers of lobsters expected to inhabit local fishing areas available to the local fishers. A crucial finding was that the network enabled a sustainable fishery only if current levels of fishing effort remain stable into the future.

Chollett says the reserve network that the team has designed could be an important component in a larger effort to introduce models and strategies to improve Honduran fishing practices and make them more sustainable. She also hopes the approach will be broadly applied to the design of marine reserves around the world.


New and Extremely Rare Species of Melicope (Rutaceae) Described from Maui


By Marc Appelhans & Warren Wagner
-Adapted from The Plant Press

We recently described the species Melicope oppenheimeri in the journal PhytoKeys together with Ken Wood from the National Tropical Botanical Garden (Kaua`i). New species descriptions are probably published nearly every day, but this new Melicope species is special because it ranks among the rarest species on this planet. It is known only from a single valley on West Maui and only seven individual trees have been documented so far. Out of these seven trees, only three are alive today. Considering this minuscule number of individual trees, the species falls under the IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered.

Flowers of Melicope oppenheimeri. (photo by Hank Oppenheimer)

Flowers of Melicope oppenheimeri. (photo by Hank Oppenheimer)

Measures have already begun to prevent the extinction of Melicope oppenheimeri. Botanists of the Hawaii Plant Extinction Prevention Program (PEPP) are monitoring the species and two plants that have been produced by air-layering are currently grown at the Olinda Rare Plant Facility on Maui.

A cultivated individual of Melicope oppenheimeri being grown at the Olinda Rare Plant Facility on East Maui.

A cultivated individual of Melicope oppenheimeri being grown at the Olinda Rare Plant Facility on East Maui.

The Hawaiian Islands are a prime example for adaptive radiations on an Oceanic Archipelagoes and about ten percent of the successful colonizing lineages have diversified into species-rich lineages within the islands. In the past two centuries, the Hawaiian Islands also are a prime example of the major negative influence of humankind on our environment. Many species have become extinct or are extremely rare today. This trend can be observed in Hawaiian Melicope, which consists of 49 currently accepted species and therefore is the most species-rich Hawaiian radiation of woody plants. Five species are regarded as possibly extinct and another 23 species are either federally listed as endangered or are considered to be species of concern.


Current Literature


Abd El-Wahab, R.H. 2016. Plant assemblage and diversity variation with human disturbances in coastal habitats of the western Arabian Gulf. J. Arid Land 8(5):787-798.

Abrahms, B., Jordan, N.R., Golabek, K.A., McNutt, J.W., Wilson, A.M., and Brashares, J.S. 2016. Lessons from integrating behaviour and resource selection: activity-specific responses of African wild dogs to roads. Anim. Conserv. 19(3):247-255.

Adjahossou, S.G.C., Gouwakinnou, G.N., Houehanou, D.T., Sode, A.I., Yaoitcha, A.S., Houinato, M.R.B., and Sinin, B. 2016. Effectiveness of protected areas for the conservation of favourable and priority habitats for valuable tree species in Benin. Bois. For. Trop. 328:67-77.

Ahrens, C.W., and James, E.A. 2016. Conserving the small milkwort, Comesperma polygaloides, a vulnerable subshrub in a fragmented landscape. Conserv. Genet. 17(4):891-901.

Ainsworth, G.B., Aslin, H.J., Weston, M.A., and Garnett, S.T. 2016. Social values and species conservation: the case of Baudin's and Carnaby's black-cockatoos. Environ. Conserv. 43(3):294-305.

Albrecht, M., Ramis, M.R., and Traveset, A. 2016. Pollinator-mediated impacts of alien invasive plants on the pollination of native plants: the role of spatial scale and distinct behaviour among pollinator guilds. Biol. Invasions 18(7):1801-1812.

Allen, E.B., Egerton-Warburton, L.M., Hilbig, B.E., and Valliere, J.M. 2016. Interactions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, critical loads of nitrogen deposition, and shifts from native to invasive species in a southern California shrubland. Botany 94(6):425-433.

Allgeier, J.E., Valdivia, A., Cox, C., and Layman, C.A. 2016. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs. Nat. Commun. 7:12461.

Almeida, R.M., Lovejoy, T.E., and Roland, F. 2016. Brazil's Amazon conservation in peril. Science 353(6296):228-229.

Alvarez-Berríos, N., Campos-Cerqueira, M., Hernández-Serna, A., Delgado, J.A., Román-Dañobeytia, F., and Aide, T.M. 2016. Impacts of small-scale gold mining on birds and anurans near the Tambopata Natural Reserve, Peru, assessed using passive acoustic monitoring. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 9(2):832-851.

Ament, J.M., and Cumming, G.S. 2016. Scale dependency in effectiveness, isolation, and social-ecological spillover of protected areas. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):846-855.

Applequist, W.L. 2016. A revision of the Malagasy species of Homalium sect. Eumyriantheia Warb. (Salicaceae). Candollea 71(1):33-60.

Araujo, A.C.M., da Silva, A.N.F., and de Almeida, E.B. 2016. Structural characterization and conservation status of the herbaceous stratum at Praia de São Marcos dunes, Maranhão State, Brazil. Acta Amaz. 46(3):247-257.

Araújo, R.M., Assis, J., Aguillar, R., Airoldi, L., Bárbara, I., Bartsch, I., Bekkby, T., Christie, H., Davoult, D., Derrien-Courtel, S., Fernandez, C., Fredriksen, S., Gevaert, F., Gundersen, H., Le Gal, A., Lévêque, L., Mieszkowska, N., Norderhaug, K.M., Oliveira, P., Puente, A., Rico, J.M., Rinde, E., Schubert, H., Strain, E.M., Valero, M., Viard, F., and Sousa-Pinto, I. 2016. Status, trends and drivers of kelp forests in Europe: an expert assessment. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(7):1319-1348.

Arceo-Gómez, G., and Ashman, T.L. 2016. Invasion status and phylogenetic relatedness predict cost of heterospecific pollen receipt: implications for native biodiversity decline. J. Ecol. 104(4):1003-1008.

Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Rojas, C., Saldaña-Vázquez, R.A., and Stoner, K.E. 2016. Landscape composition is more important than landscape configuration for phyllostomid bat assemblages in a fragmented biodiversity hotspot. Biol. Conserv. 198:84-92.

Audzijonyte, A., and Kuparinen, A. 2016. The role of life histories and trophic interactions in population recovery. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):734-743.

Aytaç, Z., Duman, H., and Ekici, M. 2016. Two new Achillea L. (Asteraceae) species from Turkey. Turk. J. Bot. 40(4):373-379.

Baker, D., Barrett, S., Beale, C.M., Crawford, T.J., Ellis, S., Gullett, T., Mayhew, P.J., Parsons, M.S., Relf, P., Robertson, P., Small, J., and Wainwright, D. 2016. Decline of a rare moth at its last known English site: causes and lessons for conservation. PLoS ONE 11(6):e0157423.

Baker, D.J., Hartley, A.J., Butchart, S.H.M., and Willis, S.G. 2016. Choice of baseline climate data impacts projected species' responses to climate change. Global Change Biol. 22(7):2392-2404.

Ball, A.A., and Brancalion, P.H.S. 2016. Governance challenges for commercial exploitation of a non-timber forest product by marginalized rural communities. Environ. Conserv. 43(3):208-220.

Ballari, S.A., Anderson, C.B., and Valenzuela, A.E.J. 2016. Understanding trends in biological invasions by introduced mammals in southern South America: a review of research and management. Mamm. Rev. 46(3):229-240.

Ballari, S.A., Kuebbing, S.E., and Nuñez, M.A. 2016. Potential problems of removing one invasive species at a time: a meta-analysis of the interactions between invasive vertebrates and unexpected effects of removal programs. PeerJ 4:e2029.

Balotari-Chiebao, F., Brommer, J.E., Niinimäki, T., and Laaksonen, T. 2016. Proximity to wind-power plants reduces the breeding success of the white-tailed eagle. Anim. Conserv. 19(3):265-272.

Bangirinama, F., Nzitwanayo, B., and Hakizimana, P. 2016. Charcoal as the main source of fuel for city dwellers: a serious problem for the conservation of Burundi's forest cover. Bois. For. Trop. 328:45-54.

Barata, I.M., Uhlig, V.M., Silva, G.H., and Ferreira, G.B. 2016. Downscaling the gap: protected areas, scientific knowledge and the conservation of amphibian species in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. S. Am. J. Herpetol. 11(1):34-45.

Barlow, J., Lennox, G.D., Ferreira, J., Berenguer, E., Lees, A.C., Mac Nally, R., Thomson, J.R., Ferraz, S.F.D., Louzada, J., Oliveira, V.H.F., Parry, L., Solar, R.R.D., Vieira, I.C.G., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Begotti, R.A., Braga, R.F., Cardoso, T.M., de Oliveira, R.C., Souza, C.M., Moura, N.G., Nunes, S.S., Siqueira, J.V., Pardini, R., Silveira, J.M., Vaz-de-Mello, F.Z., Veiga, R.C.S., Venturieri, A., and Gardner, T.A. 2016. Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation. Nature 535(7610):144-147.

Barranco-León, M.D.B., Luna-Castellanos, F., Vergara, C.H., and Badano, E.I. 2016. Butterfly conservation within cities: a landscape scale approach integrating natural habitats and abandoned fields in central Mexico. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 9(2):607-628.

Barreto, R., Ferretti, F., Flemming, J.M., Amorim, A., Andrade, H., Worm, B., and Lessa, R. 2016. Trends in the exploitation of South Atlantic shark populations. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):792-804.

Bax, N.J., Cleary, J., Donnelly, B., Dunn, D.C., Dunstan, P.K., Fuller, M., and Halpin, P.N. 2016. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):571-581.

Beck, J.J., McKone, M.J., and McMurtrey, O.S. 2016. Edge effects and avian community structure in a restored tallgrass prairie. Nat. Areas J. 36(3):328-333.

Benestan, L.M., Ferchaud, A.L., Hohenlohe, P.A., Garner, B.A., Naylor, G.J.P., Baums, I.B., Schwartz, M.K., Kelley, J.L., and Luikart, G. 2016. Conservation genomics of natural and managed populations: building a conceptual and practical framework. Mol. Ecol. 25(13):2967-2977.

Bennett, N.J. 2016. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):582-592.

Berger-Tal, O., Blumstein, D.T., Carroll, S., Fisher, R.N., Mesnick, S.L., Owen, M.A., Saltz, D., St Claire, C.C., and Swaisgood, R.R. 2016. A systematic survey of the integration of animal behavior into conservation. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):744-753.

Bergseth, B.J., Williamson, D.H., Frisch, A.J., and Russ, G.R. 2016. Protected areas preserve natural behaviour of a targeted fish species on coral reefs. Biol. Conserv. 198:202-209.

Berman, M., Austin, C.M., Burridge, C.P., and Miller, A.D. 2016. Social structure and landscape genetics of the endemic New Caledonian ant Leptomyrmex pallens Emery, 1883 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dolichoderinae), in the context of fire-induced rainforest fragmentation. Conserv. Genet. 17(4):931-947.

Bertrand, K.N., Vandehey, J.A., Pilger, T.J., Felts, E.A., and Turner, T.F. 2016. Genetic structure of a disjunct peripheral population of mountain sucker Pantosteus jordani in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. Conserv. Genet. 17(4):775-784.

Beschta, R.L., and Ripple, W.J. 2016. Riparian vegetation recovery in Yellowstone: the first two decades after wolf reintroduction. Biol. Conserv. 198:93-103.

Bidarlord, M., Ghahremaninejad, F., and Maassoumi, A.A. 2016. A new species of the genus Astragalus (Leguminosae) from Northwest Iran. Phytotaxa 252(4):280-284.

Bílá, K., Šipoš, J., Kindlmann, P., and Kuras, T. 2016. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains. PeerJ 4:e2094.

Binzet, R. 2016. Onosma anatolica, a new species of Boraginaceae from Turkey. PhytoKeys 69:39-49.

Bluwstein, J. 2016. Problematizing debates on wildlife conservation and the war on poaching. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):692-693.

Boast, L.K., Good, K., and Klein, R. 2016. Translocation of problem predators: is it an effective way to mitigate conflict between farmers and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Botswana? Oryx 50(3):537-544.

Bogoni, J.A., Cherem, J.J., Giehl, E.L.H., Oliveira-Santos, L.G., de Castilho, P.V., Picinatto, V., Fantacini, F.M., Tortato, M.A., Luiz, M.R., Rizzaro, R., and Graipel, M.E. 2016. Landscape features lead to shifts in communities of medium- to large-bodied mammals in subtropical Atlantic Forest. J. Mammal. 97(3):713-725.

Boland, J.M. 2016. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California. PeerJ 4:e2141.

Borgerson, C. 2016. Optimizing conservation policy: the importance of seasonal variation in hunting and meat consumption on the Masoala Peninsula of Madagascar. Oryx 50(3):405-418.

Borthakur, U., Das, P.K., Talukdar, A., and Talukdar, B.K. 2016. Noninvasive genetic census of greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in Gorumara National Park, India: a pilot study for population estimation. Oryx 50(3):489-494.

Bossart, J.L., and Antwi, J.B. 2016. Limited erosion of genetic and species diversity from small forest patches: sacred forest groves in an Afrotropical biodiversity hotspot have high conservation value for butterflies. Biol. Conserv. 198:122-134.

Bouché, P., Lejeune, P., Bailly, V., Muyle, M., Zinque, M.H., Mercier, A., Cornélis, D., Lungren, C., Portier, B., Marchal, A., Renault, F., Yaméogo, D., Kafando, P., Sawadogo, P., and Vermeulen, C. 2016. Conserving wildlife amongst the cotton fields. A third of a century of experience at the Nazinga Game Ranch, Burkina Faso. Environ. Monit. Assess. 188(7):437.

Bowlby, H.D., Fleming, I.A., and Gibson, A.J.F. 2016. Applying landscape genetics to evaluate threats affecting endangered Atlantic salmon populations. Conserv. Genet. 17(4):823-838.

Bowman, J., Greenhorn, J.E., Marrotte, R.R., McKay, M.M., Morris, K.Y., Prentice, M.B., and Wehtje, M. 2016. On applications of landscape genetics. Conserv. Genet. 17(4):753-760.

Brancalion, P.H.S., Garcia, L.C., Loyola, R., Rodrigues, R.R., Pillar, V.D., and Lewinsohn, T.M. 2016. A critical analysis of the Native Vegetation Protection Law of Brazil (2012): updates and ongoing initiatives. Nat. Conservacao 14:1-15.

Bravo-Monasterio, P., Pauchard, A., and Fajardo, A. 2016. Pinus contorta invasion into treeless steppe reduces species richness and alters species traits of the local community. Biol. Invasions 18(7):1883-1894.

Breece, M.W., Fox, D.A., Dunton, K.J., Frisk, M.G., Jordaan, A., and Oliver, M.J. 2016. Dynamic seascapes predict the marine occurrence of an endangered species: Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. Method. Ecol. Evol. 7(6):725-733.

Breure, A.S.H., Hovestadt, A., Fields, A., and Robinson, D.G. 2016. The land Mollusca (Gastropoda) of Saint Kitts and Nevis (Lesser Antilles), with description of a new species. Nautilus 130(2):27-52.

Briscoe, N.J., Kearney, M.R., Taylor, C.A., and Wintle, B.A. 2016. Unpacking the mechanisms captured by a correlative species distribution model to improve predictions of climate refugia. Global Change Biol. 22(7):2425-2439.

Briski, E., Ghabooli, S., Bailey, S.A., and MacIsaac, H.J. 2016. Are genetic databases sufficiently populated to detect non-indigenous species? Biol. Invasions 18(7):1911-1922.

Brown, E.D., and Williams, B.K. 2016. Ecological integrity assessment as a metric of biodiversity: are we measuring what we say we are? Biodivers. Conserv. 25(6):1011-1035.

Buczyńska, E., Czachorowski, S., and Buczyński, P. 2016. Leptocerus interruptus (Fabricius, 1775) (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) in Poland: a case study of distribution, conservation status and potential monitoring value of a rare European caddisfly species. Acta Zool. Bulgar. 68(2):225-234.

Buechley, E.R., and Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. 2016. The avian scavenger crisis: looming extinctions, trophic cascades, and loss of critical ecosystem functions. Biol. Conserv. 198:220-228.

Buffagni, A., Tenchini, R., Cazzola, M., Erba, S., Balestrini, R., Belfiore, C., and Pagnotta, R. 2016. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy). Sci. Total Environ. 565:1138-1150.

Byng, J.W., Barthelat, F., Snow, N., and Bernardini, B. 2016. Revision of Eugenia and Syzygium (Myrtaceae) from the Comoros archipelago. Phytotaxa 252(3):163-184.

Byrom, A.E., Innes, J., and Binny, R.N. 2016. A review of biodiversity outcomes from possum-focused pest control in New Zealand. Wildlife Res. 43(3):228-253.

Caballero-López, B., Blanco-Moreno, J.M., Pujade-Villar, J., Ventura, D., Sánchez-Espigares, J., and Sans, F.X. 2016. Herbivores, saprovores and natural enemies respond differently to within-field plant characteristics of wheat fields. J. Insect Conserv. 20(3):467-476.

Cadenhead, N.C.R., Kearney, M.R., Moore, D., McAlpin, S., and Wintle, B.A. 2016. Climate and fire scenario uncertainty dominate the evaluation of options for conserving the great desert skink. Conserv. Lett. 9(3):181-190.

Cameron, R.P., and Toms, B. 2016. Population decline of endangered lichen Erioderma pedicellatum in Nova Scotia, Canada. Botany 94(7):565-571.

Canessa, S., Converse, S.J., West, M., Clemann, N., Gillespie, G., McFadden, M., Silla, A.J., Parris, K.M., and McCarthy, M.A. 2016. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):599-609.

Canessa, S., Ewen, J.G., West, M., McCarthy, M.A., and Walshe, T.V. 2016. Stochastic dominance to account for uncertainty and risk in conservation decisions. Conserv. Lett. 9(4):260-266.

Cardilini, A.P.A., Buchanan, K.L., Sherman, C.D.H., Cassey, P., and Symonds, M.R.E. 2016. Tests of ecogeographical relationships in a non-native species: what rules avian morphology? Oecologia 181(3):783-793.

Cardoso, J.C., da Silva, J.A.T., and Vendrame, W.A. 2016. Impacts of deforestation on some orchids of São Paulo State, Brazil. Nat. Conservacao 14(1):28-32.

Carlson, E., MacDonald, A.J., Adamack, A., McGrath, T., Doucette, L.I., Osborne, W.S., Gruber, B., and Sarre, S.D. 2016. How many conservation units are there for the endangered grassland earless dragons? Conserv. Genet. 17(4):761-774.

Caro, T., and Davenport, T.R.B. 2016. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):716-723.

Casas, C., Gundel, P.E., Semmartin, M., Schnyder, H., and Omacini, M. 2016. The enhancement of invasion ability of an annual grass by its fungal endophyte depends on recipient community structure. Biol. Invasions 18(7):1853-1865.

Castilla, A.R., Pope, N., Jaffé, R., and Jha, S. 2016. Elevation, not deforestation, promotes genetic differentiation in a pioneer tropical tree. PLoS ONE 11(6):e0156694.

Catenazzi, A. 2016. Ecological implications of metabolic compensation at low temperatures in salamanders. PeerJ 4:e2072.

Caut, S., and Jowers, M.J. 2016. Is the Martinique ground snake Erythrolamprus cursor extinct? Oryx 50(3):545-548.

Cerboncini, R.A.S., Roper, J.J., and Passos, F.C. 2016. Edge effects without habitat fragmentation? Small mammals and a railway in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. Oryx 50(3):460-467.

Chanchani, P., Noon, B.R., Bailey, L.L., and Warrier, R.A. 2016. Conserving tigers in working landscapes. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):649-660.

Chase, S.K., and Levine, A. 2016. A framework for evaluating and designing citizen science programs for natural resources monitoring. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):456-466.

Chauvenet, A.L.M., and Barnes, M. 2016. Expanding protected areas is not enough. Science 353(6299):551-552.

Cheek, M., and Jebb, M. 2016. A new section in Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) and a new species from Sulawesi. Blumea 61(1):59-62.

Chen, M.T., Liang, Y.J., Kuo, C.C., and Pei, K.J.C. 2016. Home ranges, movements and activity patterns of leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis) and threats to them in Taiwan. Mamm. Stud. 41(2):77-86.

Chisholm, R.A., Giam, X.L., Sadanandan, K.R., Fung, T., and Rheindt, F.E. 2016. A robust nonparametric method for quantifying undetected extinctions. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):610-617.

Christie, K.S., Gilbert, S.L., Brown, C.L., Hatfield, M., and Hanson, L. 2016. Unmanned aircraft systems in wildlife research: current and future applications of a transformative technology. Front. Ecol. Environ. 14(5):242-252.

Chucholl, C. 2016. The bad and the super-bad: prioritising the threat of six invasive alien to three imperilled native crayfishes. Biol. Invasions 18(7):1967-1988.

Cinner, J.E., Huchery, C., MacNeil, M.A., Graham, N.A.J., McClanahan, T.R., Maina, J., Maire, E., Kittinger, J.N., Hicks, C.C., Mora, C., Allison, E.H., D'Agata, S., Hoey, A., Feary, D.A., Crowder, L., Williams, I.D., Kulbicki, M., Vigliola, L., Wantiez, L., Edgar, G., Stuart-Smith, R.D., Sandin, S.A., Green, A.L., Hardt, M.J., Beger, M., Friedlander, A., Campbell, S.J., Holmes, K.E., Wilson, S.K., Brokovich, E., Brooks, A.J., Cruz-Motta, J.J., Booth, D.J., Chabanet, P., Gough, C., Tupper, M., Ferse, S.C.A., Sumaila, U.R., and Mouillot, D. 2016. Bright spots among the world's coral reefs. Nature 535(7612):416-419.

Coetzer-Hanack, K.L., Witkowski, E.T.F., and Erasmus, B.F.N. 2016. Thresholds of change in a multi-use conservation landscape of South Africa: historical land-cover, future transformation and consequences for environmental decision-making. Environ. Conserv. 43(3):253-262.

Conrey, R.Y., Skagen, S.K., Adams, A.A.Y., and Panjabi, A.O. 2016. Extremes of heat, drought and precipitation depress reproductive performance in shortgrass prairie passerines. Ibis 158(3):614-629.

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Cornwall, W. 2016. To save caribou, Alberta wants to fence them in. Science 353(6297):333.

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Shedayi, A.A., Xu, M., Hussain, F., Sadia, S., Naseer, I., and Bano, S. 2016. Threatened plant resources: distribution and ecosystem services in the world's high elevation park of the Karakoram ranges. Pakistan J. Bot. 48(3):999-1012.

Sheil, D., Ladd, B., Silva, L.C.R., Laffan, S.W., and Van Heist, M. 2016. How are soil carbon and tropical biodiversity related? Environ. Conserv. 43(3):231-241.

Shi, Q.J., Guo, Y.Y., Engelhardt, S.C., Weladji, R.B., Zhou, Y., Long, M., and Meng, X.X. 2016. Endangered wild yak (Bos grunniens) in the Tibetan plateau and adjacent regions: population size, distribution, conservation perspectives and its relation to the domestic subspecies. J. Nature Conserv. 32:35-43.

Shiffman, D.S., and Hammerschlag, N. 2016. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):805-815.

Siciliano, S., Valiati, V.H., Emin-Lima, R., Costa, A.F., Sartor, J., Dorneles, T., Silva, J.D.E., and de Oliveira, L.R. 2016. New genetic data extend the range of river dolphins Inia in the Amazon Delta. Hydrobiologia 777(1):255-269.

Slavevska-Stamenković, V., Rimcheska, B., Vidinova, Y., Tyufekchieva, V., Ristovska, M., Smiljkov, S., Paunović, M., and Prelić, D. 2016. New data on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera from the Republic of Macedonia. Acta Zool. Bulgar. 68(2):199-206.

Smith, J.B., Nielsen, C.K., and Hellgren, E.C. 2016. Suitable habitat for recolonizing large carnivores in the midwestern USA. Oryx 50(3):555-564.

Snow, N., Dawson, J.W., Callmander, M.W., Gandhi, K., and Munzinger, J. 2016. New species, new combinations, and lectotypifications in New Caledonian Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae). Candollea 71(1):67-81.

Sobral, M., Mazine, F.F., Leoni, L., Souza, M.C., and Melo, E.A.D. 2016. Five new southeastern Brazilian Myrtaceae. Phytotaxa 253(1):57-70.

Soliman, T., Fernandez-Silva, I., and Reimer, J.D. 2016. Genetic population structure and low genetic diversity in the over-exploited sea cucumber Holothuria edulis Lesson, 1830 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in Okinawa Island. Conserv. Genet. 17(4):811-821.

Song, Q.F., Wang, B., Wang, J.S., and Niu, X. 2016. Endangered and endemic species increase forest conservation values of species diversity based on the Shannon-Wiener index. IForest 9:469-474.

Splendiani, A., Ruggeri, P., Giovannotti, M., Pesaresi, S., Occhipinti, G., Fioravanti, T., Lorenzoni, M., Cerioni, P.N., and Barucchi, V.C. 2016. Alien brown trout invasion of the Italian peninsula: the role of geological, climate and anthropogenic factors. Biol. Invasions 18(7):2029-2044.

Stangler, E.S., Hanson, P.E., and Steffan-Dewenter, I. 2016. Vertical diversity patterns and biotic interactions of trap-nesting bees along a fragmentation gradient of small secondary rainforest remnants. Apidologie 47(4):527-538.

Steyaert, S.M.I.G., Zedrosser, A., Elfström , M., Ordiz, A., Leclerc, M., Frank, S.C., Kindberg, J., Støen, O.G., Brunberg, S., and Swenson, J.E. 2016. Ecological implications from spatial patterns in human-caused brown bear mortality. Wildlife Biol. 22(4):144-152.

Stotz, G.C., Pec, G.J., and Cahill, J.F. 2016. Is biotic resistance to invaders dependent upon local environmental conditions or primary productivity? A meta-analysis. Basic Appl. Ecol. 17(5):377-387.

Stuble, K.L., and Souza, L. 2016. Priority effects: natives, but not exotics, pay to arrive late. J. Ecol. 104(4):987-993.

Stuhler, J.D., and Orrock, J.L. 2016. Historical land use and present-day canopy thinning differentially affect the distribution and abundance of invasive and native ant species. Biol. Invasions 18(7):1813-1825.

Stutz, S., Štajerová, K., Hinz, H.L., Müller-Schärer, H., and Schaffner, U. 2016. Can enemy release explain the invasion success of the diploid Leucanthemum vulgare in North America? Biol. Invasions 18(7):2077-2091.

Suarez-Rubio, M., and Lookingbill, T.R. 2016. Forest birds respond to the spatial pattern of exurban development in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA. PeerJ 4:e2039.

Sullivan, M.J.P., Newson, S.E., and Pearce-Higgins, J.W. 2016. Changing densities of generalist species underlie apparent homogenization of UK bird communities. Ibis 158(3):645-655.

Swain, T.D., Vega-Perkins, J.B., Oestreich, W.K., Triebold, C., DuBois, E., Henss, J., Baird, A., Siple, M., Backman, V., and Marcelino, L. 2016. Coral bleaching response index: a new tool to standardize and compare susceptibility to thermal bleaching. Global Change Biol. 22(7):2475-2488.

Swan, K.D., McPherson, J.M., Seddon, P.J., and Moehrenschlager, A. 2016. Managing marine biodiversity: the rising diversity and prevalence of marine conservation translocations. Conserv. Lett. 9(4):239-251.

Swanson, A., Kosmala, M., Lintott, C., and Packer, C. 2016. A generalized approach for producing, quantifying, and validating citizen science data from wildlife images. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):520-531.

Tancell, C., Sutherland, W.J., and Phillips, R.A. 2016. Marine spatial planning for the conservation of albatrosses and large petrels breeding at South Georgia. Biol. Conserv. 198:165-176.

Telleria, L., and Yapu-Alcazar, M. 2016. Conservation priorities for Bolivian mammals: response to Penaranda and Simonetti. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):905-906.

Tensen, L., Groom, R.J., van Belkom, J., Davies-Mostert, H.T., Marnewick, K., and van Vuuren, B.J. 2016. Genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in the Greater Limpopo transfrontier conservation area. Conserv. Genet. 17(4):785-794.

Testolin, R., Saulei, S., Farcomeni, A., Grussu, G., Yosi, C., De Sanctis, M., and Attorre, F. 2016. Investigating the effect of selective logging on tree biodiversity and structure of the tropical forests of Papua New Guinea. IForest 9:475-482.

Thawley, C.J., and Langkilde, T. 2016. Invasive fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) predation of eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus undulatus) eggs. J. Herpetol. 50(2):284-288.

Therville, C., Casella-Colombeau, L., Mathevet, R., and Bioret, F. 2016. Beyond segregative or integrative models for protected areas: a case study of French nature reserves. Environ. Conserv. 43(3):284-293.

Thier, O., and Wesenberg, J. 2016. Floristic composition and edge-induced homogenization in tree communities in the fragmented Atlantic rainforest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 9(2):852-876.

Thomas, J.A. 2016. Butterfly communities under threat. Science 353(6296):216-218.

Thornton, D., Zeller, K., Rondinini, C., Boitani, L., Crooks, K., Burdett, C., Rabinowitz, A., and Quigley, H. 2016. Assessing the umbrella value of a range-wide conservation network for jaguars (Panthera onca). Ecol. Appl. 26(4):1112-1124.

Todorov, M., Grozeva, S., Hubenov, Z., Kenderov, L., and Trichkova, T. 2016. Taxonomic status and distribution of medicinal leeches of the genus Hirudo L. (Hirudinea) in Bulgaria. Acta Zool. Bulgar. 68(2):171-182.

Toledo-Hernández, M., Denmead, L.H., Clough, Y., Raffiudin, R., and Tscharntke, T. 2016. Cultural homegarden management practices mediate arthropod communities in Indonesia. J. Insect Conserv. 20(3):373-382.

Tomazi, A.L., and Castellani, T.T. 2016. Artificial perches and solarization for forest restoration: assessment of their value. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 9(2):809-831.

Toyama, H., Tagane, S., Dang, V.S., Tran, H., Nagamasu, H., Naiki, A., and Yahara, T. 2016. A new species of Eustigma (Hamamelidaceae) from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, Vietnam. PhytoKeys 65:47-55.

Trask, A.E., Bignal, E.M., McCracken, D.I., Monaghan, P., Piertney, S.B., and Reid, J.M. 2016. Evidence of the phenotypic expression of a lethal recessive allele under inbreeding in a wild population of conservation concern. J. Anim. Ecol. 85(4):879-891.

Tremblay, M., Vandewalle, M., and Wittmer, H. 2016. Ethical challenges at the science-policy interface: an ethical risk assessment and proposition of an ethical infrastructure. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(7):1253-1267.

Trites, A.W., and Spitz, J. 2016. One-two punches to eliminate depredation by marine mammals on fish caught or raised for human consumption. Anim. Conserv. 19(3):222-224.

Tsinda, A., Mugisha, R., Mutesi, L., Bizoza, A., Kayitesi, E., and Abbott, P. 2016. Biodiversity informatics in Eastern Africa: Status, drivers and barriers. J. Nature Conserv. 32:67-80.

Tuanmu, M.N., Viña, A., Yang, W., Chen, X.D., Shortridge, A.M., and Liu, J.G. 2016. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):827-835.

Tulloch, A.I.T., Mortelliti, A., Kay, G.M., Florance, D., and Lindenmayer, D. 2016. Using empirical models of species colonization under multiple threatening processes to identify complementary threat-mitigation strategies. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):867-882.

Turnhout, E., Lawrence, A., and Turnhout, S. 2016. Citizen science networks in natural history and the collective validation of biodiversity data. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):532-539.

Urbina-Casanova, R., Luebert, F., Pliscoff, P., and Scherson, R.A. 2016. Assessing floristic representativeness in the protected areas national system of Chile: are vegetation types a good surrogate for plant species? Environ. Conserv. 43(3):199-207.

Vallabh, P., Lotz-Sisitka, H., O'Donoghue, R., and Schudel, I. 2016. Mapping epistemic cultures and learning potential of participants in citizen science projects. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):540-549.

van der Burgt, X.M. 2016. Didelotia korupensis and Tessmannia korupensis (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae), two new tree species from Korup National Park in Cameroon. Blumea 61(1):51-58.

van der Wal, R., Sharma, N., Mellish, C., Robinson, A., and Siddharthan, A. 2016. The role of automated feedback in training and retaining biological recorders for citizen science. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):550-561.

van Putten, I.E., Frusher, S., Fulton, E.A., Hobday, A.J., Jennings, S.M., Metcalf, S., and Pecl, G.T. 2016. Empirical evidence for different cognitive effects in explaining the attribution of marine range shifts to climate change. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 73(5):1306-1318.

Vanhove, M.P.M., Kovačić, M., and Zogaris, S. 2016. A distinct island population of threatened freshwater fish: to split or lump? Hydrobiologia 777(1):79-93.

Venter, O., Sanderson, E.W., Magrach, A., Allan, J.R., Beher, J., Jones, K.R., Possingham, H.P., Laurance, W.F., Wood, P., Fekete, B.M., Levy, M.A., and Watson, J.E.M. 2016. Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation. Nat. Commun. 7:12558.

Verdade, L.M., Palomares, F., do Couto, H.T.Z., and Polizel, J.L. 2016. Recent land-use changes and the expansion of an exotic potential prey: a possible redemption for Atlantic forest jaguars? Anim. Conserv. 19(3):209-211.

Vermeulen, E.T., Power, M.L., Nipperess, D.A., Beveridge, I., and Eldridge, M.D.B. 2016. Biodiversity of parasite assemblages in the genus Petrogale and its relation to the phylogeny and biogeography of their hosts. Aust. J. Zool. 64(1):61-80.

Vilatersana, R., Sanz, M., Galian, A., and Castells, E. 2016. The invasion of Senecio pterophorus across continents: multiple, independent introductions, admixture and hybridization. Biol. Invasions 18(7):2045-2065.

Virgos, E., Lozano, J., Cabezas-Diaz, S., Macdonald, D.W., Zalewski, A., Atienza, J.C., Proulx, G., Ripple, W.J., Rosalino, L.M., Santos-Reis, M., Johnson, P.J., Malo, A.F., and Baker, S.E. 2016. A poor international standard for trap selectivity threatens carnivore conservation. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(8):1409-1419.

von May, R. 2016. New records of the Critically Endangered frog Pristimantis pardalinus (Craugastoridae) in the eastern Andean slopes of central Peru. Amphib. Reptile Conserv. 10(1):e117.

Vujić, A., Radenković, S., Nikolić, T., Radišić, D., Trifunov, S., Andrić, A., Markov, Z., Jovičić, S., Stojnić, S.M., Janković, M., and Lugonja, P. 2016. Prime Hoverfly (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae) Areas (PHA) as a conservation tool in Serbia. Biol. Conserv. 198:22-32.

Wald, D.M., Longo, J., and Dobell, A.R. 2016. Design principles for engaging and retaining virtual citizen scientists. Conserv. Biol. 30(3):562-570.

Walters, G., Ndjabounda, E.N., Ikabanga, D., Biteau, J.P., Hymas, O., White, L.J.T., Obiang, A.M.N., Ondo, P.N., Jeffery, K.J., Lachenaud, O., and Stevart, T. 2016. Peri-urban conservation in the Mondah forest of Libreville, Gabon: Red List assessments of endemic plant species, and avoiding protected area downsizing. Oryx 50(3):419-430.

Wang, B., Ma, Y.P., Chen, G., Li, C.R., Dao, Z.L., and Sun, W.B. 2016. Rescuing Magnolia sinica (Magnoliaceae), a Critically Endangered species endemic to Yunnan, China. Oryx 50(3):446-449.

Wang, C.J., Liu, C.Z., Wan, J.Z., and Zhang, Z.X. 2016. Climate change may threaten habitat suitability of threatened plant species within Chinese nature reserves. PeerJ 4:e2091.

Wang, C.J., Wan, J.Z., Zhang, Z.X., and Zhang, G.M. 2016. Identifying appropriate protected areas for endangered fern species under climate change. Springerplus 5:904.

Wang, S.L., Nan, Z.R., and Prete, D. 2016. Protecting wild yak (Bos mutus) species and preventing its hybrid in China. J. Arid Land 8(5):811-814.

Wangen, K., Speed, J.D.M., and Hassel, K. 2016. Hyper-oceanic liverwort species of conservation concern: evidence for dispersal limitation and identification of suitable uncolonised regions. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(6):1053-1071.

Watanabe, M.T.C., and Sano, P.T. 2016. Syngonanthus hensoldiae (Eriocaulaceae): another new species of S. sect. Syngonanthus endemic from Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. Phytotaxa 253(4):293-300.

Wayne, R.K., and Shaffer, H.B. 2016. Hybridization and endangered species protection in the molecular era. Mol. Ecol. 25(11):2680-2689.

Wedderburn, S.D., and Barnes, T.C. 2016. Piscivory by alien redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis) begins earlier than anticipated in two contrasting habitats of Lake Alexandrina, South Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 64(1):1-7.

Wei, J.W., Lee, B.P.Y.H., and Wen, L.B. 2016. Citizen science and the urban ecology of birds and butterflies - a systematic review. PLoS ONE 11(6):e0156425.

Weisse, M.J., and Naughton-Treves, L.C. 2016. Conservation beyond park boundaries: the impact of buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions in the Peruvian Amazon. Environ. Manage. 58(2):297-311.

West, S., Cairns, R., and Schultz, L. 2016. What constitutes a successful biodiversity corridor? A Q-study in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 198:183-192.

Weyl, P.S.R., and Martin, G.D. 2016. Have grass carp driven declines in macrophyte occurrence and diversity in the Vaal River, South Africa? Afr. J. Aquat. Sci. 41(2):241-245.

White, A.M., Manley, P.N., Tarbill, G.L., Richardson, T.W., Russell, R.E., Safford, H.D., and Dobrowski, S.Z. 2016. Avian community responses to post-fire forest structure: implications for fire management in mixed conifer forests. Anim. Conserv. 19(3):256-264.

Whitney, J.E., Gido, K.B., Pilger, T.J., Propst, D.L., and Turner, T.F. 2016. Metapopulation analysis indicates native and non-native fishes respond differently to effects of wildfire on desert streams. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 25(3):376-392.

Whitworth, A., Braunholtz, L.D., Huarcaya, R.P., MacLeod, R., and Beirne, C. 2016. Out on a limb: arboreal camera traps as an emerging methodology for inventorying elusive rainforest mammals. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 9(2):675-698.

Williams, L.K., Kristiansen, P., Sindel, B.M., Wilson, S.C., and Shaw, J.D. 2016. Quantifying the seed bank of an invasive grass in the sub-Antarctic: seed density, depth, persistence and viability. Biol. Invasions 18(7):2093-2106.

Wood, K.R., Appelhans, M.S., and Wagner, W.L. 2016. Melicope oppenheimeri, section Pelea (Rutaceae), a new species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with notes on its ecology, conservation, and phylogenetic placement. PhytoKeys 69:51-64.

Woodcock, B.A., Isaac, N.J.B., Bullock, J.M., Roy, D.B., Garthwaite, D.G., Crowe, A., and Pywell, R.F. 2016. Impacts of neonicotinoid use on long-term population changes in wild bees in England. Nat. Commun. 7:12459.

Wyborn, C., van Kerkhoff, L., Dunlop, M., Dudley, N., and Guevara, O. 2016. Future oriented conservation: knowledge governance, uncertainty and learning. Biodivers. Conserv. 25(7):1401-1408.

Yates, K.L., Mellin, C., Caley, M.J., Radford, B.T., and Meeuwig, J.J. 2016. Models of marine fish biodiversity: assessing predictors from three habitat classification schemes. PLoS ONE 11(6):e0155634.

Zablocki, J., Arora, S., and Barua, M. 2016. Factors affecting media coverage of species rediscoveries. Conserv. Biol. 30(4):914-917.

Zamora-Marín, J.M., Gutiérrez-Cánovas, C., Abellán, P., and Millán, A. 2016. The role of protected areas in representing aquatic biodiversity: a test using alpha, beta and gamma diversity of water beetles from the Segura River Basin (SE Spain). Limnetica 35(1):179-192.

Zhang, J., Hu, J.B., Lian, J.Y., Fan, Z.J., Ouyang, X.J., and Ye, W.H. 2016. Seeing the forest from drones: testing the potential of lightweight drones as a tool for long-term forest monitoring. Biol. Conserv. 198:60-69.

Zhang, L., Jiang, W., Wang, Q.J., Zhao, H., Zhang, H.X., Marcec, R.M., Willard, S.T., and Kouba, A.J. 2016. Reintroduction and post-release survival of a living fossil: the Chinese giant salamander. PLoS ONE 11(6):e0156715.

Zhao, X.J., Meng, H.X., Wang, W.H., and Yan, B.D. 2016. Prediction of the distribution of alpine tree species under climate change scenarios: Larix chinensis in Taibai Mountain (China). Pol. J. Ecol. 64(2):200-212.

Zinngrebe, Y. 2016. Learning from local knowledge in Peru - ideas for more effective biodiversity conservation. J. Nature Conserv. 32:10-21.

Zogaris, S., and Kallimanis, A. 2016. Coastal zone habitat-use by birds in Qatar: insights from a rapid assessment method during spring migration. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 9(2):658-676.

Zylka, J.J., Whelan, C.J., and Molano-Flores, B. 2016. Restoration implications of land management legacy on aboveground and seed bank composition of North American grasslands. Am. Midl. Nat. 176(1):36-59.


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