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Department ofBotany



No. 365
May 2015


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In This Issue


New South Pacific Cliff Flower is Critically Endangered


-Adapted from Smithsonianscience.org

What plant species has just been discovered but is almost gone? Bidens meyeri–a just discovered flowering plant from the small South Pacific island of Rapa, located in the southernmost part of French Polynesia.

A close-up of the newly discovered flowering plant Bidens meyeri. (Photo by J-Y. Meyer, taken 16 Dec 2002)

A close-up of the newly discovered flowering plant Bidens meyeri. (Photo by J-Y. Meyer, taken 16 Dec 2002)

This new species was introduced to science and the public last October in the journal PhytoKeys by National Museum of Natural History botanist Vicki Funk and her collaborator, Kenneth Wood from the National Tropical Botanical Garden in Hawaii. Bidens meyeri grows exclusively on the steep, windswept volcanic cliffs of Rapa. The flower, distinguished by its soft, veiny yellow petals, is named after conservation biologist Jean-Yves Meyer of Tahiti, in part in recognition of his efforts in exploring and conserving the unique biota of Rapa.

Rapa is what botanists call an 'anomalous district,' meaning it has an unusually vast amount of biodiversity but the origin of the diversity is confusing. According to Funk, her co-discovery of Bidens meyeri, "represents the end of a long line of Bidens species that have island hopped their way from western North America to Hawaii to the Marquesas to the Society Islands and ended up on the cliffs of Rapa in the Austral Islands."

Conservation biologist Jean-Yves Meyer climbing a volcanic cliff with a specimen of Bidens meyeri in his teeth. This plant is known from only a few specimens found on this cliff on the South Pacific island of Rapa. The plant was named in Meyer's honor. (Photo by R. Englund, taken 16 Dec 2002)

Conservation biologist Jean-Yves Meyer climbing a volcanic cliff with a specimen of Bidens meyeri in his teeth. This plant is known from only a few specimens found on this cliff on the South Pacific island of Rapa. The plant was named in Meyer's honor. (Photo by R. Englund, taken 16 Dec 2002)

But the beauty of Bidens meyeri may not last long. It is regarded as critically endangered and faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild. The reason for this is unconfirmed, but scientists point to several potential factors that contribute to the flower's endangered existence: climate change, possible fires, destruction by feral goats introduced to the island by humans and competition with invasive plants. This botanical beauty is most closely related to the plant species Bidens saint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island, although it is generally smaller.

Like many new discoveries, finding Bidens meyeri was unexpected. Several scientists visited Rapa for a month to take a botanic survey of the island. Due to a logistical traveling complication (the return boat sank), many of the scientists stayed in Rapa longer than anticipated. Scientists discovered several new species during their extended time on the island, including the colorful and cliff-dwelling Bidens meyeri.


Current Literature


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Adenle, A.A., Stevens, C., and Bridgewater, P. 2015. Global conservation and management of biodiversity in developing countries: an opportunity for a new approach. Environ. Sci. Policy 45:104-108.

Aguiar, C.M.L., Alves, D.A., Wenseleers, T., and Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L. 2014. Special Issue on stingless bees: integrating basic biology and conservation. Sociobiology 61(4):1.

Alexander, M.E., Kaiser, H., Weyl, O.L.F., and Dick, J.T.A. 2015. Habitat simplification increases the impact of a freshwater invasive fish. Environ. Biol. Fish. 98(2):477-486.

Ali, J., Lieurance, D., and Cipollini, D. 2014. Soil biota affect mycorrhizal infection and growth of Impatiens capensis and alter the effects of Lonicera maackii rhizosphere extracts. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 142(1):1-11.

Almeida, D., and Grossman, G.D. 2014. Regulated small rivers as 'nursery' areas for invasive largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in Iberian waters. Aquat. Conserv. 24(6):805-817.

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Araújo, C.C., and Wang, J.Y. 2015. The dammed river dolphins of Brazil: impacts and conservation. Oryx 49(1):17-24.

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Backlin, A.R., Hitchcock, C.J., Gallegos, E.A., Yee, J.L., and Fisher, R.N. 2015. The precarious persistence of the Endangered Sierra Madre yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa in southern California, USA. Oryx 49(1):157-164.

Bahaa-el-din, L., Henschel, P., Butynski, T.M., Macdonald, D.W., Mills, D., Slotow, R., and Hunter, L. 2015. The African golden cat Caracal aurata: Africa's least-known felid. Mammal Rev. 45(1):63-77.

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Barbosa, J.F., and Sakuragui, C.M. 2014. Taxonomy and conservation of the Brazilian extra-Amazonian species of Philodendron subg. Pteromischum (Araceae). Phytotaxa 191(1):45-65.

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Bateman, H.L., Merritt, D.M., Glenn, E.P., and Nagler, P.L. 2015. Indirect effects of biocontrol of an invasive riparian plant (Tamarix) alters habitat and reduces herpetofauna abundance. Biol. Invasions 17(1):87-97.

Bayraktarov, E., Alarcón-Moscoso, J., Polanco, A., and Wild, C. 2014. Spatial and temporal distribution of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans in coral reefs of Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean. PeerJ 2:e397.

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Bazzano, G., Giordano, P.F., Navarro, J.L., and Martella, M.B. 2014. Linking landscape data with population viability analysis for evaluating translocation as a conservation strategy for Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) in central Argentina. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 25(1):25-35.

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Bellis, L.M., Rivera, L., Landi, M., and Politi, N. 2014. Distinct summer bird assemblages in two fragments of Polylepis forests in the Southern Yungas of Argentina. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 25(2):195-206.

Benfer, D., Baker, A.M., Ball, T., Gynther, I., Janetzki, H., and Fuller, S. 2014. Conservation genetics of the water mouse, Xeromys myoides Thomas, 1889. Aust. J. Zool. 62(5):382-392.

Berec, L., Kean, J.M., Epanchin-Niell, R., Liebhold, A.M., and Haight, R.G. 2015. Designing efficient surveys: spatial arrangement of sample points for detection of invasive species. Biol. Invasions 17(1):445-459.

Bernard, A.M., Shivji, M.S., Prince, E.D., Hazin, F.H.V., Arocha, F., Domingo, A., and Feldheim, K.A. 2014. Comparative population genetics and evolutionary history of two commonly misidentified billfishes of management and conservation concern. BMC Genet. 15:141.

Bertelsmeier, C., Luque, G.M., Hoffmann, B.D., and Courchamp, F. 2015. Worldwide ant invasions under climate change. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(1):117-128.

Bertocci, I., Godino, J.D., Freitas, C., Incera, M., Araújo, R., Bio, A., Arenas, F., Sousa-Pinto, I., Reis, P.A., and Domínguez, R. 2015. The regime of climate-related disturbance and nutrient enrichment modulate macroalgal invasions in rockpools. Biol. Invasions 17(1):133-147.

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Bevan, E., Wibbels, T., Najera, B.M.Z., Martinez, M.A.C., Martinez, L.A.S., Reyes, D.J.L., Hernandez, M.H., Gamez, D.G., Pena, L.J., and Burchfield, P.M. 2014. In situ nest and hatchling survival at Rancho Nuevo, the primary nesting beach of the Kemp's Ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempii. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 9(3):563-577.

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Bidegaray-Batista, L., Taiti, S., López, H., Ribera, C., and Arnedo, M.A. 2015. Endemism and evolution in the littoral woodlouse Halophiloscia Verhoeff, 1908 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) from the Canary Islands: implications for conservation policies. Insect Conserv. Divers. 8(1):17-30.

Biswas, S.R., Kotanen, P.M., Kambo, D., and Wagner, H.H. 2015. Context-dependent patterns, determinants and demographic consequences of herbivory in an invasive species. Biol. Invasions 17(1):165-178.

Bleich, M.E., Mortati, A.F., André, T., and Piedade, M.T.F. 2014. Riparian deforestation affects the structural dynamics of headwater streams in Southern Brazilian Amazonia. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(4):657-676.

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Bolotov, I., Vikhrev, I., Bespalaya, Y., Artamonova, V., Gofarov, M., Kolosova, J., Kondakov, A., Makhrov, A., Frolov, A., Tumpeesuwan, S., Lyubas, A., Romanis, T., and Titova, K. 2014. Ecology and conservation of the endangered Indochinese freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera laosensis (Lea, 1863) in the Nam Pe and Nam Long rivers, Northern Laos. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(4):706-719.

Bone, R.E., Sanz, E., and Buerki, S. 2014. The transfer of Eulophia beravensis Rchb. f. to Oeceoclades Lindl., a genus with its centre of diversily in Madagascar (Eulophiinae, Orchidaceae). Candollea 69(2):201-205.

Borger, T., Hattam, C., Burdon, D., Atkins, J.P., and Austen, M.C. 2014. Valuing conservation benefits of an offshore marine protected area. Ecol. Econ. 108:229-241.

Bray, T.C., and Hockey, P.A.R. 2015. Population genetics and demographic inferences in a recovering shorebird, the African Black Oystercatcher Haematopus moquini. Ibis 157(1):171-176.

Breckenridge, J.K., Bollens, S.M., Rollwagen-Bollens, G., and Roegner, G.C. 2015. Plankton assemblage variability in a river-dominated temperate estuary during late spring (high-flow) and late summer (low-flow) periods. Estuaries Coasts 38(1):93-103.

Brown, G.P., Phillips, B.L., Dubey, S., and Shine, R. 2015. Invader immunology: invasion history alters immune system function in cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia. Ecol. Lett. 18(1):57-65.

Brown, P.M.J., Ingels, B., Wheatley, A., Rhule, E.L., de Clercq, P., van Leeuwen, T., and Thomas, A. 2015. Intraguild predation by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on native insects in Europe: molecular detection from field samples. Entomol. Sci. 18(1):130-133.

Brullo, S., and Zimmitti, A. 2014. Epipactis hyblaea (Orchidaceae; Epidendroideae; Neottieae) a new species from Sicily. Phytotaxa 186(1):42-50.

Bucklin, D.N., Basille, M., Benscoter, A.M., Brandt, L.A., Mazzotti, F.J., Romañach, S.S., Speroterra, C., and Watling, J.I. 2015. Comparing species distribution models constructed with different subsets of environmental predictors. Divers. Distrib. 21(1):23-35.

Budroni, M.A., Farris, E., Zirulia, A., Pisanu, S., Filigheddu, R., and Rustici, M. 2014. Evidence for age-structured depensation effect in fragmented plant populations: the case of the Mediterranean endemic Anchusa sardoa (Boraginaceae). Ecol. Complex. 20:142-150.

Buerki, S., Doherty, R., Gautier, L., and Callmander, M.W. 2014. Rediscovery of the genus Tsingya Capuron (Sapindaceae) and its phylogenetic position. Candollea 69(2):195-200.

Bungard, M.J., Jones, C., Tatayah, V., and Bell, D.J. 2014. The habitat use of two species of day geckos (Phelsuma ornata and Phelsuma guimbeaui) and implications for conservation management in island ecosystems. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 9(3):551-562.

Bunting, S., Burnett, E., Hunter, R.B., Field, R., and Hunter, K.L. 2014. Incorporating molecular genetics into remote expedition fieldwork. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(2):260-271.

Burgos-Hernández, M., Castillo-Campos, G., and Tenorio, M.D.V. 2014. Potentially useful flora from the tropical rainforest in central Veracruz, Mexico: considerations for their conservation. Acta Bot. Mex. 109:55-77.

Burlakova, L.E., Tulumello, B.L., Karatayev, A.Y., Krebs, R.A., Schloesser, D.W., Paterson, W.L., Griffith, T.A., Scott, M.W., Crail, T., and Zanatta, D.T. 2014. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels. PLoS ONE 9(12):e114926.

Burne, A.R., Haywood, J., and Lester, P.J. 2015. Density-dependent effects of an invasive wasp on the morphology of an endemic New Zealand ant. Biol. Invasions 17(1):327-335.

Caley, P., Ramsey, D.S.L., and Barry, S.C. 2015. Inferring the distribution and demography of an invasive species from sighting data: the red fox incursion into Tasmania. PLoS ONE 10(1):e0116631.

Callmander, M.W., Phillipson, P.B., and Schatz, G.E. 2014. Towards a revision of the genus Vitex L. (Lamiaceae) in Madagascar I: a distinctive new species from North-eastern Madagascar. Candollea 69(2):141-147.

Campos, F.S., Brito, D., and Solé, M. 2014. Diversity patterns, research trends and mismatches of the investigative efforts to amphibian conservation in Brazil. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 86(4):1873-1886.

Cardenas, L.A., Burke, J.M., and Michelangeli, F.A. 2014. Five new species of Miconia (Melastomataceae) from the Central Peruvian Andes. Phytotaxa 188(3):121-134.

Carmanchahi, P.D., Schroeder, N.M., Bolgeri, M.J., Walker, R.S., Funes, M., Berg, J., Taraborelli, P., Ovejero, R., Gregorio, P., Moreno, P., and Novaro, A.J. 2015. Effects of live-shearing on population parameters and movement in sedentary and migratory populations of guanacos Lama guanicoe. Oryx 49(1):51-59.

Carrillo, E.R., and Garcia, C.M. 2015. Limited options for native goodeid fish simultaneously confronted to climate change and biological invasions. Biol. Invasions 17(1):245-256.

Carvalho, F.R., de Jesus, G.C., and Langeani, F. 2014. Redescription of Hyphessobrycon flammeus Myers, 1924 (Ostariophysi: Characidae), a threatened species from Brazil. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 12(2):247-256.

Cavasini, R., Buschini, M.L.T., Machado, L.P.B., and Mateus, R.P. 2014. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies. Braz. J. Biol. 74(4):761-768.

Ceppi, S.L., and Nielsen, M.R. 2014. A comparative study on bushmeat consumption patterns in ten tribes in Tanzania. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(2):272-287.

César, R.G., Viani, R.A.G., da Silva, M.C., and Brancalion, P.H.S. 2014. Does a native grass (Imperata brasiliensis Trin.) limit tropical forest restoration like an alien grass (Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv.)? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(4):639-656.

Chaves, G., Zumbado-Ulate, H., García-Rodríguez, A., Gómez, E., Vredenburg, V.T., and Ryan, M.J. 2014. Rediscovery of the critically endangered streamside frog, Craugastor taurus (Craugastoridae), in Costa Rica. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(4):628-638.

Cheek, M., and Jebb, M. 2014. Expansion of the Nepenthes alata group (Nepenthaceae), Philippines, and descriptions of three new species. Blumea 59(2):144-154.

Chen, H.L., Zhang, P., Li, B., and Wu, J.H. 2015. Invasive cordgrass facilitates epifaunal communities in a Chinese marsh. Biol. Invasions 17(1):205-217.

Chenot, J., Affre, L., Passetti, A., and Buisson, E. 2014. Consequences of iceplant (Carpobrotus) invasion on the vegetation and seed bank structure on a Mediterranean island: response elements for their local eradication. Acta Bot. Gallica 161(3):301-308.

Chiaverano, L.M., Wright, M.J., and Holland, B.S. 2014. Movement behavior is habitat dependent in invasive Jackson's chameleons in Hawaii. J. Herpetol. 48(4):471-479.

Chu, C., Minns, C.K., Lester, N.P., and Mandrak, N.E. 2015. An updated assessment of human activities, the environment, and freshwater fish biodiversity in Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 72(1):135-148.

Cid, B., Figueira, L., Mello, A.F.D.T.E., Pires, A.S., and Fernandez, F.A.S. 2014. Short-term success in the reintroduction of the red-humped agouti Dasyprocta leporina, an important seed disperser, in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest reserve. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(4):796-810.

Clark, E.L., Pitt, C., Carroll, A.L., Lindgren, B.S., and Huber, D.P.W. 2014. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). PeerJ 2:e240.

Clément, L., Catzeflis, F., Richard-Hansen, C., Barrioz, S., and de Thoisy, B. 2014. Conservation interests of applying spatial distribution modelling to large vagile Neotropical mammals. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(2):192-213.

Corlett, R.T. 2015. The Anthropocene concept in ecology and conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30(1):36-41.

Costa, L., Franco, R.M., Guimarães, L.F., Vollet-Neto, A., Silva, F.R., and Cordeiro, G.D. 2014. Rescue of stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) nests: an important form of mitigating impacts caused by deforestation. Sociobiology 61(4):554-559.

Cowan, O.S., and Anderson, P.M.L. 2014. The Peninsula Shale Renosterveld of Devil's Peak, Western Cape: a study into the vegetation and seedbank with a view toward potential restoration. S. Afr. J. Bot. 95:135-145.

Crosby, K., Stokes, T.O., and Latta, R.G. 2014. Evolving California genotypes of Avena barbata are derived from multiple introductions but still maintain substantial population structure. PeerJ 2:e633.

Da Costa-Lima, J.L., and Alves, M. 2015. Three new species in Brazilian Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae). Phytotaxa 192(2):97-104.

Da Silva, M.F.O., Guimarães, P.J.F., and Michelangeli, F.A. 2014. Nomenclatural and taxonomic novelties in the tribe Melastomeae (Melastomataceae). Phytotaxa 186(4):222-228.

Dares, L.E., Hoffman, J.M., Yang, S.C., and Wang, J.Y. 2014. Habitat characteristics of the critically endangered Taiwanese humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) of the eastern Taiwan Strait. Aquat. Mammals 40(4):368-374.

Das, N., Nekaris, K.A.I., Biswas, J., Das, J., and Bhattacharjee, P.C. 2015. Persistence and protection of the Vulnerable Bengal slow loris Nycticebus bengalensis in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India. Oryx 49(1):127-132.

Das, S., Dutta, S., Sen, S., Jijumon, A.S., Babu, S., Kumara, H.N., and Singh, M. 2014. Identifying regions for conservation of sloth bears through occupancy modelling in north-eastern Karnataka, India. Ursus 25(2):111-120.

Dawson, W., Burslem, D., and Hulme, P.E. 2015. Consistent effects of disturbance and forest edges on the invasion of a continental rain forest by alien plants. Biotropica 47(1):27-37.

De Marques, A.A.B., and Peres, C.A. 2015. Pervasive legal threats to protected areas in Brazil. Oryx 49(1):25-29.

de Medeiros, M.C.M.P., and Lohmann, L.G. 2014. Two new species of Tynanthus Miers (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae) from Brazil. PhytoKeys 42:77-85.

de Melo, R.S., da Silva, O.C., Souto, A., Alves, R.R.N., and Schiel, N. 2014. The role of mammals in local communities living in conservation areas in the Northeast of Brazil: an ethnozoological approach. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(3):423-439.

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Rojas-Sandoval, J., and Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biol. Invasions 17(1):149-163.

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Rowe, M.T., and Zanatta, D.T. 2015. Investigating the genetic variation and structure of a native unionid mussel in the Laurentian Great Lakes following an invasion of dreissenid mussels. Biol. Invasions 17(1):351-364.

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Siers, S.R., Savidge, J.A., and Reed, R.N. 2014. Invasive brown treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance. J. Herpetol. 48(4):500-505.

Silber, G.K., Adams, J.D., and Fonnesbeck, C.J. 2014. Compliance with vessel speed restrictions to protect North Atlantic right whales. PeerJ 2:e399.

Silliman, B.R., Mozdzer, T., Angelini, C., Brundage, J.E., Esselink, P., Bakker, J.P., Gedan, K.B., van de Koppel, J., and Baldwin, A.H. 2014. Livestock as a potential biological control agent for an invasive wetland plant. PeerJ 2:e567.

Simões, P.I., Stow, A., Hödl, W., Amézquita, A., Farias, I.P., and Lima, A.P. 2014. The value of including intraspecific measures of biodiversity in environmental impact surveys is highlighted by the Amazonian brilliant-thighed frog (Allobates femoralis). Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(4):811-828.

Simon, A., Gozlan, R.E., Britton, J.R., van Oosterhout, C., and Hänfling, B. 2015. Human induced stepping-stone colonisation of an admixed founder population: the spread of topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) in Europe. Aquat. Sci. 77(1):17-25.

Simons, N.K., Gossner, M.M., Lewinsohn, T.M., Lange, M., Türke, M., and Weisser, W.W. 2015. Effects of land-use intensity on arthropod species abundance distributions in grasslands. J. Anim. Ecol. 84(1):143-154.

Sirois, A.M., Gibbs, J.P., Whitlock, A.L., and Erb, L.A. 2014. Effects of habitat alterations on bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): a comparison of two populations. J. Herpetol. 48(4):455-460.

Sirot, C., Villéger, S., Mouillot, D., Darnaude, A.M., Ramos-Miranda, J., Flores-Hernandez, D., and Panfili, J. 2015. Combinations of biological attributes predict temporal dynamics of fish species in response to environmental changes. Ecol. Indic. 48:147-156.

Skorinov, D.V., Doronin, I.V., Kidov, A.A., Tuniyev, B.S., and Litvinchuk, S.N. 2014. Distribution and conservation status of the Caucasian newt, Lissotriton lantzi (Wolterstorff, 1914). Russ. J. Herpetol. 21(4):251-268.

Smith, L.S., Broyles, M.E.J., Larzleer, H.K., and Fellowes, M.D.E. 2015. Adding ecological value to the urban lawnscape. Insect abundance and diversity in grass-free lawns. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(1):47-62.

Smith-Patten, B.D., and Patten, M.A. 2015. Beyond surrogacy—a multi-taxon approach to conservation biogeography. Biotropica 47(1):128-135.

Sobral, M., and Souza, M.D. 2015. Two new species of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) from coastal Brazilian rainforest. Novon 23(4):442-446.

Sourav, M.S.H. 2014. Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus in Bangladesh: breeding biology, status, threats and conservation. Forktail 30:142-143.

Souza, D.M., Teixeira, R.F.M., and Ostermann, O.P. 2015. Assessing biodiversity loss due to land use with Life Cycle Assessment: are we there yet? Global Change Biol. 21(1):32-47.

Spring, D., and Cacho, O.J. 2015. Estimating eradication probabilities and trade-offs for decision analysis in invasive species eradication programs. Biol. Invasions 17(1):191-204.

Springborn, M.R., Keller, R.P., Elwood, S., Romagosa, C.M., Zambrana-Torrelio, C., and Daszak, P. 2015. Integrating invasion and disease in the risk assessment of live bird trade. Divers. Distrib. 21(1):101-110.

Stearman, L.W., Adams, G., and Adams, R. 2015. Ecology of the redfin darter and a potential emerging threat to its habitat. Environ. Biol. Fish. 98(2):623-635.

Stender, Y., Jokiel, P.L., and Rodgers, K.S. 2014. Thirty years of coral reef change in relation to coastal construction and increased sedimentation at Pelekane Bay, Hawai'i. PeerJ 2:e300.

Sterijovski, B., Ajtic, R., Tomovic, L., and Bonnet, X. 2014. Conservation threats to dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) in Golem Grad Island (FYR of Macedonia). Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 9(3):468-474.

Stiels, D., Gaißer, B., Schidelko, K., Engler, J.O., and Rödder, D. 2015. Niche shift in four non-native estrildid finches and implications for species distribution models. Ibis 157(1):75-90.

Stien, J., and Ims, R.A. 2015. Management decisions and knowledge gaps: learning by doing in a case of a declining population of Slavonian grebe Podiceps auritus. Wildlife Biol. 21(1):44-50.

Stone, P.A., Congdon, J.D., and Smith, C.L. 2014. Conservation triage of Sonoran mud turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense). Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 9(3):448-453.

Suazo-Ortuño, I., Lopez-Toledo, L., Alvarado-Díaz, J., and Martínez-Ramos, M. 2015. Land-use change dynamics, soil type and species forming mono-dominant patches: the case of Pteridium aquilinum in a neotropical rain forest region. Biotropica 47(1):18-26.

Sullivan, B.K., Douglas, M.R., Walker, J.M., Cordes, J.E., Davis, M.A., Anthonysamy, W.J.B., Sullivan, K.O., and Douglas, M.E. 2014. Conservation and management of polytypic species: the little striped whiptail complex (Aspidoscelis inornata) as a case study. Copeia 2014(3):519-529.

Sutherland, W.J., Clout, M., Depledge, M., Dicks, L.V., Dinsdale, J., Entwistle, A.C., Fleishman, E., Gibbons, D.W., Keim, B., Lickorish, F.A., Monk, K.A., Ockendon, N., Peck, L.S., Pretty, J., Rockström, J., Spalding, M.D., Tonneijck, F.H., and Wintle, B.C. 2015. A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2015. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30(1):17-24.

Swierk, L., and Madigosky, S.R. 2014. Environmental perceptions and resource use in rural communities of the Peruvian Amazon (Iquitos and vicinity, Maynas Province). Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(3):382-402.

Tan, E.B.P., and Beal, B.F. 2015. Interactions between the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas (L.), and juveniles of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria L., in eastern Maine, USA. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 462:62-73.

Teixeira, T.S.M., Dias, D., and Vale, M.M. 2015. New records and a taxonomic review prompts reassessment of Lonchophylla bokermanni, a rare bat endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado. Oryx 49(1):71-73.

Tella, J.L., Canale, A., Carrete, M., Petracci, P., and Zalba, S.M. 2014. Anthropogenic nesting sites allow urban breeding in burrowing parrots Cyanoliseus patagonus. Ardeola 61(2):311-321.

Tellería, J.L., Fandos, G., López, J.F., Onrubia, A., and Refoyo, P. 2014. Winter distribution of passerine richness in the Maghreb (North Africa): a conservation assessment. Ardeola 61(2):335-350.

Temponi, L.G., and Coelho, M.A.N. 2014. Two new species of Anthurium (Araceae) endemic to Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Phytotaxa 188(3):162-168.

Tererai, F., and Wood, A.R. 2014. On the present and potential distribution of Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 95:152-158.

Thibaut, T., Blanfuné, A., Markovic, L., Verlaque, M., Boudouresque, C.F., Perret-Boudouresque, M., Maćic, V., and Bottin, L. 2014. Unexpected abundance and long-term relative stability of the brown alga Cystoseira amentacea, hitherto regarded as a threatened species, in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 89(1-2):305-323.

Thomas, S.M., and Moloney, K.A. 2015. Combining the effects of surrounding land-use and propagule pressure to predict the distribution of an invasive plant. Biol. Invasions 17(1):477-495.

Thulin, M., Nusbaumer, L., and Gautier, L. 2014. Bauhinia darainensis Thulin & Nusb. (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Madagascar. Candollea 69(2):135-139.

Tingley, R., Weeks, A.R., Smart, A.S., van Rooyen, A.R., Woolnough, A.P., and McCarthy, M.A. 2015. European newts establish in Australia, marking the arrival of a new amphibian order. Biol. Invasions 17(1):31-37.

Titus, V., Madison, D., and Green, T. 2014. The importance of maintaining upland forest habitat surrounding salamander breeding ponds: case study of the eastern tiger salamander in New York, USA. Forests 5(12):3070-3086.

Toledo-Aceves, T., Garcia-Franco, J.G., Williams-Linera, G., MacMillan, K., and Gallardo-Hernández, C. 2014. Significance of remnant cloud forest fragments as reservoirs of tree and epiphytic bromeliad diversity. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(2):230-243.

Torres-Florez, J.P., Hucke-Gaete, R., LeDuc, R., Lang, A., Taylor, B., Pimper, L.E., Bedriñana-Romano, L., Rosenbaum, H.C., and Figueroa, C.C. 2014. Blue whale population structure along the eastern South Pacific Ocean: evidence of more than one population. Mol. Ecol. 23(24):5998-6010.

Torres-Meza, M.D., Baez-Gonzalez, A.D., and Ramos-Gonzalez, J.L. 2014. Climatic indices for determining risks to the distribution and maintenance of Quercus emoryi Torr. (Fagaceae) in Mexico. Rangeland J. 36(5):483-492.

Townsend, M., Lohrer, A.M., Rodil, I.F., and Chiaroni, L.D. 2015. The targeting of large-sized benthic macrofauna by an invasive portunid predator: evidence from a caging study. Biol. Invasions 17(1):231-244.

Trejo-Torres, J.C., Caraballo-Ortiz, M.A., Vives-Heyliger, M.A., Torres-Santana, C.W., Cetzal-Ix, W., Mercado-Díaz, J.A., and Carlo, T.A. 2014. Rediscovery of Eugenia fajardensis (Myrtaceae), a rare tree from the Puerto Rican Bank. Phytotaxa 191(1):154-164.

Trizzino, M., Bisi, F., Maiorano, L., Martinoli, A., Petitta, M., Preatoni, D.G., and Audisio, P. 2015. Mapping biodiversity hotspots and conservation priorities for the Euro-Mediterranean headwater ecosystems, as inferred from diversity and distribution of a water beetle lineage. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(1):149-170.

Tzankova, Z., and Concilio, A. 2015. Controlling an invasive plant at the edge of its range: towards a broader understanding of management feasibility. Biol. Invasions 17(1):507-527.

Uddin, K., Shrestha, H.L., Murthy, M.S.R., Bajracharya, B., Shrestha, B., Gilani, H., Pradhan, S., and Dangol, B. 2015. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal. J. Environ. Manage. 148:82-90.

Valdivia, A., Bruno, J.F., Cox, C.E., Hackerott, S., and Green, S.J. 2014. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean. PeerJ 2:e348.

Van Bocxlaer, B., and Albrecht, C. 2015. Ecosystem change and establishment of an invasive snail alter gastropod communities in long-lived Lake Malawi. Hydrobiologia 744(1):307-316.

Van der Niet, T., Cozien, R.J., and Johnson, S.D. 2015. Experimental evidence for specialized bird pollination in the endangered South African orchid Satyrium rhodanthum and analysis of associated floral traits. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 177(1):141-150.

Van Dyck, H., Bonte, D., Puls, R., Gotthard, K., and Maes, D. 2015. The lost generation hypothesis: could climate change drive ectotherms into a developmental trap? Oikos 124(1):54-61.

van Vliet, N., Nebesse, C., and Nasi, R. 2015. Bushmeat consumption among rural and urban children from Province Orientale, Democratic Republic of Congo. Oryx 49(1):165-174.

Vásquez-Morales, S.G., Téllez-Valdés, O., Pineda-López, M.D., Sánchez-Velásquez, L.R., Flores-Estevez, N., and Viveros-Viveros, H. 2014. Effect of climate change on the distribution of Magnolia schiedeana: a threatened species. Bot. Sci. 92(4):575-585.

Vázquez-García, J.A., Nieves-Hernández, G., Padilla-Lepe, J., Nuño-Rubio, A.T., and Cházaro-Basáñez, M. 2014. Echeveria munizii (Crassulaceae) a new species of epiphyte from tropical Volcán de Colima, Mexico. Phytotaxa 191(1):165-171.

Velez-Liendo, X., Adriaensen, F., and Matthysen, E. 2014. Landscape assessment of habitat suitability and connectivity for Andean bears in the Bolivian Tropical Andes. Ursus 25(2):172-187.

Villalobos-Barrantes, H.M., García, E.G., Lowe, A.J., and Albertazzi, F.J. 2015. Genetic analysis of the dry forest timber tree Sideroxylon capiri in Costa Rica using AFLP. Plant Syst. Evol. 301(1):15-23.

Virtanen, R., Eskelinen, A., and Harrison, S. 2015. Bryophyte diversity in Californian grasslands in relation to substrate quality, exotic vascular plants and disturbance. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(1):103-116.

Wahlert, G.A., Nusbaumer, L., and Ranirison, P. 2014. Grewia gautieri Wahlert & Nusb. (Malvaceae, Grewioideae): a new species from Madagascar. Candollea 69(2):149-155.

Wakie, T.T., Evangelista, P.H., Jarnevich, C.S., and Laituri, M. 2014. Mapping current and potential distribution of non-native Prosopis juliflora in the Afar Region of Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 9(11):e112854.

Walisch, T.J., Matthies, D., Hermant, S., and Colling, G. 2015. Genetic structure of Saxifraga rosacea subsp. sponhemica, a rare endemic rock plant of Central Europe. Plant Syst. Evol. 301(1):251-263.

Ward, D., and Morgan, F. 2014. Modelling the impacts of an invasive species across landscapes: a step-wise approach. PeerJ 2:e435.

Ward, E.J., Marshall, K.N., Ross, T., Sedgley, A., Hass, T., Pearson, S.F., Joyce, G., Hamel, N.J., Hodum, P.J., and Faucett, R. 2015. Using citizen-science data to identify local hotspots of seabird occurrence. PeerJ 3:e704.

Waters, J.D., Coelho, R., Fernandez-Carvalho, J., Timmers, A.A., Wiley, T., Seitz, J.C., McDavitt, M.T., Burgess, G.H., and Poulakis, G.R. 2014. Use of encounter data to model spatio-temporal distribution patterns of endangered smalltooth sawfish, Pristis pectinata, in thewestern Atlantic. Aquat. Conserv. 24(6):760-776.

Wayne, A.F., Maxwell, M.A., Ward, C.G., Vellios, C.V., Wilson, I., Wayne, J.C., and Williams, M.R. 2015. Sudden and rapid decline of the abundant marsupial Bettongia penicillata in Australia. Oryx 49(1):175-185.

Wege, J.A., Thiele, K.R., Shepherd, K.A., Butcher, R., Macfarlane, T.D., and Coates, D.J. 2015. Strategic taxonomy in a biodiverse landscape: a novel approach to maximizing conservation outcomes for rare and poorly known flora. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(1):17-32.

Whiteley, A.R., Fitzpatrick, S.W., Funk, W.C., and Tallmon, D.A. 2015. Genetic rescue to the rescue. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30(1):42-49.

Wiederholt, R., López-Hoffman, L., Svancara, C., McCracken, G., Thogmartin, W., Diffendorfer, J.E., Mattson, B., Bagstad, K., Cryan, P., Russell, A., Semmens, D., and Medellín, R.A. 2015. Optimizing conservation strategies for Mexican free-tailed bats: a population viability and ecosystem services approach. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(1):63-82.

Williams, D.E., Miller, M., Bright, A.J., and Cameron, C.M. 2014. Removal of corallivorous snails as a proactive tool for the conservation of acroporid corals. PeerJ 2:e680.

Wilsey, B.J., Barber, K., and Martin, L.M. 2015. Exotic grassland species have stronger priority effects than natives regardless of whether they are cultivated or wild genotypes. New Phytol. 205(2):928-937.

Wilson, S., Davies, T.E., Hazarika, N., and Zimmermann, A. 2015. Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of human-elephant conflict in Assam, India. Oryx 49(1):140-149.

Wohlfart, C., Wegmann, M., and Leimgruber, P. 2014. Mapping threatened dry deciduous dipterocarp forest in South-east Asia for conservation management. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(4):597-613.

Wolfe, B.T., Dent, D.H., Deago, J., and Wishnie, M.H. 2015. Forest regeneration under Tectona grandis and Terminalia amazonia plantation stands managed for biodiversity conservation in western Panama. New Forest. 46(1):157-165.

Wood, E.M., Brandt, J.S., Pidgeon, A.M., and Radeloff, V.C. 2015. Habitat-occupancy associations and tree-species use patterns by breeding birds in Tibetan sacred forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(1):129-148.

Wright, A.N., Hijmans, R.J., Schwartz, M.W., and Shaffer, H.B. 2015. Multiple sources of uncertainty affect metrics for ranking conservation risk under climate change. Divers. Distrib. 21(1):111-122.

Wu, F.X., Wang, X.Y., Ding, X.H., Miao, X., and Zhu, Q. 2014. Distribution pattern of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) along coastal waters of Fujian Province, China. Aquat. Mammals 40(4):341-349.

Wyckoff, P.H., Shaffer, A., Hucka, B., Bombyk, M., and Wipf, A. 2014. No evidence of facilitation between invasive Rhamnus cathartica (European buckthorn) and invasive earthworms in west central Minnesota. Pedobiologia 57(4-6):311-317.

Xu, Q.F., Jiang, P.K., Wu, J.S., Zhou, G.M., Shen, R.F., and Fuhrmann, J.J. 2015. Bamboo invasion of native broadleaf forest modified soil microbial communities and diversity. Biol. Invasions 17(1):433-444.

Xu, X.R., Song, J.Y., Zhang, Z.H., Li, P., Yang, G., and Zhou, K.Y. 2015. The world's second largest population of humpback dolphins in the waters of Zhanjiang deserves the highest conservation priority. Sci. Rep. 5:8147.

Yohe, L.R., Flanders, J., Duc, H.M., Vu, L., Phung, T.B., Nguyen, Q.H., and Reddy, S. 2014. Unveiling the impact of human influence on species distributions in Vietnam: a case study using babblers (Aves: Timaliidae). Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(3):586-596.

Yumnam, B., Jhala, Y.V., Qureshi, Q., Maldonado, J.E., Gopal, R., Saini, S., Srinivas, Y., and Fleischer, R.C. 2014. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages. PLoS ONE 9(11):e111207.

Zanin, M., Palomares, F., and Brito, D. 2015. What we (don't) know about the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on felids. Oryx 49(1):96-106.

Zhang, G.G., Liu, D.P., Hou, Y.Q., Jiang, H.X., Dai, M., Qian, F.W., Lu, J., Ma, T., Chen, L.X., Xing, Z., and Li, F.S. 2014. Migration routes and stopover sites of Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus breeding at Qinghai Lake, China, determined by satellite tracking. Forktail 30:104-108.

Zhang, S.Y., Speare, K.E., Long, Z.T., McKeever, K.A., Gyoerkoe, M., Ramus, A.P., Mohorn, Z., Akins, K.L., Hambridge, S.M., Graham, N.A.J., Nash, K.L., Selig, E.R., and Bruno, J.F. 2014. Is coral richness related to community resistance to and recovery from disturbance? PeerJ 2:e308.

Zhang, Y.R., Wang, R.Q., Kaplan, D., and Liu, J. 2015. Which components of plant diversity are most correlated with ecosystem properties? A case study in a restored wetland in northern China. Ecol. Indic. 49:228-236.

Zhu, G.P., Yu, X., and Bu, W.J. 2015. Ecology and conservation of Pseudolestes mirabilis (Odonata: Zygoptera), a damselfly endemic to Hainan Island of China. Entomol. Sci. 18(1):123-129.

Zhu, X.X., Wen, F., and Sun, H. 2014. Primulina glandaceistriata (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Guangxi, China. Phytotaxa 188(1):49-54.

Zisenis, M. 2015. The International Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services gets profile. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(1):199-203.

Zogaris, S., Maclaine, J., Koutsikos, N., and Chatzinikolaou, Y. 2015. Does the river blenny Salaria fluviatilis (Asso, 1801) (Actinopterygii: Perciformes) still survive on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus? J. Nat. Hist. 49(5-8):347-357.


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