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Department ofBotany



No. 358
October 2014


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In This Issue


Wilderness Forever


-Adapted from National Museum of Natural History Unearthed

Proxy Falls cascade down towards the moss-covered forest of Three Sisters Wilderness in Oregon. Image by Thomas Goebel, age 18, Jensen Beach, Florida, USA/ Courtesy of National Museum of Natural History.

Proxy Falls cascade down towards the moss-covered forest of Three Sisters Wilderness in Oregon. Image by Thomas Goebel, age 18, Jensen Beach, Florida, USA/ Courtesy of National Museum of Natural History.

The Wilderness Act, a cornerstone of America's conservation laws, marked its 50th anniversary on September 3rd. The act established the National Wilderness Preservation System, which represents America's most wild and pristine federally protected lands. Today, these lands encompass 758 wilderness areas covering more than 109 million acres in 44 states and Puerto Rico.

To celebrate this important anniversary, the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History has opened a new photography exhibition, "Wilderness Forever: 50 Years of Protecting America's Wild Places," which runs through summer 2015. The exhibition was developed in conjunction with Nature's Best Photography and Wilderness50; a coalition of government agencies, conservation and community organizations and academic institutions collectively celebrating the anniversary nationwide.

"Wilderness Forever" is a juried photography competition that celebrates the majesty, diversity and value of the nation's wilderness areas. More than 5,000 entries were submitted by professional, amateur and youth photographers from across the nation and world. Fifty winning entries are displayed as awe-inspiring large-format prints. The exhibition also features a fossil skull of Bistahieversor sealeyi, a species of tyrannosaur discovered on wilderness lands; interactive touch-screen maps of wilderness created by Esri; and stories that highlight the importance of protecting wilderness.

To learn more about the show and to vote on your favorite photos, visit Smithsonian.com. Each month, the public will be able to view all 60 photo finalists and vote to select their favorite as often as once per day for the duration of the exhibition. The photograph with the most votes will be featured as the Photo of the Day and declared the People's Choice winner for that month.


Current Literature


Aben, J., Strubbe, D., Adriaensen, F., Palmer, S.C.F., Travis, J.M.J., Lens, L., and Matthysen, E. 2014. Simple individual-based models effectively represent Afrotropical forest bird movement in complex landscapes. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):693-702.

Abram, N.K., Xofis, P., Tzanopoulos, J., MacMillan, D.C., Ancrenaz, M., Chung, R., Peter, L., Ong, R., Lackman, I., Goossens, B., Ambu, L., and Knight, A.T. 2014. Synergies for improving oil palm production and forest conservation in floodplain landscapes. PLoS ONE 9(6):e95388.

Abram, P.K., Gariepy, T.D., Boivin, G., and Brodeur, J. 2014. An invasive stink bug as an evolutionary trap for an indigenous egg parasitoid. Biol. Invasions 16(7):1387-1395.

Adams, A.L., van Heezik, Y., Dickinson, K.J.M., and Robertson, B.C. 2014. Identifying eradication units in an invasive mammalian pest species. Biol. Invasions 16(7):1481-1496.

Aguirre-Acosta, N., Kowaljow, E., and Aguilar, R. 2014. Reproductive performance of the invasive tree Ligustrum lucidum in a subtropical dry forest: does habitat fragmentation boost or limit invasion? Biol. Invasions 16(7):1397-1410.

Aissi, M., Ouammi, A., Fiori, C., and Alessi, J. 2014. Modelling predicted sperm whale habitat in the central Mediterranean Sea: requirement for protection beyond the Pelagos Sanctuary boundaries. Aquat. Conserv. 24:50-58.

Alagador, D., Cerdeira, J.O., and Araújo, M.B. 2014. Shifting protected areas: scheduling spatial priorities under climate change. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):703-713.

Albanese, B., Litts, T., Camp, M., and Weiler, D.A. 2014. Using occupancy and species distribution models to assess the conservation status and habitat use of the goldline darter (Percina aurolineata) in Georgia, USA. Ecol. Freshw. Fish 23(3):347-359.

Albrecht, M., Padrón, B., Bartomeus, I., and Traveset, A. 2014. Consequences of plant invasions on compartmentalization and species' roles in plant-pollinator networks. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1788):20140773.

Almeda, F., and Penneys, D.S. 2014. New and reconsidered species of tropical American Melastomataceae. Brittonia 66(2):160-169.

Altukhov, D.A., Gubanova, A.D., and Mukhanov, V.S. 2014. New invasive copepod Oithona davisae Ferrari and Orsi, 1984: seasonal dynamics in Sevastopol Bay and expansion along the Black Sea coasts. Mar. Ecol.-Evol. Persp. 35:28-34.

Álvarez-Presas, M., Sánchez-Gracia, A., Carbayo, F., Rozas, J., and Riutort, M. 2014. Insights into the origin and distribution of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hot spot: a statistical phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism. Heredity 112(6):656-665.

Alves-Araújo, A., Swenson, U., and Alves, M. 2014. A taxonomic survey of Pouteria (Sapotaceae) from the northern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Syst. Bot. 39(3):915-938.

Alves, F.E., and Neto, L.M. 2014. Vascular epiphytes in a forest fragment of Serra da Mantiqueira and floristic relationships with Atlantic high altitude areas in Minas Gerais. Braz. J. Bot. 37(2):187-196.

Alves, R.J.V., Guimarães, A.R., Rezende, C.D., Braga, L.D., and Da Silva, N.G. 2014. A new giant Vellozia (Velloziaceae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil with comments on the V. compacta complex and conservation. Phytotaxa 172(1):13-21.

Amos, J.N., Harrisson, K.A., Radford, J.Q., White, M., Newell, G., Mac Nally, R., Sunnucks, P., and Pavlova, A. 2014. Species- and sex-specific connectivity effects of habitat fragmentation in a suite of woodland birds. Ecology 95(6):1556-1568.

Andersen, A., Simcox, D.J., Thomas, J.A., and Nash, D.R. 2014. Assessing reintroduction schemes by comparing genetic diversity of reintroduced and source populations: a case study of the globally threatened large blue butterfly (Maculinea anion). Biol. Conserv. 175:34-41.

Asensio, N., Brockelman, W.Y., Malaivijitnond, S., and Reichard, U.H. 2014. White-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) core area use over a short-time scale. Biotropica 46(4):461-469.

Atobe, T., Osada, Y., Takeda, H., Kuroe, M., and Miyashita, T. 2014. Habitat connectivity and resident shared predators determine the impact of invasive bullfrogs on native frogs in farm ponds. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 281(1786):20132621.

Atuo, F.A., Ivande, S.T., Wala, Z., and O'Connell, T.J. 2014. Effects of hunting camps on breeding grey-necked picathartes Picathartes oreas in south-east Nigeria. Oryx 48(3):460-464.

Aul, B., Bates, P.J.J., Harrison, D.L., and Marimuthu, G. 2014. Diversity, distribution and status of bats on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Oryx 48(2):204-212.

Awkerman, J.A., Cruz, S., Proaño, C., Huyvaert, K.P., Uzcátegui, G.J., Baquero, A., Wikelski, M., and Anderson, D.J. 2014. Small range and distinct distribution in a satellite breeding colony of the critically endangered Waved Albatross. J. Ornithol. 155(2):367-378.

Baker, L.R., Olubode, O.S., Tanimola, A.A., and Garshelis, D.L. 2014. Role of local culture, religion, and human attitudes in the conservation of sacred populations of a threatened 'pest' species. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(8):1895-1909.

Ball-Damerow, J.E., M'Gonigle, L.K., and Resh, V.H. 2014. Changes in occurrence, richness, and biological traits of dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) in California and Nevada over the past century. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(8):2107-2126.

Barbaree, B.A., Nelson, S.K., Dugger, B.D., Roby, D.D., Carter, H.R., Whitworth, D.L., and Newman, S.H. 2014. Nesting ecology of Marbled Murrelets at a remote mainland fjord in southeast Alaska. Condor 116(2):173-184.

Barney, J.N. 2014. Bioenergy and invasive plants: quantifying and mitigating future risks. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(2):199-209.

Barrabé, L. 2014. Four new species of Psychotria (Rubiaceae) from New Caledonia, including one presumed to be extinct. Phytotaxa 173(2):101-116.

Batesbn, Z.W., Dunn, P.O., Hull, S.D., Henschen, A.E., Johnson, J.A., and Whittingham, L.A. 2014. Genetic restoration of a threatened population of greater prairie-chickens. Biol. Conserv. 174:12-19.

Bayliss, J., Timberlake, J., Branch, W., Bruessow, C., Collins, S., Congdon, C., Curran, M., de Sousa, C., Dowsett, R., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Fishpool, L., Harris, T., Herrmann, E., Georgiadis, S., Kopp, M., Liggitt, B., Monadjem, A., Patel, H., Ribeiro, D., Spottiswoode, C., Taylor, P., Willcock, S., and Smith, P. 2014. The discovery, biodiversity and conservation of Mabu forest-the largest medium-altitude rainforest in southern Africa. Oryx 48(2):177-185.

Bellisario, B., Cerfolli, F., and Nascetti, G. 2014. Climate effects on the distribution of wetland habitats and connectivity in networks of migratory waterbirds. Acta Oecol. 58:5-11.

Benchimol, M., and Venticinque, E.M. 2014. Responses of primates to landscape change in Amazonian land-bridge islands--a multi-scale analysis. Biotropica 46(4):470-478.

Bennett, J.R., Elliott, G., Mellish, B., Joseph, L.N., Tulloch, A.I.T., Probert, W.J.M., Di Fonzo, M.M.I., Monks, J.M., Possingham, H.P., and Maloney, R. 2014. Balancing phylogenetic diversity and species numbers in conversation prioritization, using a case study of threatened species in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 174:47-54.

Berg, C., Abdank, A., Isermann, M., Jansen, F., Timmermann, T., and Dengler, J. 2014. Red Lists and conservation prioritization of plant communities - a methodological framework. Appl. Veg. Sci. 17(3):504-515.

Bergey, E.A., Figueroa, L.L., Mather, C.M., Martin, R.J., Ray, E.J., Kurien, J.T., Westrop, D.R., and Suriyawong, P. 2014. Trading in snails: plant nurseries as transport hubs for non-native species. Biol. Invasions 16(7):1441-1451.

Berkunsky, I., Daniele, G., Kacoliris, F.P., Díaz-Luque, J.A., Frias, C.P.S., Aramburu, R.M., and Gilardi, J.D. 2014. Reproductive parameters in the critically endangered blue-throated macaw: limits to the recovery of a parrot under intensive management. PLoS ONE 9(6):e99941.

Bhattarai, G.P., and Cronin, J.T. 2014. Hurricane activity and the large-scale pattern of spread of an invasive plant species. PLoS ONE 9(5):e98478.

Birkhofer, K., Ekroos, J., Corlett, E.B., and Smith, H.G. 2014. Winners and losers of organic cereal farming in animal communities across Central and Northern Europe. Biol. Conserv. 175:25-33.

Blackmore, L., Doole, G., and Schilizzi, S. 2014. Practitioner versus participant perspectives on conservation tenders. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(8):2033-2052.

Blanchard, J.L., Andersen, K.H., Scott, F., Hintzen, N.T., Piet, G., and Jennings, S. 2014. Evaluating targets and trade-offs among fisheries and conservation objectives using a multispecies size spectrum model. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):612-622.

Bodis, E., Tóth, B., and Sousa, R. 2014. Impact of Dreissena fouling on the physiological condition of native and invasive bivalves: interspecific and temporal variations. Biol. Invasions 16(7):1373-1386.

Bond, A.L., and Lavers, J.L. 2014. Climate change alters the trophic niche of a declining apex marine predator. Global Change Biol. 20(7):2100-2107.

Bonilla-Bedoya, S., Molina, J.R., Macedo-Pezzopane, J.E., and Herrera-Machuca, M.A. 2014. Fragmentation patterns and systematic transitions of the forested landscape in the upper Amazon region, Ecuador 1990-2008. J. Forest. Res. 25(2):301-309.

Boström, C., Baden, S., Bockelmann, A.C., Dromph, K., Fredriksen, S., Gustafsson, C., Krause-Jensen, D., Möller, T., Nielsen, S.L., Olesen, B., Olsen, J., Pihl, L., and Rinde, E. 2014. Distribution, structure and function of Nordic eelgrass (Zostera marina) ecosystems: implications for coastal management and conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 24(3):410-434.

Bowker, M.A., Maestre, F.T., Eldridge, D., Belnap, J., Castillo-Monroy, A., Escolar, C., and Soliveres, S. 2014. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) as a model system in community, landscape and ecosystem ecology. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(7):1619-1637.

Bradley, B.A. 2014. Remote detection of invasive plants: a review of spectral, textural and phenological approaches. Biol. Invasions 16(7):1411-1425.

Brambilla, M., and Saporetti, F. 2014. Modelling distribution of habitats required for different uses by the same species: implications for conservation at the regional scale. Biol. Conserv. 174:39-46.

Branton, M.A., and Richardson, J.S. 2014. A test of the umbrella species approach in restored floodplain ponds. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):776-785.

Bravo-Monasterio, P., Baeza-Horta, G., Peñailillo, P., Alarcón, D., and Contreras, D. 2014. A new species of genus Bipinnula (Orchidaceae) for Chile. Gayana Bot. 71(1):131-139.

Brigić, A., Vujčić-Karlo, S., Kepčija, R.M., Stančić, Z., Alegro, A., and Ternjej, I. 2014. Taxon specific response of carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and other soil invertebrate taxa on invasive plant Amorpha fruticosa in wetlands. Biol. Invasions 16(7):1497-1514.

Brodin, T., and Drotz, M.K. 2014. Individual variation in dispersal associated behavioral traits of the invasive Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis, H. Milne Edwards, 1854) during initial invasion of Lake Vänern, Sweden. Curr. Zool. 60(3):410-416.

Brook, S.M., Dudley, N., Mahood, S.P., Polet, G., Williams, A.C., Duckworth, J.W., Ngoc, T.V., and Long, B. 2014. Lessons learned from the loss of a flagship: the extinction of the Javan rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus from Vietnam. Biol. Conserv. 174:21-29.

Brown, K.M., and Daniel, W.M. 2014. The population ecology of the threatened inflated heelsplitter, Potamilus inflatus, in the Amite River, Louisiana. Am. Midl. Nat. 171(2):328-339.

Brunbjerg, A.K., Svenning, J.C., and Ejrnaes, R. 2014. Experimental evidence for disturbance as key to the conservation of dune grassland. Biol. Conserv. 174:101-110.

Buckland, S., Cole, N.C., Groombridge, J.J., Kupper, C., Burke, T., Dawson, D.A., Gallagher, L.E., and Harris, S. 2014. High risks of losing genetic diversity in an endemic Mauritian gecko: implications for conservation. PLoS ONE 9(6):e93387.

Buckley, R. 2014. Protecting lemurs: ecotourism. Science 344(6182):358.

Büdel, B., Colesie, C., Green, T.G.A., Grube, M., Suau, R.L., Loewen-Schneider, K., Maier, S., Peer, T., Pintado, A., Raggio, J., Ruprecht, U., Sancho, L., Schroeter, B., Türk, R., Weber, B., Wedin, M., Westberg, M., Williams, L., and Zheng, L.J. 2014. Improved appreciation of the functioning and importance of biological soil crusts in Europe: the Soil Crust International Project (SCIN). Biodivers. Conserv. 23(7):1639-1658.

Bünger, M.D., Capelo, F.F.M., and Stehmann, J.R. 2014. Eugenia membranifolia: a long-forgotten Brazilian Atlantic rainforest Myrtaceae. Phytotaxa 170(4):297-300.

Burgas, D., Byholm, P., and Parkkima, T. 2014. Raptors as surrogates of biodiversity along a landscape gradient. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):786-794.

Burns, J.H., and Brandt, A.J. 2014. Heterogeneity in plant-soil feedbacks and resident population dynamics affect mutual invasibility. J. Ecology 102(4):1048-1057.

Cach-Pérez, M.J., Andrade, J.L., and Reyes-García, C. 2014. Susceptibility of epiphytic bromeliads to climate change. Bot. Sci. 92(2):157-168.

Campos, F.S., Trindade, J., Brito, D., Llorente, G.A., and Solé, M. 2014. The efficiency of indicator groups for the conservation of amphibians in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecol. Evol. 4(12):2505-2514.

Capietto, A., Escalle, L., Chavance, P., Dubroca, L., de Molina, A.D., Murua, H., Floch, L., Damiano, A., Rowat, D., and Merigot, B. 2014. Mortality of marine megafauna induced by fisheries: insights from the whale shark, the world's largest fish. Biol. Conserv. 174:147-151.

Carlson, B.Z., Renaud, J., Biron, P.E., and Choler, P. 2014. Long-term modeling of the forest-grassland ecotone in the French Alps: implications for land management and conservation. Ecol. Appl. 24(5):1213-1225.

Carneiro, C.R., Schneider, A.A., and Ritter, M.R. 2014. Porophyllum spathulatum (Asteraceae: Tageteae), a new species from the southern Brazilian coast. Phytotaxa 173(2):157-162.

Carper, A.L., Adler, L.S., Warren, P.S., and Irwin, R.E. 2014. Effects of suburbanization on forest bee communities. Environ. Entomol. 43(2):253-262.

Carrel, J.E., and Deyrup, M. 2014. Red widow spiders (Araneae: Theridiidae) prey extensively on scarab beetles endemic in Florida scrub. Fl. Entomol. 97(1):130-137.

Cascante-Marin, A., Oostermeijer, G., Wolf, J., and Fuchs, E.J. 2014. Genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of an epiphytic bromeliad in Costa Rican montane secondary forest patches. Biotropica 46(4):425-432.

Castellanos-Morales, G., Gasca-Pineda, J., Ceballos, G., and Ortega, J. 2014. Genetic variation in a peripheral and declining population of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) from Mexico. J. Mammal. 95(3):467-479.

Castro-Morales, L.M., Quintana-Ascencio, P.F., Fauth, J.E., Ponzio, K.J., and Hall, D.L. 2014. Environmental factors affecting germination and seedling survival of Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana). Wetlands 34(3):469-478.

Cavalli, M., Baladrón, A.V., Isacch, J.P., Bó, M.S., and Martínez, G. 2014. Social networks and ornithology studies: an innovative method for rapidly accessing data on conspicuous bird species. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(8):2127-2134.

Center, T.D., Dray, F.A., Mattison, E.D., Tipping, P.W., and Rayamajhi, M.B. 2014. Bottom-up effects on top-down regulation of a floating aquatic plant by two weevil species: the context-specific nature of biological control. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):814-824.

Chase, J. 2014. A recipe for achieving Aichi: conservation planning for 2020 Biodiversity Targets. PLoS Biol. 12(6):e1001892.

Chen, Y.H. 2014. Conservation priority of global Galliformes species based on phylogenetic diversity. Integr. Zool. 9(3):340-348.

Cheng, E., Hodges, K.E., Melo-Ferreira, J., Alves, P.C., and Mills, L.S. 2014. Conservation implications of the evolutionary history and genetic diversity hotspots of the snowshoe hare. Mol. Ecol. 23(12):2929-2942.

Chifamba, P.C., and Videler, J.J. 2014. Growth rates of alien Oreochromis niloticus and indigenous Oreochromis mortimeri in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. Afr. J. Aquat. Sci. 39(2):167-176.

Claeson, S.M., LeRoy, C.J., Barry, J.R., and Kuehn, K.A. 2014. Impacts of invasive riparian knotweed on litter decomposition, aquatic fungi, and macroinvertebrates. Biol. Invasions 16(7):1531-1544.

Colomer, M.À., Montori, A., García, E., and Fondevilla, C. 2014. Using a bioinspired model to determine the extinction risk of Calotriton asper populations as a result of an increase in extreme rainfall in a scenario of climatic change. Ecol. Model. 281:1-14.

Concostrina-Zubiri, L., Pescador, D.S., Martínez, I., and Escudero, A. 2014. Climate and small scale factors determine functional diversity shifts of biological soil crusts in Iberian drylands. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(7):1757-1770.

Conlisk, E., Motheral, S., Chung, R., Wisinski, C., and Endress, B. 2014. Using spatially-explicit population models to evaluate habitat restoration plans for the San Diego cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus sandiegensis). Biol. Conserv. 175:42-51.

Cove, M.V., Vargas, L.E.P., de la Cruz, J.C., Spínola, R.M., Jackson, V.L., Saénz, J.C., and Chassot, O. 2014. Factors influencing the occurrence of the Endangered Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii: potential flagship species for a Costa Rican biological corridor. Oryx 48(3):402-409.

Cox, M.C., Wersal, R.M., Madsen, J.D., Gerard, P.D., and Tagert, M.L. 2014. Assessing the aquatic plant community within the Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(2):375-383.

Cushman, S.A., Max, T., Meneses, N., Evans, L.M., Ferrier, S., Honchak, B., Whitham, T.G., and Allan, G.J. 2014. Landscape genetic connectivity in a riparian foundation tree is jointly driven by climatic gradients and river networks. Ecol. Appl. 24(5):1000-1014.

Dahal, B.R., McAlpine, C.A., and Maron, M. 2014. Bird conservation values of off-reserve forests in lowland Nepal. Forest Ecol. Manag. 323:28-38.

Dana, G.V., Cooper, A.M., Pennington, K.M., and Sharpe, L.M. 2014. Methodologies and special considerations for environmental risk analysis of genetically modified aquatic biocontrol organisms. Biol. Invasions 16(6):1257-1272.

Dattagupta, S., Gupta, A., and Ghose, M. 2014. Diversity of non-timber forest products in Cachar District, Assam, India. J. Forest. Res. 25(2):463-470.

Davies, K.W., Johnson, D.D., and Nafus, A.M. 2014. Restoration of exotic annual grass-invaded rangelands: importance of seed mix composition. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(2):247-256.

de Guevara, M.L., Lázaro, R., Quero, J.L., Ochoa, V., Gozalo, B., Berdugo, M., Uclés, O., Escolar, C., and Maestre, F.T. 2014. Simulated climate change reduced the capacity of lichen-dominated biocrusts to act as carbon sinks in two semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystems. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(7):1787-1807.

Deguchi, T., Suryan, R.M., Ozaki, K., Jacobs, J.F., Sato, F., Nakamura, N., and Balogh, G.R. 2014. Translocation and hand-rearing of the short-tailed albatross Phoebastria albatrus: early indicators of success for species conservation and island restoration. Oryx 48(2):195-203.

Desurmont, G.A., and Agrawal, A.A. 2014. Do plant defenses predict damage by an invasive herbivore? A comparative study of the viburnum leaf beetle. Ecol. Appl. 24(4):759-769.

Dobrovolski, R., Loyola, R., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Diniz, J.A.F., and Araújo, M.B. 2014. Globalizing conservation efforts to save species and enhance food production. BioScience 64(6):539-545.

Doherty, P.D., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Hodgson, D.J., Mangel, J.C., Witt, M.J., and Godley, B.J. 2014. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries. Ecol. Evol. 4(12):2375-2383.

Dolgener, N., Freudenberger, L., Schneeweiss, N., Ibisch, P.L., and Tiedemann, R. 2014. Projecting current and potential future distribution of the Fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina under climate change in north-eastern Germany. Reg. Environ. Change 14(3):1063-1072.

Droissart, V., Cribb, P.J., Simo-Droissart, M., and Stévart, T. 2014. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 2. A second species of the rare genus Distylodon (Orchidaceae,Angraecinae) collected in Cameroon. PhytoKeys 36:27-34.

Dubey, S., Leuenberger, J., and Perrin, N. 2014. Multiple origins of invasive and 'native' water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) in Switzerland. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 112(3):442-449.

Dunoyer, L., Dijoux, L., Bollache, L., and Lagrue, C. 2014. Effects of crayfish on leaf litter breakdown and shredder prey: are native and introduced species functionally redundant? Biol. Invasions 16(7):1545-1555.

Dutil, J.D., Proulx, S., Chouinard, P.M., Borcard, D., and Larocque, R. 2014. Distribution and environmental relationships of three species of wolffish (Anarhichas spp.) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Aquat. Conserv. 24(3):351-368.

Dutta, S., and Jhala, Y. 2014. Planning agriculture based on landuse responses of threatened semiarid grassland species in India. Biol. Conserv. 175:129-139.

Eby, L.A., Helmy, O., Holsinger, L.M., and Young, M.K. 2014. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, USA. PLoS ONE 9(6):e98812.

Elliott, D.R., Thomas, A.D., Hoon, S.R., and Sen, R. 2014. Niche partitioning of bacterial communities in biological crusts and soils under grasses, shrubs and trees in the Kalahari. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(7):1709-1733.

Ellis, C.J., Yahr, R., Belinchón, R., and Coppins, B.J. 2014. Archaeobotanical evidence for climate as a driver of ecological community change across the anthropocene boundary. Global Change Biol. 20(7):2211-2220.

Espinosa, F., Rivera-Ingraham, G.A., Maestre, M., González, A.R., Bazairi, H., and García-Gómez, J.C. 2014. Updated global distribution of the threatened marine limpet Patella ferruginea (Gastropoda: Patellidae): an example of biodiversity loss in the Mediterranean. Oryx 48(2):266-275.

Espinosa-Jiménez, J.A., López-Cruz, A., Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., and López, S. 2014. A floristic study of La Chacona-Juan Crispín ravine and adjacent zones, Central Depression of Chiapas, Mexico. Bot. Sci. 92(2):205-241.

Felde, V.J.M.N.L., Peth, S., Uteau-Puschmann, D., Drahorad, S., and Felix-Henningsen, P. 2014. Soil microstructure as an under-explored feature of biological soil crust hydrological properties: case study from the NW Negev Desert. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(7):1687-1708.

Felline, S., Mollo, E., Ferramosca, A., Zara, V., Regoli, F., Gorbi, S., and Terlizzi, A. 2014. Can a marine pest reduce the nutritional value of Mediterranean fish flesh? Mar. Biol. 161(6):1275-1283.

Fernández-Llamazares, Á., Belmonte, J., Boada, M., and Fraixedas, S. 2014. Airborne pollen records and their potential applications to the conservation of biodiversity. Aerobiologia 30(2):111-122.

Fiaschi, P. 2014. Three new species and a revised key to species of Oxalis section Polymorphae (Oxalidaceae). Brittonia 66(2):134-150.

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Servanty, S., Converse, S.J., and Bailey, L.L. 2014. Demography of a reintroduced population: moving toward management models for an endangered species, the Whooping Crane. Ecol. Appl. 24(5):927-937.

Shah, M.A., Callaway, R.M., Shah, T., Houseman, G.R., Pal, R.W., Xiao, S., Luo, W.B., Rosche, C., Reshi, Z.A., Khasa, D.P., and Chen, S.Y. 2014. Conyza canadensis suppresses plant diversity in its nonnative ranges but not at home: a transcontinental comparison. New Phytol. 202(4):1286-1296.

Sharma, H.P., Belant, J.L., and Swenson, J.E. 2014. Effects of livestock on occurrence of the Vulnerable red panda Ailurus fulgens in Rara National Park, Nepal. Oryx 48(2):228-231.

Sharpe, L.M. 2014. Public perspectives on genetic biocontrol technologies for controlling invasive fish. Biol. Invasions 16(6):1241-1256.

Shaw, J.D., Terauds, A., Riddle, M.J., Possingham, H.P., and Chown, S.L. 2014. Antarctica's protected areas are inadequate, unrepresentative, and at risk. PLoS Biol. 12(6):e1001888.

Sheppard, C.S., and Stanley, M.C. 2014. Does elevated temperature and doubled CO2 increase growth of three potentially invasive plants? Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(2):237-246.

Shoemaker, K.T., Lacy, R.C., Verant, M.L., Brook, B.W., Livieri, T.M., Miller, P.S., Fordham, D.A., and Akçakaya, H.R. 2014. Effects of prey metapopulation structure on the viability of black-footed ferrets in plague-impacted landscapes: a metamodelling approach. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):735-745.

Shrestha, N., Xing, F.W., Qi, X.P., Yan, Y.H., and Zhang, X.C. 2014. Huperzia nanlingensis (Lycopodiaceae), a new terrestrial firmoss from southern China. Phytotaxa 173(1):73-79.

Siler, C.D., Oaks, J.R., Cobb, K., Ota, H., and Brown, R.M. 2014. Critically endangered island endemic or peripheral population of a widespread species? Conservation genetics of Kikuchi's gecko and the global challenge of protecting peripheral oceanic island endemic vertebrates. Divers. Distrib. 20(7):756-772.

Silva, U.C.S.E., Santos, R.G.P., Rapini, A., Fontella-Pereira, J., and Liede-Schumann, S. 2014. Monsanima tinguaensis (Apocynaceae), an enigmatic new species from Atlantic rainforest. Phytotaxa 173(3):196-206.

Simcharoen, A., Savini, T., Gale, G.A., Simcharoen, S., Duangchantrasiri, S., Pakpien, S., and Smith, J.L.D. 2014. Female tiger Panthera tigris home range size and prey abundance: important metrics for management. Oryx 48(3):370-377.

Simo-Droissart, M., Sonké, B., Droissart, V., Geerinck, D., Micheneau, C., Lowry, P.P., Plunkett, G.M., Hardy, O.J., and Stévart, T. 2014. Taxonomic revision of the continental African species of Angraecum section Pectinaria (Orchidaceae). Syst. Bot. 39(3):725-739.

Singh, S.K., Paini, D.R., Ash, G.J., and Hodda, M. 2014. Prioritising plant-parasitic nematode species biosecurity risks using self organising maps. Biol. Invasions 16(7):1515-1530.

Smart, J., Wotton, S.R., Dillon, I.A., Cooke, A.I., Diack, I., Drewitt, A.L., Grice, P.V., and Gregory, R.D. 2014. Synergies between site protection and agri-environment schemes for the conservation of waders on lowland wet grasslands. Ibis 156(3):576-590.

Smith, A.L., Bazely, D.R., and Yan, N. 2014. Are legislative frameworks in Canada and Ontario up to the task of addressing invasive alien species? Biol. Invasions 16(7):1325-1344.

Smith, J.M., Wells, S.P., Mather, M.E., and Muth, R.M. 2014. Fish biodiversity sampling in stream ecosystems: a process for evaluating the appropriate types and amount of gear. Aquat. Conserv. 24(3):338-350.

Snyder, R.J., Burlakova, L.E., Karatayev, A.Y., and MacNeill, D.B. 2014. Updated invasion risk assessment for Ponto-Caspian fishes to the Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes Res. 40(2):360-369.

Soares, B., Rajão, R., Macedo, M., Carneiro, A., Costa, W., Coe, M., Rodrigues, H., and Alencar, A. 2014. Cracking Brazil's forest code. Science 344(6182):363-364.

Song, G., Alström, P., Zhang, Y.W., Gao, X.B., Gong, H.S., Holt, P.I., Quan, Q., Yin, Z.H., and Lei, F.M. 2014. Rediscovery of an enigmatic Chinese passerine, the Blackthroat Calliope obscura: plumage, vocalizations, distribution, habitat choice, nesting and conservation. J. Ornithol. 155(2):347-356.

Sonter, L.J., Barrett, D.J., Soares-Filho, B.S., and Moran, C.J. 2014. Global demand for steel drives extensive land-use change in Brazil's Iron Quadrangle. Global Environ. Change 26:63-72.

Sowińska-Świerkosz, B.N., and Soszyński, D. 2014. Landscape structure versus the effectiveness of nature conservation: Roztocze region case study (Poland). Ecol. Indic. 43:143-153.

Stein, K., Rosche, C., Hirsch, H., Kindermann, A., Köhler, J., and Hensen, I. 2014. The influence of forest fragmentation on clonal diversity and genetic structure in Heliconia angusta, an endemic understorey herb of the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 30:199-208.

Stelzer, R.S., and Kashian, D.R. 2014. The role of conservation partnerships between scientists and nonprofit agencies in freshwater science and management. Freshwater Sci. 33(2):670-673.

Stouffer, P.C. 2014. How ornithological societies can get to work for bird conservation. Condor 116(2):277.

Sugimura, K., Ishida, K., Abe, S., Nagai, Y., Watari, Y., Tatara, M., Takashi, M., Hashimoto, T., and Yamada, F. 2014. Monitoring the effects of forest clear-cutting and mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus invasion on wildlife diversity on Amami Island, Japan. Oryx 48(2):241-249.

Süld, K., Valdmann, H., Laurimaa, L., Soe, E., Davison, J., and Saarma, U. 2014. An invasive vector of zoonotic disease sustained by anthropogenic resources: the raccoon dog in northern Europe. PLoS ONE 9(5):e96358.

Sumarga, E., and Hein, L. 2014. Mapping ecosystem services for land use planning, the case of Central Kalimantan. Environ. Manage. 54(1):84-97.

Swarts, N.D., Clements, M.A., Bower, C.C., and Miller, J.T. 2014. Defining conservation units in a complex of morphologically similar, sexually deceptive, highly endangered orchids. Biol. Conserv. 174:55-64.

Tadele, D., Lulekal, E., Damtie, D., and Assefa, A. 2014. Floristic diversity and regeneration status of woody plants in Zengena Forest, a remnant montane forest patch in northwestern Ethiopia. J. Forest. Res. 25(2):329-336.

Taylor, B.W., and Bothwell, M.L. 2014. The origin of invasive microorganisms matters for science, policy, and management: the case of Didymosphenia geminata. BioScience 64(6):531-538.

Teem, J.L., and Gutierrez, J.B. 2014. Combining the Trojan Y chromosome and daughterless carp eradication strategies. Biol. Invasions 16(6):1231-1240.

Teem, J.L., Gutierrez, J.B., and Parshad, R.D. 2014. A comparison of the Trojan Y Chromosome and daughterless carp eradication strategies. Biol. Invasions 16(6):1217-1230.

Terauds, A., Doube, J., McKinlay, J., and Springer, K. 2014. Using long-term population trends of an invasive herbivore to quantify the impact of management actions in the sub-Antarctic. Polar Biol. 37(6):833-843.

Terra, V., Neri, A.V., and Garcia, F.C.P. 2014. Patterns of geographic distribution and conservation of Acacieae Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae), in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Braz. J. Bot. 37(2):151-158.

Teyssèdre, A., and Robert, A. 2014. Contrasting effects of habitat reduction, conversion and alteration on neutral and non neutral biological communities. Oikos 123(7):857-865.

Théberge, E., and Nocera, J.J. 2014. Less specific recovery strategy targets for threatened and non-charismatic species at risk in Canada. Oryx 48(3):430-435.

Thomasset, M., Hodkinson, T.R., Restoux, G., Frascaria-Lacoste, N., Douglas, G.C., and Fernández-Manjarrés, J.F. 2014. Thank you for not flowering: conservation genetics and gene flow analysis of native and non-native populations of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) in Ireland. Heredity 112(6):596-606.

Thresher, R.E., Hayes, K., Bax, N.J., Teem, J., Benfey, T.J., and Gould, F. 2014. Genetic control of invasive fish: technological options and its role in integrated pest management. Biol. Invasions 16(6):1201-1216.

Ticktin, T., Ganesan, R., Paramesha, M., and Setty, S. 2014. FORUM Disentangling, again, the drivers of population decline for two harvested species: a response to Prasad et al. (2014). J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):648-654.

Tierney, M., Almond, R., Stanwell-Smith, D., McRae, L., Zöckler, C., Collen, B., Walpole, M., Hutton, J., and de Bie, S. 2014. Use it or lose it: measuring trends in wild species subject to substantial use. Oryx 48(3):420-429.

Tobin, P.C., Gray, D.R., and Liebhold, A.M. 2014. Supraoptimal temperatures influence the range dynamics of a non-native insect. Divers. Distrib. 20(7):813-823.

Tobler, M.W., Hibert, F., Debeir, L., and Richard-Hansen, C. 2014. Estimates of density and sustainable harvest of the lowland tapir Tapirus terrestris in the Amazon of French Guiana using a Bayesian spatially explicit capture-recapture model. Oryx 48(3):410-419.

Todorov, M., Antonova, V., Hubenov, Z., Ihtimanska, M., Kenderov, L., Trichkova, T., Varadinova, E., and Deltshev, C. 2014. Distribution and current status of stone crayfish populations Austropotamobius torrentium (Decapoda: Astacidae) in Natura 2000 protected areas in Bulgaria. Acta Zool. Bulgar. 66(2):181-202.

Tolonen, K.T., Hämäläinen, H., Lensu, A., Meriläinen, J.J., Palomäki, A., and Karjalainen, J. 2014. The relevance of ecological status to ecosystem functions and services in a large boreal lake. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):560-571.

Török, K., Szitár, K., Halassy, M., Szabó, R., Szili-Kovács, T., Baráth, N., and Paschke, M.W. 2014. Long-term outcome of nitrogen immobilization to restore endemic sand grassland in Hungary. J. Appl. Ecol. 51(3):756-765.

Tóth, A., Horváth, Z., Vad, C.F., Zsuga, K., Nagy, S.A., and Boros, E. 2014. Zooplankton of the European soda pans: fauna and conservation of a unique habitat type. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 99(3):255-276.

Unsworth, R.K.F., van Keulen, M., and Coles, R.G. 2014. Seagrass meadows in a globally changing environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 83(2):383-386.

Valencia-A, S., and Gual-Díaz, M. 2014. The Fagaceae family in the cloud forest of Mexico. Bot. Sci. 92(2):193-204.

Valentine, L.E., Fisher, R., Wilson, B.A., Sonneman, T., Stock, W.D., Fleming, P.A., and Hobbs, R.J. 2014. Time since fire influences food resources for an Carnaby's cockatoo, in a fire-prone landscape endangered species, Carnaby's cockatoo, in a fire-prone landscape. Biol. Conserv. 175:1-9.

Valenzuela-Sánchez, A., and Medina-Vogel, G. 2014. Importance of infectious disease for the conservation of Chilean threatened wildlife. Gayana 78(1):57-69.

Valero, E., Picos, J., and Álvarez, X. 2014. Characterization of riparian forest quality of the Umia River for a proposed restoration. Ecol. Eng. 67:216-222.

van Bodegom, P.M., Verboom, J., Witte, J.P.M., Vos, C.C., Bartholomeus, R.P., Geertsema, W., Cormont, A., van der Veen, M., and Aerts, R. 2014. Synthesis of ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the Netherlands shows the need to consider environmental fluctuations in adaptation measures. Reg. Environ. Change 14(3):933-942.

van der Burgt, X.M., Poundje, M., and Sene, O. 2014. Cryptosepalum korupense Burgt, sp. nov. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae), a tree species from the Southwest Region in Cameroon. Adansonia 36(1):73-81.

van der Meer, E., Fritz, H., Blinston, P., and Rasmussen, G.S.A. 2014. Ecological trap in the buffer zone of a protected area: effects of indirect anthropogenic mortality on the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Oryx 48(2):285-293.

van Schingen, M., Ihlow, F., Nguyen, T.Q., Ziegler, T., Bonkowski, M., Wu, Z.J., and Rödder, D. 2014. Potential distribution and effectiveness of the protected area network for the crocodile lizard, Shinisaurus crocodilurus (Reptilia: Squamata: Sauria). Salamandra 50(2):71-76.

Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., De La Estrella, M., Fero, M., and Aedo, C. 2014. Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa 171(1):1-78.

Venter, O., Fuller, R.A., Segan, D.B., Carwardine, J., Brooks, T., Butchart, S.H.M., Di Marco, M., Iwamura, T., Joseph, L., O'Grady, D., Possingham, H.P., Rondinini, C., Smith, R.J., Venter, M., and Watson, J.E.M. 2014. Targeting global protected area expansion for imperiled biodiversity. PLoS Biol. 12(6):e1001891.

Vergnes, A., Pellissier, V., Lemperiere, G., Rollard, C., and Clergeau, P. 2014. Urban densification causes the decline of ground-dwelling arthropods. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(8):1859-1877.

Verissimo, D., MacMillan, D.C., Smith, R.J., Crees, J., and Davies, Z.G. 2014. Has climate change taken prominence over biodiversity conservation? BioScience 64(7):625-629.

Vibrans, H., García-Moya, E., Clayton, D., and Sánchez-Ken, J.G. 2014. Hyparrhenia variabilis and Hyparrhenia cymbaria (Poaceae): new for the Americas, successful in Mexico. Invas. Plant Sci. Manage. 7(2):222-228.

Villaseñor, N.R., Driscoll, D.A., Escobar, M.A.H., Gibbons, P., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2014. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects. PLoS ONE 9(5):e97036.

Von Gerhardt, K., Van Niekerk, A., Kidd, M., Samways, M., and Hanks, J. 2014. The role of elephant Loxodonta africana pathways as a spatial variable in crop-raiding location. Oryx 48(3):436-444.

Wagner, W.L., Clark, J.R., and Lorence, D.H. 2014. Revision of endemic Marquesas Islands Bidens (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae). PhytoKeys 38:37-67.

Wall, J., Wittemyer, G., Klinkenberg, B., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2014. Novel opportunities for wildlife conservation and research with real-time monitoring. Ecol. Appl. 24(4):593-601.

Walters, J.R., Brosnan, D.M., Reed, J.M., and Scott, J.M. 2014. A vision for an expanded role of ornithological societies in conservation. Condor 116(2):278-289.

Wang, H., Gao, J., Pu, R.L., Ren, L.L., Kong, Y., Li, H., and Li, L. 2014. Natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Natural Reserve, 1992-2008. Environ. Monit. Assess. 186(7):4013-4028.

Wang, Y., Gao, J.X., Wang, J.S., Wu, Y.Z., Zou, C.X., Tian, M.R., and Zheng, H. 2014. Evaluating losses in ecosystem services in nature reserves in Sichuan, China. Int. J. Sust. Dev. World 21(3):290-301.

Watson, H., Bolton, M., and Monaghan, P. 2014. Out of sight but not out of harm's way: human disturbance reduces reproductive success of a cavity-nesting seabird. Biol. Conserv. 174:127-133.

White, S.L., and Orth, D.J. 2014. Distribution and habitat correlates of clinch dace (Chrosomus sp. cf. saylori) in the upper Clinch River watershed. Am. Midl. Nat. 171(2):311-320.

Williams, W.J., Büdel, B., Reichenberger, H., and Rose, N. 2014. Cyanobacteria in the Australian northern savannah detect the difference between intermittent dry season and wet season rain. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(7):1827-1844.

Winston, J.M., Minteer, B.A., and Collins, J.P. 2014. Old wine, new bottles? Using history to inform the assisted colonization debate. Oryx 48(2):186-194.

Winterbach, H.E.K., Winterbach, C.W., and Somers, M.J. 2014. Landscape suitability in Botswana for the conservation of its six large African carnivores. PLoS ONE 9(6):e100202.

Wong, M.C., and Dowd, M. 2014. Role of invasive green crabs in the food web of an intertidal sand flat determined from field observations and a dynamic simulation model. Estuaries Coasts 37(4):1004-1016.

Wood, J.L.A., Belmar-Lucero, S., Hutchings, J.A., and Fraser, D.J. 2014. Relationship of habitat variability to population size in a stream fish. Ecol. Appl. 24(5):1085-1100.

Xu, Z.L., Peng, H.H., Feng, Z.D., and Abdulsalih, N. 2014. Predicting current and future invasion of Solidago canadensis: a study from China. Pol. J. Ecol. 62(2):263-271.

Yen, S.C., Wang, Y., and Ou, H.Y. 2014. Habitat of the Vulnerable Formosan sambar deer Rusa unicolor swinhoii in Taiwan. Oryx 48(2):232-240.

Yessoufou, K., Gere, J., Daru, B.H., and van der Bank, M. 2014. Differences in evolutionary history translate into differences in invasion success of alien mammals in South Africa. Ecol. Evol. 4(11):2115-2123.

Youngquist, M.B., and Boone, M.D. 2014. Movement of amphibians through agricultural landscapes: the role of habitat on edge permeability. Biol. Conserv. 175:148-155.

Yuan, Y.J., Zeng, G.M., Liang, J., Li, X.D., Li, Z.W., Zhang, C., Huang, L., Lai, X., Lu, L.H., Wu, H.P., and Yu, X. 2014. Effects of landscape structure, habitat and human disturbance on birds: a case study in East Dongting Lake wetland. Ecol. Eng. 67:67-75.

Zambrano, J., Coates, R., and Howe, H.F. 2014. Effects of forest fragmentation on the recruitment success of the tropical tree Poulsenia armata at Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. J. Trop. Ecol. 30:209-218.

Zhang, Z.J., Yuan, S.B., Qi, D.W., and Zhang, M.C. 2014. The Lushan earthquake and the giant panda: impacts and conservation. Integr. Zool. 9(3):376-378.

Zhao, Y.G., Qin, N.Q., Weber, B., and Xu, M.X. 2014. Response of biological soil crusts to raindrop erosivity and underlying influences in the hilly Loess Plateau region, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 23(7):1669-1686.


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