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Department ofBotany

No. 359
November 2014

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In This Issue

Tiny Snail Plays a Big Role in Groundwater Conservation Efforts

-Adapted from National Museum of Natural History Unearthed

Picture a snail that's so tiny, it could disappear behind a kernel of corn. Such small creatures can easily be overlooked—but if you value having access to fresh, clean drinking water, then you should pay attention to this one.

Behold, the springsnail:

Proxy Falls cascade down towards the moss-covered forest of Three Sisters Wilderness in Oregon. Image by Thomas Goebel, age 18, Jensen Beach, Florida, USA/ Courtesy of National Museum of Natural History.

A live springsnail (Pyrgulopsis robusta) found in Snake River, Idaho. (Courtesy of Robert Hershler, Smithsonian Institution)

Springsnails belong to a group of invertebrates that grow to be less than ¼ inch high, and are one of the most diverse types of aquatic animals native to North America. Scientists believe that these snails play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, keeping them clean by eating algae and serving as food for fish and other critters. More than 130 different kinds of springsnails live west of the Mississippi River alone, thriving in and around the same freshwater springs that humans depend on for drinking water, livestock grazing and recreation.

Over the past few decades, groundwater pumping and depletion in the western United States has greatly accelerated due to an increase in human demand and global climate change. The result: a large number of dried springs scattered throughout the West, water shortages for people living in these areas and major declines in springsnail populations. Scientists now consider the springsnail to be the poster child for imperiled ecosystems that are reliant on freshwater springs.

How does the fate of this snail affect you? To put it simply, save the springsnail and your groundwater is also saved.

The Smithsonian is playing a leading role in the fight to conserve the springsnail. A new study published online in Bioscience (July 16) by National Museum of Natural History scientist Robert Hershler reports that springsnails have become the focus of new conservation activities over the past few decades during which various species have started to disappear.

Most springsnail species have narrow ranges, often consisting of a single spring or system. If the spring dries up or becomes polluted from activities such as cattle grazing, these snails cannot survive. Invasive species in freshwater areas are also taking a toll on springsnail populations. At least five springsnail species have gone extinct since the early 1900s and 80% of living species are listed as endangered by the American Fisheries Society.

The good news is that during the past 25 years, considerable strides have been made in providing protection for springsnails and the fresh groundwater sources they call home. Scientists are beginning to understand how springsnail populations have changed over time, both from human activities, and, on longer time scales, from climate change. Museum collections provide important baselines for these studies—the Smithsonian stewards over a million springsnail specimens that represent more than 100 different species collected since the 1980s.

While Hershler's research is an important step towards better understanding these small snails, more foundational work needs to be done. His paper calls for additional research on the biology of the springsnail and links to a driving force behind conservation efforts in the western United States today—the need for fresh groundwater shared by humans and snails alike.


Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation (SMSC) at Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) offers unique intensive residential conservation training courses hosted in our sustainably-built Academic Center in Front Royal, Virginia, USA. Limited scholarship funds may be available for international applicants and new reduced fees are now available to applicants from less-developed nations. Visit our website ( or email us at for more details about each course, course costs, and graduate or continuing education credits earned.

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February 9-20, 2015
Gain in-depth knowledge of analysis techniques for cutting-edge ecological and conservation research employing R, a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics, in this intensive two-week overview of quantitative methods for ecological research and conservation. Through lectures, discussions, and extensive hands-on computer exercises, focus on increasing your knowledge of statistical methods like generalized linear models, generalized linear mixed models, and classical regression models, the assumptions underlying those methods, and how to interpret and explain their results. Learn from course instructors Dr. Sven Lautenbach (University of Bonn, Germany) and Dr. Justin Calabrese (SCBI) how to choose appropriate analyses for different research questions, the assumptions underlying each model, how to design your own studies, explore your data, perform a range of analyses, understand fitted models, and clearly explain their results. Participants learn how to conduct sophisticated statistical analyses, critically evaluate statistics-based material in current research literature, and deal with the limitations of real datasets in the context of conservation science.

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Animal movements are critical for maintaining ecosystems services and biodiversity. Technological advances have greatly increased our ability to track animal movements, but analyzing and contextualizing vast amounts of tracking data can present scientific, computational, and technical challenges. This two-week course, taught by a collective of international researchers (see, focuses on interdisciplinary approaches linking animal movement with environmental factors to address theoretical and applied questions in conservation biology. To achieve this, participants acquire significant skills in computational ecology, modeling, remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participants learn new skills through lectures and hands-on exercises in data collection, management, analysis and modeling approaches, working in small groups on conservation project datasets provided by course instructors and especially by participants themselves. The course uses only open source software (R, GRASS, QGIS) and relies mainly on open-access environmental datasets.

Upcoming 2014-2014 Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation Courses:

Current Literature

Aikens, M.L., and Roach, D.A. 2014. Population dynamics in central and edge populations of a narrowly endemic plant. Ecology 95(7):1850-1860.

Al-Chokhachy, R., Muhlfeld, C.C., Boyer, M.C., Jones, L.A., Steed, A., and Kershner, J.L. 2014. Quantifying the effectiveness of conservation measures to control the spread of anthropogenic hybridization in stream salmonids: a climate adaptation case study. North Am. J. Fish. Manag. 34(3):642-652.

Alam, A.K.M.R., Hagino, T., Fukaya, K., Okuda, T., Nakaoka, M., and Noda, T. 2014. Early phase of the invasion of Balanus glandula along the coast of Eastern Hokkaido: changes in abundance, distribution, and recruitment. Biol. Invasions 16(8):1699-1708.

Albrecht, M.A., Broecker, L.A., Romero-Hernandez, C., and Miller, A.J. 2014. Conservation genetics of edaphic endemics in naturally isolated habitats: a case study with Geocarpon minimum (Caryophyllaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 141(1):1-13.

Alfaro, J.W.L., Izar, P., and Ferreira, R.G. 2014. Capuchin monkey research priorities and urgent issues. Am. J. Primatol. 76(8):705-720.

Allgeier, J.E., Layman, C.A., Mumby, P.J., and Rosemond, A.D. 2014. Consistent nutrient storage and supply mediated by diverse fish communities in coral reef ecosystems. Global Change Biol. 20(8):2459-2472.

Anchundia, D., Huyvaert, K.P., and Anderson, D.J. 2014. Chronic lack of breeding by Galápagos Blue-footed Boobies and associated population decline. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 9(1):15.

Anderson, M.G., Clark, M., and Sheldon, A.O. 2014. Estimating climate resilience for conservation across geophysical settings. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):959-970.

Askay, M.A., Kostelnick, J.C., Peterhans, J.C.K., and Loew, S.S. 2014. Environmental stress as an indicator of anthropogenic impact across the African Albertine Rift: a case study using museum specimens. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(9):2221-2237.

Aslan, C.E., Aslan, A., Croll, D., Tershy, B., and Zavaleta, E. 2014. Building taxon substitution guidelines on a biological control foundation. Restor. Ecol. 22(4):437-441.

Atkinson, C.L., Julian, J.P., and Vaughn, C.C. 2014. Species and function lost: role of drought in structuring stream communities. Biol. Conserv. 176:30-38.

Atkinson, C.T., Utzurrum, R.B., Lapointe, D.A., Camp, R.J., Crampton, L.H., Foster, J.T., and Giambelluca, T.W. 2014. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i. Global Change Biol. 20(8):2426-2436.

Austen, D. 2014. Scaling up conservation. Fisheries 39(7):331.

Averill-Murray, R.C., and Hagerty, B.E. 2014. Translocation relative to spatial genetic structure of the Mojave desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 13(1):35-41.

Baden, A.L., Holmes, S.M., Johnson, S.E., Engberg, S.E., Louis, E.E., and Bradley, B.J. 2014. Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata). Ecol. Evol. 4(13):2675-2692.

Balaguer, L., Escudero, A., Martín-Duque, J.F., Mola, I., and Aronson, J. 2014. The historical reference in restoration ecology: re-defining a cornerstone concept. Biol. Conserv. 176:12-20.

Balaji, D., Sreekar, R., and Rao, S. 2014. Drivers of reptile and amphibian assemblages outside the protected areas of Western Ghats, India. J. Nature Conserv. 22(4):337-341.

Ballantine, B. 2014. Fifty years on: lessons from marine reserves in New Zealand and principles for a worldwide network. Biol. Conserv. 176:297-307.

Bancheva, S., Kaya, Z., and Binzet, R. 2014. Centaurea aytugiana (Asteraceae), a new species from North Anatolia, Turkey. Novon 23(2):133-138.

Banguera-Hinestroza, E., Evans, P.G.H., Mirimin, L., Reid, R.J., Mikkelsen, B., Couperus, A.S., Deaville, R., Rogan, E., and Hoelzel, A.R. 2014. Phylogeography and population dynamics of the white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the North Atlantic. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):789-802.

Barnett, J.M., and Buzzetti, D.R.C. 2014. A new species of Cichlocolaptes Reichenbach 1853 (Furnariidae), the 'gritador-do-nordeste', an undescribed trace of the fading bird life of northeastern Brazil. Rev. Bras. Ornitol. 22(2):75-94.

Barrientos, R., Merino-Aguirre, R., Fletcher, D.H., and Almeida, D. 2014. Eurasian otters modify their trophic niche after the introduction of non-native prey in Mediterranean fresh waters. Biol. Invasions 16(8):1573-1579.

Baskett, M.L., Fabina, N.S., and Gross, K. 2014. Response diversity can increase ecological resilience to disturbance in coral reefs. Am. Nat. 184(2):E16-E31.

Beatty, W.S., Kesler, D.C., Webb, E.B., Raedeke, A.H., Naylor, L.W., and Humburg, D.D. 2014. The role of protected area wetlands in waterfowl habitat conservation: implications for protected area network design. Biol. Conserv. 176:144-152.

Becker, M.H., Richards-Zawacki, C.L., Gratwicke, B., and Belden, L.K. 2014. The effect of captivity on the cutaneous bacterial community of the critically endangered Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus zeteki). Biol. Conserv. 176:199-206.

Bellati, A., Tiberti, R., Cocca, W., Galimberti, A., Casiraghi, M., Bogliani, G., and Galeotti, P. 2014. A dark shell hiding great variability: a molecular insight into the evolution and conservation of melanic Daphnia populations in the Alps. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 171(4):697-715.

Benavent-González, A., Lumbreras, A., and Molina, J.A. 2014. Plant communities as a tool for setting priorities in biodiversity conservation: a novel approach to Iberian aquatic vegetation. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(9):2135-2154.

Bennett, V.J., and Hale, A.M. 2014. Red aviation lights on wind turbines do not increase bat-turbine collisions. Anim. Conserv. 17(4):354-358.

Bergmeier, E., and Strid, A. 2014. Regional diversity, population trends and threat assessment of the weeds of traditional agriculture in Greece. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 175(4):607-623.

Bernard, E., Penna, L.A.O., and Araújo, E. 2014. Downgrading, downsizing, degazettement, and reclassification of protected areas in Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):939-950.

Bernardes, V.C.D., Ferrara, C.R., Vogt, R.C., and Schneider, L. 2014. Abundance and population structure of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Testudines, Podocnemididae) in the Unini River, Amazonas. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 13(1):89-95.

Bertin, R.I., and Parise, C.M. 2014. Patterns and changes in the nonnative flora of Worcester County, Massachusetts. Am. Midl. Nat. 172(1):37-60.

Biedrzycka, A., Zalewski, A., Bartoszewicz, M., Okarma, H., and Jedrzejewska, E. 2014. The genetic structure of raccoon introduced in Central Europe reflects multiple invasion pathways. Biol. Invasions 16(8):1611-1625.

Biró, É., Babai, D., Bódis, J., and Molnár, Z. 2014. Lack of knowledge or loss of knowledge? Traditional ecological knowledge of population dynamics of threatened plant species in East-Central Europe. J. Nature Conserv. 22(4):318-325.

Bittencourt-Silva, G.B., and Silva, H.R. 2014. Effects of fragmentation and sea-level changes upon frog communities of land-bridge islands off the southeastern coast of Brazil. PLoS ONE 9(7):e103522.

Blackham, G.V., Webb, E.L., and Corlett, R.T. 2014. Natural regeneration in a degraded tropical peatland, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia: implications for forest restoration. Forest Ecol. Manag. 324:8-15.

Blakney, J.R., Loxterman, J.L., and Keeley, E.R. 2014. Range-wide comparisons of northern leatherside chub populations reveal historical and contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):757-770.

Bond, N.R., Thomson, J.R., and Reich, P. 2014. Incorporating climate change in conservation planning for freshwater fishes. Divers. Distrib. 20(8):931-942.

Bonebrake, T.C., Syphard, A.D., Franklin, J., Anderson, K.E., Akçakaya, H.R., Mizerek, T., Winchell, C., and Regan, H.M. 2014. Fire management, managed relocation, and land conservation options for long-lived obligate seeding plants under global changes in climate, urbanization, and fire regime. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):1057-1067.

Borker, A.L., McKown, M.W., Ackerman, J.T., Eagles-Smith, C.A., Tershy, B.R., and Croll, D.A. 2014. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):1100-1108.

Bortolamiol, S., Cohen, M., Potts, K., Pennec, F., Rwaburindore, P., Kasenene, J., Seguya, A., Vignaud, Q., and Krief, S. 2014. Suitable habitats for endangered frugivorous mammals: small-scale comparison, regeneration forest and chimpanzee density in Kibale National Park, Uganda. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102177.

Bouget, C., Parmain, G., Gilg, O., Noblecourt, T., Nusillard, B., Paillet, Y., Pernot, C., Larrieu, L., and Gosselin, F. 2014. Does a set-aside conservation strategy help the restoration of old-growth forest attributes and recolonization by saproxylic beetles? Anim. Conserv. 17(4):342-353.

Bousset, L., Pointier, J.P., David, P., and Jarne, P. 2014. Neither variation loss, nor change in selfing rate is associated with the worldwide invasion of Physa acuta from its native North America. Biol. Invasions 16(8):1769-1783.

Brashares, J.S., Abrahms, B., Fiorella, K.J., Golden, C.D., Hojnowski, C.E., Marsh, R.A., McCauley, D.J., Nuñez, T.A., Seto, K., and Withey, L. 2014. Wildlife decline and social conflict. Science 345(6195):376-378.

Brazee, N.J., Lindner, D.L., D'Amato, A.W., Fraver, S., Forrester, J.A., and Mladenoff, D.J. 2014. Disturbance and diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi: effects of canopy gaps and downed woody debris. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(9):2155-2172.

Breteler, F.J. 2014. Neuropeltis eladii (Convolvulaceae), a new species from the South Province of Cameroon. Plant Ecol. Evol. 147(2):290-292.

Bried, J.T., Patterson, W.A., and Gifford, N.A. 2014. Why pine barrens restoration should favor barrens over pine. Restor. Ecol. 22(4):442-446.

Brodie, J., Williamson, C.J., Smale, D.A., Kamenos, N.A., Mieszkowska, N., Santos, R., Cunliffe, M., Steinke, M., Yesson, C., Anderson, K.M., Asnaghi, V., Brownlee, C., Burdett, H.L., Burrows, M.T., Collins, S., Donohue, P.J.C., Harvey, B., Foggo, A., Noisette, F., Nunes, J., Ragazzola, F., Raven, J.A., Schmidt, D.N., Suggett, D., Teichberg, M., and Hall-Spencer, J.M. 2014. The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world. Ecol. Evol. 4(13):2787-2798.

Brown, C.J., and Mumby, P.J. 2014. Trade-offs between fisheries and the conservation of ecosystem function are defined by management strategy. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12(6):324-329.

Brown, D.S., Burger, R., Cole, N., Vencatasamy, D., Clare, E.L., Montazam, A., and Symondson, W.O.C. 2014. Dietary competition between the alien Asian Musk Shrew (Suncus murinus) and a re-introduced population of Telfair's Skink (Leiolopisma telfairii). Mol. Ecol. 23(15):3695-3705.

Buckland, S., Cole, N.C., Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J., Gallagher, L.E., Henshaw, S.M., Besnard, A., Tucker, R.M., Bachraz, V., Ruhomaun, K., and Harris, S. 2014. Ecological effects of the invasive giant Madagascar day gecko on endemic Mauritian geckos: applications of binomial-mixture and species distribution Models. PLoS ONE 9(4):e88798.

Buckley, R. 2014. Mixed signals from hunting rare wildlife. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12(6):321-322.

Buckley, T.R., White, D.J., Howitt, R., Winstanley, T., Ramón-Laca, A., and Gleeson, D. 2014. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation within threatened species and subspecies of the giant New Zealand land snail genus Powelliphanta: implications for classification and conservation. J. Molluscan Stud. 80:291-302.

Bufford, J.L., and Daehler, C.C. 2014. Sterility and lack of pollinator services explain reproductive failure in non-invasive ornamental plants. Divers. Distrib. 20(8):975-985.

Büneker, H.M., Pontes, R.C., and Soares, K.P. 2014. Two new species of Tillandsia L. subgenus Anoplophytum (Beer) Baker (Bromeliaceae, Tillandsioideae) for the southern Brazilian flora. Iheringia Ser. Bot. 69(1):89-96.

Busch, W.D.N., and Braun, D.P. 2014. A case for accelerated reestablishment of American eel in the Lake Ontario and Champlain watersheds. Fisheries 39(7):298-304.

Cafaro, P. 2014. A moral imperative to preserve other species: reply to Kareiva and Marvier. Biol. Conserv. 176:283.

Calcaterra, L.A., Di Blanco, Y., Srur, M., and Briano, J. 2014. Fire effect on ground-foraging ant assemblages in northeastern Argentina. J. Insect Conserv. 18(3):339-352.

Caley, P., and Barry, S.C. 2014. Quantifying extinction probabilities from sighting records: inference and uncertainties. PLoS ONE 9(4):e95857.

Callmander, M.W., Luino, I., Da-Giau, S., Rakotovao, C., and Gautier, L. 2014. A synoptic revision of the Malagasy endemic genus Socratina Balle (Loranthaceae). Candollea 69(1):65-73.

Callmander, M.W., Tripp, E.A., and Phillipson, P.B. 2014. A new name in Ruellia L. (Acanthaceae) for Madagascar. Candollea 69(1):81-83.

Cantarelli, V.H., Malvasio, A., and Verdade, L.M. 2014. Brazil's Podocnemis expansa conservation program: retrospective and future directions. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 13(1):124-128.

Capinha, C., Rödder, D., Pereira, H.M., and Kappes, H. 2014. Response of non-native European terrestrial gastropods to novel climates correlates with biogeographical and biological traits. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 23(8):857-866.

Cardoso, D.B.O.S., de Queiroz, L.P., and de Lima, H.C. 2014. A taxonomic revision of the South American papilionoid genus Luetzelburgia (Fabaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 175(3):328-375.

Carrillo-Rubio, E., Kéry, M., Morreale, S.J., Sullivan, P.J., Gardner, B., Cooch, E.G., and Lassoie, J.P. 2014. Use of multispecies occupancy models to evaluate the response of bird communities to forest degradation associated with logging. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):1034-1044.

Casacci, L.P., Barbero, F., and Balletto, E. 2014. The "Evolutionarily Significant Unit" concept and its applicability in biological conservation. Italian J. Zool. 81(2):182-193.

Castillón, J.P., and Nusbaumer, L. 2014. Aloe gautieri J.-P. Castillon & Nusb. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), a new species from the northeastern coast of Madagascar. Candollea 69(1):75-80.

Chakraborty, D., Sinha, A., and Ramakrishnan, U. 2014. Mixed fortunes: ancient expansion and recent decline in population size of a subtropical montane primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala. PLoS ONE 9(7):e97061.

Chakraborty, S., Boominathan, D., Desai, A.A., and Vidya, T.N.C. 2014. Using genetic analysis to estimate population size, sex ratio, and social organization in an Asian elephant population in conflict with humans in Alur, southern India. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):897-907.

Chaladze, G., Otto, S., and Tramp, S. 2014. A spider diversity model for the Caucasus Ecoregion. J. Insect Conserv. 18(3):407-416.

Chen, M.M., Zheng, J.S., Wu, M., Ruan, R., Zhao, Q.Z., and Wang, D. 2014. Genetic diversity and population structure of the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) as revealed by mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15(7):11307-11323.

Chi, K., and Molano-Flores, B. 2014. Can floral display size compensate for Allee effects caused by low population abundance and density in Synthyris bullii (Plantaginaceae), a rare species? Am. J. Bot. 101(3):428-436.

Choudhury, B.I., Khan, M.L., and Das, A.K. 2014. Seedling dynamics of the critically endangered tree legume Gymnocladus assamicus in northeast India. Trop. Ecol. 55(3):375-384.

Clements, C.F., Collen, B., Blackburn, T.M., and Petchey, O.L. 2014. Effects of recent environmental change on accuracy of inferences of extinction status. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):971-981.

Cline, T.J., Kitchell, J.F., Bennington, V., McKinley, G.A., Moody, E.K., and Weidel, B.C. 2014. Climate impacts on landlocked sea lamprey: implications for host-parasite interactions and invasive species management. Ecosphere 5(6):68-13.

Coccia, C., Boyero, L., and Green, A.J. 2014. Can differential predation of native and alien corixids explain the success of Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis (Hemiptera, Corixidae) in the Iberian Peninsula? Hydrobiologia 734(1):115-123.

Cohen, O.R., Walters, L.J., and Hoffman, E.A. 2014. Clash of the titans: a multi-species invasion with high gene flow in the globally invasive titan acorn barnacle. Biol. Invasions 16(8):1743-1756.

Collevatti, R.G., Telles, M.P.C., Lima, J.S., Gouveia, F.O., and Soares, T.N. 2014. Contrasting spatial genetic structure in Annona crassiflora populations from fragmented and pristine savannas. Plant Syst. Evol. 300(7):1719-1727.

Connolly, B.M., Pearson, D.E., and Mack, R.N. 2014. Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion. Ecology 95(7):1759-1769.

Conover, R.R., Dinsmore, S.J., and Burger, L.W. 2014. Effects of set-aside conservation practices on bird community structure within an intensive agricultural landscape. Am. Midl. Nat. 172(1):61-75.

Costello, M.J. 2014. Long live Marine Reserves: a review of experiences and benefits. Biol. Conserv. 176:289-296.

Coykendall, K.E., and Houseman, G.R. 2014. Lespedeza cuneata invasion alters soils facilitating its own growth. Biol. Invasions 16(8):1735-1742.

Crase, B., Liedloff, A., Vesk, P.A., Fukuda, Y., and Wintle, B.A. 2014. Incorporating spatial autocorrelation into species distribution models alters forecasts of climate-mediated range shifts. Global Change Biol. 20(8):2566-2579.

Crawford, R.J.M., Dyer, B.M., Upfold, L., and Makhado, A.B. 2014. Congruent, decreasing trends of gentoo penguins and Crozet shags at sub-Antarctic Marion Island suggest food limitation through common environmental forcing. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 36(2):225-231.

Crespo, L.C., Bosmans, R., Cardoso, P., and Borges, P.A.V. 2014. On three endemic species of the linyphiid spider genus Canariphantes Wunderlich, 1992 (Araneae, Linyphiidae) from the Azores archipelago. Zootaxa 3841(3):403-417.

Cureton, J.C., Janis, M., Lutterschmidt, W.I., Randle, C.P., Ruthven, D.C., and Deaton, R. 2014. Effects of urbanization on genetic diversity, gene flow, and population structure in the ornate box turtle (Terrapene ornata). Amphibia-Reptilia 35(1):87-97.

Curtin, C.G., and Parker, J.P. 2014. Foundations of resilience thinking. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):912-923.

Cuthbert, R.J., Cooper, J., and Ryan, P.G. 2014. Population trends and breeding success of albatrosses and giant petrels at Gough Island in the face of at-sea and on-land threats. Antarct. Sci. 26(2):163-171.

D'Amico, M., Tablado, Z., Revilla, E., and Palomares, F. 2014. Free housing for declining populations: optimizing the provision of artificial breeding structures. J. Nature Conserv. 22(4):369-376.

Davies, T.E., Fazey, I.R.A., Cresswell, W., and Pettorelli, N. 2014. Missing the trees for the wood: why we are failing to see success in pro-poor conservation. Anim. Conserv. 17(4):303-312.

De Almeida, R.F., and Amorim, A.M. 2014. Stigmaphyllon caatingicola (Malpighiaceae), a new species from seasonally dry tropical forests in Brazil. Phytotaxa 174(2):82-88.

Deas, M., Andréfouët, S., Léopold, M., and Guillemot, N. 2014. Modulation of habitat-based conservation plans by fishery opportunity costs: a New Caledonia case study using fine-scale catch data. PLoS ONE 9(5):e97409.

DeVore, J.L., and Maerz, J.C. 2014. Grass invasion increases top-down pressure on an amphibian via structurally mediated effects on an intraguild predator. Ecology 95(7):1724-1730.

Di Marco, M., Boitani, L., Mallon, D., Hoffmann, M., Iacucci, A., Meijaard, E., Visconti, P., Schipper, J., and Rondinini, C. 2014. A retrospective evaluation of the global decline of carnivores and ungulates. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):1109-1118.

Diao, C.Y., and Wang, L. 2014. Development of an invasive species distribution model with fine-resolution remote sensing. Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. 30:65-75.

Dias, D.D., Ribeiro, A.D., Bocchiglieri, A., and Pereira, T.C. 2014. Diversity of carnivores (Mammalia: carnivora) in the Serra dos Macacos, State of Sergipe, Brazil. Biosci. J. 30(4):1192-1204.

Dirzo, R., Young, H.S., Galetti, M., Ceballos, G., Isaac, N.J.B., and Collen, B. 2014. Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science 345(6195):401-406.

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Goad, E.H., Pejchar, L., Reed, S.E., and Knight, R.L. 2014. Habitat use by mammals varies along an exurban development gradient in northern Colorado. Biol. Conserv. 176:172-182.

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Goswami, V.R., Vasudev, D., and Oli, M.K. 2014. The importance of conflict-induced mortality for conservation planning in areas of human-elephant co-occurrence. Biol. Conserv. 176:191-198.

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Gray, T.N.E., Vidya, T.N.C., Potdar, S., Bharti, D.K., and Sovanna, P. 2014. Population size estimation of an Asian elephant population in eastern Cambodia through non-invasive mark-recapture sampling. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):803-810.

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Hazin, F.H.V., and Afonso, A.S. 2014. Response: a conservation approach to prevention of shark attacks off Recife, Brazil. Anim. Conserv. 17(4):301-302.

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Hess, A.N., Hess, R.J., Hess, J.L.M., Paulan, B., and Hess, J.A.M. 2014. American bison influences on lepidopteran and wild blue lupine distribution in an oak savanna landscape. J. Insect Conserv. 18(3):327-338.

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Hill, J.M., Egan, J.F., Stauffer, G.E., and Diefenbach, D.R. 2014. Habitat availability is a more plausible explanation than insecticide acute toxicity for US grassland bird species declines. PLoS ONE 9(5):e98064.

Hodge, A.M.C. 2014. Habitat selection of the margay (Leopardus wiedii) in the eastern Andean foothills of Ecuador. Mammalia 78(3):351-358.

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Hu, X.M., Zeng, Q.W., and Fu, L. 2014. Manglietia guangnanica (Magnoliaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. Novon 23(2):171-175.

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Hung, C.M., Shaner, P.J.L., Zink, R.M., Liu, W.C., Chu, T.C., Huang, W.S., and Li, S.H. 2014. Drastic population fluctuations explain the rapid extinction of the passenger pigeon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(29):10636-10641.

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Iniesta, L.F.M., and Ferreira, R.L. 2014. New species of Pseudonannolene Silvestri, 1895 from Brazilian limestone caves with comments on the potential distribution of the genus in South America (Spirostreptida: Pseudonannolenidae). Zootaxa 3846(3):361-397.

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Isaac, B., Cooke, R., Ierodiaconou, D., and White, J. 2014. Does urbanization have the potential to create an ecological trap for powerful owls (Ninox strenua)? Biol. Conserv. 176:1-11.

Jacobs, M.H., Vaske, J.J., and Sijtsma, M.T.J. 2014. Predictive potential of wildlife value orientations for acceptability of management interventions. J. Nature Conserv. 22(4):377-383.

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Jensen, E. 2014. Evaluating children's conservation biology learning at the zoo. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):1004-1011.

Jeppsson, T., and Forslund, P. 2014. Species' traits explain differences in Red list status and long-term population trends in longhorn beetles. Anim. Conserv. 17(4):332-341.

Johnstone, C.P., Lill, A., and Reina, R.D. 2014. Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation effects on small mammals: analysis with conditional inference tree statistical modelling. Biol. Conserv. 176:80-98.

Kamrowski, R.L., Limpus, C., Jones, R., Anderson, S., and Hamann, M. 2014. Temporal changes in artificial light exposure of marine turtle nesting areas. Global Change Biol. 20(8):2437-2449.

Kansky, R., Kidd, M., and Knight, A.T. 2014. Meta-analysis of attitudes toward damage-causing mammalian wildlife. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):924-938.

Kaufmann, S., and Berg, C. 2014. Bryophyte ecology and conservation in the Troodos Mountains, Cyprus. Herzogia 27(1):165-187.

Kehinde, T., and Samways, M.J. 2014. Effects of vineyard management on biotic homogenization of insect-flower interaction networks in the Cape Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot. J. Insect Conserv. 18(3):469-477.

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Kersting, D.K., Ballesteros, E., De Caralt, S., and Linares, C. 2014. Invasive macrophytes in a marine reserve (Columbretes Islands, NW Mediterranean): spread dynamics and interactions with the endemic scleractinian coral Cladocora caespitosa. Biol. Invasions 16(8):1599-1610.

Kimble, S.J.A., Rhodes, O.E., and Williams, R.N. 2014. Relatedness and other finescale population genetic analyses in the threatened eastern box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina) suggest unexpectedly high vagility with important conservation implications. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):967-979.

King, D.I., and Schlossberg, S. 2014. Synthesis of the conservation value of the early-successional stage in forests of eastern North America. Forest Ecol. Manag. 324:186-195.

King, P., and Ludlam, J.P. 2014. Status of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in North Inlet-Winyah Bay, South Carolina. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 13(1):119-124.

Klapwijk, M.J., and Lewis, O.T. 2014. Spatial ecology of host-parasitoid interactions: a threatened butterfly and its specialised parasitoid. J. Insect Conserv. 18(3):437-445.

Knight, E.C., Mahony, N.A., and Green, D.J. 2014. Crop type influences edge effects on the reproduction of songbirds in sagebrush habitat near agriculture. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 9(1):15.

Koch, F.H., Yemshanov, D., Haack, R.A., and Magarey, R.D. 2014. Using a network model to assess risk of forest pest spread via recreational travel. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102105.

Kubo, T., and Shoji, Y. 2014. Spatial tradeoffs between residents' preferences for brown bear conservation and the mitigation of human-bear conflicts. Biol. Conserv. 176:126-132.

Kuebbing, S.E., Souza, L., and Sanders, N.J. 2014. Effects of co-occurring non-native invasive plant species on old-field succession. Forest Ecol. Manag. 324:196-204.

Kull, T., and Jaaska, V. 2014. High clonal and low sexual reproduction in fragmented populations of Astragalus arenarius (Fabaceae) at the northern edge of its geographic range. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 51(1-2):90-100.

Kwit, C., King, D.I., Collins, B., and Swanson, M.E. 2014. Conservation importance of early post-disturbance temperate forests. Forest Ecol. Manag. 324:158-159.

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Langer, E., Langer, G., Striegel, M., Riebesehl, J., and Ordynets, A. 2014. Fungal diversity of the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park - indicator species of nature value and conservation. Nova Hedwigia 99(1-2):129-144.

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Lee, S.D., and Miller-Rushing, A.J. 2014. Degradation, urbanization, and restoration: a review of the challenges and future of conservation on the Korean Peninsula. Biol. Conserv. 176:262-276.

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Leuenberger, J., Gander, A., Schmidt, B.R., and Perrin, N. 2014. Are invasive marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) replacing the native P. lessonae/P. esculentus hybridogenetic complex in Western Europe? Genetic evidence from a field study. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):869-878.

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Li, J., and Lu, Z. 2014. Snow leopard poaching and trade in China 2000-2013. Biol. Conserv. 176:207-211.

Li, Z.J., Wang, W.Q., and Zhang, Y.H. 2014. Recruitment and herbivory affect spread of invasive Spartina alterniflora in China. Ecology 95(7):1972-1980.

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Liu, N., Zhu, W.X., Sun, Z.Y., Yang, L., Yuan, S.F., and Ren, H. 2014. Canopy size dependent facilitations from the native shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa to the early establishment of native trees Castanopsis fissa and Syzygium hancei in tropical China. Restor. Ecol. 22(4):509-516.

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Machkour-M'Rabet, S., Leberger, R., León-Cortés, J.L., Gers, C., and Legal, L. 2014. Population structure and genetic diversity of the only extant Baroninae swallowtail butterfly, Baronia brevicornis, revealed by ISSR markers. J. Insect Conserv. 18(3):385-396.

Magnusson, M., Olsson, J., and Hedenås, H. 2014. Red-listed wood-inhabiting fungi in natural and managed forest landscapes adjacent to the timberline in central Sweden. Scand. J. Forest Res. 29(5):455-465.

Makino, A., Yamano, H., Beger, M., Klein, C.J., Yara, Y., and Possingham, H.P. 2014. Spatio-temporal marine conservation planning to support high-latitude coral range expansion under climate change. Divers. Distrib. 20(8):859-871.

Marbà, N., Díaz-Almela, E., and Duarte, C.M. 2014. Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) loss between 1842 and 2009. Biol. Conserv. 176:183-190.

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Supp, S.R., and Ernest, S.K.M. 2014. Species-level and community-level responses to disturbance: a cross-community analysis. Ecology 95(7):1717-1723.

Suwanphakdee, C., and Chantaranothai, P. 2014. Two new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from Thailand. Novon 23(2):230-235.

Swanson, M.E., Studevant, N.M., Campbell, J.L., and Donato, D.C. 2014. Biological associates of early-seral pre-forest in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecol. Manag. 324:160-171.

Sweaney, N., Lindenmayer, D.B., and Driscoll, D.A. 2014. Is the matrix important to butterflies in fragmented landscapes? J. Insect Conserv. 18(3):283-294.

Szentirmai, I., Mesterházy, A., Varga, I., Schubert, Z., Sándor, L.C., Ábrahám, L., and Kőrösi, A. 2014. Habitat use and population biology of the Danube Clouded Yellow butterfly Colias myrmidone (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in Romania. J. Insect Conserv. 18(3):417-425.

Tarrasón, D., Ojeda, G., Ortiz, O., and Alcañiz, J.M. 2014. Can organic amendments be useful in transforming a Mediterranean shrubland into a dehesa? Restor. Ecol. 22(4):486-494.

Taylor, G.S., and Moir, M.L. 2014. Further evidence of the coextinction threat for jumping plant-lice: three new Acizzia (Psyllidae) and Trioza (Triozidae) from Western Australia. Insect Syst. Evol. 45(3):283-302.

Teillard, F., Antoniucci, D., Jiguet, F., and Tichit, M. 2014. Contrasting distributions of grassland and arable birds in heterogenous farmlands: implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 176:243-251.

Teixeira, T.S.M., Weber, M.M., Dias, D., Lorini, M.L., Esbérard, C.E.L., Novaes, R.L.M., Cerqueira, R., and Vale, M.M. 2014. Combining environmental suitability and habitat connectivity to map rare or Data Deficient species in the Tropics. J. Nature Conserv. 22(4):384-390.

Teske, P.R., Sandoval-Castillo, J., Waters, J.M., and Beheregaray, L.B. 2014. Can novel genetic analyses help to identify low-dispersal marine invasive species? Ecol. Evol. 4(14):2848-2866.

Thiet, R.K., Kidd, E., Wennemer, J.M., and Smith, S.M. 2014. Molluscan community recovery in a New England back-barrier salt marsh lagoon 10 years after partial restoration. Restor. Ecol. 22(4):447-455.

Thijs, K.W., Aerts, R., Van de Moortele, P., Musila, W., Gulinck, H., and Muys, B. 2014. Contrasting cloud forest restoration potential between plantations of different exotic tree species. Restor. Ecol. 22(4):472-479.

Thogmartin, W.E., Crimmins, S.M., and Pearce, J. 2014. Prioritizing bird conservation actions in the Prairie Hardwood transition of the Midwestern United States. Biol. Conserv. 176:212-223.

Tingley, R., Vallinoto, M., Sequeira, F., and Kearney, M.R. 2014. Realized niche shift during a global biological invasion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(28):10233-10238.

Tomillo, P.S., Oro, D., Paladino, F.V., Piedra, R., Sieg, A.E., and Spotila, J.R. 2014. High beach temperatures increased female-biased primary sex ratios but reduced output of female hatchlings in the leatherback turtle. Biol. Conserv. 176:71-79.

Trimble, M.J., and van Aarde, R.J. 2014. Supporting conservation with biodiversity research in sub-Saharan Africa's human-modified landscapes. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(9):2345-2369.

Tsikliras, A.C., Stergiou, K.I., Adamopoulos, N., Pauly, D., and Mente, E. 2014. Shift in trophic level of Mediterranean mariculture species. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):1124-1128.

Uddin, M.N., Robinson, R.W., Caridi, D., and Al Harun, M.A.Y. 2014. Suppression of native Melaleuca ericifolia by the invasive Phragmites australis through allelopathic root exudates. Am. J. Bot. 101(3):479-487.

Urquhart, A.N., and Koetsier, P. 2014. Diet of a cryptic but widespread invader, the oriental weatherfish (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) in Idaho, USA. West. N. Am. Naturalist 74(1):92-98.

Valtonen, M., Palo, J.U., Aspi, J., Ruokonen, M., Kunnasranta, M., and Nyman, T. 2014. Causes and consequences of fine-scale population structure in a critically endangered freshwater seal. BMC Ecology 14:22-14.

Van Meerbeek, K., Helsen, K., and Hermy, M. 2014. Impact of land-use intensity on the conservation of functional and phylogenetic diversity in temperate semi-natural plant communities. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(9):2259-2272.

van Wilgen, B.W., Davies, S.J., and Richardson, D.M. 2014. Invasion science for society: a decade of contributions from the Centre for Invasion Biology. S. Afr. J. Sci. 110(7-8):a0074, 8-19.

Vanderplank, S., Ezcurra, E., Delgadillo, J., Felger, R., and McDade, L.A. 2014. Conservation challenges in a threatened hotspot: agriculture and plant biodiversity losses in Baja California, Mexico. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(9):2173-2182.

Vanhala, T., Watts, K., A'Hara, S., and Cottrell, J. 2014. Population genetics of Formica aquilonia wood ants in Scotland: the effects of long-term forest fragmentation and recent reforestation. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):853-868.

VanTassel, H.L.H., Hansen, A.M., Barrows, C.W., Latif, Q., Simon, M.W., and Anderson, K.E. 2014. Declines in a ground-dwelling arthropod community during an invasion by Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in aeolian sand habitats. Biol. Invasions 16(8):1675-1687.

Vázquez-Luis, M., Banach-Esteve, G., Álvarez, E., and Deudero, S. 2014. Colonization on Pinna nobilis at a marine protected area: extent of the spread of two invasive seaweeds. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 94(5):857-864.

Vincent, J.R., Carson, R.T., DeShazo, J.R., Schwabe, K.A., Ahmad, I., Chong, S.K., Chang, Y.T., and Potts, M.D. 2014. Tropical countries may be willing to pay more to protect their forests. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111(28):10113-10118.

Wagner, N., Rödder, D., Brühl, C.A., Veith, M., Lenhardt, P.P., and Lötters, S. 2014. Evaluating the risk of pesticide exposure for amphibian species listed in Annex II of the European Union Habitats Directive. Biol. Conserv. 176:64-70.

Wamelink, G.W.W., Goedhart, P.W., and Frissel, J.Y. 2014. Why some plant species are rare. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102674.

Wan, J.Z., Wang, C.J., Yu, J.H., Nie, S.M., Han, S.J., Zu, Y.G., Chen, C.M., Yuan, S.S., and Wang, Q.G. 2014. Model-based conservation planning of the genetic diversity of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. due to climate change. Ecol. Evol. 4(14):2884-2900.

Warren, D.R., Harvey, C.J., McClure, M.M., and Sanderson, B.L. 2014. Use of an ecosystem-based model to evaluate alternative conservation strategies for juvenile chinook salmon in a headwater stream. North Am. J. Fish. Manag. 34(4):839-852.

Watanabe, K., and van Achterberg, C. 2014. First discovery of Stephanus Jurine (Hymenoptera: Stephanidae) in Japan, with description of a new species from Anijima Island of Ogasawara Islands. Entomol. Sci. 17(3):330-335.

Watson, J.T., and Bigelow, K.A. 2014. Trade-offs among catch, bycatch, and landed value in the American Samoa longline fishery. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):1012-1022.

Webb, M.H., Wotherspoon, S., Stojanovic, D., Heinsohn, R., Cunningham, R., Bell, P., and Terauds, A. 2014. Location matters: using spatially explicit occupancy models to predict the distribution of the highly mobile, endangered swift parrot. Biol. Conserv. 176:99-108.

Weeks, A.R., Smith, M.J., van Rooyen, A., Maple, D., and Miller, A.D. 2014. A single panmictic population of endemic red crabs, Gecarcoidea natalis, on Christmas Island with high levels of genetic diversity. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):909-919.

Wei, R., and Zhang, X.C. 2014. Rediscovery of Cystoathyrium chinense Ching (Cystopteridaceae): phylogenetic placement of the critically endangered fern species endemic to China. J. Syst. Evol. 52(4):450-457.

Wellicome, T.I., Kardynal, K.J., Franken, R.J., and Gillies, C.S. 2014. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation. Avian Conserv. Ecol. 9(1):13.

Wells, K., Lakim, M.B., and O'Hara, R.B. 2014. Shifts from native to invasive small mammals across gradients from tropical forest to urban habitat in Borneo. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(9):2289-2303.

Wen, F., and Wei, Y.G. 2014. Primulina dongguanica F. Wen, Y. G. Wei & R. Q. Luo (Gesneriaceae), a new species from South China. Candollea 69(1):9-19.

Wetterer, J.K. 2014. Worldwide spread of the lesser sneaking ant, Cardiocondyla minutior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fl. Entomol. 97(2):567-574.

Weyl, O.L.F., Finlayson, B., Impson, N.D., Woodford, D.J., and Steinkjer, J. 2014. Threatened endemic fishes in South Africa's Cape Floristic Region: a new beginning for the Rondegat River. Fisheries 39(6):270-279.

Whitehead, A.L., Kujala, H., Ives, C.D., Gordon, A., Lentini, P.E., Wintle, B.A., Nicholson, E., and Raymond, C.M. 2014. Integrating biological and social values when prioritizing places for biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 28(4):992-1003.

Wilson, H.B., Meijaard, E., Venter, O., Ancrenaz, M., and Possingham, H.P. 2014. Conservation strategies for orangutans: reintroduction versus habitat preservation and the benefits of sustainably logged forest. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102174.

Winfield, I.J. 2014. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days. J. Limnol. 73:120-131.

Wodika, B., Klopf, R.P., and Baer, S.G. 2014. Colonization and recovery of invertebrate ecosystem engineers during prairie restoration. Restor. Ecol. 22(4):456-464.

Woodcock, P., Pullin, A.S., and Kaiser, M.J. 2014. Evaluating and improving the reliability of evidence syntheses in conservation and environmental science: a methodology. Biol. Conserv. 176:54-62.

Wynne, J.J., Bernard, E.C., Howarth, F.G., Sommer, S., Soto-Adames, F.N., Taiti, S., Mockford, E.L., Horrocks, M., Pakarati, L., and Pakarati-Hotus, V. 2014. Disturbance relicts in a rapidly changing world: the Rapa Nui (Easter Island) factor. BioScience 64(8):711-718.

Xun, B., Yu, D., Liu, Y.P., Hao, R.F., and Sun, Y. 2014. Quantifying isolation effect of urban growth on key ecological areas. Ecol. Eng. 69:46-54.

Yamamichi, M., Yoshida, T., and Sasaki, A. 2014. Timing and propagule size of invasion determine its success by a time-varying threshold of demographic regime shift. Ecology 95(8):2303-2315.

Yamazaki, Y., Nakamura, T., Sasaki, M., Nakano, S., and Nishio, M. 2014. Decreasing genetic diversity in wild and captive populations of endangered Itasenpara bittering (Acheilognathus longipinnis) in the Himi region, central Japan, and recommendations for conservation. Conserv. Genet. 15(4):921-932.

Yankova, M., Pavlov, D., Ivanova, P., Karpova, E., Boltachev, A., Öztürk, B., Bat, L., Oral, M., and Mgeladze, M. 2014. Marine fishes in the Black Sea: recent conservation status. Mediterr. Mar. Sci. 15(2):366-379.

Yemshanov, D., Koch, F.H., Lu, B., Lyons, D.B., Prestemon, J.P., Scarr, T., and Koehler, K. 2014. There is no silver bullet: the value of diversification in planning invasive species surveillance. Ecol. Econ. 104:61-72.

Yu-Chun, K., Adlerstein, S., and Rutherford, E. 2014. The relative impacts of nutrient loads and invasive species on a Great Lakes food web: an Ecopath with Ecosim analysis. J. Great Lakes Res. 40:35-52.

Yuan, N., Sun, Y., Comes, H.P., Fu, C.X., and Qiu, Y.X. 2014. Understanding population structure and historical demography in a conservation context: population genetics of the endangered Kirengeshoma palmata (Hydrangeaceae). Am. J. Bot. 101(3):521-529.

Zaghloul, M.S., Poschlod, P., and Reisch, C. 2014. Genetic variation in Sinai's range-restricted plant taxa Hypericum sinaicum and Origanum syriacum subsp. sinaicum and its conservational implications. Plant Ecol. Evol. 147(2):187-201.

Zander, K.K., Ainsworth, G.B., Meyerhoff, J., and Garnett, S.T. 2014. Threatened bird valuation in Australia. PLoS ONE 9(6):e100411.

Zarco-González, M.M., and Monroy-Vilchis, O. 2014. Effectiveness of low-cost deterrents in decreasing livestock predation by felids: a case in Central Mexico. Anim. Conserv. 17(4):371-378.

Zepeda, G.C., Lot, A., Nemiga, X.A., and Manjarrez, J. 2014. Seed bank and established vegetation in the last remnants of the Mexican Central Plateau wetlands: the Lerma marshes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62(2):455-472.

Zhang, J.L., Pham, T.T.H., Kalacska, M., and Turner, S. 2014. Using Landsat Thematic Mapper records to map land cover change and the impacts of reforestation programmes in the borderlands of southeast Yunnan, China: 1990-2010. Int. J. Appl. Earth Obs. 31:25-36.

Zhang, L., Xu, W.H., Ouyang, Z.Y., and Zhu, C.Q. 2014. Determination of priority nature conservation areas and human disturbances in the Yangtze River Basin, China. J. Nature Conserv. 22(4):326-336.

Zhang, L., and Yin, F. 2014. Wildlife consumption and conservation awareness in China: a long way to go. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(9):2371-2381.

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