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Department ofBotany



No. 356
August 2014


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In This Issue


Global Warming Will Open Arctic to Invasive Species


Adapted from Smithsonianscience.org

For the first time in roughly 2 million years, melting Arctic sea ice is connecting the north Pacific and north Atlantic oceans. The newly opened passages leave both coasts and Arctic waters vulnerable to a large wave of invasive species, biologists from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center assert in a commentary published in Nature Climate Change.

A cargo ship releases ballast water from its hull into the ocean. Microscopic organisms often thrive in ballast water, and when ships release the water in new ports, the new species can start an invasion. (Smithsonian Environmental Research Center)

A cargo ship releases ballast water from its hull into the ocean. Microscopic organisms often thrive in ballast water, and when ships release the water in new ports, the new species can start an invasion. (Smithsonian Environmental Research Center)

Two new shipping routes have opened in the Arctic: the Northwest Passage through Canada, and the Northern Sea Route, a 3000-mile stretch along the coasts of Russia and Norway connecting the Barents and Bering seas. While new opportunities for tapping Arctic natural resources and interoceanic trade are high, commercial ships often inadvertently carry invasive species. Organisms from previous ports can cling to the undersides of their hulls or be pumped in the enormous tanks of ballast water inside their hulls. Now that climate change has given ships a new, shorter way to cross between oceans, the risks of new invasions are escalating.

"Trans-Arctic shipping is a game changer that will play out on a global scale," said lead author Whitman Miller. "The economic draw of the Arctic is enormous. Whether it's greater access to the region's rich natural resource reserves or cheaper and faster inter-ocean commercial trade, Arctic shipping will reshape world markets. If unchecked, these activities will vastly alter the exchange of invasive species, especially across the Arctic, north Atlantic and north Pacific oceans."

The first commercial voyage through the Northwest Passage—a carrier from British Columbia loaded with coal bound for Finland—occurred in September 2013. Meanwhile, traffic through the Northern Sea Route has been rising rapidly since 2009. The scientists project that at the current rate, it could continue to rise 20 percent every year for the next quarter century, and this does not take into account ships sailing to the Arctic itself.

For the past 100-plus years, shipping between oceans passed through the Panama or Suez Canals. Both contain warm, tropical water, likely to kill or severely weaken potential invaders from colder regions. In the Panama Canal, species on the hulls of ships also had to cope with a sharp change in salinity, from marine to completely fresh water. The Arctic passages contain only cold, marine water. As long as species are able to endure cold temperatures, their odds of surviving an Arctic voyage are good. That, combined with the shorter length of the voyages, means many more species are likely to remain alive throughout the journey.

Though the routes pose major risks to the north Atlantic and north Pacific coasts, the Arctic is also becoming an attractive destination. Tourism is growing, and it contains vast stores of natural resources. The Arctic holds an estimated 13 percent of the world's untapped oil and 30 percent of its natural gas. Greenland's supply of rare earth metals is estimated to be able to fill 20 to 25 percent of global demand for the near future. Until now the Arctic has been largely isolated from intensive shipping, shoreline development and human-induced invasions, but the scientists said that is likely to change drastically in the decades to come.

"The good news is that the Arctic ecosystem is still relatively intact and has had low exposure to invasions until now," said coauthor Greg Ruiz. "This novel corridor is only just opening. Now is the time to advance effective management options that prevent a boom in invasions and minimize their ecological, economic and health impacts."


Current Literature


Abrego, N., and Salcedo, I. 2014. Response of wood-inhabiting fungal community to fragmentation in a beech forest landscape. Fungal Ecol. 8:18-27.

Agostini, I., Holzmann, I., Di Bitetti, M.S., Oklander, L.I., Kowalewski, M.M., Beldomnico, P.M., Goenaga, S., Martínez, M., Moreno, E.S., Lestani, E., Desbiez, A.L.J., and Miller, P. 2014. Building a Species Conservation Strategy for the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in Argentina in the context of yellow fever outbreaks. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):25-34.

Aguiar, A., Barbosa, R.I., Barbosa, J.B.F., and Mourão, M. 2014. Invasion of Acacia mangium in Amazonian savannas following planting for forestry. Plant Ecol. Divers. 7(1-2):359-369.

Al-Mohanna, S.Y., Al-Zaidan, A.S.Y., and George, P. 2014. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) of the north-western Arabian Gulf, Kuwait: the need for conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 24(2):166-178.

Albert, Á.J., Kelemen, A., Valkó, O., Miglécz, T., Csecserits, A., Rédei, T., Deák, B., Tóthmérész, B., and Török, P. 2014. Secondary succession in sandy old-fields: a promising example of spontaneous grassland recovery. Appl. Veg. Sci. 17(2):214-224.

Ali, I.B., Guetat, A., and Boussaid, M. 2014. Effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of the gynodioecious Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae) in Tunisia. Plant Biosyst. 148(2):217-226.

Almeida, D., Ellis, A., England, J., and Copp, G.H. 2014. Time-series analysis of native and non-native crayfish dynamics in the Thames River Basin (south-eastern England). Aquat. Conserv. 24(2):192-202.

Almeida, D., Stefanoudis, P.V., Fletcher, D.H., Rangel, C., and da Silva, E. 2014. Population traits of invasive bleak Alburnus alburnus between different habitats in Iberian fresh waters. Limnologica 46:70-76.

Alves, G.B., Marçal, O., and Brites, V.L.D. 2014. Medium and large-sized mammals of a fragment of cerrado in the Triângulo Mineiro region, southeastern Brazil. Biosci. J. 30(3):863-873.

Amarasinghe, A.A.T., Karunarathna, D.M.S.S., Hallermann, J., Fujinuma, J., Grillitsch, H., and Campbell, P.D. 2014. A new species of the genus Calotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from high elevations of the Knuckles Massif of Sri Lanka. Zootaxa 3785(1):59-78.

Andersson, K., Bergman, K.O., Andersson, F., Hedenström, E., Jansson, N., Burman, J., Winde, I., Larsson, M.C., and Milberg, P. 2014. High-accuracy sampling of saproxylic diversity indicators at regional scales with pheromones: the case of Elater ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Elateridae). Biol. Conserv. 171:156-166.

Anson, J.R., Dickman, C.R., Handasyde, K., and Jessop, T.S. 2014. Effects of multiple disturbance processes on arboreal vertebrates in eastern Australia: implications for management. Ecography 37(4):357-366.

Archer, C.R., Pirk, C.W.W., Carvalheiro, L.G., and Nicolson, S.W. 2014. Economic and ecological implications of geographic bias in pollinator ecology in the light of pollinator declines. Oikos 123(4):401-407.

Arias, M.E., Cochrane, T.A., and Elliott, V. 2014. Modelling future changes of habitat and fauna in the Tonle Sap wetland of the Mekong. Environ. Conserv. 41(2):165-175.

Armitage, H.F., Britton, A.J., van der Wal, R., and Woodin, S.J. 2014. The relative importance of nitrogen deposition as a driver of Racomitrium heath species composition and richness across Europe. Biol. Conserv. 171:224-231.

Aronne, G., Buonanno, M., and De Micco, V. 2014. Assessment of distyly syndrome in Primula palinuri Petagn. a rare species living on maritime vertical cliffs. Plant Syst. Evol. 300(5):917-924.

Athreya, V., Navya, R., Punjabi, G.A., Linnell, J.D.C., Odden, M., Khetarpal, S., and Karanth, K.U. 2014. Movement and activity pattern of a collared tigress in a human-dominated landscape in central India. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):75-86.

Azhar, B., Lindenmayer, D.B., Wood, J., Fischer, J., and Zakaria, M. 2014. Ecological impacts of oil palm agriculture on forest mammals in plantation estates and smallholdings. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1175-1191.

Bajpai, O., Srivastava, A.K., Kushwaha, A.K., and Chaudhary, L.B. 2014. Taxonomy of a monotypic genus Indopiptadenia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae). Phytotaxa 164(2):61-78.

Baker, J., Harvey, K.J., and French, K. 2014. Threats from introduced birds to native birds. Emu 114(1):1-12.

Balestri, E., and Lardicci, C. 2014. Effects of sediment fertilization and burial on Cymodocea nodosa transplants; implications for seagrass restoration under a changing climate. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):240-247.

Barnett, J.M., Imberti, S., and Roesler, I. 2014. Distribution and habitat use of the Austral Rail Rallus antarcticus and perspectives on its conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 24(1):114-125.

Barrios-O'Neill, D., Dick, J.T.A., Emmerson, M.C., Ricciardi, A., MacIsaac, H.J., Alexander, M.E., and Bovy, H.C. 2014. Fortune favours the bold: a higher predator reduces the impact of a native but not an invasive intermediate predator. J. Anim. Ecol. 83(3):693-701.

Beatty, G.E., Reid, N., and Provan, J. 2014. Retrospective genetic monitoring of the threatened Yellow marsh saxifrage (Saxifraga hirculus) reveals genetic erosion but provides valuable insights for conservation strategies. Divers. Distrib. 20(5):529-537.

Beaudreau, A.H., and Levin, P.S. 2014. Advancing the use of local ecological knowledge for assessing data-poor species in coastal ecosystems. Ecol. Appl. 24(2):244-256.

Beebee, T.J.C. 2014. Amphibian conservation in Britain: a 40-year history. J. Herpetol. 48(1):2-12.

Benítez-López, A., Viñuela, J., Hervás, I., Suárez, F., and García, J.T. 2014. Modelling sandgrouse (Pterocles spp.) distributions and large-scale habitat requirements in Spain: implications for conservation. Environ. Conserv. 41(2):132-143.

Bennett, A.F., Nimmo, D.G., and Radford, J.Q. 2014. Riparian vegetation has disproportionate benefits for landscape-scale conservation of woodland birds in highly modified environments. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):514-523.

Bertelsmeier, C., and Courchamp, F. 2014. Future ant invasions in France. Environ. Conserv. 41(2):217-228.

Bevins, S.N., Pedersen, K., Lutman, M.W., Gidlewski, T., and Deliberto, T.J. 2014. Consequences associated with the recent range expansion of nonnative feral swine. BioScience 64(4):291-299.

Bianco, P.G. 2014. An update on the status of native and exotic freshwater fishes of Italy. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 30(1):62-77.

Bishop, M.R., Drewes, R.C., and Vredenburg, V.T. 2014. Food web linkages demonstrate importance of terrestrial prey for the threatened California red-legged frog. J. Herpetol. 48(1):137-143.

Blondel, J., Hoffmann, B., and Courchamp, F. 2014. The end of Invasion Biology: intellectual debate does not equate to nonsensical science. Biol. Invasions 16(5):977-979.

Bo, M., Bava, S., Canese, S., Angiolillo, M., Cattaneo-Vietti, R., and Bavestrello, G. 2014. Fishing impact on deep Mediterranean rocky habitats as revealed by ROV investigation. Biol. Conserv. 171:167-176.

Bommarco, R., Lindborg, R., Marini, L., and Öckinger, E. 2014. Extinction debt for plants and flower-visiting insects in landscapes with contrasting land use history. Divers. Distrib. 20(5):591-599.

Bontrager, M., Webster, K., Elvin, M., and Parker, I.M. 2014. The effects of habitat and competitive/facilitative interactions on reintroduction success of the endangered wetland herb, Arenaria paludicola. Plant Ecol. 215(4):467-478.

Bowie, M.H., Allen, W.J., McCaw, J., and van Heugten, R. 2014. Factors influencing occupancy of modified artificial refuges for monitoring the range-restricted Banks Peninsula tree weta Hemideina ricta (Anostostomatidae). New Zeal. J. Ecol. 38(1):132-138.

Braaker, S., Ghazoul, J., Obrist, M.K., and Moretti, M. 2014. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs. Ecology 95(4):1010-1021.

Breeze, T.D., Bailey, A.P., Balcombe, K.G., and Potts, S.G. 2014. Costing conservation: an expert appraisal of the pollinator habitat benefits of England's entry level stewardship. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1193-1214.

Broms, K.M., Johnson, D.S., Altwegg, R., and Conquest, L.L. 2014. Spatial occupancy models applied to atlas data show Southern Ground Hornbills strongly depend on protected areas. Ecol. Appl. 24(2):363-374.

Brooks, W.R., and Jordan, R.C. 2014. Restoring tropical dry forest communities: effects of habitat management and outplantings on composition and structure. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):160-168.

Brown, C.J., Saunders, M.I., Possingham, H.P., and Richardson, A.J. 2014. Interactions between global and local stressors of ecosystems determine management effectiveness in cumulative impact mapping. Divers. Distrib. 20(5):538-546.

Brown, L.A., Furlong, J.N., Brown, K.M., and La Peyre, M.K. 2014. Oyster reef restoration in the northern Gulf of Mexico: effect of artificial substrate and age on nekton and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage use. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):214-222.

Brown, M.A., Clarkson, B.D., Stephens, R.T.T., and Barton, B.J. 2014. Compensating for ecological harm - the state of play in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 38(1):139-146.

Brullo, C., Brullo, S., Fragman-Sapir, O., Del Galdo, G.G., and Salmeri, C. 2014. Allium therinanthum (Amaryllidaceae), a new species from Israel. Phytotaxa 164(1):29-40.

Bulgarella, M., Kopuchian, C., Di Giacomo, A.S., Matus, R., Blank, O., Wilson, R.E., and McCracken, K.G. 2014. Molecular phylogeny of the South American sheldgeese with implications for conservation of Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and continental populations of the Ruddy-headed Goose Chloephaga rubidiceps and Upland Goose C. picta. Bird Conserv. Int. 24(1):59-71.

Bürgi, L.P., and Mills, N.J. 2014. Lack of enemy release for an invasive leafroller in California: temporal patterns and influence of host plant origin. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1021-1034.

Burnside, R.J., Végvári, Z., James, R., Konyhás, S., Kovács, G., and Szekely, T. 2014. Human disturbance and conspecifics influence display site selection by Great Bustards Otis tarda. Bird Conserv. Int. 24(1):32-44.

Buschke, F.T., and Vanschoenwinkel, B. 2014. Mechanisms for the inclusion of cumulative impacts in conservation decision-making are sensitive to vulnerability and irreplaceability in a stochastically simulated landscape. J. Nature Conserv. 22(3):265-271.

Carbajal-Borges, J.P., Godinez-Gómez, O., and Mendoza, E. 2014. Density, abundance and activity patterns of the endangered Tapirus bairdii in one of its last strongholds in southern Mexico. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):100-114.

Cardador, L., Sardà-Palomera, F., Carrete, M., and Mañosa, S. 2014. Incorporating spatial constraints in different periods of the annual cycle improves species distribution model performance for a highly mobile bird species. Divers. Distrib. 20(5):515-528.

Carvallo, G.O., Teillier, S., Castro, S.A., and Figueroa, J.A. 2014. The phylogenetic properties of native- and exotic-dominated plant communities. Austral Ecol. 39(3):304-312.

Casanovas, P., Lynch, H.J., and Fagan, W.F. 2014. Using citizen science to estimate lichen diversity. Biol. Conserv. 171:1-8.

Cerrato, C., Bonelli, S., Loglisci, N., and Balletto, E. 2014. Can the extinction of Melitaea britomartis in NW Italy be explained by unfavourable weather? An analysis by Optimal Interpolation. J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):163-170.

Chamon, C.C., and Py-Daniel, L.H.R. 2014. Taxonomic revision of Spectracanthicus Nijssen & Isbrucker (Loricariidae: Hypostominae: Ancistrini), with description of three new species. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 12(1):1-25.

Cheek, M., Kami, E., and Kami, T. 2014. Baphia vili (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from coastal thicket in the Republic of the Congo and Gabon. Willdenowia 44(1):39-44.

Choi, C.Y., Gan, X.J., Hua, N., Wang, Y., and Ma, Z.J. 2014. The habitat use and home range analysis of Dunlin (Calidris alpina) in Chongming Dongtan, China and their conservation implications. Wetlands 34(2):255-266.

Chong, K.Y., Teo, S.Y., Kurukulasuriya, B., Chung, Y.F., Rajathurai, S., and Tan, H.T.W. 2014. Not all green is as good: different effects of the natural and cultivated components of urban vegetation on bird and butterfly diversity. Biol. Conserv. 171:299-309.

Clark, J., Wang, Y.Q., and August, P.V. 2014. Assessing current and projected suitable habitats for tree-of-heaven along the Appalachian Trail. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1643):20130192.

Clausen, K.K., and Clausen, P. 2014. Forecasting future drowning of coastal waterbird habitats reveals a major conservation concern. Biol. Conserv. 171:177-185.

Cline, B.B., and Hunter, M.L. 2014. Different open-canopy vegetation types affect matrix permeability for a dispersing forest amphibian. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):319-329.

Coetzee, J.A., Jones, R.W., and Hill, M.P. 2014. Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae), reduces benthic macroinvertebrate diversity in a protected subtropical lake in South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1319-1330.

Cole, B., McMorrow, J., and Evans, M. 2014. Empirical modelling of vegetation abundance from airborne hyperspectral data for upland peatland restoration monitoring. Remote Sens. 6(1):716-739.

Corenblit, D., Steiger, J., Tabacchi, E., González, E., and Planty-Tabacchi, A.M. 2014. Ecosystem engineers modulate exotic invasions in riparian plant communities by modifying hydrogeomorphic connectivity. River Res. Appl. 30(1):45-59.

Costa, A., Madeira, M., and Santos, J.L. 2014. Is cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodland loss driven by eucalyptus plantation? A case-study in southwestern Portugal. iForest 7:193-203.

Couto-Santos, F.R., Luizão, F.J., and Carneiro, A. 2014. The influence of the conservation status and changes in the rainfall regime on forest-savanna mosaic dynamics in Northern Brazilian Amazonia. Acta Amaz. 44(2):197-206.

Couvreur, T.L.P. 2014. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae). PhytoKeys 33:1-40.

Covey, R., and McGraw, W.S. 2014. Monkeys in a West African bushmeat market: implications for cercopithecid conservation in eastern Liberia. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):115-125.

Crawford, B.A., Maerz, J.C., Nibbelink, N.P., Buhlmann, K.A., and Norton, T.M. 2014. Estimating the consequences of multiple threats and management strategies for semi-aquatic turtles. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):359-366.

Crawford, B.A., Maerz, J.C., Nibbelink, N.P., Buhlmann, K.A., Norton, T.M., and Albeke, S.E. 2014. Hot spots and hot moments of diamondback terrapin road-crossing activity. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):367-375.

Crego, R.D., Nielsen, C.K., and Didier, K.A. 2014. Climate change and conservation implications for wet meadows in dry Patagonia. Environ. Conserv. 41(2):122-131.

Cromsigt, J.P.G.M., and te Beest, M. 2014. Restoration of a megaherbivore: landscape-level impacts of white rhinoceros in Kruger National Park, South Africa. J. Ecology 102(3):566-575.

Cursach, J., and Rita, J. 2014. Naufraga balearica, a threatened narrow endemism of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean basin): assessing the population dynamics of two subpopulations. Plant Species Biol. 29(2):192-201.

Da Silva, C.V., and Simão-Bianchini, R. 2014. Three new species of Evolvulus (Convolvulaceae) from Bahia, Brazil. Phytotaxa 166(2):132-138.

Danielsen, A.K., Rutherford, P., and Koper, N. 2014. The importance of vegetation structure and artificial cover for prairie skinks (Plestiodon septentrionalis) on exurban land. J. Herpetol. 48(1):67-73.

Davidson, A.D., Friggens, M.T., Shoemaker, K.T., Hayes, C.L., Erz, J., and Duran, R. 2014. Population dynamics of reintroduced Gunnison's prairie dogs in the southern portion of their range. J. Wildlife Manag. 78(3):429-439.

Davidson, A.D., and Hewitt, C.L. 2014. How often are invasion-induced ecological impacts missed? Biol. Invasions 16(5):1165-1173.

Davis, A.L.V., Swemmer, A.M., Scholtz, C.H., Deschodt, C.M., and Tshikae, B.P. 2014. Roles of environmental variables and land usage as drivers of dung beetle assemblage structure in mopane woodland. Austral Ecol. 39(3):313-327.

Davis, R.A., Valentine, L.E., Craig, M.D., Wilson, B., Bancroft, W.J., and Mallie, M. 2014. Impact of Phytophthora-dieback on birds in Banksia woodlands in south west Western Australia. Biol. Conserv. 171:136-144.

De Fraga, C.N., and Guimarães, P.J.F. 2014. Two new species of Pleroma (Melastomataceae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil. Phytotaxa 166(1):77-84.

de Lima, R.F., Viegas, L., Solé, N., Soares, E., Dallimer, M., Atkinson, P.W., and Barlow, J. 2014. Can management improve the value of shade plantations for the endemic species of São Tomé Island? Biotropica 46(2):238-247.

de Oliveira, S.M., Murray, P.J., de Villiers, D.L., and Baxter, G.S. 2014. Ecology and movement of urban koalas adjacent to linear infrastructure in coastal south-east Queensland. Aust. Mammal. 36(1):45-54.

de Souza, J.B., and Alves, R.R.N. 2014. Hunting and wildlife use in an Atlantic Forest remnant of northeastern Brazil. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):145-160.

Del Fabbro, C., Güsewell, S., and Prati, D. 2014. Allelopathic effects of three plant invaders on germination of native species: a field study. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1035-1042.

Di Marco, M., Buchanan, G.M., Szantoi, Z., Holmgren, M., Marasini, G.G., Gross, D., Tranquilli, S., Boitani, L., and Rondinini, C. 2014. Drivers of extinction risk in African mammals: the interplay of distribution state, human pressure, conservation response and species biology. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1643):20130198.

Dias, E.F., Sardos, J., Silva, L., Maciel, M.G.B., and Moura, M. 2014. Microsatellite markers unravel the population genetic structure of the Azorean Leontodon: implications in conservation. Plant Syst. Evol. 300(5):987-1001.

Díaz-Paniagua, C., Keller, C., Florencio, M., Andreu, A.C., Portheault, A., Gómez-Rodríguez, C., and Gomez-Mestre, I. 2014. Rainfall stochasticity controls the distribution of invasive crayfish and its impact on amphibian guilds in Mediterranean temporary waters. Hydrobiologia 728(1):89-101.

Dickens, S.J.M., and Allen, E.B. 2014. Exotic plant invasion alters chaparral ecosystem resistance and resilience pre- and post-wildfire. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1119-1130.

Do, T.V., Nghiem, T.D., Wanke, S., and Neinhuis, C. 2014. Aristolochia quangbinhensis (Aristolochiaceae), a new species from Central Vietnam. PhytoKeys 33:51-59.

Dollar, J.G., Riffell, S., Adams, H.L., and Burger, L.W. 2014. Evaluating butterflies as surrogates for birds and plants in semi-natural grassland buffers. J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):171-178.

Donaldson, J.E., Hui, C., Richardson, D.M., Robertson, M.P., Webber, B.L., and Wilson, J.R.U. 2014. Invasion trajectory of alien trees: the role of introduction pathway and planting history. Global Change Biol. 20(5):1527-1537.

Dornelas, M., Gotelli, N.J., McGill, B., Shimadzu, H., Moyes, F., Sievers, C., and Magurran, A.E. 2014. Assemblage time series reveal biodiversity change but not systematic loss. Science 344(6181):296-299.

Douglas, L.R., and Alie, K. 2014. High-value natural resources: Linking wildlife conservation to international conflict, insecurity, and development concerns. Biol. Conserv. 171:270-277.

Douglas, S.J., and Newton, A.C. 2014. Evaluation of Bayesian networks for modelling habitat suitability and management of a protected area. J. Nature Conserv. 22(3):235-246.

Drabeck, D.H., Chatfield, M.W.H., and Richards-Zawacki, C.L. 2014. The status of Louisiana's diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) populations in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: insights from population genetic and contaminant analyses. J. Herpetol. 48(1):125-136.

Driscoll, D.A., Banks, S.C., Barton, P.S., Ikin, K., Lentini, P., Lindenmayer, D.B., Smith, A.L., Berry, L.E., Burns, E.L., Edworthy, A., Evans, M.J., Gibson, R., Heinsohn, R., Howland, B., Kay, G., Munro, N., Scheele, B.C., Stirnemann, I., Stojanovic, D., Sweaney, N., Villaseñor, N.R., and Westgate, M.J. 2014. The trajectory of dispersal research in conservation biology. Systematic review. PLoS ONE 9(4):e95053.

Duncan, C., Kretz, D., Wegmann, M., Rabeil, T., and Pettorelli, N. 2014. Oil in the Sahara: mapping anthropogenic threats to Saharan biodiversity from space. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1643):20130191.

Dunn, J.C., Shedden-González, A., Cristóbal-Azkarate, J., Cortés-Ortiz, L., Rodríguez-Luna, E., and Knapp, L.A. 2014. Limited genetic diversity in the critically endangered Mexican howler monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana) in the Selva Zoque, Mexico. Primates 55(2):155-160.

Eskelinen, A., and Harrison, S. 2014. Exotic plant invasions under enhanced rainfall are constrained by soil nutrients and competition. Ecology 95(3):682-692.

Essl, F., Steinbauer, K., Dullinger, S., Mang, T., and Moser, D. 2014. Little, but increasing evidence of impacts by alien bryophytes. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1175-1184.

Etherington, R., and Shapcott, A. 2014. Do habitat fragmentation and fire influence variation of plant species composition, structure and diversity within three regional ecosystems on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia? Aust. J. Bot. 62(1):36-47.

Farhat, Y.A., Janousek, W.M., McCarty, J.P., Rider, N., and Wolfenbarger, L.L. 2014. Comparison of butterfly communities and abundances between marginal grasslands and conservation lands in the eastern Great Plains. J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):245-256.

Fisher, J., Beames, L., Rangers, B.J., Rangers, N.N., Majer, J., and Heterick, B. 2014. Using ants to monitor changes within and surrounding the endangered Monsoon Vine Thickets of the tropical Dampier Peninsula, north Western Australia. Forest Ecol. Manag. 318:78-90.

Franklin, J., Regan, H.M., and Syphard, A.D. 2014. Linking spatially explicit species distribution and population models to plan for the persistence of plant species under global change. Environ. Conserv. 41(2):97-109.

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Frick, A., Tanneberger, F., and Bellebaum, J. 2014. Model-based selection of areas for the restoration of Acrocephalus paludicola habitats in NE Germany. Environ. Manage. 53(4):728-738.

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Sieracki, J.L., Bossenbroek, J.M., and Faisal, M. 2014. Modeling the secondary spread of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) by commercial shipping in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1043-1053.

Silva, M.P.P., Kamino, L.H.Y., and Pôrto, K.C. 2014. Is the current network system of protected areas in the Atlantic Forest effective in conserving key species of bryophytes? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):61-74.

Simberloff, D., and Vitule, J.R.S. 2014. A call for an end to calls for the end of invasion biology. Oikos 123(4):408-413.

Sinclair, A.R.E., Nkwabi, A., Mduma, S.A.R., and Magige, F. 2014. Responses of the Serengeti avifauna to long-term change in the environment. Ostrich 85(1):1-11.

Skelly, D.K., Bolden, S.R., and Freidenburg, L.K. 2014. Experimental canopy removal enhances diversity of vernal pond amphibians. Ecol. Appl. 24(2):340-345.

Skórka, P., Martyka, R., Wójcik, J.D., and Lenda, M. 2014. An invasive gull displaces native waterbirds to breeding habitats more exposed to native predators. Pop. Ecol. 56(2):359-374.

Smith, L.M., and Reynolds, H.L. 2014. Light, allelopathy, and post-mortem invasive impact on native forest understory species. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1131-1144.

Smith, S.D.A., and Edgar, R.J. 2014. Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats. PLoS ONE 9(4):e94593.

Sobanski, N., and Marques, M.C.M. 2014. Effects of soil characteristics and exotic grass cover on the forest restoration of the Atlantic Forest region. J. Nature Conserv. 22(3):217-222.

Sousa-Baena, M.S., Garcia, L.C., and Peterson, A.T. 2014. Completeness of digital accessible knowledge of the plants of Brazil and priorities for survey and inventory. Divers. Distrib. 20(4):369-381.

Souto, T., Deichmann, J.L., Núñez, C., and Alonso, A. 2014. Classifying conservation targets based on the origin of motivation: implications over the success of community-based conservation projects. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1331-1337.

St-Louis, V., Pidgeon, A.M., Kuemmerle, T., Sonnenschein, R., Radeloff, V.C., Clayton, M.K., Locke, B.A., Bash, D., and Hostert, P. 2014. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1643):20130197.

Statton, J., Kendrick, G.A., Dixon, K.W., and Cambridge, M.L. 2014. Inorganic nutrient supplements constrain restoration potential of seedlings of the seagrass, Posidonia australis. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):196-203.

Steen, D.A., Godwin, J.C., McClure, C.J.W., and Barbour, M. 2014. Informing management of endemic habitat specialists: multiscale habitat selection by the Red Hills salamander. J. Wildlife Manag. 78(3):463-470.

Steffen, M.A., Irwin, K.J., Blair, A.L., and Bonett, R.M. 2014. Larval masquerade: a new species of paedomorphic salamander (Caudata: Plethodontidae: Eurycea) from the Ouachita Mountains of North America. Zootaxa 3786(4):423-442.

Strand, D.A., Jussila, J., Johnsen, S.I., Viljamaa-Dirks, S., Edsman, L., Wiik-Nielsen, J., Viljugrein, H., Engdahl, F., and Vrålstad, T. 2014. Detection of crayfish plague spores in large freshwater systems. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):544-553.

Strijk, J.S., Sirimongkol, S., Rueangruea, S., Ritphet, N., and Chamchumroon, V. 2014. Lithocarpus orbicarpus (Fagaceae), a new species of Stone Oak from Phang Nga province, Thailand. PhytoKeys 34:33-46.

Stringer, I., Watts, C., Thornburrow, D., Chappell, R., and Price, R. 2014. Saved from extinction? Establishment and dispersal of Mercury Islands tusked weta, Motuweta isolata, following translocation onto mammal-free islands. J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):203-214.

Swatridge, C.J., Monadjem, A., Steyn, D.J., Batchelor, G.R., and Hardy, I.C.W. 2014. Factors affecting diet, habitat selection and breeding success of the African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus in a fragmented landscape. Ostrich 85(1):47-55.

Szitár, K., Ónodi, G., Somay, L., Pándi, I., Kucs, P., and Kröel-Dulay, G. 2014. Recovery of inland sand dune grasslands following the removal of alien pine plantation. Biol. Conserv. 171:52-60.

Tambosi, L.R., Martensen, A.C., Ribeiro, M.C., and Metzger, J.P. 2014. A framework to optimize biodiversity restoration efforts based on habitat amount and landscape connectivity. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):169-177.

Tamburello, L., Bulleri, F., Balata, D., and Benedetti-Cecchi, L. 2014. The role of overgrazing and anthropogenic disturbance in shaping spatial patterns of distribution of an invasive seaweed. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):406-414.

Tegetmeyer, C., Frick, A., and Seifert, N. 2014. Modelling habitat suitability in the Aquatic Warbler wintering ground Djoudj National Park area in Senegal. Ostrich 85(1):57-66.

Tewksbury, J.J., Anderson, J.G.T., Bakker, J.D., Billo, T.J., Dunwiddie, P.W., Groom, M.J., Hampton, S.E., Herman, S.G., Levey, D.J., Machnicki, N.J., Del Rio, C.M., Power, M.E., Rowell, K., Salomon, A.K., Stacey, L., Trombulak, S.C., and Wheeler, T.A. 2014. Natural history's place in science and society. BioScience 64(4):300-310.

Thomas, R.L., Owen-Smith, L., Drake, D.C., and Alexander, G.J. 2014. Restoring breeding habitat for Giant Bullfrogs (Pyxicephalus adspersus) in South Africa. Afr. J. Herpetol. 63(1):13-24.

Thompson, K., Shepherd, A., and Gilbert, F. 2014. Plant quality and the presence of beneficiaries govern the larval distribution of the critically endangered Sinai Baton Blue butterfly (Pseudophilotes sinaicus). J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):189-195.

Timm, B.C., and McGarigal, K. 2014. Fowler's toad (Anaxyrus fowleri) activity patterns on a roadway at Cape Cod National Seashore. J. Herpetol. 48(1):111-116.

Tischew, S., Baasch, A., Grunert, H., and Kirmer, A. 2014. How to develop native plant communities in heavily altered ecosystems: examples from large-scale surface mining in Germany. Appl. Veg. Sci. 17(2):288-301.

Tisovec, K.C., Cassano, C.R., Boubli, J.P., and Pardini, R. 2014. Mixed-species groups of marmosets and tamarins across a gradient of agroforestry intensification. Biotropica 46(2):248-255.

Tonkin, Z., Ramsey, D.S.L., Macdonald, J., Crook, D., King, A.J., and Kaus, A. 2014. Does localized control of invasive eastern gambusia (Poeciliidae: Gambusia holbrooki) increase population growth of generalist wetland fishes? Austral Ecol. 39(3):355-366.

Torres-Florez, J.P., Hucke-Gaete, R., Rosenbaum, H., and Figueroa, C.C. 2014. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales. Ecol. Evol. 4(8):1398-1412.

Torres-Irineo, E., Amandè, M.J., Gaertner, D., de Molina, A.D., Murua, H., Chavance, P., Ariz, J., Ruiz, J., and Lezama-Ochoa, N. 2014. Bycatch species composition over time by tuna purse-seine fishery in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1157-1173.

Traveset, A., Kueffer, C., and Daehler, C.C. 2014. Global and regional nested patterns of non-native invasive floras on tropical islands. J. Biogeogr. 41(4):823-832.

Treves, A., and Bruskotter, J. 2014. Tolerance for predatory wildlife. Science 344(6183):476-477.

Trujillo, C., Katinas, L., and Bonifacino, J.M. 2014. The genus Panphalea (Compositae: Nassauvieae) in Uruguay. Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 49(1):93-105.

Tweiten, M.A., Hotchkiss, S.C., Vitousek, P.M., Kellner, J.R., Chadwick, O.A., and Asner, G.P. 2014. Resilience against exotic species invasion in a tropical montane forest. J. Veg. Sci. 25(3):734-749.

Ukrainsky, A.S., and Orlova-Bienkowskaja, M.J. 2014. Expansion of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to European Russia and adjacent regions. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1003-1008.

van de Vliet, M.S., Diekmann, O.E., Machado, M., Beebee, T.J.C., Beja, P., and Serrão, E.A. 2014. Genetic divergence for the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl in southwest Portugal: dispersal barriers shaping geographic patterns. J. Herpetol. 48(1):38-44.

van Dijk, W.F.A., van Ruijven, J., Berendse, F., and de Snoo, G.R. 2014. The effectiveness of ditch banks as dispersal corridor for plants in agricultural landscapes depends on species' dispersal traits. Biol. Conserv. 171:91-98.

van Grunsven, R.H.A., Donners, M., Boekee, K., Tichelaar, I., van Geffen, K.G., Groenendijk, D., Berendse, F., and Veenendaal, E.M. 2014. Spectral composition of light sources and insect phototaxis, with an evaluation of existing spectral response models. J. Insect Conserv. 18(2):225-231.

Van Rees, C.B., and Reed, J.M. 2014. Wetland loss in Hawai'i since human settlement. Wetlands 34(2):335-350.

van Strien, M.J., Keller, D., Holderegger, R., Ghazoul, J., Kienast, F., and Bolliger, J. 2014. Landscape genetics as a tool for conservation planning: predicting the effects of landscape change on gene flow. Ecol. Appl. 24(2):327-339.

Vašek, M., Všetičková, L., Roche, K., and Jurajda, P. 2014. Diet of two invading gobiid species (Proterorhinus semilunaris and Neogobius melanostomus) during the breeding and hatching season: no field evidence of extensive predation on fish eggs and fry. Limnologica 46:31-36.

Vaz-Pinto, F., Martínez, B., Olabarria, C., and Arenas, F. 2014. Neighbourhood competition in coexisting species: the native Cystoseira humilis vs the invasive Sargassum muticum. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 454:32-41.

Villa, F., Voigt, B., and Erickson, J.D. 2014. New perspectives in ecosystem services science as instruments to understand environmental securities. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1639):20120286.

Villard, M.A., and Metzger, J.P. 2014. Beyond the fragmentation debate: a conceptual model to predict when habitat configuration really matters. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):309-318.

Volcan, M.V., Gonçalves, Â.C., and Lanés, L.E.K. 2014. Austrolebias quirogai (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) in Brazil: occurrence, population parameters, habitat characteristics, and conservation status. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 44(1):37-44.

Walker, L.R., Hölzel, N., Marrs, R., del Moral, R., and Prach, K. 2014. Optimization of intervention levels in ecological restoration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 17(2):187-192.

Wanderley, A.M., Lopes, A.V., and Machado, I.C. 2014. Reproductive ecology of Ameroglossum pernambucense (Scrophulariaceae): is this ornithophilous and threatened shrub highly adapted to a naturally fragmented habitat? Plant Syst. Evol. 300(5):1099-1110.

Wang, Y.L., Yang, J.F., and Zhang, S.Z. 2014. Magnolia denudata var. glabrata var. nov. (Magnoliaceae) from Hunan, China. Nord. J. Bot. 32(2):160-166.

Wanger, T.C., Darras, K., Bumrungsri, S., Tscharntke, T., and Klein, A.M. 2014. Bat pest control contributes to food security in Thailand. Biol. Conserv. 171:220-223.

Warman, R.D. 2014. Global wood production from natural forests has peaked. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(5):1063-1078.

Wegmann, M., Santini, L., Leutner, B., Safi, K., Rocchini, D., Bevanda, M., Latifi, H., Dech, S., and Rondinini, C. 2014. Role of African protected areas in maintaining connectivity for large mammals. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. [Biol.] 369(1643):20130193.

Weller, F., Cecchini, L.A., Shannon, L., Sherley, R.B., Crawford, R.J.M., Altwegg, R., Scott, L., Stewart, T., and Jarre, A. 2014. A system dynamics approach to modelling multiple drivers of the African penguin population on Robben Island, South Africa. Ecol. Model. 277:38-56.

Whinam, J., Abdul-Rahman, J.A., Visoiu, M., di Folco, M.B.F., and Kirkpatrick, J.B. 2014. Spatial and temporal variation in damage and dieback in a threatened subantarctic cushion species. Aust. J. Bot. 62(1):10-21.

White, P.J.C., Stoate, C., Szczur, J., and Norris, K. 2014. Predator reduction with habitat management can improve songbird nest success. J. Wildlife Manag. 78(3):402-412.

Whitehead, A.L., Byrom, A.E., Clayton, R.I., and Pech, R.P. 2014. Removal of livestock alters native plant and invasive mammal communities in a dry grassland-shrubland ecosystem. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1105-1118.

Whitfeld, T.J.S., Lodge, A.G., Roth, A.M., and Reich, P.B. 2014. Community phylogenetic diversity and abiotic site characteristics influence abundance of the invasive plant Rhamnus cathartica L. J. Plant Ecol. 7(2):202-209.

Whitmarsh, S.K., Fairweather, P.G., Brock, D.J., and Miller, D. 2014. Nektonic assemblages determined from baited underwater video in protected versus unprotected shallow seagrass meadows on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 503:205-218.

Wiedmann, B.P., and Sargeant, G.A. 2014. Ecotypic variation in recruitment of reintroduced bighorn sheep: implications for translocation. J. Wildlife Manag. 78(3):394-401.

Wilson, G., Gruber, M.A., and Lester, P.J. 2014. Foraging relationships between elephants and Lantana camara invasion in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, India. Biotropica 46(2):194-201.

Wilson, S.M., Raby, G.D., Burnett, N.J., Hinch, S.G., and Cooke, S.J. 2014. Looking beyond the mortality of bycatch: sublethal effects of incidental capture on marine animals. Biol. Conserv. 171:61-72.

Winder, V.L., McNew, L.B., Gregory, A.J., Hunt, L.M., Wisely, S.M., and Sandercock, B.K. 2014. Effects of wind energy development on survival of female greater prairie-chickens. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):395-405.

Winter, S., Jung, L.S., Eckstein, R.L., Otte, A., Donath, T.W., and Kriechbaum, M. 2014. Control of the toxic plant Colchicum autumnale in semi-natural grasslands: effects of cutting treatments on demography and diversity. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(2):524-533.

Witmer, G.W. 2014. Evaluating habitat manipulations and rodenticides to protect seedlings from rodent damage at restored landfills in New York. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):178-184.

Wood, C.L., Lafferty, K.D., DeLeo, G., Young, H.S., Hudson, P.J., and Kuris, A.M. 2014. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Ecology 95(4):817-832.

Woodcock, B.A., Savage, J., Bullock, J.M., Nowakowski, M., Orr, R., Tallowin, J.R.B., and Pywell, R.F. 2014. Enhancing floral resources for pollinators in productive agricultural grasslands. Biol. Conserv. 171:44-51.

Xiao, H.F., Feng, Y.L., Schaefer, D.A., and Yang, X.D. 2014. Soil fungi rather than bacteria were modified by invasive plants, and that benefited invasive plant growth. Plant Soil 378(1-2):253-264.

Yang, Q., Fu, Y., Wang, Y.Q., Wang, Y., Zhang, W.H., Li, X.Y., Reng, Y.Q., and Zhang, J. 2014. Genetic diversity and differentiation in the critically endangered orchid (Amitostigma hemipilioides): implications for conservation. Plant Syst. Evol. 300(5):871-879.

Yang, Y.H., Li, W.D., and Wang, G. 2014. Can we use disease to control biological invasion?-A theoretical research. Ecol. Model. 277:97-107.

Ye, S.W., Li, Z.J., Zhang, T.L., Liu, J.S., and Xie, S.G. 2014. Assessing fish distribution and threats to fish biodiversity in the Yangtze River Basin, China. Ichthyol. Res. 61(2):183-188.

Yildirim, H., and Şenol, S.G. 2014. Alkanna malatyana (Boraginaceae), a new species from East Anatolia, Turkey. Phytotaxa 164(2):124-132.

Yoshioka, A., Akasaka, M., and Kadoya, T. 2014. Spatial prioritization for biodiversity restoration: a simple framework referencing past species distributions. Restor. Ecol. 22(2):185-195.

Zank, C., Becker, F.G., Abadie, M., Baldo, D., Maneyro, R., and Borges-Martins, M. 2014. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations? PLoS ONE 9(4):e94625.

Zhai, D.L., Xu, J.C., Dai, Z.C., Cannon, C.H., and Grumbine, R.E. 2014. Increasing tree cover while losing diverse natural forests in tropical Hainan, China. Reg. Environ. Change 14(2):611-621.

Zhang, J., Mayor, S.J., and He, F.L. 2014. Does disturbance regime change community assembly of angiosperm plant communities in the boreal forest? J. Plant Ecol. 7(2):188-201.

Zhang, J.L., Liu, F.Z., and Cui, G.F. 2014. The efficacy of landscape-level conservation in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China. PLoS ONE 9(4):e95081.

Zhang, J.Y., Cheng, K.W., Zang, R.G., and Ding, Y. 2014. Changes in floristic composition, community structure and species diversity across a tropical coniferous-broadleaved forest ecotone. Trop. Conserv. Sci. 7(1):126-144.

Zhang, L.B., and Liu, H.M. 2014. Dryopteris damingshanensis (Dryopteridaceae): a new fern in subgenus Nothoperanema from Guangxi, China. Novon 23(1):119-122.

Zhang, L.B., Sun, Q.W., and He, H. 2014. Selaginella wangpeishanii (Selaginellaceae), a new lycophyte from a limestone cave in Guizhou, China. Phytotaxa 164(3):195-199.

Zhang, M.G., Zhou, Z.K., Chen, W.Y., Cannon, C.H., Raes, N., and Slik, J.W.F. 2014. Major declines of woody plant species ranges under climate change in Yunnan, China. Divers. Distrib. 20(4):405-415.

Zhu, G.P., Rédei, D., Kment, P., and Bu, W.J. 2014. Effect of geographic background and equilibrium state on niche model transferability: predicting areas of invasion of Leptoglossus occidentalis. Biol. Invasions 16(5):1069-1081.

Zinner, D., Wygoda, C., Razafimanantsoa, L., Rasoloarison, R., Andrianandrasana, H.T., Ganzhorn, J.U., and Torkler, F. 2014. Analysis of deforestation patterns in the central Menabe, Madagascar, between 1973 and 2010. Reg. Environ. Change 14(1):157-166.

Zohmann, M., Immitzer, M., Wöss, M., Gossow, H., and Nopp-Mayr, U. 2014. Modelling habitat use of Tetrao urogallus L. in Austria for conservation issues. J. Nature Conserv. 22(3):223-234.


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