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Department ofBotany

No. 352
April 2014

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In This Issue

Ancient Algal 'Tree Rings' Show Dramatic Decline in Arctic and Sub-Arctic Sea Ice

Adapted from

An ancient new player has entered the debate over global warming and it is pink.

Labrador fishermen call them "red rocks" because underwater they resemble odd-shaped pastry topped with thick pink frosting. The color is the living algae Clathromorphum compactum and the hard rocklike material on which it sits are layers of calcified crusts the algae deposit year after year. They grow in shallow water (49 to 55 feet deep) and are widely distributed in the Arctic and sub-Arctic Oceans.

Now, scientists from the University of Toronto, the Smithsonian Institution and other research organizations have discovered how to use these crusty layers to track changes in Arctic sea ice over centuries, says Jochen Halfar, an associate professor in the University of Toronto's Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences. Halfar is co-author of a paper printed in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reporting that this newly tapped 'archive' shows a dramatic decrease in ice cover during the last 150 years.

Each year C. compactum can lay down a crust one-tenth to two-tenths of a millimeter thick. "They grow very slowly so if you get a specimen that is 8 or 9 inches thick you are talking about something that is well over 1,000 years old," explains co-author Walter Adey, algae expert at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. When viewed under a scanning electron microscope the layers offer an archive of the levels of sea ice in the Subarctic dating back centuries.

When cut and analyzed for its element composition, algal growth layers reveal pronounced chemical differences. Green indicates high amounts of magnesium that are incorporated into the calcite mineral structure during warm summer months, whereas blue reflects low amounts of magnesium characteristic of low temperatures. Circular spongy features are reproductive structures embedded in the algal skeleton. Scale is 1mm from top to bottom, 7 years of growth are shown. Image courtesy of Andreas Kronz.

When cut and analyzed for its element composition, algal growth layers reveal pronounced chemical differences. Green indicates high amounts of magnesium that are incorporated into the calcite mineral structure during warm summer months, whereas blue reflects low amounts of magnesium characteristic of low temperatures. Circular spongy features are reproductive structures embedded in the algal skeleton. Scale is 1mm from top to bottom, 7 years of growth are shown. Image courtesy of Andreas Kronz.

The algae's growth rates depend on the temperature of the water and the amount of light they receive. As snow-covered sea ice accumulates on the water over the algae, it turns the sea floor dark and cold, stopping the plants' growth. When the sea ice melts in the warm months, the algae resume growing their calcified crusts. This continuous cycle of dormancy and growth results in visible layers that can be used to determine the length of time the algae were able to grow each year during the ice-free season.

During several research cruises led by Adey divers retrieved specimens of C. compactum rocks for study from near-freezing seawater in the sub-Arctic. The more than 5,000 red rock samples Adey has collected are part of a growing climate archive housed at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.

"It's the same principle as using rings to determine a tree's age and the levels of precipitation," Halfar says. "In addition to ring counting, we used radiocarbon dating to confirm the age of the algal layers."

After cutting and polishing the algae, Halfar took thousands of microscope images of each sample. The images were combined to give a complete overview of the fist-sized specimens.

"In addition these algae have what is called a high-magnesium calcite skeleton," Adey explains. "Basically, the higher the water temperature the more magnesium it lets into its skeleton. Magnesium levels are a precise record of temperature that can be read sometimes down to a week." Measuring the magnesium levels found in each growth layer is an additional method the scientists used to corroborate the growth periods indicated by the layer thickness.

Clathromorphum compactum red rock in Labrador. These crusts are commonly 100 years old, and under the right conditions can reach ages of more than 1,000 years. (Photo courtesy Walter Adey)

Clathromorphum compactum red rock in Labrador. These crusts are commonly 100 years old, and under the right conditions can reach ages of more than 1,000 years. (Photo courtesy Walter Adey)

During the Little Ice Age, a period of global cooling that lasted from the mid-1500s to the mid-1800s, the algae's annual growth increments were as narrow as 30 microns due to the extensive sea-ice cover, Halfar says. However, since 1850, the thickness of the algae's growth increments have more than doubled, bearing witness to an unprecedented decline in sea ice cover that has accelerated in recent decades.

These coralline algae represent not only a new method for climate reconstruction, but are vital to extending knowledge of the climate record back in time to permit more accurate modeling of future climate change, Halfar says. "In the north, there is nothing in the shallow oceans that tells us about climate, water temperature or sea ice coverage on an annual basis. These algae, which live over a thousand years, can now provide us with that information."


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Persiani, A.M. 2013. On ecology of post-fire soil fungi: assessing impact of disturbance using species-abundance models as measure of community organization. Plant Biosyst. 147(4):1104-1106.

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Petracca, L.S., Ramírez-Bravo, O.E., and Hernández-Santín, L. 2014. Occupancy estimation of jaguar Panthera onca to assess the value of east-central Mexico as a jaguar corridor. Oryx 48(1):133-140.

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Rajpar, M.N., and Zakaria, M. 2013. Assessing an artificial wetland in Putrajaya, Malaysia, as an alternate habitat for waterbirds. Waterbirds 36(4):482-493.

Ralimanana, H., Hoffmann, P., and Rajeriarison, C. 2013. Taxonomic revision of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands III: subgenera Swartziani, Afroswartziani and Emblica. Kew Bull. 68(4):535-558.

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Ranjbar, M., and Negaresh, K. 2013. A contribution to the genus Amberboa (Asteraceae, Cardueae, Centaureinae) from Iran. Willdenowia 43(2):271-277.

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Reid, J.L., Holste, E.K., and Zahawi, R.A. 2013. Artificial bat roosts did not accelerate forest regeneration in abandoned pastures in southern Costa Rica. Biol. Conserv. 167:9-16.

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Rioux, S., Savard, J.P.L., and Gerick, A.A. 2013. Avian mortalities due to transmission line collisions: a review of current estimates and field methods with an emphasis on applications to the Canadian electric network. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 8(2):7.

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Rödder, D., and Ihlow, F. 2013. Chelonians in a changing climate: can nest site selection prevent sex ratio skews? Anim. Conserv. 16(5):491-492.

Roe, J.H., Attum, O., and Kingsbury, B.A. 2013. Vital rates and population demographics in declining and stable watersnake populations. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(3):591-601.

Rosewarne, P.J., Svendsen, J.C., Mortimer, R.J.G., and Dunn, A.M. 2014. Muddied waters: suspended sediment impacts on gill structure and aerobic scope in an endangered native and an invasive freshwater crayfish. Hydrobiologia 722(1):61-74.

Rotem, G., Ziv, Y., Giladi, I., and Bouskila, A. 2013. Wheat fields as an ecological trap for reptiles in a semiarid agroecosystem. Biol. Conserv. 167:349-353.

Rothlisberger, J.D., and Lodge, D.M. 2013. The Laurentian Great Lakes as a beachhead and a gathering place for biological invasions. Aquat. Invasions 8(4):361-374.

Ruch, D.G., Torke, B.G., Badger, K.S., Taylor, J.E., Hess, B.R., and Rothrock, P.E. 2013. The vascular flora and vegetational communities of Cabin Creek Raised Bog, Randolph County, Indiana. Castanea 78(4):290-311.

Ruokonen, T.J., Karjalainen, J., and Hämäläinen, H. 2014. Effects of an invasive crayfish on the littoral macroinvertebrates of large boreal lakes are habitat specific. Freshwater Biol. 59(1):12-25.

Saenz, S., Walschburger, T., González, J.C., León, J., McKenney, B., and Kiesecker, J. 2013. Development by design in Colombia: making mitigation decisions consistent with conservation outcomes. PLoS ONE 8(12):e81831.

Sainge, M.N., Kenfack, D., and Chuyong, G.B. 2013. Two new species of Afrothismia (Thismiaceae) from southern Cameroon. Kew Bull. 68(4):591-597.

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Sánchez-Gómez, P., Jiménez, J.F., Vera, J.B., Sánchez-Saorin, F.J., Martínez, J.F., and Buhagiar, J. 2013. Genetic structure of Tetraclinis articulata, an endangered conifer of the western Mediterranean basin. Silva Fennica 47(5):1073.

Sánchez-Gómez, P., Navarro, T., Jiménez, J.F., Vera, J.B., Mota, J.F., and Del Río, J. 2013. Teucrium moleromesae (Lamiaceae): a new species of genus Teucrium sect. Montanum from the arid mountains of south-eastern Spain. Phytotaxa 151(1):58-62.

Santangeli, A., Högmander, J., and Laaksonen, T. 2013. Returning white-tailed eagles breed as successfully in landscapes under intensive forestry regimes as in protected areas. Anim. Conserv. 16(5):500-508.

Schakner, Z.A., and Blumstein, D.T. 2013. Behavioral biology of marine mammal deterrents: a review and prospectus. Biol. Conserv. 167:380-389.

Schatz, G.E., and Lowry, P.P. 2013. Two more new species of Prockiopsis Baill. (Achariaceae) from Madagascar. Candollea 68(2):277-283.

Scheffers, B.R., Furman, B.L.S., and Evans, J.P. 2013. Salamanders continue to breed in ephemeral ponds following the removal of surrounding terrestrial habitat. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(3):715-723.

Schofield, P.J., Slone, D.H., Gregoire, D.R., and Loftus, W.F. 2014. Effects of a non-native cichlid fish (African jewelfish, Hemichromis letourneuxi Sauvage 1880) on a simulated Everglades aquatic community. Hydrobiologia 722(1):171-182.

Schroder, R., and Prasse, R. 2013. Cultivation and hybridization alter the germination behavior of native plants used in revegetation and restoration. Restor. Ecol. 21(6):793-800.

Schwanz, L.E. 2013. Revealing the links between climate and demography for reptiles with environmental sex determination. Anim. Conserv. 16(5):495-497.

Schwartz, M.W., Smith, L.M., and Steel, Z.L. 2013. Conservation investment for rare plants in urban eevironments. PLoS ONE 8(12):e83809.

Seabloom, E.W., Borer, E.T., Buckley, Y., Cleland, E.E., Davies, K., Firn, J., Harpole, W.S., Hautier, Y., Lind, E., Macdougall, A., Orrock, J.L., Prober, S.M., Adler, P., Alberti, J., Anderson, T.M., Bakker, J.D., Biederman, L.A., Blumenthal, D., Brown, C.S., Brudvig, L.A., Caldeira, M., Chu, C.J., Crawley, M.J., Daleo, P., Damschen, E.I., D'Antonio, C.M., Decrappeo, N.M., Dickman, C.R., Du, G.Z., Fay, P.A., Frater, P., Gruner, D.S., Hagenah, N., Hector, A., Helm, A., Hillebrand, H., Hofmockel, K.S., Humphries, H.C., Iribarne, O., Jin, V.L., Kay, A., Kirkman, K.P., Klein, J.A., Knops, J.M.H., La Pierre, K.J., Ladwig, L.M., Lambrinos, J.G., Leakey, A.D.B., Li, Q., Li, W., McCulley, R., Melbourne, B., Mitchell, C.E., Moore, J.L., Morgan, J., Mortensen, B., O'Halloran, L.R., Pärtel, M., Pascual, J., Pyke, D.A., Risch, A.C., Salguero-Gómez, R., Sankaran, M., Schuetz, M., Simonsen, A., Smith, M., Stevens, C., Sullivan, L., Wardle, G.M., Wolkovich, E.M., Wragg, P.D., Wright, J., and Yang, L. 2013. Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness? Global Change Biol. 19(12):3677-3687.

Seijas, A.E., Araujo-Quintero, A., and Velásquez, N. 2013. Vertebrate mortality in the Guanare-Guanarito road, Portuguesa state, Venezuela. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61(4):1619-1636.

Shabdin, Z., Culham, A., Simpson, D.A., and Meekiong, K. 2013. Mapania multiflora, a distinctive new species of Cyperaceae (Mapanioideae) from Borneo. Kew Bull. 68(4):673-678.

Shabtay, A., Tikochinski, Y., Benayahu, Y., and Rilov, G. 2014. Preliminary data on the genetic structure of a highly successful invading population of oyster suggesting its establishment dynamics in the Levant. Mar. Biol. Res. 10(4):407-415.

Sharifi, M., Farasat, H., Barani-Beiranv, H., Vaissi, S., and Foroozanfar, E. 2013. Notes on the distribution and abundance of the endangered Kaiser's mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Caudata: Salamandridae), in southwestern Iran. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(3):724-731.

Sharma, S., Dutta, T., Maldonado, J.E., Wood, T.C., Panwar, H.S., and Seidensticker, J. 2013. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 280(1767):20131506.

Sheehan, E.V., Stevens, T.F., Gall, S.C., Cousens, S.L., and Attrill, M.J. 2013. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing. PLoS ONE 8(12):e83883.

Shoo, L.P., and Catterall, C.P. 2013. Stimulating natural regeneration of tropical forest on degraded land: approaches, outcomes, and information gaps. Restor. Ecol. 21(6):670-677.

Shrestha, U.B., and Bawa, K.S. 2013. Dimensions of caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) decline - a response to Stewart et. al. Biol. Conserv. 167:448-449.

Shyu, E., Pardini, E.A., Knight, T.M., and Caswell, H. 2013. A seasonal, density-dependent model for the management of an invasive weed. Ecol. Appl. 23(8):1893-1905.

Si, C.C., Liu, X.Y., Wang, C.Y., Wang, L., Dai, Z.C., Qi, S.S., and Du, D.L. 2013. Different degrees of plant invasion significantly affect the richness of the soil fungal community. PLoS ONE 8(12):e85490.

Simonovic, P., Tošić, A., Vassilev, M., Apostolou, A., Mrdak, D., Ristovska, M., Kostov, V., Nikolić, V., Škraba, D., Vilizzi, L., and Copp, G.H. 2013. Risk assessment of non-native fishes in the Balkans Region using FISK, the invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes. Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 14(2):369-376.

Skutsch, M.M., McCall, M.K., and Larrazabal, A.P. 2014. Balancing views on community monitoring: the case of REDD+. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(1):233-236.

Sollmann, R., Tôrres, N.M., Furtado, M.M., Jácomo, A.T.D., Palomares, F., Roques, S., and Silveira, L. 2013. Combining camera-trapping and noninvasive genetic data in a spatial capture-recapture framework improves density estimates for the jaguar. Biol. Conserv. 167:242-247.

Sosa, V., Mejía-Saules, T., Cuéllar, M.A., and Vovides, A.P. 2013. DNA barcoding in endangered Mesoamerican groups of plants. Bot. Rev. 79(4):469-482.

Staley, J.T., Bullock, J.M., Baldock, K.C.R., Redhead, J.W., Hooftman, D.A.P., Button, N., and Pywell, R.F. 2013. Changes in hedgerow floral diversity over 70 years in an English rural landscape, and the impacts of management. Biol. Conserv. 167:97-105.

Stellatelli, O.A., Vega, L.E., Block, C., and Cruz, F.B. 2013. Effects of tree invasion on the habitat use of sand lizards. Herpetologica 69(4):455-465.

Sterling, K.A., Warren, M.L., and Henderson, L.G. 2013. Conservation assessment of the Yazoo Darter (Etheostoma raneyi). Southeast. Nat. 12(4):816-842.

Stewart, M.O., Bushley, K.E., and Yang, Y.P. 2013. Regarding the social-ecological dimensions of caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in the Himalayas - reply to Shrestha and Bawa. Biol. Conserv. 167:446-447.

Storch, I. 2013. Human disturbance of grouse - why and when? Wildlife Biol. 19(4):390-403.

Stronen, A.V., and Paquet, P.C. 2013. Perspectives on the conservation of wild hybrids. Biol. Conserv. 167:390-395.

Suárez-Esteban, A., Delibes, M., and Fedriani, J.M. 2013. Unpaved road verges as hotspots of fleshy-fruited shrub recruitment and establishment. Biol. Conserv. 167:50-56.

Superina, M., Pagnutti, N., and Abba, A.M. 2014. What do we know about armadillos? An analysis of four centuries of knowledge about a group of South American mammals, with emphasis on their conservation. Mammal Rev. 44(1):69-80.

Sutherland, D.R., and Dann, P. 2014. Population trends in a substantial colony of Little Penguins: three independent measures over three decades. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(1):241-250.

Sutherland, W.J., Gardner, T.A., Haider, L.J., and Dicks, L.V. 2014. How can local and traditional knowledge be effectively incorporated into international assessments? Oryx 48(1):1-2.

Teh, L.C.L., Teh, L.S.L., and Jumin, R. 2013. Combining human preference and biodiversity priorities for marine protected area site selection in Sabah, Malaysia. Biol. Conserv. 167:396-404.

Tella, J.L., Rojas, A., Carrete, M., and Hiraldo, F. 2013. Simple assessments of age and spatial population structure can aid conservation of poorly known species. Biol. Conserv. 167:425-434.

Tews, J., Bert, D.G., and Mineau, P. 2013. Estimated mortality of selected migratory bird species from mowing and other mechanical operations in Canadian agriculture. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 8(2):8.

Thompson, K., and Gilbert, F. 2013. The effects of grazing on the endangered Sinai Thyme (Thymus decussatus) in a hyper-arid environment. J. Arid Environ. 99:14-22.

Thorogood, R., Armstrong, D.P., Low, M., Brekke, P., and Ewen, J.G. 2013. The value of long-term ecological research: integrating knowledge for conservation of hihi on Tiritiri Matangi Island. New Zeal. J. Ecol. 37(3):298-306.

Toonen, R.J., Wilhelm, T.A., Maxwell, S.M., Wagner, D., Bowen, B.W., Sheppard, C.R.C., Taei, S.M., Teroroko, T., Moffitt, R., Gaymer, C.F., Morgan, L., Lewis, N., Sheppard, A.L.S., Parks, J., Friedlander, A.M., and The Big Ocean Think Tank. 2013. One size does not fit all: the emerging frontier in large-scale marine conservation. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 77(1-2):7-10.

Treggiari, A.A., Gagliardone, M., Pellegrino, I., and Cucco, M. 2013. Habitat selection in a changing environment: the relationship between habitat alteration and Scops Owl (Aves: Strigidae) territory occupancy. Italian J. Zool. 80(4):574-585.

Trovó, M., Echternacht, L., and Sano, P.T. 2013. Distribution and conservation of Paepalanthus Mart. sect. Diphyomene Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae) in Neotropical savannas. Adansonia 35(2):195-206.

Tucker, G.C. 2013. Two new Neotropical species of Cyperus (Cyperaceae). Kew Bull. 68(4):619-623.

Utteridge, T.M.A. 2013. A revised circumscription of Maesa ruficaulis S. Moore (Primulaceae-Maesoideae). Contributions to the Flora of Mt Jaya, XVIII. Kew Bull. 68(4):683-686.

Vacchiano, G., Barni, E., Lonati, M., Masante, D., Curtaz, A., Tutino, S., and Siniscalco, C. 2013. Monitoring and modeling the invasion of the fast spreading alien Senecio inaequidens DC. in an alpine region. Plant Biosyst. 147(4):1139-1147.

Valois-Cuesta, H., Martínez-Ruiz, C., Cuesta, Y.Y.R., and Hinestroza, S.M.P. 2013. Palms conservation, patterns of use and diversity (Arecaceae) in rain forests from the Chocó, Colombia. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61(4):1869-1889.

van Breugel, M., Hall, J.S., Craven, D., Bailon, M., Hernandez, A., Abbene, M., and van Breugel, P. 2013. Succession of ephemeral secondary forests and their limited role for the conservation of floristic diversity in a human-modified tropical landscape. PLoS ONE 8(12):e82433.

van der Vyver, M.L., Cowling, R.M., Mills, A.J., and Difford, M. 2013. Spontaneous return of biodiversity in restored subtropical thicket: Portulacaria afra as an ecosystem engineer. Restor. Ecol. 21(6):736-744.

Van Wilgenburg, S.L., Hobson, K.A., Bayne, E.M., and Koper, N. 2013. Estimated avian nest loss associated with oil and gas exploration and extraction in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 8(2):9.

Vásquez-Carrillo, C., Henry, R.W., Henkel, L., and Peery, M.Z. 2013. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird. Biol. Conserv. 167:173-178.

Vedia, I., and Miranda, R. 2013. Review of the state of knowledge of crayfish species in the Iberian Peninsula. Limnetica 32(2):269-285.

Vega-Trejo, R., Trejo, I., Flores-Villela, O.A., and Reynoso, V.H. 2013. Amphibian and reptile community structure in pristine coniferous forests: baseline data for conservation studies. Herpetol. Conserv. Biol. 8(3):622-640.

Vicente-Arranz, J.C., Parra-Arjona, B., and García-Carrillo, A. 2013. Geographic distribution, biology, habitat and conservation of Thecla betulae (Linnaeus 1758), in the Central Mountain System (Iberian Peninsula) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). SHILAP-Rev. Lepidopt. 41(164):541-557.

Vicente, J.R., Fernandes, R.F., Randin, C.F., Broennimann, O., Gonçalves, J., Marcos, B., Pôças, I., Alves, P., Guisan, A., and Honrado, J.P. 2013. Will climate change drive alien invasive plants into areas of high protection value? An improved model-based regional assessment to prioritise the management of invasions. J. Environ. Manage. 131:185-195.

Victor, J.E., Smith, G.F., Turland, N.J., le Roux, M., Paton, A., Figueiredo, E., Crouch, N.R., van Wyk, A.E., Filer, D., and van Wyk, E. 2014. Creating an Online World Flora by 2020: a perspective from South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(1):251-263.

Vignoli, L., Bombi, P., Bologna, M.A., Capizzi, D., and Salvi, D. 2013. Landscape of amphibian diversity in Latium Region: peaks, valleys and gaps of conservation priority. Italian J. Zool. 80(4):586-595.

Vincent, H., Wiersema, J., Kell, S., Fielder, H., Dobbie, S., Castañeda-Álvarez, N.P., Guarino, L., Eastwood, R., León, B., and Maxted, N. 2013. A prioritized crop wild relative inventory to help underpin global food security. Biol. Conserv. 167:265-275.

Volpato, G.H., and Martins, S.V. 2013. The bird community in naturally regenerating Myracrodruon urundeuva (Anacardiaceae) forest in Southeastern Brazil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61(4):1585-1595.

Vrdoljak, S.M., and Samways, M.J. 2014. Agricultural mosaics maintain significant flower and visiting insect biodiversity in a global hotspot. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(1):133-148.

Wald, D.M., Jacobson, S.K., and Levy, J.K. 2013. Outdoor cats: identifying differences between stakeholder beliefs, perceived impacts, risk and management. Biol. Conserv. 167:414-424.

Walker, L.K., Armstrong, D.P., Brekke, P., Chauvenet, A.L.M., Kilner, R.M., and Ewen, J.G. 2013. Giving hihi a helping hand: assessment of alternative rearing diets in food supplemented populations of an endangered bird. Anim. Conserv. 16(5):538-545.

Wang, G.D., Middleton, B., and Jiang, M. 2013. Restoration potential of sedge meadows in hand-cultivated soybean fields in northeastern China. Restor. Ecol. 21(6):801-808.

Wang, G.M., Yang, J.C., Jiang, C.D., Jiang, G.M., Yu, J.B., Shao, H.B., Han, G.X., and Gao, Y.J. 2013. Challenge of weed risk assessment (WRA) for ecological restoration in China: the case of Rhus typhina L. and the new officially released weed risk assessment system. Plant Biosyst. 147(4):1166-1174.

Webber, P.A., Bestgen, K.R., and Haines, G.B. 2013. Tributary spawning by endangered Colorado River basin fishes in the White River. North Am. J. Fish. Manag. 33(6):1166-1171.

Weber, N., Weber, S.B., Godley, B.J., Ellick, J., Witt, M., and Broderick, A.C. 2013. Telemetry as a tool for improving estimates of marine turtle abundance. Biol. Conserv. 167:90-96.

Webster, N.I., Keller, W.B., and Ramcharan, C.W. 2013. Restoration of zooplankton communities in industrially damaged lakes: influences of residual metal contamination and the recovery of fish communities. Restor. Ecol. 21(6):785-792.

Weiler, A., Von Holle, B., and Nickerson, D.M. 2013. Reducing biotic and abiotic land-use legacies to restore invaded, abandoned citrus groves. Restor. Ecol. 21(6):755-762.

Welch, J.R., Brondízio, E.S., Hetrick, S.S., and Coimbra, C.E.A. 2013. Indigenous burning as conservation practice: neotropical savanna recovery amid agribusiness deforestation in central Brazil. PLoS ONE 8(12):e81226.

Wielgus, R.B., Morrison, D.E., Cooley, H.S., and Maletzke, B. 2013. Effects of male trophy hunting on female carnivore population growth and persistence. Biol. Conserv. 167:69-75.

Wilhelm-Rechmann, A., Cowling, R.M., and Difford, M. 2014. Using social marketing concepts to promote the integration of systematic conservation plans in land-use planning in South Africa. Oryx 48(1):71-79.

Wilkie, E.M., Bishop, M.J., and O'Connor, W.A. 2013. The density and spatial arrangement of the invasive oyster Crassostrea gigas determines its impact on settlement of native oyster larvae. Ecol. Evol. 3(15):4851-4860.

Williams, S.L., Davidson, I.C., Pasari, J.R., Ashton, G.V., Carlton, J.T., Crafton, R.E., Fontana, R.E., Grosholz, E.D., Miller, A.W., Ruiz, G.M., and Zabin, C.J. 2013. Managing multiple vectors for marine invasions in an increasingly connected world. BioScience 63(12):952-966.

Winnard, A.L., Di Stefano, J., and Coulson, G. 2013. Habitat use of a critically-endangered species in a predator-free but degraded reserve in Australia. Wildlife Biol. 19(4):429-438.

Withey, J.C. 2013. Within-territory use of different land cover types by tropical forest birds in a fragmented landscape. Biol. Conserv. 167:405-413.

Wood, J.R.I. 2013. New records of Malvaceae from the Chiquitania of Eastern Bolivia. Kew Bull. 68(4):609-617.

Woodhouse, E., McGowan, P., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2014. Fungal gold and firewood on the Tibetan plateau: examining access to diverse ecosystem provisioning services within a rural community. Oryx 48(1):30-38.

Yao, T.L. 2013. Nine new species of Thottea (Aristolochiaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, with two taxa in Peninsular Malaysia redefined and a taxon lectotypified. Blumea 58(3):245-262.

Zapponi, L., Del Bianco, M., Luiselli, L., Catorci, A., and Bologna, M.A. 2013. Assessing environmental requirements effects on forest fragmentation sensitivity in two arboreal rodents. Mamm. Biol. 78(3):157-163.

Zhang, J.T., Zhang, B., Li, M., and Zhu, X.Z. 2013. Functional diversity and conservation of Phellodendron amurense communities in the Dongling Mountain of Beijing, China. Bot. Sci. 91(4):505-513.

Zhao, X., Wang, D., Turvey, S.T., Taylor, B., and Akamatsu, T. 2013. Distribution patterns of Yangtze finless porpoises in the Yangtze River: implications for reserve management. Anim. Conserv. 16(5):509-518.

Zhou, X.Y., Jiao, H.W., Dou, Y.S., Aryal, A., Hu, J., Hu, J.C., and Meng, X.X. 2013. The winter habitat selection of red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in the Meigu Dafengding National Nature Reserve, China. Curr. Sci. 105(10):1425-1429.

Zimmer, H.C., Auld, T.D., Benson, J., and Baker, P.J. 2014. Recruitment bottlenecks in the rare Australian conifer Wollemia nobilis. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(1):203-215.

Zimmerling, J.R., Pomeroy, A.C., d'Entremont, M.V., and Francis, C.M. 2013. Canadian estimate of bird mortality due to collisions and direct habitat loss associated with wind turbine developments. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 8(2):10.

Zomlefer, W.B., Chafin, L.G., Carter, J.R., and Giannasi, D.E. 2013. Coefficient of conservatism rankings for the flora of Georgia: wetland indicator species. Southeast. Nat. 12(4):790-808.

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